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Advances in Communications, Computers, Systems, Circuits and Devices

Mathematical models and the control of


homopolar and homo-heteropolar reactive
synchronous machines with stator excitation
Sorin Ioan Deaconu, Lucian Nicolae Tutelea, Gabriel Nicolae Popa and Tihomir Latinovici

other homo-heteropolar [1] – [3], which removes the


Abstract—In this paper is presenting a reactive homopolar disadvantages of the classic synchronous machines.
brushless synchronous machine (RHBSM) and a reactive homo- Although not widely used in practice, synchronous
heteropolar brushless synchronous machine (RHHBSM) with stator homopolar machine has been researched for a variety of
excitation destined to operate as low power generator or servomotor
applications. They are sometimes referred to as homopolar
with variable speed. Hereby are presented two mathematical models,
the orthogonal one and the one of the spatial phasors. Based on these, inductor generator/motors’ [5], [6], or simply as homopolar
is designed the control system and are presented the results obtained motors’ [7], [8]. The defining feature of this machine is the
by simulation. The work is presented as an integrated design of homopolar or homo-heteropolar d-axis magnetic field created
machines, drive and controller. by a field winding [5], [6], [8] - [10] and permanent magnets
and windings [7].
Keywords—orthogonal model, simulations, sensorless control, However, in case of the synchronous homopolar machine,
space-phasor model. the field winding is fixed to the stator and generally encircles
the rotor rather than being placed on the rotor. There are
I. INTRODUCTION
several advantages to having the field winding in the stator.

I N THIS paper is described the design, construction and


control of a reactive synchronous homo-heteropolar and
homopolar brushless synchronous machines (RHHBSM,
Among these is the elimination of slip rings and greatly
simplified rotor construction, making it practical to construct
the rotor from a single piece of high-strength steel. The other
RHBSM) generator/motor for variable speed. rotor designs feature laminations [8], permanent magnets [7],
For modeling and simulation were used two methods: the or other non-magnetic structural elements to increase strength
field tubes method – which brings acceptable simplifications, and reduce winding age losses [6]. Other advantages of
taking into account the magnetic saturation of the ferromagnetic having the field winding in the stator include ease in cooling
core, and the types of electric windings and 3D FEM analysis and increased available volume [1], [11], [12].
with specialized software [1] – [3]. The first part of the paper presents a description of the
The classic synchronous machines have the following main synchronous homopolar and homo-heteropolar machines. The
disadvantage: the armature rotor excitation which determines second parts is focused on orthogonal model and space-phasor
a great rotor inertia and weight, and involves the brushes and model.
slip rings. The third part presents the machines’ dynamics and control
In [4] is presented a form of heteropolar linear synchronous algorithms’ development, and simulations results for the
machine that is able to provide both thrust and lifting force at control systems.
relatively high efficiencies and power factor.
Starting form this idea, there were developed two rotating II. THE CONSTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS
reactive models with stator excitation, one homopolar and the
The RHBSM and RHHBSM which we’ll analyze further
are rotary machines. In fig. 1 is presenting a cross-section and
Manuscript received September 27, 2010.
longitudinal section of RHBSM, and in fig 2 a longitudinal
Sorin Ioan Deaconu is with Electrical Engineering Department, section of RHHBSM.
“Politechnica” University of Timisoara, Revolutiei str., no. 5, Hunedoara, The excitation coil has a ring shape and is placed in the
331128, Romania (phone: 0040254207529; fax: 0040254207501; e-mail:
windows of the U-shaped laminations stack (fig. 1),
sorin.deaconu@fih.upt.ro).
Lucian Nicolae Tutelea is with Electrical Engineering Department, respectively E-shaped laminations stack (fig. 2), and, at
“Politechnica” University of Timisoara, V. Parvan str., no. 1-2, corp D, etaj 1, passing of the rotor poles, the field is closing, having by this a
Timişoara, Romania (e-mail: luci@lselinux.upt.ro). rectangular variation form. When the rotor pole is not under
Gabriel Nicolae Popa is with Electrical Engineering Department,
“Politechnica” University of Timisoara, Revolutiei str., no. 5, Hunedoara, the laminations stack, the field is practically null [2], [3].
331128, Romania (e-mail: popa.gabriel@fih.upt.ro).
Tihomir Latinovic is with Robotics Department, University of Banja Luka,
Bosnia and Hercegovina (e-mail:tiho@inecco.net).

