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JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2011, ISSN 2151-9617

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Foot Rot Disease Identification for the Betelvine Plants using Digital
Images Processing
Mr.J.Vijayakumar1, Dr.S.Arumugam2

Abstract — This paper proposes a method for early detection of foot rot disease to initiate early
preventive action before the farmer visually identifies a change in appearance, form or color of betel vine
using image processing and pattern recognition techniques. Using these techniques, the disease in betelvine
leaf can be identified before it spreads to entire crop. Digital image of the betel vine leaves at different stages
of the disease are collected using a high-resolution digital camera with a resolution of 2 million pixels. The
image analysis of the leaves done using Image processing toolbox in Mat lab version 7.0 Release 12 gives the
standard patterns of the digital images. These patterns and images of various healthy betelvine leaves and
diseased betelvine leaves at various stages are stored in the memory of the system. These are then used for
comparison to identify the disease leaf at an early stage.

Index Terms— Betelvine, Foot Rot Disease and phytopthora parasitica

1.INTRODUCTION

Betel vine, Piper Betel L., known as Vettrilai in Human eye cannot predict the disease at an early stage
Tamil, a sanctity leaf is cultivated in approximately as it propagates through the stem. Using computerized
45,000 hectares in India .In Tamil Nadu image analyzing system the minute change in the form
approximately 5000 hectares of land is used for of color in leaves can be detected at an early stage.
cultivation. Betel leaf is used as medicine for certain
diseases and also used as an antiseptic. Lots of 2.BETELVINE DISEASES
research is going on in the field of analysis and pest
control in various centers within the country under Betel vine is subjected to the attack of various diseases
the name “ALL INDIA NETWORKING PROJECT and pests. The most important among them are Foot
IN BETELVINE”.During cultivation betel vine is Rot, Leaf Rot, Leaf Spot and Powdery mildew among
very much affected by diseases and insects that result diseases and bus, aphids and mites among pests. The
in great loss for the farmers. The common pests other diseases reported in betel vine are the bacterial
reported are mainly bugs, mites and aphids. The most leaf spot, Leaf spot in storage and Tip Burn
important diseases of betel leaf are Foot rot and Leaf (physiological disease).
rot. It occurs in a very virulent form and if not 2.1 FOOT ROT DISEASE
controlled, causes widespread damage and even total
destruction of the entire betelvine plantations. The Foot Rot is caused by the fungus Phytophthora
cost of production of the betelvine plantation is parasitica that lives in the soil and attacks roots, stem
approximately Rs.1.5 lakhs per hectare per year and and leaves. It produces large number of spores at low
around 50 percent of the total cost is used for temperatures, under moist conditions. These spores are
maintenance, fertilizers and pesticides and carried from vine to vine through water. It occurs in a
insecticides very virulent form and if not controlled, causes
Which is practically, when a farmer widespread damage and even total destruction of the
visualizes the disease, seen as a change in the form of betel vine plantations. At the onset of attack the plants
color or appearance, the disease is in the matured invariably show loss of lusture, which may be
stage after which diagnosis cannot save the plant. The recognized only by an experienced eye. Such plants
disease spreads to the entire crop and the entire also show complete suppression of the adventitious
plantation gets destructed within few days. Foot rot roots from the top most one or two nodes, whereas in
disease starts from the roots or rootlets. healthy plants in the root eyes the initiation and
development of the adventitious roots and rootlets can
--------------------------------------------------------------- be noticed. Soon after the manifestation of these
1
Research scholar, Nandhha College of Technology, primary symptoms, the lamina of the leaves slowly
Erode.Tamil nadu,India. begins to droop, although the petiole remains erect.
The diseased plant at this stage exhibits a general
pallor and drooping of the tender shoots. The aerial
2
Chief Executive officer, Nandha Engineering parts, leaves or stem do not show any other sign of
college, Erode.Tamil nadu,India. infection such as lesions or rotting. Such plants when
pulled out easily break at the collar region and
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underground parts are found to be in the state of


decay. The roots and rootlets are found to be black or
brown, and in decaying condition. Wilting is
dependent on the extent of infection, rapidity of
infection in the internodes and the position of the
internodes. If the internodes just below the ground
surface are infected, the plants wilt very suddenly as
if they are cut off from all possible sources of water
and food. When the infection is first evident in
internodes away from the soil surface, the aerial parts
of the plants appear to remain normal and healthy for
a long time as the internodes above the diseased Fig.1.Healthy farm Fig.2. Infected farm
portion still continue to function. The disease in an
internodes can be easily detected by the blackening
of the tissues inside. The infection to aerial parts
does not usually extend beyond one or two
internodes because the plant is killed before the
disease progresses further. The appearance and
spread of the disease is dependent on external
factors. When the atmospheric humidity is high and
the temperature is low the disease develops rapidly,
whereas under dry conditions the progress of the
disease is slow.
3 IMAGE SEGMENTATION Fig.3.Likely to be infected farm

Image segmentation refers to the decomposition of In the first category farm, all the plants are
the image into its components.In this paper, the healthy without any infection.The photograph is
separation of the RGB components is considered. shown in Fig.1. In the second category the farm is
Amplitude thresholding is used in this paper for fully infected by the Foot rot disease and the
segmentation.The appropriate amplitude feature photograph is shown in Fig. 2. In the third category
values are classified so that given amplitude interval farm two to three plants are infected by the Foot rot
represents a unique object characterisitics. The disease while other plants in the farm is healthy and
histogram of the image is examined for locating likely to be infected.The photograph is show in the
peaks and valleys. Fig. 3. Based on the three categories mentioned
above, digital imaging technique is divided in three
4. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION phases respectively as,

Matlab is technical supporting environment for 1.Normal leaves phase


high performance numeric computation and 2.Infected leaves phase
visualisation. Image processing toolbox in matlab 3.Test leaves phase
supports four types of images namely
 Indexed images
 Binary images
 Intensity images
 Rgb images
RGB images technique is used for anlysis in this
paper.
Fig.4. Normal Leaf Fig.5. .Infected Leaf
5. PROCEDURE

The betelvine leaves are washed proporly to remove


the dust particles.Three different categories of
betelvine farms is chosen for study.

