Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

ÉDITORIAL

ÉDITORIAL

Châtiments corporels et développement psychologique des enfants.


Que disent les recherches scientifiques ?

U
Q FKkWLPHQW FRUSRUHO FRPPH OD IHVVpH RX OD JLÁH  HVW KDELWXHOOHPHQW GpÀQL FRPPH XQH
DFWLRQ G·XQ SDUHQW XWLOLVDQW VD IRUFH GLULJpH VXU VRQ HQIDQW GDQV OH EXW GH FRUULJHU RX GH
FRQWU{OHUVRQFRPSRUWHPHQW 6WUDXV &HWWHDFWLRQ VRXYHQWXQHUpDFWLRQ SDUHQWDOHHVW
HIIHFWXpHDYHFO·LQWHQWLRQG·LQÁLJHUXQHVRXIIUDQFHjO·HQIDQWVDQVWRXWHIRLVOHEOHVVHU5DSSHORQV
TX·XQHEOHVVXUHHVWXQDEXVSK\VLTXHVWULFWHPHQWLQWHUGLWHWSXQLSDUODORL
4XDQWjO·DVSHFWOpJLVODWLIUDSSHORQVTXHSOXVG·XQHWUHQWDLQHGHSD\VGDQVOHPRQGHDDEROLFRP-
SOqWHPHQWOHFKkWLPHQWFRUSRUHOOD6XqGHpWDQWOHSUHPLHUSD\VjSUHQGUHGHWHOOHVGLVSRVLWLRQVHQ
(Q)UDQFHO·LQWHUGLFWLRQGHVFKkWLPHQWVFRUSRUHOV DSSHOpVDXVVLYLROHQFHVRUGLQDLUHVGLWHV
pGXFDWLYHV DXVHLQGXIR\HUIDPLOLDOIDLWO·REMHWGHGpEDWVUpFXUUHQWVHWYLHQWG·rWUHDSSURXYpHSDU
OH3DUOHPHQW YRLUSOXVORLQOHVGHX[VLWHVZHESRXUVXLYUHO·pYROXWLRQGHVGpEDWVHWGHVOpJLVODWLRQV
jWUDYHUVOHPRQGH 
Une pratique éducative ordinaire dans le monde ?
0DOJUpXQQRPEUHFRQVLGpUDEOHGHORLVSURPXOJXpHVGDQVGHQRPEUHX[SD\VOHVFKkWLPHQWVFRU-
SRUHOVVRQWHQFRUHWUqVXWLOLVpVSDUOHVSDUHQWV6HORQOD)RQGDWLRQSRXUO·HQIDQFHGHVSDUHQWV
IUDQoDLV RQW UHFRXUV j XQ FKkWLPHQW FRUSRUHO RX j GHV YLROHQFHV RUGLQDLUHV GLWHV pGXFDWLYHV$X[
eWDWV8QLVODIHVVpHHVWO·XQHGHVSUDWLTXHVGLWHVpGXFDWLYHVOHVSOXVXWLOLVpHVSRXUOHVHQIDQWVG·kJH
SUpVFRODLUH 6WUDXV 6WHZDUW HQYLURQGHVHQIDQWVkJpVGHjDQVRQWUHoXXQHIHV-
VpHDXPRLQVXQHIRLVDXFRXUVGHO·DQQpHpFRXOpH&HSHQGDQWGRQQHUXQHIHVVpHDX[QRXUULVVRQV
RXDX[MHXQHVHQIDQWVVHUpYqOHSOXVUDUHGHVSDUHQWVGpFODUHQWDYRLUGRQQpXQHIHVVpHjXQ
HQIDQWkJpGHjPRLVjXQHQIDQWGHjPRLVHWjXQHQIDQWGHjPRLV
Quels sont les résultats des recherches sur leurs effets psychologiques ?
'HQRPEUHX[FKHUFKHXUVH[DPLQHQWGHSXLVGHVDQQpHVOHVHIIHWVjFRXUWHWORQJWHUPHGHVFKkWL-
PHQWVFRUSRUHOVVXUOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHVHQIDQWV*HVKRIISXEOLHHQXQHPpWDDQDO\VHV\Q-
WKpWLVDQWOHVUpVXOWDWVGHVFHQWDLQHVGHUHFKHUFKHVVXUFHWWHTXHVWLRQ8QGHVHIIHWVLPPpGLDWVGHV
FKkWLPHQWVFRUSRUHOVHVWO·REpLVVDQFHUDSLGHGHO·HQIDQWjODYRORQWpGXSDUHQWLPSOLTXp,OV·DJLW
G·DLOOHXUVGXEXWSUHPLHUGHFHX[TXLXWLOLVHQWFHW\SHGHPpWKRGHpGXFDWLYH&HSHQGDQWFHWWHUpDF-
WLRQLPPpGLDWHGHO·HQIDQWUpVXOWHG·XQHUpDFWLRQGHSHXUHWJpQqUHXQVWUHVVGpOpWqUHFKH]O·HQIDQW