ISBN: 978-960-474-250-9 78
Advances in Communications, Computers, Systems, Circuits and Devices

Stator
core
Γ Excitation
coil

x v Induced Laminations
coil stack

Rotor pole Field coil

Fig. 1 Magnetic circuit of RHBSM

Stator core
(laminations
stack)
Fig. 4 3D representation of the stator magnetic circuit with excitation
Excitation
coil coil of RHBSM

Isolated
cylinder
Airgap

Rotor
pole
Rotor
pole

Fig. 2 Longitudinal magnetic circuit’s section of RHHBSM

By this representation, it results a homopolar inductor


magnetic field in the area of the left leg, respectively right leg
of the stator laminations stack which is positive under left and
negative under right leg (fig. 1 and fig. 2) and a heteropolar
inductor magnetic field in the area of the central leg of the
Fig. 5 3D representation of the RHBSM rotor
stator laminations stack [2].
For the RHBSM the armature’s winding is in two layers,
Excitation
with 8-shaped coils (fig. 3), and is placed in the open slots. coil
This winding type allows the elimination of non-uniformities Armature’s
that might appear if it would be achieved separately on each winding
leg of the laminations stack [2].
Laminations
stack

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Fig. 6 3D representation of stator magnetic circuit with field and


armature winding coils of RHHBSM

A X Similar with RHBSM, the RHHBSM’s armature winding is


placed in the open slots, formed between the laminations
Fig. 3 The armature winding of RHBSM stack. In each slot there are two sides of the coil (fig. 6). The
winding is distributed in three layers. Lateral coils of one
Fig. 4 and 5 present a 3D representation of the magnetic phase are connected in series and the resulting group is
circuit and windings of the stator and the rotor of RHBSM in connected in parallel with the respective phase coils of the
fig. 6 and 7 for RHHBSM [2], [3]. central leg. The coils of one phase are distributed in different

ISBN: 978-960-474-250-9 79
Advances in Communications, Computers, Systems, Circuits and Devices

layers for each leg of magnetic circuit coils on all phases q


occupy a layer (of three) leading in this way to a uniformity of iq
dispersion reactances [3]. Uq q
Rotor
pole

Isolated iQ
cylinder Q
UE Ud
D iE id
d d
E d ω =ω
b 1
iD

Fig. 7 3D representation of the rotor of RHHBSM


q
Similar with RHBSM, the RHHBSM’s armature winding is
placed in the open slots, formed between the laminations Fig. 9 The machine’s d-q model
stack. In each slot there are two sides of the coil (fig. 6). The
winding is distributed in three layers. Lateral coils of one At the star-connection this component does not intervene. It
phase are connected in series and the resulting group is should be taken into account the equality of the momentary
connected in parallel with the respective phase coils of the powers, losses, the couple and the stored magnetic energy.
central leg. The coils of one phase are distributed in different Using the Park’s transformation for fluxes and currents, are
layers for each leg of magnetic circuit coils on all phases obtained the expressions of the fluxes by axes d and q, ψd and
occupy a layer (of three) leading in this way to a uniformity of ψq where LSσ is the own dispersion inductance, L0 the
dispersion reactances [3]. inductance’s constant component, L2 the inductance
dependent on the rotor’s position, M0 the coupling constant
III. ORTHOGONAL MODEL OF RHBSM AND RHHBSM inductance, ME, MD, MQ the coupling maximum inductances
The orthogonal model is identically for the two machine between a stator phase and the excitation respectively
types (homopolar and homo-heteropolar) with other inductivity damping winding D and Q [9], [10]:
values that intervene in the mathematical relations [13].
The excitation winding and the armature’s winding are ⎛ 3 ⎞ 3
found in the stator, and the rotor poles are massive, provided ψ d = LSσ ⋅ id + ⎜ L0 − M 0 + L2 ⎟ ⋅ id + M E ⋅ iE + M D ⋅ iD , (1)
⎝ 2 ⎠ 2
with a damping cage.
In fig. 8 is presented the real machine, and in fig. 9 the d-q
model obtained by transformation [8]. ⎛ 3 ⎞ 3
ψ q = LSσ ⋅ iq + ⎜ L0 − M 0 − L2 ⎟ ⋅ iq + M Q ⋅ iQ . (2)
The complete equivalence between the real machine and the ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2
d-q model assumes the existence of the homopolar
components U0 and i0. If the dispersion coupling inductance between the stator and
a q cage D (LdDσ = 0) is neglected, are obtained the synchronous
ia inductances, longitudinal Ld and transversal Lq [11]:
θ
Ua 3
Ld = L0 − M 0 − L2 , (3)
iQ Ub 2
Q ib
b
d D 3
d Lq = L0 − M 0 + L2 , (4)
2π i D iE 2
3 UE
ωr L0
M0 = − . (5)
2

