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beginning wine

A brief history of wine including wine making instructions and recipes.

by Susan Clemente
Let your boat of life be light, packed with only what you

need - a homely home and simple pleasures, one or two

friends, worth the name, someone to love and someone

to love you, a cat, a dog, and a pipe or two, enough to

eat and enough to wear, and a little more than enough

to drink; for thirst is a dangerous thing.

Jerome K. Jerome
Three Men in a Boat
table of contents

preface 4

1 introduction to wine
+ steps in winemaking 5-6
+ history 7-10
+ major producers 11-12
+ wine classifications 13-14
+ wine grape varieties 15-16
+ climate 17-18
+ agricultural techniques. 19
+ review 20

2 before you begin


+ important information 22
+ about your equipment 23-24
+ using your hydrometer 25
+ review 26

3 making wine from a kit


+ wine kit ingredients 28
+ stages in wine making
- primary fermentation 29
- secondary fermentation 30
- stabilizing and clearing 31
- clarifying 32
- bottling and corking 33
+ review 34

4 advanced wine making


+ making wine with fresh fruit 36
+ fruit preparation 37
+ adjusting the acid content 38
+ red wine recipe 39-40
+ white wine recipe 41-42
+ review 43
+ closing 44

wine log 44-45

2
preface

As a beginning home wine maker, I searched many bookstores


for a book which was concise and easy to understand. A manual
entitled, “Winemaking for Dummies”, would have been ideal,

}
however such a book does not yet exist. Most books were too
advanced, too technical or contained information that was unnec-
essary for the beginning winemaker. The consequence of my frus-
tration is that I have created a manual that would explain wine in
the simplest. This manual is divided into the four sections. Wine comes in at
Section 1, an introduction to wine, explains to you the back- the mouth And
ground of wine, giving you a general understanding of the
history of making wine from the vineyard to the winery. love comes in at
Section 2, before you begin, includes basic information for you
the eye; That's all
need to learn before you begin making wine. It is necessary for we shall know for
you to understand this information before beginning your efforts.
A solid understanding of wine terms, equipment and hydrometer
truth Before we
use will make your task much easier. grow old and die.
Section 3, making wine from a kit, includes important safety I lift the glass to
information, ingredients and the stages in wine making. my mouth, I look
Section 4, making wine from fresh fruit, discusses advanced wine at you, and sigh.
making techniques, including several recipes for making wine
making from fresh grapes. This section will help you become a - William Butler Yeats

{
successful advanced wine maker.

Making your own wine at home can be made easy by using my


clear instructions. As a result of making your own wine, you will
be rewarded for your efforts with great taste, and economy .

4
1 | introduction to wine |

Section one is particularly important especially if you have no


winemaking background. This section includes general information
regarding winemaking, history, major producers, wine classifica-
tions, wine grape varieties, climate and agricultural techniques.
This information may also enable you to be a more effective
wine consumer.
Wine is the fermented juice of grapes. The grape species, Vitis
{ } vinifera, is used for most wine production worldwide. As many as
4,000 varieties of grapes have been developed from this species.
These varieties differ slightly from one another in size, color, berry
wine, noun, shape, sugar content, ripening time, and disease resistance. Only
about a dozen of Vitis vinifera variety are commonly used for wine
the fermented juice of
making around the world. The main varieties include: Riesling,
grapes, made in many
Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Gewurztraminer,
varieties, such as red, white,
Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscat.
sweet, dry, still, and
sparkling, for use as a
Steps in Winemaking
beverage, in cooking, and
in religious rites, usually
having an alcoholic content All wines are similarly produced regardless of the wine type.
of 14 percent or less. The main steps in wine making are:

1
harvesting
3juice
5
fermentation
7
aging

2
crushing
4
separation
6
clarification
8
bottling

NOTE: When using a wine kit, steps one through four have already been prepared for you.

At the vineyard the grapes are harvested, crushed and the


stems are removed. Adding sulfur dioxide or rapidly heating
the juice which is also called must, suppresses the growth of
wild yeast, mold and other naturally occurring organisms.

separated from the skins to avoid getting skin pigmentation


Depending on the type of wine, the inner pulp may be

into the juice. In red-wine production, the skins, seeds, and


juice are fermented together. In white wine production, skins
and seeds are removed to achieve a lighter color and flavor.

To aid in fermentation, wine yeast is added to convert the


sugars to alcohol. Fermentation takes place in large vats,
from which air is excluded to prevent oxidation and
discourage the growth of bacteria.

5
The fermentation process can take from ten to thirty
days. During this process, controlling the wines tem-
perature is necessary to promote yeast growth and
to extract the flavors and colors from the skins. The
best temperature for yeast growth is about 70o-80o
for red wines and lower temperatures are required
for white wines, about 55o-65o F. A severe change
in temperature can kill the yeast and ruin the wine.

ment, this is called clarification or racking. In racking the


Following fermentation, the wine is separated from the sedi-

wine, it is moved from one container to another to remove


the suspended particles through filtering. Some wines deposit
their sediment quickly, but other wines remain cloudy for
longer periods. When home brewing, racking or clarification
is performed when there are fresh deposits on the bottom of
the vessel. This can take place at thirty to sixty day intervals.
When the wine is sediment free, it is ready for bottling.

Wine is usually aged in wooden barrels made of oak or


redwood. The process allows oxygen to enter and water
and alcohol to escape as acidity decreases. Additional clarifi-
cation takes place in the barrel, where the wine flavor and
aroma is enhanced. The barrel wood itself also contributes
flavor of your wine. The wood-aging process may last many
months or several years, depending on the variety.

Before bottling, wine may require blending, filtration, and


the addition of an antiseptic agent to prevent microbe devel-
opment. Some wines are aged in bottles before being sold.
Red wine flavors are enhanced with anywhere from two
to twenty years of aging, depending on the variety.

Other wine varieties


Wine is also made from other fruits, vegetables or grains.
For example, fermented apple cider is considered a wine.
Perry is produced from pears. There are also cherry and
plum wines as well as wines made from various berries.
Fruit wines contain about 12 percent alcohol.

6
1 | introduction to wine | histor y

mid east origins


Wine is a natural phase of grape spoilage and was discovered
{} "Good wine is a good
familiar creature if
it be well used".
by accident. The earliest scientific evidence of grapes were 60-
million-year-old fossilized vines. Evidence found in archaeologi-
cal sites suggested that wine production occurred in Georgia
and Iran, between 6000 to 5000 BC.

Egyptian records dating from 2500 BC refer to using grapes


for wine making. Frequent references to wine in the Old
- Shakespeare Testament indacate the first wines originated in the Middle East.
Egyptians developed the first arbors and pruning methods.
Archeological excavations have uncovered many sites with
buried jars, which indicated that inhabitants appeared to
have been aware of the effects of temperature on stored wine.

greco roman origins


Wine was also used by early Minoan, Greek, and Etruscan
civilizations. Wine was introduced to Europe by the Greeks
around 1600 B.C. Greek merchants and doctors appear to
have been the first to distribute wine. The Greeks were first
vintners to add herbs and spices to wine to mask spoilage.