­ SOXV ORQJ WHUPH OHV UpVXOWDWV PRQWUHQW XQ OLHQ VLJQLÀFDWLI FODLU HQWUH OHV FKkWLPHQWV FRUSRUHOV
IUpTXHQFHHWLQWHQVLWp HWWURXEOHVXOWpULHXUVGXGpYHORSSHPHQWSV\FKRORJLTXHGHVHQIDQWVFRPPH
SDUH[HPSOHOHVFRPSRUWHPHQWVDQWLVRFLDX[ DJUHVVLYLWpGpOLQTXDQFHHWF '·DXWUHVIDFWHXUVVRQW
HQMHXFRPPHSDUH[HPSOHODFRPSUpKHQVLRQHWO·DFFHSWDWLRQGHODSDUWGHVHQIDQWVFRQFHUQDQW
FHWWHSUDWLTXHpGXFDWLYHFHX[TXLFRPSUHQQHQWOHJHVWHGHOHXUSDUHQWO·DFFHSWHURQWRXO·H[SOLTXH-
URQWSOXVIDFLOHPHQW,OH[LVWHDXVVLXQHFRQWURYHUVHVXUOHVHIIHWVGHODIRUFHGHODIHVVpH OpJqUH

Pour citer cet article : GENTAZ, É. (2018). Châtiments corporels et développement psychologique des enfants. Que disent
OHVUHFKHUFKHVVFLHQWLÀTXHV" A.N.A.E., 157, 667-670.
https://www.anae-revue.com/anae-en-accès-libre/l-éditorial-d-anae-en-accès-libre/
NOUVEAU : Si vous désirez discuter ou commenter cet article vous pouvez écrire à
commentaires-editorial@anae-edition.com.
Vos commentaires pourront, si vous le souhaitez, être publiés sur notre site www.anae-revue.com avec votre autorisation.