Angle θ has the expression, where ωr is the rotor’s angular


UC
speed and θ0 the initial value:
c iC q

θ = ∫ ωr ⋅ dt + θ0 . (6)
Fig. 8 The real machine’s equivalent diagram

ISBN: 978-960-474-250-9 80
Advances in Communications, Computers, Systems, Circuits and Devices

The binding relation between the orthogonal model’s ∂ψ q


currents id, iq and i0 and the real machine’s currents ia, ib and ic iq RS − U q = − + ωr ⋅ ψ d , (15)
∂t
is [9]:
∂ψ E
iE RE − U E = − + ωr ⋅ ψ q , (16)
⎡id ⎤ ⎡ia ⎤ ∂t
⎢ ⎥
[
⎢iq ⎥ = Pabcdq 0 ] ⎢ ⎥
⋅ ⎢ib ⎥ , (7)
⎢i ⎥ ⎢⎣ic ⎥⎦ ∂ψ D
⎣0⎦ i D RD = − , (17)
∂t

where: ∂ψ Q
iQ RQ = − , (18)
∂t
⎡ 2π 2π ⎤
⎢ cos(θ ) cos(θ + 3 ) cos(θ − 3 ) ⎥

2⎢ 2π

2π , (8) (
M e = p ψ d ⋅ iq − ψ q ⋅ id . ) (19)
⎡⎣ Pabcdq ⎤⎦ = sin(θ ) sin(θ + ) sin(θ − ) ⎥
3⎢ 3 3 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ IV. THE SPACE-PHASOR MODEL
⎢ 1 1 1 ⎥
⎢⎣ 2 2 2 ⎥⎦ We define the stator current space-phasor, i s in stator
coordinates [14]:
the same relation being valid also for fluxes,
s
is =
2
3
(
⋅ ia + a ⋅ ib + a 2 ⋅ ic . ) (20)
⎡ψ d ⎤ ⎡ψ a ⎤
⎢ ⎥
[
⎢ψ q ⎥ = Pabcdq 0 ] ⎢ ⎥
⋅ ⎢ψ b ⎥ . (9)
For distributed windings (q ≥ 2) all the stator- self (Laa),
⎢ψ ⎥ ⎢⎣ψ c ⎥⎦
⎣ 0⎦ mutual (Lad, Lac, Laf), and stator-rotor inductances (Ladr, Laqn)
are dependent of the rotor position θer, and rotor inductances
From the previous relations and taking into account the are independent of this.
relation: The phase a flux linkage λa is:

⎡ia ⎤ ⎡id ⎤ λ a = Laa ia + Lab ib + Lac ic + Laf i f + Ladr idr + Laqr iqr . (21)
⎢ ⎥
[ ]
T ⎢ ⎥
⎢ib ⎥ = Pabcdq 0 ⋅ ⎢iq ⎥ , (10)
⎢⎣ic ⎥⎦ ⎢i ⎥ Making use of the inductance definition we find:
⎣0⎦

is obtained: λ a = Lsl Re i s + () 3
2
() 3
( )
L0 Re i s + L2 Re i s e 2 jθer +
2
*

. (22)

⎡ 3 ⎤ 3
3
( ) ( ) (
+ Laf Re i f e 2 jθer + Lsdr Re i dr e jθer − Re jLrsq iqr e jθer
*
)
ψ d = ⎢ LSσ + (L0 + L2 )⎥ ⋅ id + M E ⋅ iE + 2 r r
M D ⋅ iD , (11)
⎣ 2 ⎦ 2
The stator flux space-phasor λ s is:
⎡ 3 ⎤ 3
ψ q = ⎢ LSσ + (L0 − L2 )⎥ ⋅ iq + M Q ⋅ iQ , (12)
⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 λs =
s 2
3
(
λ a + aλ b + a 2 λ c , ) (23)