About 1000 BC, the start of viticulture in Western Europe


was mainly due to the Romans’ influence. They began classify-
ing grape varieties and colors, observing and charting ripening
characteristics, identifying diseases, and recognizing soil-type
preferences. Also, Romans became skilled pruners and began
using irrigation and fertilization to increase grape yields.

A Roman invention, the wooden barrel, was a great advance-


ment for wine storage and aging. Wine had previously been
fermented in skins or jars. And as glassblowing became more
common during this era, Romans may also have been the
first to use glass bottles for storage.

In medieval Europe, the Christian


Church was a staunch economic
supporter of wine which was neces-
sary for the celebration of the
Catholic Mass that helped maintain
the industry after the fall of the
Roman Empire. In places such as
Germany, beer was banned and
considered pagan while wine consumption was viewed as
civilized and a sign of religious conversion.
These amphorae, reconstructed and replaced where they
fell, probably held olive oil, wine, or fish sauce.

7
The Romans carried wine making into much of Western Europe,
especially the Moselle valley in France, the Rhine valley in
Germany and the Danube River valley of Austria. Grape cultiva-
tion was transported from the Old World to Mexico, South
America, South Africa, Australia, and California, following the
voyages of explorers. Today wine is produced on all continents.

economics and politics


In places such as Germany,
beer was banned and con-
By the first century AD, wine was being exported from Italy to
Spain, Germany, England and France. Shortly thereafter, these
sidered pagan while wine
regions began developing their own vineyards until the Roman consumption was viewed as
Emperor forbid the import of French wines to eliminate the civilized and a sign
competition with local wines. Over the next few centuries,
of religious conversion.
France became the dominant world producer of wines. Monastic
wineries were responsible for establishing vineyards in
Burgundy, Champagne, and the Rhine Valley. Sacramental
usage preserved wine industry methods and traditions
through the dark ages.

Wine was brought to Mexico, Argentina and South Africa in


the 1500s and 1600s due to exploration, conquests and new
settlements. During this period, there were many attempts to
plant European vines along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of
North America and in the Mississippi River basin valley.

Unfortunately none of the Mississippi valley plantings were


successful. Each newly planted vineyard died off within
two or three seasons due to phylloxera. Phylloxera, a
fungus which invaded the roots and leaves of the plantings.
Phylloxera was indigenous to the Mississippi River Valley
but was unknown outside North America at that time.
Later this fungus migrated to Europe causing wide-
spread crop failure.

8
1 | introduction to wine | histor y

California
As was the case in Europe, California vineyards survived under the

Father Juniper Serra planted the first California vineyard at the


backing of the Catholic Church. In 1769, Franciscan missionary

Mission in San Diego. During his lifetime, Father Serra established


{ }Vinification is the
eight more missions and vineyards. He has been called the "Father
of California Wine". The variety of grapes he planted, probably
descended from Mexican plantings that became known as the
Mission grape which dominated California wine production
until about 1880.
process of wine
Los Angeles in 1833 by Jean-Louis Vignes. In the 1850s and '60s,
production, from The first documented imported European vines were planted in

Agoston Harazsthy, the Founder of the California Wine Industry,


the selection of grapes
to the bottling of made many trips to the finest vineyards in Europe to gather cuttings
finished wine. to transplant in California. His venture was primarily at his own
expense, but some funding came from California State grants. He
founded Buena Vista Winery and promoted the spread of vineyards
over much of Northern California. He innovated the use of caves
for cellars and promoted hillside planting, fostered the idea of non-
irrigated vineyards and suggested redwood for casks when
oak supplies were low.
In 1879 Captain Gustave Niebaum established Inglenook Winery
in Rutherford, California in Napa County. It was the first Bordeaux
style vineyard in the United States. Captain Niebaum's wines became
known throughout the world. In 1889, his Inglenook wines won
several gold medals at the World's Fair in Paris.
The wine industry in the United States was flourishing during the
period when the Europeans were contending with phylloxera. By
1900, United States had a fully developed commercial wine produc-
ing industry. Many California wines received medals in European
competitions. This resulted in barrels of California wines were being
regularly exported to Australia, Canada, Central America, England,
Germany, Mexico and the Orient.
André Tchelistcheff is credited with creating the mod-
ern era of winemaking in California. He introduced
several new techniques, such as aging wine in small
French Oak barrels, cold fermentation, and vineyard
frost prevention.
Andre’s brother Timothy Tchelistcheff, a former science teacher was a
member of Congregation of Christian Brothers. He was also active in
the creation of the modern wine industry. In 1935, he became the
wine chemist for the order's expanding wine operations at Mont La
Salle located west of Napa. The Christian Brothers grew grapes and
produced sacramental wine in Benicia, California during Prohibition.

9
Following the repeal of Prohibition, they
branched out into the commercial production
of wine and brandy and established Christian
Brothers as one of the leading brands in the
state's budding wine industry.
In 1965, Robert Mondavi broke away from his family's Charles Krug
estate and founded his own winery in Oakville, California. This was
the first new large-scale winery to be established in the valley since
before prohibition. The number of wineries in the valley continued to
grow following The Mondavi estate, as did the region's reputation.

with marketing. Frank Schoonmaker, a prominent journalist and wine


California wine makers were producing quality wines but had difficulty

writer of the 1950s introduced labeling wines using varietal names

from European regions such as Burgundy, Chablis,and Rhine. Robert


such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Riesling, rather than names borrowed

Mondavi was one of the first winemakers to label his wines using
varietal names.
By the early 1970s, the quality of California vintners' wines were
outstanding. On May 24, 1976, a blind tasting was held in Paris with
an exclusive panel of French wine experts. After comparing six
California Chardonnays with four French Chardonnays, three of the
top four were California wines. All nine judges ranked Chateau
Montelena as the highest; Chalone Vineyard came in third and Spring
Mountain Vineyard fourth. When reds were evaluated, Stag's Leap
Wine Cellars were ranked number one. This competition focused on
wines from the Napa Valley. The red wines evaluated in 1976 were
retasted in two separate blind tasting (the French Culinary Institute
Wine Tasting of 1986 and the Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of
1986). In all retasting, a California red came in first, while the
French reds lost their rankings.
In Oz Clarke's, “New Encyclopedia of Wine”, he stated that
California "was the catalyst and then the locomotive for change that
finally pried open the ancient European wineland's rigid grip on the
hierarchy of quality wine and led the way in proving that there are
hundreds if not thousands of places around the world where good
to great wine can be made." He observed that "until the exploits of
California's modern pioneers of the 1960's and '70's, no-one had
ever before challenged the right of Europe's, and in particular,
France's vineyards, to be regarded as the only source of great wine
in the world."
Backed by continuing research, California vintners continue to
innovate to further enhance the quality of their products.

10
1 | introduction to wine | major producers

The top producing nations include France, Italy, Spain, and the
United States. California produces about 90% of the wine in
the United States.