A.N.A.E. N° 157 – DÉCEMBRE 2018 667


© copyright Anae
ÉDITORIAL

RXVpYqUH HWGHVDIUpTXHQFHVXUOHVFRPSRUWHPHQWVH[WHUQDOLVpVDQWLVRFLDX[ e.gO·DJUHVVLYLWp 


/HVFKHUFKHXUVRQWH[DPLQpVLOHVSXQLWLRQVVpYqUHVHWIUpTXHQWHVHVWLPpHVSDUOHVPqUHVVXIÀVHQWj
SUpGLUHOHVFRPSRUWHPHQWVH[WHUQDOLVpVGHVHQIDQWV /DQVIRUG:DJHU%DWHV3HWWLW 'RGJH 
/HVUpVXOWDWVUpYqOHQWTX·LO\DHIIHFWLYHPHQWXQHGLIIpUHQFHHQWUHOHVHQIDQWVTXLQ·RQWMDPDLVUHoX
GHIHVVpHO·DQQpHSUpFpGHQWHFHX[TXLHQRQWUHoXVHXOHPHQWDYHFODPDLQHWPRLQVG·XQHIRLVSDU
VHPDLQH HW FHX[ TXL HQ RQW UHoX SOXV IUpTXHPPHQW HW RQW pWp GRQQpHV DYHF XQ REMHW$LQVL OHV
HQIDQWVTXLDYDLHQWUHoXGHVIHVVpHVVpYqUHVSUpVHQWDLHQWVLJQLÀFDWLYHPHQWSOXVGHFRPSRUWHPHQWV
DQWLVRFLDX[ TXH OHV HQIDQWV GHV GHX[ DXWUHV JURXSHV (QÀQ LO Q·\ D SDV GH GLIIpUHQFH HQWUH OHV
HQIDQWVTXLQHUHoRLYHQWMDPDLVGHIHVVpHVHWFHX[SRXUTXLFHWWHSXQLWLRQHVWUDUHHWGRQQpHDYHFOD
PDLQFHTXLVXJJqUHTX·XQXVDJHH[FHSWLRQQHOGHODIHVVpHQ·DSDVG·HIIHWVXUOHVFRPSRUWHPHQWV
DJUHVVLIV GHV HQIDQWV %DXPULQG /DU]HOHUH  &RZDQ   &HV UpVXOWDWV VRXOLJQHQW SDU FRQVp-
TXHQWO·LPSRUWDQFHGHGLVWLQJXHUODIUpTXHQFHHWOHGHJUpGHVpYpULWpGHVSXQLWLRQVFRUSRUHOOHVHW
GHVIHVVpHV
Comment expliquer ces effets négatifs ?
,O H[LVWH GHX[ PRGqOHV TXL H[SOLTXHQW OHV HIIHWV GHV FKkWLPHQWV FRUSRUHOV 3DROXFFL  9LRODWR
 /HSUHPLHUDSSHOpHQYLURQPHQWDOPRGHORXWKpRULHGHO·DSSUHQWLVVDJHVRFLDOVXSSRVHTXH
OHV HQIDQWV TXL VXELVVHQW GHV FKkWLPHQWV FRUSRUHOV DSSUHQQHQW TXH OD YLROHQFH HVW XQH VWUDWpJLH
DFFHSWDEOHSRXUUpVRXGUHOHVGLIIpUHQGVLQWHUSHUVRQQHOV$LQVLOHVVWUDWpJLHVYLROHQWHVVRQWLPLWpHV
HWDMRXWpHVDXUpSHUWRLUHGHFRPSRUWHPHQWVGHO·HQIDQW/HVHFRQGDSSHOpWHPSHUDPHQWPRGHOPHW
HQDYDQWODSUpGLVSRVLWLRQGHO·HQIDQWjDGRSWHUGHVFRPSRUWHPHQWVDJUHVVLIV/HFKkWLPHQWFRUSRUHO
GRQQpSDUGHVSDUHQWVFRQVWLWXHUDLWGRQFXQHUpSRQVHDXWHPSpUDPHQWGHO·HQIDQW
Quelles sont les limites de ces recherches ?
6L GH QRPEUHXVHV pWXGHV VRXOLJQHQW DXVVL XQH IRUWH FRUUpODWLRQ SRVLWLYH HQWUH OD IRUFH HW OD IUp-
TXHQFHGHVFKkWLPHQWVFRUSRUHOVHWOHVWURXEOHVGXGpYHORSSHPHQWSV\FKRORJLTXHGHVHQIDQWVLOQH
V·DJLWTXHGHFRUUpODWLRQV5DSSHORQVTX·XQHFRUUpODWLRQSHUPHWGHPHVXUHUO·LQWHQVLWpGHODOLDLVRQ