Category 1 : Healthy farm


Category 2 : Infected farm
Category 3 : Likely to be infected farm Fig.6.Test Leaf
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BLUE COMPONENT - MEAN VALUES


Normal leaves consists of fully healthy normal leaf
images. The photograph is show in the Fig.4 Infected 256
254
leaves phase consited of visually identifiable infected
252
leaf samples at various stages of the Foot rot disease. NORMAL

MEAN
250
TEST
The photograph is show in the Fig.5 Test leaves 248
INFECTED
246
phase consists of leaf samples taken from the third
244
category farm which are likely to be disease prone. 242
The photograph is show in the Fig.5. twelve samples 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
SAMPLE NUMBER
from each phase was taken.The size of all the digital
images are 330 x 425 with 3 components namely
Red, Green and blue. These digital images are given Fig.9.Blue componen mean vlaues
as input to the matlab file and the R,G,B colour
components are seperated and the mean is calculated. The mean values for uninfected leaves or normal
leaves between 243.12 to 245.12 for red component,
6. SIMULATION RESULTS 243.10 to 244.44 for green component and 242.63 to
244.48 for blue component. The mean values for
The mean is calculated for all the 22 leaves.The infected leaves between 247.22 to 253.96 for red
mean values of Red component for normal leaves , component, 249.66 to 253.97 for green component
infected leavesand test leaves are found as shown in and 251.54 to 253.49 for blue component. The test
fig.7. The mean values of Green component for leaves, to compute mean value of red, green and blue
normal leaves, infected leaves and test leaves are component and compare the mean values of normal
found as shown in fig.8. The mean values of Blue leaves and infected leaves. The first three test
component for normal leaves, infected leaves and samples between 243.12 to 245.12 for red
test leaves are found as shown in fig.9. component, 243.10 to 244.44 for green component
and 242.63 to 244.48 for blue component. So the first
three test samples are uninfected leaves or normal
RED COMPONENT MEAN VLAUES leaves. For remaining test samples between 247.22 to
256
253.96 for red component,249.66 to 253.97 for green
254 component and 251.54 to 253.49 for blue
252 component. So the remaining test samples are
250 NORMAL
infected leaves.
MEAN

248 TEST
246 INFECTED
244 7.CONCLUSION
242
240 The above proposed results convey that the foot rot
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 disease can be identified at an early stage and thus
SAMPLE NUMBER preventive action can be taken well in advance such
that the entire plantation can be saved before the
disease starts to spread. This can also be extended to
Fig.7.Red componen mean vlaues detect diseases of all kind to initiate early preventive
action.
REFERENCES
GREEN COMPONENT MEAN VALUES [1] Sathyabrata Maiti and K.S. Shivashankara
256
(1998), Betelvine Research Highlights.
254
252
[2] Dastur.J.F(1935). Diseases of pan (piper betle)
NORMAL in the general provinces.
MEAN

250
TEST
248
INFECTED
246 [3] Control of the foot rot disease of pan (piper
244 betle) in the central provinces. Agric. Livestock
242 India1 pp( 26-31).
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
SAMPLE NUMBER [4] Foot rot diseases of piper betle in Bengal. India
J.agric.sci.7.(2006)
Fig. 8.Green componen mean vlaues [5] Diseases of pan (piper betle) in sylhet, Assam.
India J.agric.sci.7.(2007)
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[6] Control of serious diseases of foot rot and leaf


spot of pan crop.J. Agric 1954 pp(8-10).

[7] Annual Report of All India Coordinated


Research Project on Betelvine ICAR (Indian
Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi)
India (1997).

AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY

Mr.J.Vijayakumar received the


Bachelor of Engineering in
Electronics and Communication
Engineering from Maharaja
Engineering College under
Bharathiar university-
Coimbatore in the year of 2003
and Master of Engineering in
Applied Electronics from Bannari Amman Institute
of Technology under Anna university-Chennai in the
year of 2005. He is doing Ph.D. work in Anna
University of Technology- Coimbatore under the
guidance of Dr.S.Arumugam. He is working as
assistant professor in the department of Electronics
and Communication Engineering in Nandha College
of Technology- Erode. His area of interest is Digital
Image Processing.

Dr.S.Arumugam completed his


bachelor degree in Electronics
and Communication
Engineering and M.Sc(Engg).,
in Applied Electronics , both
from PSG College of
Technology under University of
Madras and Ph.D., in Computer
Science and Engineering from Anna University. He
has been serving in the Directorate of Technical
Education since 1974 onwards. He retired from
Government service as additional Director of
Technical Education and Chairman Board of
Examinations. He served as Chief member of various
boards of studies. He is a fellow member in IE,
IETE, senior member in CSI and member in IEEE.
He has so far published over 100 papers in various
Nationals International Journals and Conferences.
Presently he is working as Chief Executive officer,
Nandha Educational Institution- Erode.