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Introduction to FEM

14
The Plane Stress
Problem

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 1
Introduction to FEM

or transverse dimension Plate in Plane Stress

z
Thickness dimension

Inplane dimensions: in x,y plane

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 2
Introduction to FEM

Mathematical Idealization as
a Two Dimensional Problem

Midplane

Γ
Plate x

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 3
Introduction to FEM

Plane Stress Physical Assumptions

Plate is flat and has a symmetry plane (the midplane)

All loads and support conditions are midplane symmetric

Thickness dimension is much smaller than inplane dimensions

Inplane displacements, strains and stresses uniform


through thickness

Transverse stresses σzz , σxz and σyz negligible, set to 0

Unessential but used in this course:

Plate fabricated of homogeneous material through thickness

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 4
Introduction to FEM

Notation for Stresses, Strains, Forces, Displacements


In-plane internal forces y + sign conventions
for internal forces,
dx dy stresses and strains
h pyy
Thin plate in plane stress y x
pxx pxy dy
z x dx

dy
dx In-plane stresses In-plane body forces
y dx dy
dx dy
h
σyy y h
x y
x σxx σxy = σ yx by
bx
x

In-plane strains In-plane displacements


dx dy dx dy
h h
eyy y uy y
x e xx e xy = eyx x ux

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 5
Introduction to FEM
Inplane Forces are Obtained by
Stress Integration Through Thickness
Inplane stresses

h σ yy
y
z σx x σx y = σ y x

x
h
p yy
px x px y y
x
Inplane internal forces
(also called membrane forces)

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 6
Introduction to FEM

Plane Stress Boundary Conditions

n (unit

;;
;
;;;
t exterior normal)

;
;;
;
;;;
^tn
σnt ^t
t
σn

;;;;;
;;;
t^
^t
Γu + Γt

;;;
σ nn
Stress BC details

;;; ;
(decomposition of forces
u^ = 0 q^ would be similar)
Boundary displacements u ^ Boundary tractions ^t or
are prescribed on Γu boundary forces q^
(figure depicts fixity condition) are prescribed on Γt

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 7
Introduction to FEM

The Plane Stress Problem


Given:

geometry
material properties
wall fabrication (thickness only for homogeneous plates)
applied body forces
boundary conditions:
prescribed boundary forces or tractions
prescribed displacements

Find:

inplane displacements
inplane strains
inplane stresses and/or internal forces

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 8
Introduction to FEM

Matrix Notation for Internal Fields

 
u x (x, y)
u(x, y) = displacements
u y (x, y)
 
ex x (x, y) strains (factor of 2 in
e(x, y) =  e yy (x, y)  e xy simplifies "energy
2ex y (x, y) dot products")
 
σx x (x, y)
σ(x, y) =  σyy (x, y)  stresses
σx y (x, y)

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 9
Introduction to FEM

Governing Plane Stress Elasticity


Equations in Matrix Form
   
ex x ∂/∂ x 0  
 e yy  =  0 u
∂/∂ y  x
uy
2ex y ∂/∂ y ∂/∂ x
    
σx x E 11 E 12 E 13 ex x
 σ yy  =  E 12 E 22 E 23   e yy 
σx y E 13 E 23 E 33 2ex y
 
  σx x    
∂/∂ x 0 ∂/∂ y  b 0
σ yy  + x =
0 ∂/∂ y ∂/∂ x by 0
σx y

or e = Du σ = Ee DT σ + b = 0

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 10
Introduction to FEM

Strong-Form Tonti Diagram of


Plane Stress Governing Equations

Displacement
Prescribed BCs Displacements Body forces
displacements
^
u u = u^ u b Γ
on Γu Ω
e=Du D Tσ + b = 0
Kinematic in Ω in Ω Equilibrium

σ=Ee
or e = Cσ
Strains in Ω Stresses Force BCs Prescribed
tractions t
e Constitutive σ σT n = ^t or forces q
or pT n = q^
on Γt

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 11
Introduction to FEM

TPE-Based Weak Form Diagram of


Plane Stress Governing Equations

Displacement
Prescribed BCs Displacements Body forces
displacements
^
^
u u=u u b Γ
on Γu Ω

e=Du δΠ= 0 Equilibrium


Kinematic in Ω
in Ω (weak)

σ=Ee Force BCs


in Ω (weak) Prescribed
Strains Stresses
tractions t
e Constitutive σ δΠ = 0 or forces q
on Γt

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 12
Introduction to FEM

Total Potential Energy of Plate


in Plane Stress

=U −W

 
U= 1
2
h σT e d = 1
2 h eT Ee d
 

 
W = h uT b d + h uT t̂ d
 t
body forces boundary tractions

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 13
Introduction to FEM

Discretization into Plane Stress


Finite Elements

(a) (b)
(c)


e
Γ Γe

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 14
Introduction to FEM

Plane Stress Element Geometries


and Node Configurations

3
3 3 4 8
4 5 9 3
2 10 12 7
6 2
1 11 6
1
1 2 1 5 2
4
n=3 n=4 n=6 n = 12

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 15
Introduction to FEM

Total Potential Energy of Plane Stress Element


e
Γe

e γ = U e − W e
 
Ue = 12 h σT e de = 12 h eT E e de
e e
 
We = h uT b de + h uT t d e
e e

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 16
Introduction to FEM

Constructing a Displacement Assumed Element

n nodes, n=4 in figure

Node displacement vector

u e = [ u x1 u y1 u x2 . . . u xn u yn ]T

Displacement interpolation over element


   e e 
u x (x,y) N1 0 N2 0 ... Nne 0
u(x, y) = = e e u
e
u y (x,y) 0 N1 0 N2e ... 0 Nn

= N ue

N is called the shape function matrix


It has order 2 x 2n

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 17
Introduction to FEM

Element Construction (cont'd)

Differentiate the displacement interpolation wrt x,y


to get the strain-displacement relation

 e 
∂ N1e ∂ N2 ∂ Nne
0 0 ... 0
 ∂x ∂x ∂x 
 e e 
 ∂ N1 ∂ N2 ∂ Nne  e
e (x, y) = 

0 0 ... 0 u =

B ue
∂y ∂y ∂y
 e e e e 
∂ N1e ∂ N1 ∂ N2 ∂ N2 ∂ Nne ∂ Nn
...
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x

B is called the strain-displacement matrix


It has order 3 x 2n

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 18
Introduction to FEM

Element Construction (cont'd)

Element total potential energy


T T
e = 1
2 u e Ke u e − u e f e
Element stiffness matrix

Ke = h BT E B d e
e

Consistent node force vector


 
fe = h NT b d e + h NT t̂ d e
e e

due to: body force due to: surface tractions

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 19
Introduction to FEM

Requirements on Finite Element Shape Functions

Interpolation Condition

Ni takes on value 1 at node i, 0 at all other nodes

Continuity (intra- and inter-element) and


Completeness Conditions

are covered later in the course (Chs. 18-19)

IFEM Ch 14 – Slide 20