HQWUHGHX[YDULDEOHVQXPpULTXHVHWQRQG·pWDEOLUGHVUHODWLRQVGHFDXVHjHIIHWHQWUHFHVIDFWHXUV'H
SOXVLOH[LVWHGHVFRQWUDLQWHVPpWKRGRORJLTXHVTXLSRXUUDLHQWPRGXOHUOHVUpVXOWDWV3DUH[HPSOH
VLOHVGRQQpHVRQWpWpUDSSRUWpHVXQLTXHPHQWSDUOHVPqUHVHWVLVHXOHVOHVIHVVpHVTX·HOOHVRQWGRQ-
QpHVRQWpWpFRPSWDELOLVpHV/HIDLWTXHOHVIHVVpHVGXSqUHRXG·DXWUHVSHUVRQQHVTXLV·RFFXSHQWGH
O·HQIDQWQ·DLHQWSDVpWpSULVHVHQFRPSWHHQJHQGUHXQHVRXVpYDOXDWLRQGXQRPEUHGHIHVVpHV2Q
UHWLHQGUDDXVVLTXHODSOXSDUWGHVpWXGHVXWLOLVHQWGHVGRQQpHVDXWRUDSSRUWpHVDSSRUWDQWQRQVHXOH-
PHQWGHSRVVLEOHVELDLVOLpVDX[VRXYHQLUVG·XQHVHXOHSHUVRQQHPDLVDXVVLGHVELDLVGHGpVLUDELOLWp
VRFLDOH(QUpVXPpFRPPHWRXMRXUVGHVpWXGHVFRPSOpPHQWDLUHVVRQWQpFHVVDLUHVSRXUGpSDVVHU
FHVOLPLWHV *HUVKRIIHWDO 
En conclusion, que faire ?
(Q FRQFOXVLRQ FRPSWH WHQX GHV HIIHWV QpJDWLIV VXU OH GpYHORSSHPHQW SV\FKRORJLTXH FRJQLWLI HW
DIIHFWLI GHO·HQIDQWGHVFKkWLPHQWVFRUSRUHOVDSSOLTXpVGHPDQLqUHVpYqUHHWIUpTXHQWHHWPDOJUpOHV
OLPLWHVPpWKRGRORJLTXHVLQKpUHQWHVjODFRPSOH[LWpGHFHW\SHGHUHFKHUFKHLOHVWLPSRUWDQWG·pYL-
WHUFHWWHSUDWLTXHpGXFDWLYH/RUVTX·RQGpVLUHTX·XQHQIDQWREpLVVHHWUHVSHFWHO·DXWRULWpSDUHQWDOH
LO H[LVWH G·DXWUHV VWUDWpJLHV pGXFDWLYHV SOXV DGDSWpHV SRXU SDUYHQLU DX PrPH UpVXOWDW GH PDQLqUH
SRVLWLYHHWFRQVWUXFWLYHSRXUO·HQIDQW
6·LOHVWQpFHVVDLUHTXHFHWWHSUDWLTXHpGXFDWLYHVRLWLQWHUGLWHV\PEROLTXHPHQWLOHVWWUqVLPSRUWDQW
TXHFHWWHLQWHUGLFWLRQGRQQHO·RSSRUWXQLWpDX[SDUHQWVHWIXWXUVSDUHQWVGHUpÁpFKLUjOHXUVSUDWLTXHV
HWFKRL[pGXFDWLIVRUGLQDLUHVHWjOHXUVFRQVpTXHQFHVSV\FKRORJLTXHVVXUOHVHQIDQWV7RXWHLQWHU-
GLFWLRQSHUPHWjFKDFXQGHQRXVGHV·LQWHUURJHUVXUOHVWUDGLWLRQVRXFRXWXPHVGDQVFHGRPDLQH
(QÀQFHWWHLQWHUGLFWLRQH[LJHXQHSROLWLTXHSXEOLTXHGHODSHWLWHHQIDQFHTXLIDYRULVHUDLWYpULWDEOH-
PHQWXQHpGXFDWLRQjODSDUHQWDOLWpSURSRVpHGHIDoRQLQWHQVLYH VWDJHVGHVHQVLELOLVDWLRQGDQVOHV
pWDEOLVVHPHQWVFDPSDJQHQDWLRQDOHPRRNVIRUPDWLRQGHVSURIHVVLRQQHOVHWF jWRXVOHVSDUHQWV
GqVODQDLVVDQFHGHOHXUHQIDQW

Pr Édouard Gentaz
Professeur de psychologie du développement à Université de Genève et
Directeur de recherche au CNRS (LPNC-Grenoble)
Rédacteur en chef d’A.N.A.E.

A.N.A.E. N° 157 – DÉCEMBRE 2018 669


© copyright Anae