France
France is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in Europe.
Regions in the south were licensed by the Roman Empire to
produce wines. Saint Martin of Tours promoted both spreading
Christianity and planting vineyards. During the Middle Ages,
monks maintained vineyards and held the wine making secrets.
Monasteries had the resources to produce a steady supply of
wine both for celebrating mass and generating income. During
this time, the best vineyards were owned by the monasteries
and their wines were superior. Over time, the nobility acquired
extensive vineyards. However, the French Revolution led to the
confiscation of many of the vineyards owned by the Church
and private owners.

Until about 1850 the majority of wine in France was consumed


locally. People in Paris drank wine from the local vineyards,
for example, people in Bordeaux drank Bordeaux, those in
Burgundy drank Burgundy, and so on. The advancement of
the transportation systems with the spread of railroads and the
improvement of roads, reduced shipping costs and dramatically
increased commercialization.

France now produces the most wine by value in the world.


Bordeaux wine, Bourgogne wine and Champagne are France’s
most important agricultural products.

Italy
Wine is a the most popular beverage in Italy. Italy is the second
largest wine producer in the world. Many Italians drink wine
with every meal and in-between. Grapes are grown in almost
every part of Italy, with more than one million vineyards under
cultivation. Each region is proud of its carefully tended, neatly
pruned vines. In some areas, the vines are trained along low
supports. In others they climb as slender saplings. The people
of each region are intensely proud of the wine they produce
from their grapes.

Most winemaking in Italy is done in modern


wineries, but villagers make wine for their own
use. Villagers sometimes tread on the grapes
with their bare feet to squeezed out the juice.

11
They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine.

The most familiar Italian wine is the Tuscan Chianti, a red


moderately dry table wine. Italy's better products are the
reds, Barolo and Valpolicella, and the dry white Soave.

Italian wines tend to be acidic, dry and light-to-medium bodied,


subdued in flavor and aroma. Because of these characteristics,
Italian wines are believed to be a better accompaniment with
food than wines from other countries.

Spain
Spain is the third largest producer of wine in the world.
Historically, Spain is known for the production of Sherry a
fortified wine, which is produced in the region surrounding Jerez
de,la Frontera. Other wine regions well known outside of Spain
include: Rioja, Ribera del Duero, Priorato, Cava and Penedès.

The most popular Spanish region is Rioja, a fertile area in the


upper Ebro Valley. Spanish law permits the use of four red grape
varieties in Rioja. The primary grape is Tempranillo, followed by
Garnache , Graciano and Mazuelo.The wine types are catego-
rized by age, for instance Crianza wines are aged for two
years, Reservas are aged three years, and Gran Reservas are
aged minimum of five years.

The United States


The United States is sixth in wine production with nine tenths
of North American wines coming from California. Wines
of good quality are also produced in New York, Ohio, the
Pacific Northwest, and other areas. California's best wines
are Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinor Noir and Zinfandel.

The California wine industry has grown rapidly since the


1970’s, partly through the efforts of the viticultural
research program established at the Davis branch of the
University of California. This program has enabled vast
improvements in wine making technology, from vine
growth through fermentation and bottling.

The wine regions of California include 12 counties, the


most famous of which is Napa. These regions produce
more wine varieties than any other region.

12
1 | introduction to wine | wine classifications

Wine experts classify wine into five major categories, with the
distinction based on major differences in vinification. The primary
wine categories are table wines, fortified wines, sparkling wines,
desert wines and cooking wines. This classification depends on the
technique of production, called vivification.

Table Wines
Table wines come in three basic colors: white, red, or rose.
They range in taste from sweet to very dry, without being bitter.
Alcohol content varies from 7 to 15 percent. Table wines
account for the bulk of the wine production throughout the
world.It is both plentiful and economical.

Fortified wines
Wines receiving an extra dosage of alcohol during production,
usually with a grape brandy, are called fortified wines. The
alcohol content of fortified wines is higher than that of table
wines, ranging from 14 to 23 percent. The colors of fortified
wines range from white, amber, bright red, or dark red.

Sherry is the best known and most popular of the fortified


wines. Sherry has unique qualities that come from the
soil, grapes and a different vivification process. The
flavor of sherry ranges from very sweet to very dry,
with several intermediate varieties.

Other fortified wines include Madeira, Marsala,


Malaga, Port, and certain aromatic wines. Vermouth
is an aromatic wine to which herbs have been added.
An aperitif is consumed before meals and is consid-
ered an aromatic. An aromatic is made by adding
quinine and other ingredients to heavy, sweet wines.
They are marketed under brand names, such as
Dubonne and Campari. After-dinner drinks are
called digestif.

13
Sparkling wines
Sparkling wines are usually white, but may be red or rose, and
have an alcohol content similar to table wines. An excess of
carbon dioxide causes the effervescence or bubbly quality of
sparkling wines. Carbon dioxide is produced in the fermentation
of all wines, but sparkling wines go through a double fermenta-

{ }
tion, the second of which takes place in the bottle. Sugar and
yeast are added to the bottle before the second fermentation,
to produce carbon dioxide, to build up the pressure inside the
bottle. Champagne's are blends of wine from different grapes. a recent study
Each producer has his own recipe to yield a desired blend. has found that
The best-known sparkling wine is champagne, named for the inexpensive wines
region of France where it was first made in the 18th century by work as well as
a Benedictine monk named Dom Pierre Perignon. expensive wine
Asti Spumante is an Italian sparkling wine.
in cooking.

Desert Wines
Desert wines range from slightly to incredibly
sweet. Late harvest wines such as Spätlese
from Germany are made from over ripe
grapes. Recioto and Vin Santo from Italy,
are made from grapes that have been partial-
ly raisined after harvesting. Botrytized wines are made from
grapes infected by the mold Botrytis cinerea or noble rot. These
include Sauternes from Bordeaux, Numerous wines from Loire
such as Bonnezeaux and Quarts de Chaume, Tokaji Aszú from
Hungary, and Beerenauslese from Germany and Austria.
Eiswein is made
from grapes that are harvested while frozen.

Cooking Wines
Cooking wines typically contain a significant quantity of salt
and are of such poor quality that it is unpalatable by itself and
intended only for cooking. However, most cooking authorities
advise against using any wine one would find unacceptable
to drink. Contrarily, a recent study has found that inexpensive
wines work as well as expensive wine in cooking.

14
1 | introduction to wine | wine grape varieties

Wine grape varieties


Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the
European species, Vitis vinifera. Grape varieties of Vitis
vinifera have a great range of composition; the skin pigment
colors vary from greenish yellow to russet, pink, red, reddish
violet, or blue-black. The color of red wine comes from the
skin, not the juice. The juice is normally colorless, though
some varieties have a pink to red color. Juice flavors vary
from bland to strong.
{ }
Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European
Vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American
species rootstock. This is a common practice developed
Viticulture because North American grape species are resistant to
(from the Latin word for vine) phylloxera. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country
refers to the cultiva- of the World except for Chile and Argentina, which have yet
to be exposed to phylloxera.
tion of grapes, often
for use in the The quality of the vineyards is determined by a complex
interaction of numerous ecological factors; namely, grape
production of wine. variety, elevation, and topography, soil type and chemistry,
and the climate and seasonal conditions. The broad range
of factors lead to great variety of quality and flavor in wine
products. Quality and flavored are enhanced by the fermenta-
tion, finishing, and aging processes. Many small producers
use growing and production methods that preserve or
accentuate both the aroma and taste of the wine.