ψ 0 = [LSσ + L0 + 2 M 0 ]⋅ i0 ≅ LSσ ⋅ i0 . (13)


where λb, λc are similar as in (21).
The stator and rotor equation in d-q coordinates becomes
Considering a single rotor cage by each axis, the voltages [14]:
UD = UQ = 0 and the brushes’ speed ωb = ωr, there are dλ
obtained the general equations of the orthogonal model of the Vd = rs ⋅ id + d − ωr λ q , (24)
dt
homo-heteropolar synchronous machine, where RS is the
stator resistance, RE the excitation’s resistance, RD and RQ the
rotor cages’ resistances, Me the electromagnetic torque and p dλ q
Vq = rs ⋅ iq + + ωr λ d , (25)
the number of pole pairs: dt

∂ψ d dλ f
id RS − U d = − + ωr ⋅ ψ q , (14) V f = rf ⋅ i f + − ωr ⋅ λ q ; λ f = L fl ⋅ i f , (26)
∂t dt

ISBN: 978-960-474-250-9 81
Advances in Communications, Computers, Systems, Circuits and Devices

dλ d r For faster dynamics applications, vector control is used (fig.


0 = rd r ⋅ id r + ; λ d r = Ld r l ⋅ id r + λ dm , (27) 11) [11], [14].
dt
if
i *d Int. +
-
PI DC – DC
dλ q r Control i Control Converter
0 = rq r ⋅ iq r + ; λ q r = Lq r l ⋅ iq r + λ qm . (28) id fref
if
Vd
dt i *a
RHBSM (RHHBSM)
ω*r Speed i *q encoder
reference controller jθer i *b PWM PWM
speed - i *d e generator inverter θr
The torque Te is [14]: ωr i *c
ib ia ia ib p
Va Vb
( )
θer
3 3
( ) Position 1/s
*
Te = p Re j λ s ⋅ i s = p λ d ⋅ iq − λ q ⋅ id . (29) and speed
2 2 estimation
measured b
or estimated a
b
Finally, the d-q variables are related to the abc variables by measured
or estimated a
the Park transformation:
Fig. 11 Basic vector control of RHBSM (RHHBSM)
a - with encoder; b – without encoder
V s = Vd + jVq =
2
3
( )
Va + aVb + a 2Vc ⋅ e − jθ er ; a = e j ⋅2 π / 3 . (30)
B. Torque Vector Control
Note also that all rotor variables are reduced to the stator: To simplify the motor control, the direct torque and flux
control (DTFC for induction machines) has been extended to
rdr
r
Ldrl
r RHBSM (and to RHHBSM) as torque vector control (TVC).
rdr = 2
; Ldrl = 2
, (31) Again, fast flux and torque control may be obtained even in
Kd Kd
sensorless drive (fig. 12) [11], [14], [15]:
r r
rqr Lqrl if
rqr = 2
; Lqrl = 2
. (32) Int. i *d Int. +
-
PI DC – DC
Kq Kq Control Control
ifref Control Converter
id if
Vd
RHBSM (RHHBSM)
ω*r
Te* encoder
The equations obtained based on the orthogonal model and reference
Speed
controller Commutation PWM
- - θr
the one of the spatial phasors lead us to the idea that the speed table
Vi (T)
inverter
λ*s
second model is more complete, therefore we’ll use it for θλs α ia ib p
-
designing the control system. Va Vb
1/s
^λ ^
T
Ref Flux, torque
s e transf observer
and speed
V. CONTROL ALGORITHMS’ DEVELOPMENT observer
b ^ωr
The operation of the RHBSM and RHHBSM synchronous ωr
machines as generator or servomotor with variable speed a

presents a special importance at conceiving the adjustment


system’s structure. Based on the spatial phasors’ theory, this Fig. 12 Torque vector control (TVC) of RHBSM (RHHBSM)
a - with encoder; b – without encoder
system should be treated unitary. The used model takes in
consideration also the machines’ saturation [15].
A. Basic Control C. Simulation Results
Scalar control (V / f) is related to sinusoidal current control The voltage source inverter used in simulations was a
without motion sensors (sensorless) (fig. 10) [14]: Danfoss VLT 3005, 5 KVA one, working at 7 KHz switching
frequency. The RHBSM has the following parameters: PN =
+
2.5 kW, UN = 400 V, Y, IN = 5.5 A, fN = 50 Hz, p = 3, Rs = 2
Vref - Ω, Ld = 0.023 H, Lq = 0.017 H, IEN = 6 A.
+ Further, the simulation results are presented with sensorless
control of RHBSM at different speeds and during transients
(speed step response and speed reversing) using DTC and
Int. +
if
-
PI DC – DC if
SVM control strategies [14].
Control ifref Control Converter
To eliminate the nonlinear effects produced by the inverter,
RHBSM
(RHHBSM) the dead time compensation is 2.5 μs.
Fig. 10 Scalar control for RHBSM (RHHBSM) with torque angle Steady state performance of RHBSM drive with DTFC
increment compensation control strategy at 25 rpm is presented in figure 13 (in “a” is
represented estimated torque and in “b” the estimated speed).

