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# Introduction to FEM

14
The Plane Stress
Problem

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 1
Introduction to FEM

## or transverse dimension Plate in Plane Stress

z
Thickness dimension

## Inplane dimensions: in x,y plane

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 2
Introduction to FEM

Mathematical Idealization as
a Two Dimensional Problem

Midplane

Γ
Plate x

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 3
Introduction to FEM

## Inplane displacements, strains and stresses uniform

through thickness

## Plate fabricated of homogeneous material through thickness

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 4
Introduction to FEM

## Notation for Stresses, Strains, Forces, Displacements

In-plane internal forces y + sign conventions
for internal forces,
dx dy stresses and strains
h pyy
Thin plate in plane stress y x
pxx pxy dy
z x dx

dy
dx In-plane stresses In-plane body forces
y dx dy
dx dy
h
σyy y h
x y
x σxx σxy = σ yx by
bx
x

## In-plane strains In-plane displacements

dx dy dx dy
h h
eyy y uy y
x e xx e xy = eyx x ux

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 5
Introduction to FEM
Inplane Forces are Obtained by
Stress Integration Through Thickness
Inplane stresses

h σ yy
y
z σx x σx y = σ y x

x
h
p yy
px x px y y
x
Inplane internal forces
(also called membrane forces)

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 6
Introduction to FEM

## Plane Stress Boundary Conditions

n (unit

;;
;
;;;
t exterior normal)

;
;;
;
;;;
^tn
σnt ^t
t
σn

;;;;;
;;;
t^
^t
Γu + Γt

;;;
σ nn
Stress BC details

;;; ;
(decomposition of forces
u^ = 0 q^ would be similar)
Boundary displacements u ^ Boundary tractions ^t or
are prescribed on Γu boundary forces q^
(figure depicts fixity condition) are prescribed on Γt

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 7
Introduction to FEM

## The Plane Stress Problem

Given:

geometry
material properties
wall fabrication (thickness only for homogeneous plates)
applied body forces
boundary conditions:
prescribed boundary forces or tractions
prescribed displacements

Find:

inplane displacements
inplane strains
inplane stresses and/or internal forces

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 8
Introduction to FEM

## Matrix Notation for Internal Fields

 
u x (x, y)
u(x, y) = displacements
u y (x, y)
 
ex x (x, y) strains (factor of 2 in
e(x, y) =  e yy (x, y)  e xy simplifies "energy
2ex y (x, y) dot products")
 
σx x (x, y)
σ(x, y) =  σyy (x, y)  stresses
σx y (x, y)

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 9
Introduction to FEM

## Governing Plane Stress Elasticity

Equations in Matrix Form
   
ex x ∂/∂ x 0  
 e yy  =  0 u
∂/∂ y  x
uy
2ex y ∂/∂ y ∂/∂ x
    
σx x E 11 E 12 E 13 ex x
 σ yy  =  E 12 E 22 E 23   e yy 
σx y E 13 E 23 E 33 2ex y
 
  σx x    
∂/∂ x 0 ∂/∂ y  b 0
σ yy  + x =
0 ∂/∂ y ∂/∂ x by 0
σx y

or e = Du σ = Ee DT σ + b = 0

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 10
Introduction to FEM

## Strong-Form Tonti Diagram of

Plane Stress Governing Equations

Displacement
Prescribed BCs Displacements Body forces
displacements
^
u u = u^ u b Γ
on Γu Ω
e=Du D Tσ + b = 0
Kinematic in Ω in Ω Equilibrium

σ=Ee
or e = Cσ
Strains in Ω Stresses Force BCs Prescribed
tractions t
e Constitutive σ σT n = ^t or forces q
or pT n = q^
on Γt

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 11
Introduction to FEM

## TPE-Based Weak Form Diagram of

Plane Stress Governing Equations

Displacement
Prescribed BCs Displacements Body forces
displacements
^
^
u u=u u b Γ
on Γu Ω

Kinematic in Ω
in Ω (weak)

## σ=Ee Force BCs

in Ω (weak) Prescribed
Strains Stresses
tractions t
e Constitutive σ δΠ = 0 or forces q
on Γt

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 12
Introduction to FEM

## Total Potential Energy of Plate

in Plane Stress

=U −W

 
U= 1
2
h σT e d = 1
2 h eT Ee d
 

 
W = h uT b d + h uT t̂ d
 t
body forces boundary tractions

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 13
Introduction to FEM

## Discretization into Plane Stress

Finite Elements

(a) (b)
(c)

e
Γ Γe

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 14
Introduction to FEM

## Plane Stress Element Geometries

and Node Configurations

3
3 3 4 8
4 5 9 3
2 10 12 7
6 2
1 11 6
1
1 2 1 5 2
4
n=3 n=4 n=6 n = 12

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 15
Introduction to FEM

## Total Potential Energy of Plane Stress Element

e
Γe

e γ = U e − W e
 
Ue = 12 h σT e de = 12 h eT E e de
e e
 
We = h uT b de + h uT t d e
e e

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 16
Introduction to FEM

## Node displacement vector

u e = [ u x1 u y1 u x2 . . . u xn u yn ]T

## Displacement interpolation over element

   e e 
u x (x,y) N1 0 N2 0 ... Nne 0
u(x, y) = = e e u
e
u y (x,y) 0 N1 0 N2e ... 0 Nn

= N ue

## N is called the shape function matrix

It has order 2 x 2n

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 17
Introduction to FEM

## Differentiate the displacement interpolation wrt x,y

to get the strain-displacement relation

 e 
∂ N1e ∂ N2 ∂ Nne
0 0 ... 0
 ∂x ∂x ∂x 
 e e 
 ∂ N1 ∂ N2 ∂ Nne  e
e (x, y) = 

0 0 ... 0 u =

B ue
∂y ∂y ∂y
 e e e e 
∂ N1e ∂ N1 ∂ N2 ∂ N2 ∂ Nne ∂ Nn
...
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x

## B is called the strain-displacement matrix

It has order 3 x 2n

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 18
Introduction to FEM

## Element total potential energy

T T
e = 1
2 u e Ke u e − u e f e
Element stiffness matrix

Ke = h BT E B d e
e

## Consistent node force vector

 
fe = h NT b d e + h NT t̂ d e
e e

## due to: body force due to: surface tractions

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 19
Introduction to FEM

## Requirements on Finite Element Shape Functions

Interpolation Condition

## Continuity (intra- and inter-element) and

Completeness Conditions

## are covered later in the course (Chs. 18-19)

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 20