Grape vines can be grown in a wide variety of soil types


and climactic conditions. They are a hardy plant and are
usually grown from cuttings. To successfully
grow a vine involves the construction
of a trellis system, irrigation, soil
amending, planting, training to the
trellis, removal of buds and leaves
from the trunk, weed control,
pruning, pest and disease
control, and harvesting .

Vines can be grown on their own


roots or grafted to another variety's
root system (rootstock). Rootstock are
chosen for their ability to be tolerant or resistant
to moisture, drought, disease, pests or any variety of potential
problems.

15
Winter brings dormancy to the vines and at this stage they
can be pruned to increase vine productivity. The fruitfulness of

}
the vine is determined in the previous growing season and the
number of potential bunches is related to the number of buds
left after pruning.

Shortly after the spring budburst, groups of flowers are pro- Vêraison is a French
duced and the fruit clusters develop from these groups. The term, but has been
grape berry is made up of pulp, seeds and skin that has a
thin, waxy layer containing millions of native yeast cells.
adopted into the
As the berries grow they are hard and contain mainly grape
English literature
acids (malic and tartaric acids). As the grapes ripen they start on viticulture. The
to soften and change color and the sugar, flavor and water
official definition of
contents increase and acids decline. This is called vêraison.
Vêraison is "change
At this stage the major components of the grape berry are:
of color of the grape
• Water (70-85%)
berries." Vêraison
• Carbohydrates - Glucose and fructose
signifies the change
• Alcohols - There may be trace
amounts in damaged or botrytis- from berry growth to
affected fruits
berry ripening in
• Acids - Tartaric and malic acids are the major acids present. Trace
grapevines.
amounts of citric, lactic, succinic and acetic acid are present.

Harvest is determined by the winemaker taking into considera-


tion the variety of wine to be made. The acid content is not a
major concern as this can be added to the wine, usually in
the form of tartaric acid. The main determinant is color, flavor
and sugar level. Neutral juice of low color and sugar will not
produce an interesting wine. Grapes are harvested either
by hand or mechanically.
{
16
1 | introduction to wine | climate

The quality of wine is directly related to soil type, topography, and


climate as well as the variety of grapes. Changes in weather pat-
terns from year to year also influence the quality of a vintage. In
addition, each community of wine makers may have secret tech-
niques that makes their wine different from all the others.
The experienced winemaker spends most of his/her time in the
vineyard. The care of the grapes can greatly influence the final
product. Careful attention is given both to climate and soil condi-
tions before planting vines. Particular varieties excel only in certain
climates and under specific soil conditions.

Climate
Different types of grapes flourish in different regions and each
regions climate and soil conditions greatly affect the quality
of the grapes. At the University of California Davis, viticulture
researchers divided California into 5 regions according to the
number of degree days. Degree days are a way of measuring
the cumulative amount of heat absorbed by the plants. The
number of degree days required by a vineyard varies with the
type of variety grown. The primary purpose of this system is
to give grape growers a accurate estimate of when they can
begin to harvest the grapes. Below is a table that describes
the characteristics of wine depending on warm or cool
climates.

WARM CLIMATES COOL CLIMATES


wine characteristics

high sugar low sugar


low acidity high acidity
low color high color
low flavor high flavor
high yields low yield

17
Soil
The soil type is extremely important as it supports the vine and
acts as a reservoir for holding nutrients and water. The water
holding capacity of the soil strongly affects the final flavor of
the wine.

Propagation
Vines are typically purchased from nurseries where they have
already been grafted to prevent phylloxera infestation. New
vines typically do not produce significant yields of fruit until the
3rd or 4th year. The vines typically have a useful life of approx-
imately 20 years.

Har vest
The vine cycle depends largely
upon the regional climate. The vine
cycle in California begins around
April 1st when new shoots elon-
gate. During April and May, the
vine flowers appear. Around May
15th, tiny berries begin to grow but
remain green until mid July. As
vêraison begins, the berries begin
to develop color and to soften. The
fruit is usually harvested around the
middle of September. However, the
harvest date is largely dependent
upon the variety, the location, and the regional climate.

Before the wine grapes are harvested, the amount of sugar in


the grape must be measured. There are two common methods
for measuring the sugar content. The refractometer measures
the refraction of light through the juice whereas the a hydrome-
ter measures the density of the juice. Both measures provide
indirect estimates of sugar content. Once the sugar content is
measured, the wine maker can estimate the alcohol concentra-
tion of the finished product. These methods have been devel-
oped to aid in determining the harvest schedule to obtain the
best possible grape.

18
1 | introduction to wine | agricultural techniques

biodynamic farming
Biodynamics is an organic farming system based on the teach-
ings of Rudolf Steiner in 1924. Steiner believed that the intro-
duction of chemical farming was a major problem and was
convinced that the quality of food was degraded and he
believed the sources of the problem were both artificial fertiliz-
ers and pesticides. However, he did not believe this was only
because of the chemical or biological properties, but also due
to spiritual shortcomings in the chemical approach to farming.
Steiner considered the world and everything in it as simultane-
ously spiritual and material in nature.

The term biodynamic was coined by Steiner's followers. A


central aspect of biodynamics is that the farm as a whole an
organism, and therefore should be a closed self-nourishing sys-
tem. The astrological calender is used to determine times of
planting and harvesting.

In field preparations, inorganic or mineral fertilizers are not


allowed. For example, to prepare the fields for
stimulating humus formation includes filling the
horn of a cow with a cow manure mixture and
burying in the autumn. The horn is left to
“Watusi Cattle, not chemicals fertilize California decompose during the winter and recovered
vineyard. As wineries change course drinkers are
the following autumn. The manure mixture is
paying attention.”
then removed from the horns and spread onto
-jim wilson, new york times the fields as fertilizer.

difference between organic and biodynamic


Any biodynamic produce is also organic and biodynamic
farm operates the same as an organic farm using no pesti-
cides, or herbicide. However, there are various agricultural
methods which are unique to biodynamic farming such as
field preparations, compost preparations, uses an astrological
calender to determine planting and harvesting times, and bio-
dynamic produce is certified by Demeter and can be certified
by an organic as well.

19
1 | introduction to wine | review

In section one you learned about beginning wine making as it


will expanded your knowledge of winemaking, history, major
producers, wine classifications, wine grape varieties, climate
and agricultural techniques. This information may also enable
you to be a more effective wine consumer.
Shown below are a eight questions for you to answer, to
reinforce the concepts and facts you have learned.

Self review questions.