ISBN: 978-960-474-250-9 82
Advances in Communications, Computers, Systems, Circuits and Devices

For DTFC-SVM control strategy the performance are position estimation is necessary in order to obtain very fast
presented in figure 14 (a - estimated torque, b - estimated response with this machine.
speed). Further experimental results will be developed.
The reduction in torque and current ripple by SVM is
obvious. REFERENCES
15 [1] S.I. Deaconu, L.N. Tutelea, G.N. Popa, I. Popa and C. Abrudean,
12 75 “Optimizing the Designing of a Reactive Homopolar Synchronous
9
Machine with Stator Excitation”, IECON 2008, 34th Annual Conference
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Estimated speed [rpm]


6
3
of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Orlando, Florida, USA, 10-
50
0
12 November, 2008, pp. 1311-1318.
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-9 with Stator Excitation”, EPE-PEMC 2009, Barcelona, Spain, 8-10
-12
September, 2009, pp. 2269-2277.
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Time [ms] Time [ms]
“Modeling and Experimental Investigations of a Reactive Homo-
a) b) Heteropolar Brushless Synchronous Machine”, IECON 2009, 35th
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Portugal, USA, 3-5 November, 2009, pp. 1209-1216.
state [4] M.J. Balchim, and J.F. Eastham, “Characteristics of heteropolar linear
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Application, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 213-218, December 1979.
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6 45 HP/16.000 RPM brushless homopolar inductor motor”, Conference


3 50 Record of the IEEE IAS Annual Meeting, 1995, pp. 9-15.
0
[6] M. Siegl and V. Kotrba, “Losses and cooling of a high-output power
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homopolar alternator, IEEE Fifth International Conference on electrical
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Time [ms] permanent magnet/homopolar generator and motor, U. S. Patent
6097124, Aug. 1, 2000.
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Fig. 14 DTFC-SVM control of RHBSM at 25 rpm steady state Type of Bearingless Motors”, Conference Record of the 1999 IEEE IAS
a) – estimated torque; b) – estimated speed Annual Meeting, pp. 1223-1228.
[9] M. Hippner and R. G. Harley, “High speed synchronous homopolar and
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[10] H. Hofman and S. R. Sanders, “High speed synchronous machine with
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from 900 to 60 rpm with DTFC 1998, unpublished.
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[15] A. Kelemen and M. Imecs, Field-Oriented Control of AC Machines (in
Comparative results have been presented in fig. 15 for DTFC Romanian)., Academic Publishing House, pp. 136-240, ISBN 973-27-
and DTFC - SVM control during transients (reference speed 0032-7, Bucuresti, 1989, Romania.
step from 900 rpm to 60 rpm). A slightly faster torque response
has been obtained with a DTFC control strategy.
Sorin I. Deaconu (M’07) was born in Orastie, Romania, in 1965. He
VI. CONCLUSION received the B. S. degree in electrical engineering in 1989 and Ph.D. degree in
electrical machines in 1998 from “Politechnica” University of Timisoara,
In this work was obtained an orthogonal and a space- Romania.
phasor model for RHBSM and RHHBSM. He is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical
Engineering and Industrial Informatics, Engineering Faculty of Hunedoara,
Based on this models was develop a control strategy. A “Politechnica” University of Timisoara.
sensorless control scheme that does not require an estimator He has authored almost 160 international papers in the field of electrical
for rotor position or flux was presented. With the combined machines, electrostatics, electric arc furnaces and renewable energy.
Since 1994, he has collaborated with Bee Speed Automation Ltd,
DTFC-SVM strategy, low torque ripple operation has been Timisoara, where he is involved in several industry projects regarding
obtained with RHBSM. Further improvement of the rotor industrial automation, machines and drives.

ISBN: 978-960-474-250-9 83