1. Major wine producing countries are?


__________________, __________________, __________________,
__________________,

2. What is the major wine producing state in the united states?


___________________,

3. Five types are wine are?___________________, _________________,


___________________, __________________, __________________.

4. This main grape variety is_________________.

5. The optimum harvest schedule is based on_______________.

6. Beer drinking germans were considered________________.

7. What are two types of farming systems? ___________,____________

8. Wine does not cause intoxication?


True or False

Organic 8) False, no really... true!


Muscat 4) Vitis vinifera 5) Region and climate 6) Pagan 7) Biodynamic and
Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc,
Answers: 1) France, Italy, Spain, United States. 2) California 3) Riesling,

20
2 | before you begin | important information

Now that you have covered section one, section two should be more
interesting for you. In this section you will learn the essentials of wine
making beginning with sanitizing your equipment, the use of each
piece of equipment will be highlighted for you. If you think you can
forget this step, you will waste a lot of time and money and end up
with six gallons of vinegar.
One six gallon batch of wine yields 30 bottles. Again, the wine can
take as little as 30 days to produce, but it is recommend to wait a
minimum of three to six months to achieve a better tasting wine.

important information
Please read all instructions before starting.
• Clean all of your equipment with an unscented winemaking detergent
and rinse thoroughly with hot water to remove all residues.

• Sanitize your equipment by rinsing it with a solution of metabisulphite.


Dissolve 3 tablespoons of metabisulphite powder in one gallon of cool
water. Dip or spray your equipment with this solution and rinse thoroughly.
Every piece of equipment must be treated with sulphide. Leftover solution
can be stored in a tightly sealed container for several months.

• Please use good quality drinking water with this kit. If you’re not sure of
your water quality, consider using bottled water. Deposits and calcium
content in household water can negatively affect your wine.

• The starting temperature of your wine is critical. Before adding the yeast,
double check that the juice temperature is between 65-75°F.If the yeast
is added to a kit that is too cold, it will not ferment or clear on schedule.

• When transferring your wine to the carboy it is recommend to get a partner. Equipment List:
When bottling your wine have at least two partners. Also, the final bottling
stage can get messy so have plenty of rags at hand for clean up. a. 7.5 gallon plastic fermented
b. 6 gallon glass carboy
NOTE: Please remember to remove the code number sticker from the wine box top and
c. airlock
attach it to your wine log on page 45. Also, fill out the wine log when starting d. stoppers for fermented
your batch of wine. Keeping track of this information will help identify any e hydrometer
problems you may have in making your wine. f. wine thief
g. auto siphon
h. racking tube
h. 5 feet of siphon tubing
i. bottle filler
j. digital thermometer
k 30 corks
l. 30 bottles
m. easy clean No-Rinse Cleanser
n. long stirring spoon
o. measuring cup and spoons

22
2 | before you begin | understanding your equipment

a a. 7.5 gallon plastic fermentor


The primary fermentation vessel holds seven and a half
gallons (when only 6 gallons of wine are produced). During
fermentation the wine needs room to foam. Any food grade
container with a lid will work. Attach a bung and an airlock at
the beginning of the fermentation, (see c. and d. below).

NOTE: The first fermentation stage is about 5-7 days.


c

b. 6 gallon glass carboy


d
The glass carboy is used for the secondary fermentation
process. An advantage of using glass is you can view
the fermentation process. The carboy must be fitted with
a bung and an airlock, (see c. and d. below).

NOTE: The second fermentation stage is about 10 days.

c. airlock
An airlock is a device which holds a sulphide solution.
This is where fermentation gasses pass out of the carboy.
b The airlock is fitted into a rubber bung which sits in the
neck of the carboy. Fill the airlock approximately half
way with water.

d. carboy bung
c The bung is the plug that is inserted into the carboy and works
with the airlock.

e. hydrometer
d

A hydrometer measures alcohol content which allows you


to keep track of the fermentation progress. Alcohol content
is determined by taking by taking readings before and after
fermentation and comparing them. Also, the hydrometer is
used to verify when your batch is ready to bottle.

NOTE: Additional hydrometer instructions on page 28.


e

23
f. wine thief
The wine thief allows you to take a hydrometer reading from
the fermentor with no siphoning or pouring.

Submerge the tube of the wine thief into the wine, fill and lift f
it out. A one-way valve will automatically lock your sample in
the tube. Next, float the hydrometer inside the tube for a read-
ing. When you are finished just depress the wine thief relief
valve against the side of the fermentor to return the sample.

g. auto siphon & hose


The auto siphon easily starts the transfer of wine into another g
vessel.

Attach the racking tube to the auto siphon, then insert one
end into the carboy and pump the handle a couple of strokes.
The siphon begins and wine flows to the other vessel. This
plunger action forces the liquid upward through the inner tube
and into your attached siphon hose. Requires 3/8 inch by five
foot vinyl siphon hose.
h
h. bottle filler
Filling your bottles is easier with the bottle filler. The plastic
bottle filler is a clear shaft with an automatic foot-valve on
the bottom end for quick and easy shut-off between bottles.

Attach the 3/8 inch siphon tubing to the top, depress the
spring-loaded foot-valve against the bottom of the bottle
and start filling. When your bottle is full the bottle filler
stops automatically with just enough room for cork space.
i

i. digital thermometer
Temperature control is critical to the wine making process.
During the fermentation process you need to maintain the
j
temperature between 65-75°F. Please keep accurate records
in your wine log.

j. corker
The plastic corker is an inexpensive way to cork your bottles.

Place cork into the plastic plunger corker, fit over the top of
wine bottle and finally push the cork in.

24
2 | before you begin | using your hydrometer

The hydrometer is used to take measurements of specific gravity


indicating the potential sugar content in wine. This is important to
winemakers because the readings will indicate when the fermentation
has complete. A hydrometer should be used in conjunction with a
thermometer, since the specific gravity of the liquid depends upon
temperature. Both the wine thief and test cylinder (diagram 1 & 2)
can be used to take these measurements.

how a hydrometer works


An easy way to explain how a hydrometer works is with illustrations.
See diagram 1, which represents a test cylinder full of wine before
the yeast is added.
At this point the hydrometer is floating relatively high because the
liquid is heavy with sugar causing the hydrometer to be elevated.
As the yeast turns the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide, the
hydrometer descends because wine becomes lighter (alcohol weighs
less per unit volume than water). Diagram 2, represents a wine that
has fermented and is lighter than water.

how to use the hydrometer


It's easy to use the hydrometer; just follow these simple steps:
diagram 1 diagram 2
1. Sanitize the hydrometer, wine thief, and test cylinder using a
sulphite solution.
2. Draw a sample of wine using the wine thief - avoid testing samples
that contain solid particles as this will distort the results.
3. Fill the wine thief or test cylinder with enough liquid to float the
hydrometer - about 80% full.
4. Gently lower the hydrometer into the test cylinder or wine thief and
spin the hydrometer as you release it so no air bubbles stick to the
bottom of the hydrometer which can distort readings.
5. Be sure the hydrometer doesn’t touch the sides of the test cylinder
but floats freely. Read across the bottom of the meniscus.
See diagram 3.
The specific gravity range for white wines, regardless of the fruit used, is
between 1.070 and 1.085. The specific gravity range for red wines are
between 1.080 and 1.095.

NOTE: Always be sure to take good records of your readings and record them
diagram 3
in your wine log

25
2 | before you begin | review

Now that you have covered section two, you have learned the
essentials of wine making beginning with sanitizing your equipment.
You have become familiar with the equipment you will use for
making your wine. Now you know not to make a batch of vinegar.
Shown below are a seven questions for you to answer, to
reinforce the concepts and facts you have learned.

Self review questions.


1. What agent is used for sanitation? ________________________________

2. Why is sanitation so important for your winemaking?


_______________________________________________________________

3. How often do you sanitize your equipment?


_______________________________________________________________

4. Its alright to use any type of water?


_______________________________________________________________

5. A hydrometer measures ________________________________?

6. A hydrometer floats low when the juice has a high sugar content?
True or False

7. A digital thermometer gives analog reading?


True or False.

potential alcohol content. 6) False 7) False


water with low mineral content can be used as well. 5) The hydrometer measures
batch. 3) Every time you use it. 4) Spring water is preferred, however boiled tap
Answers: 1) metabisulphite 2) Bacteria can get into the wine and spoil and entire

26
3 | making your wine | wine kit ingredients

Now that you have covered section two, you can make some
wine. In this section you will learn about the contents of your
wine kit, the various fermentation stages and how to process
the juice in each phase. Finally you will bottle your wine.
Your wine kit includes a juice bag, packet of yeast, bentonite,
metabisulphite, sorbate and a fining agent.

juice bag
The juice bag contains pure varietal grape juice and grape
concentrate. All acids, pH, sugars, and tannin levels are perfectly
balanced, therefore no additional testing is required, except
hydrometer readings.

yeast
Yeast is a fungus. There are thousands of different types of
yeasts. The type most useful to wine making is the strain of sac-
charomyces cervisiae. Some recommended high quality wine
yeasts include both Lalvin and Red Star. Do not use bread yeast
since it is designed to provide CO2 for raising bread. Good wine
yeasts are sulphur tolerant.

bentonite
Bentonite is a refined clay sold as a powder and course gran-
ules. It is added directly to the juice in the first fermentation
stage. Bentonite is also valuable because it provides a nucleus in
wine in which CO2 gas can form to aid in fermentation.

metabisulphite
This sulphite is essential in winemaking for sterilizing equipment
and as a wine preservative.

sorbate
Sorbate is a chemical that stabilizes wine by inhibiting the activi-
ty or growth of yeast. Be careful when measuring and adding
sorbate to your wine. Add 1/2 teaspoon per gallon of wine. If
inefficient sorbate is added to the wine it may begin to re-fer-
ment, and if too much sorbate is added you will taste this chemi-
cal. Bacteria can react with sorbate if to much is added, produc-
ing a strong odor of geranium which will ruin your wine.

fining agent
Finings work either by sticking to particles making them heavy
enough to sink or causing particles to stick to each other by mak-
ing them settle to the bottom of the carboy.

28
3 | making your wine | primar y fermentation

primar y fermentation (5-7 days)


Ensure that your primary fermentor is capable of holding at
least 8 gallons. Pre-mark the primary fermentor at 6 gallons.
Draw a line with a permanent marker on the fermentor at the
water level. This will be your fill level. Be sure to perform this
step or the wine may become too thin.

Clean and sanitize the primary fermentor and lid, spoon, ther-
mometer, hydrometer and test cylinder or wine thief. Rinsing
is not necessary if you are using Easy Clean.

1. Add one-half gallon of hot water to the bottom of the sani-


tized primary fermentor. Stir the water vigorously then slow-
ly sprinkle the contents of bentonite package(s) onto the sur-
face. Stir for 30 seconds for even dispersal and to break
up any clumps.

2. Grasp the neck of the large juice bag firmly, carefully


remove the cap, and pour the contents into the primary fer-
mentor.Add a half gallon of warm water to the bag to rinse
out any remaining juice, then add it to the fermentor.

3. Top off the fermentor to the 6 gallon mark with cool water.
Next, stir vigorously for 30 seconds.

NOTE: Making the kit to a full 6 gallons is crucial to the functioning of the fining
agents and the stability of the finished wine. If any other volume is measured
the wine will not turn out correctly, and any problems you may experience
may not be solvable.

4. Draw a sample of the juice. Use your hydrometer and


test cylinder to check the specific gravity. It should read
between 1.070–1.085, depending on the wine type.

5. If your wine kit contains oak or elderflowers, sprinkle them


into the primary fermentor now. If your kit has more than
one package of oak, add them all. Stir them into the liquid.

6. Ensure that the temperature of the juice is maintained


between 65-75°F. Open the package of yeast and sprinkle
it onto the surface of the juice. Do not stir.

7. Cover the primary fermentor and place in an area with a


temperature of 65-75°F. Fermentation should start within
24-48 hours.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log.

29
3 | making your wine | secondar y fermentation

secondar y fermentation (7-10 days)


Clean and Sanitize siphon rod and hose, hydrometer and test
cylinder, wine thief, carboy, bung and airlocks. Rinse well.

After 5-7 days draw a sample of the juice and use your
hydrometer and to check the specific gravity. It should be
1.010 or less.

You must rack or transfer your wine into a 6 gallon carboy


at this time. If your gravity is not at or below this level, wait
(testing the gravity each day) until it is.

NOTE: The lower your fermentation temperature, the longer this stage will take.

1. You need a partner for this step. Put the primary fermentor
on a sturdy table at least three feet high.

2. Carefully siphon wine into a clean, sanitized 6 gallon car-


boy. Leave most of the sediment behind. This will leave a
space at the not top up at this stage. This space is required
for stirring during stabilizing.

3. Attach the airlock and bung to carboy. Fill the airlock


halfway with water.

4. Leave the carboy in fermentation area for another 10 days.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. See page 45.

30
3 | making your wine | stabilizing & clearing

stabilizing & clearing (14 days)


Clean and sanitize hydrometer, the test cylinder, wine thief
and spoon.
After 10 days, check the specific gravity of the wine. It should
be 0.996 or less. Verify a stable gravity by checking again
the next day. If the gravity has changed, repeat this step
everyday until the reading is stable.
Remember to verify this reading or your wine may not clear!
1. Do n o t rack the wine before stabilizing and clearing. The sedi-
ment must be stirred back into suspension. Racking the wine off
the sediment prior to fining will permanently prevent clearing.
Again, be sure to stir all of the sediment off the bottom.

2. Stirring vigorously during this stage is required. Use the opposite


end of the spoon for stirring. Without vigorous stirring the CO2
gas in the wine will prevent clearing. At each stirring, whip the
wine until it stops foaming.

3. Dissolve contents of metabisulphite and sorbate packets in one


half cup of cool water. Add to the carboy and stir very vigorously
for two minutes to disperse the stabilizers and expel the CO2.
Again, be sure to stir the yeast sediment from the bottom of the
carboy.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log.

31
3 | making your wine | clarifier

add clarifier
I. Remove two cups of wine from the carboy, to ensure space for the
clarifier. Reserve this juice for topping off the carboy later.

2. Shake the clarifier. Add the clarifier to the carboy using a measur-
ing cup with a spout. Stir vigorously for another two minutes to
drive off CO2 gas. Again, your wine may not clear if the stirring
is not vigorous.

3. Top off carboy two inches from the bottom of the bung. Use the
reserve wine or cool water to fill the airlock halfway. Wait 14
days or more to finish clarifying.

4. After the 14 days check your wine for clarity by drawing a small
sample into a wineglass and examining it in good light. If it is not
completely clear, allow another 7 days. Do not bottle cloudy wine
since it will not clear in the bottle. At this stage you can leave
your wine in the carboy for several months to age and develop
better flavor.

After 14 days, you are ready to proceed to bottling.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. See page 45.

32
3 | making your wine | bottling

bottling
Clean and Sanitize 30 wine bottles, siphon rod, hose and
siphon filler. Rinse each bottle well. Use at least two partners
for filling and bottling the wine. Be sure to have plenty of rags
at hand, bottling can be very messy.

NOTE: If you are concerned about disturbing the sediment on the bottom
of the carboy while bottling, clean and sanitize a primary fermentor
or carboy, rack the wine into it, and bottle from there.

To age the wine more than six months extra metabisulphite


must be added to prevent oxidation. Clean and sanitize a pri-
mary fermentor or carboy and rack the wine. Again, dissolve
1/4 teaspoon of potassium metabisulphite powder in 1/2 cup
cool water and gently stir it into wine. This extra sulphide will
not affect flavor.

1. Siphon your wine into clean, sanitized bottles.

2. Warm the corks in hot water before insertion into the bot-
tles. This will make the insertion with the plastic hand corker
much easier. Be sure to leave two finger-widths of space
between the bottom of the cork and the wine level in each
bottle.

3. Leave bottles upright for three days before laying them on


their sides to age. This allows the corks to seal properly.
Finally, store the bottles in a dark, cool, temperature-stable
area.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. See page 45.

Congratulations, you have finished making your batch of wine.


Your wine will be ready to drink in a minimum of three months.

33
3 | making your wine | review

Now you are ready to make some wine. In this section you will
learned about the contents of your wine kit, the various fermenta-
tion stages and how to process the juice in each phase. Finally
you will bottle your wine.

Shown below are a five questions for you to answer, to reinforce


the concepts and facts you have learned.

Self review questions.

1. Yeast is a __________________ agent?

2. How many days are required for primary fermentation?


______________ days
3. The specific gravity for red wine is?
4. Do not sanitize your equipment for secondary fermentation?
True or False
5. Your wine is ready to bottle when the specific gravity is
__________________ or less.

tap water with low mineral content can be used as well. 5) It should be 0.996 or less.
Answers: 1) rising 2) 5-7 days 3) 4) Spring water is preferred, however boiled

34
4 | advanced wine making | making wine from fresh fruit

Making wine from fresh grapes will be easy, that is assuming you
have already made wine from a kit and are familiar with the steps
in the process.
Creating your own wine from fresh grapes is gratifying. Early autumn

{ }
is the best time of the year to make your batch of wine because
grapes are at their peak ripeness.
You will have many varieties of grapes to choose from, depending
on where you live. The classic grape choice is the Vitis vinifera variety Thou shalt sanitize
and this wine-grape family includes such varieties such as and rinse...the wine-
Chardonnay, Merlot, Zinfandel and Cabernet Sauvignon. The Vitis
makers most important
vinifera variety, thrive in California and the Pacific Northwest as well
as from New York to the Great Lakes, and the Mid-Atlantic states. commandment...
If you live in damp, colder climates you may not be able to find Vitis Thou shalt include
vinifera grapes grown locally. Hybrid's such as Vitis labrusca grapes, your volunteers in
which are less susceptible to cold and disease, may be grow in your
area. Or you can order grapes through your local winemaking shop
tasting....
or a produce wholesaler.
Whatever variety of grapes you use the techniques, equipment and
ingredients are the same.

required additional equipment


You will need a few additional pieces of winemaking equip-
ment. You should be able to find this additional equipment at
any home brewing or home winemaking supply shop.

• Large nylon straining bag

• Cheesecloth

• Acid titration kit

• One gallon glass jug

36
4 | advanced wine making | fruit preparation and adjusting the juice

inspecting your fruit


Winemaking starts with inspecting your grapes. To assure that
the grapes are ripe, squish them in your hands straining the
juice in to a clean cup. Then measure the sugar density with
your hydrometer. For a red wine the sugar density should be
around 1.080 and 1.095 specific gravity and for a white
wine the sugar density should be around 1.070 and 1.085
specific gravity. The grapes should taste sweet and ripe but
slightly tart.

The grapes also must be clean and free of insects. Discard


any rotten or suspicious grapes. Also, remove the stems
since they will make your wine taste bitter.

Again, winemaking demands a sanitary environment. Wash


all of your equipment thoroughly with hot water and a strong
sulfite solution to rinse any equipment that comes in contact
with your wine.

37
adjusting acid content
Adjusting the acid content of your juice is critical. You can
measure the acid with a titration kit. The ideal acid level is
6 to 7 grams per liter for dry reds and 6.5 to 7.5 grams
per liter for dry whites. If your acid level is not within the
acceptable range, then adjust by adding tartaric acid. To
increase the acid content add tartaric acid in one gram
increments. If your acid content is too high then add 10
percent increments of water.

You also need to monitor the sugar level with your hydrometer.
To increase your sugar concentration, make a simple syrup
by dissolving one cup sugar into one-third cup of water.
Bring it to a boil in a saucepan and immediately remove
from heat. Cool before adding. Add syrup in one tablespoon
increments, until the desired specific gravity is reached. To
decrease the sugar concentration, simply dilute your juice
with water.

The temperature of your juice can also be adjusted to provide


the perfect environment for the growth of the yeast cells.
For red wines add the yeast when the temperature reaches
between 70° and 80° F, but for white wines add the yeast
between 55° and 65° F.

38
4 | advanced wine making | dr y red table wine recipe

Now you're ready to begin making your first batch of wine. Below

wine. The recipes have similar steps and techniques, with one
you'll find step-by-step recipes for a dry red and a dry white table

important difference. Red wines always are fermented with the


skins and pulp; the solids are pressed and remain in the juice
during the primary fermentation. White wines are always
pressed before fermentation, so only the grape juice winds
up in the fermenting pail.

Dr y Red Table Wine


Ingredients:
- 18 lbs. red grapes yield one gallon of wine
- one camden tablet (or 0.33g of potassium metabisulfite powder)
- Tartaric acid, if necessary
- Table sugar, if necessary
- one packet wine yeast

1. Harvest your grapes once they have reached 22 to 24 percent


sugar content.
{ }
2. Sanitize all equipment. Place the grape clusters into the nylon
straining bag and deposit the bag into the bottom of the food-
grade pail. Using very clean hands or a sanitized tool such as a
Red wines always are potato smasher, firmly crush the grapes. Crush the camden tablet
or1 teaspoon of sulfite crystals and sprinkle over the juice in the
fermented with the nylon bag. Cover the pail with cheesecloth and wait one hour.
skins and pulp; the 3. Measure the temperature of the juice. It should be between 70°
solids are pressed and 80° F. Take a sample of the juice from the pail and measure
the acid content with your titration kit. If your acid content is not
after fermentation between 6 to 7 grams per liter then adjust with tartaric acid.
is complete. See page 42 for adjustment information.
4. Check the specific gravity of the juice. If the specific gravity isn't
between 1.080 and 1.095 then add a little bit of simple syrup
as discussed on page 42.
5. Dissolve the yeast in one pint of warm water (80° to 90° F) and
let the yeast stand a few minutes until bubbly. When it's bub-
bling, pour yeast solution directly on the juice and mix. Cover
the pail with cheesecloth, set in a warm (area 65° to 75° F) and
check that fermentation has begun within 24 hours. Monitor fer-
mentation progress and temperature regularly. Keep the skins
under the juice at all times. Mix twice daily.

39
6. Once the juice has reached specific gravity of 0.998, lift the
nylon straining bag out of the pail and squeeze remaining juice
into the pail.
7. Cover the pail loosely and let the wine settle for 24 hours.
Rack the wine into a sanitized carboy removing the sediment,
topping off with grape juice or any dry red wine of a similar
style. Fit with a sanitized bung and fermentation lock. After 10
days, rack the wine into another sanitized jug. Again, top off
with dry red wine of a similar style.
8. After six months, siphon the clarified wine in a sanitized carboy.
Then transfer the wine into clean, sanitized bottles. Cork with
the hand-corker.
9. Store the bottles in cool, dark place and wait at least six months
before drinking. Do not forget to invite your volunteers for your
wine sampling.

Note: Red wine is fermented with the pulp and skins. This "cap" will rise to the
top, so you need to "punch it down" frequently with a sanitized utensil.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. See page 46.

40
4 | advanced wine making | dr y white table wine recipe

Dr y White Table Wine


Ingredients:
- 18 lbs. ripe white grapes yield 1 gallon of wine
- one camden tablet or 0.33g of potassium metabisulfite powder
- Tartaric acid, if necessary
- Table sugar, if necessary
- one packet wine yeast

1. Harvest grapes once they have reached 19 to 22 percent sugar.


Pick through the grapes, removing any moldy clusters, insects,
leaves or stems.
2. Place the grape clusters into a nylon straining bag and place the
{ }
bag in bottom of the food-grade pail. Using very clean hands or
a sanitized tool like a potato masher, firmly crush up the grapes
inside the nylon bag.
White wines are 3. Crush the camden tablet or measure one teaspoon of sulfite and
always pressed before sprinkle over the crushed fruit in the bag. Cover pail and bag
fermentation, so only with cheesecloth and let sit for one hour.
the grape juice winds 4. Lift the nylon straining bag out of the pail. Squeeze the bag to
up in the extract as much juice as possible. You should have about
one gallon of juice in the pail.
fermenting pail.
5. Measure the temperature of the juice. It should be between 55°
to 65° F. Adjust temperature as necessary. Take a sample of
the juice in the pail and use your titration kit to measure the
acid level. If it is not between 6.5 and 7.5 grams per liter,
then adjust with tartaric acid. See page 42 for adjustment infor-
mation.
6. Check the specific gravity of the juice. If it isn't between 1.070
and 1.085 specific gravity then add a little bit of simple syrup
as discussed on page 42.
7. Dissolve a packet of yeast into one pint of warm water (80° to
90° F) and let stand until bubbly. Then pour the yeast solution
directly onto the juice. Cover pail with cheesecloth, set in a cool
area (55° to 65° F). In 24 hours, check to see that fermentation
has begun. Monitor fermentation progression and temperature
at least once daily.

41
8. Once the juice has reached at least 0.998 specific gravity, rack
the wine off the sediment into a sanitized one-gallon jug, top off
with dry white wine of a similar style. Fit with a sanitized bung
and fermentation lock. Keep the container topped with white
wine. Be sure the fermentation lock always has sulfite solution in
it. After 10 days, rack the wine into another sanitized one-gal-
lon jug. Top up with wine again.
9. After three months, siphon the clarified wine off the sediment
and into clean, sanitized bottles and corks.
10.Store bottles in cool, dark place and wait at least three months
before drinking. Quite often with certain varieties of wine, the
longer you age the wine the better it will taste.

Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. See page 46.

42
4 | advanced wine making | review

In section four you were given procedures for successfully making


wine from fresh grapes. While both processes for making both
red and white wines are similar, there are several important differ-
ences. For example, during fermentation, red wines include skins
and seeds while white wines do not. You also found other impor-
tant differences in measurements, and fermentation temperatures.
Remember thou shall sanitize and rinse...one of the wine makers
most important commandments.

Shown below are a five questions for you to answer, to reinforce


the concepts and facts you have learned.
1. Do not sanitize your equipment unless you feel like it.
True or False

2. Fermentation is optimal at 32 F.
True or False

3. Wine grapes are harvested in august.


True or False

4. Always use moldy grapes.


True or False

5. Your wine will be better when it is younger.


True or False

6. What is the difference between a drunk and an alcoholic?

Answers: 1) false 2) false 3) false 4) false 5) false 6) the alcoholic goes to meetings

43
| wine making | closing

Congratulations!!!
It was my goal that you would find these instructions clear
concise and easy to use. By now, I assume you have success-
fully produced several batches of wine. Please be patient with
the fermenting process, remember the longer you wait to drink
your wine the better it will taste. Young wines taste bland and
lack the complexity of wines that have aged longer. remember
the older you get, the better you get!

Sanitizing is critically important. Always keep all equipment


clean and sanitized or you may end up with a batch of
vinegar.

Included on page 45-46 are wine logs for you to keep


detailed records.

44
wine log wine kit

Batch 1:
Wine Type:
Date Started:

primary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

secondary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 10 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days or more
Date:
Hydrometer reading:

Temperature:

Batch 2:
Wine Type:
Date Started:

primary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

secondary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 10 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days or more
Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

45
wine log - fresh fruit

Batch 3:
Wine Type:
Date Started:

primary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

secondary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 10 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days


Date:
Hydrometer reading:

Temperature:

Batch 4:
Wine Type:
Date Started:

primary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

secondary fermentation: Note: This step takes about 10 days

Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days or more
Date:
Hydrometer reading:
Temperature:

46
References:

Books:
The Joy of Home Winemaking, Terry Grey, Collins.
First Steps in Winemaking, C.J. Berry.

Websites:
www.winemakermag.com
www.dictionary.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.ngs.com (national geographic society)
www.istockphoto.com
www.gettyone.com