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Cybernetics and Cryptography

Contents

Articles

User:Rajah2770

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Cybernetics

5

Cryptography

14

Pattern recognition

28

Cupid

33

Cupid and Psyche

35

Holy Grail

41

Nikah

48

Poker

49

References

Article Sources and Contributors

54

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

57

Article Licenses

License

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User:Rajah2770 2 Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika with Laquit (son) and Danisha(daughter) Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika ( born Jul y 02

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika with Laquit (son) and Danisha(daughter)

Early life

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika was born into the famous Hazarika family, a prominent family belonging to Dhing's wealthy Muslim Assamese community of Nagaon district. He was born to Anjena Begum Hazarika and Rusmat Ali Hazarika. He is eldest of two childrens of his parents younger one is a Shamim Ara Rahman(nee Hazarika)daughter .

Early career

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika completed his PhD degree in Mathematics from J N Vyas University of Jodhpur in 1995 with specialization in Plasma instability, the thesis was awarded best thesisby Association of Indian Universities in 1998 and the Post-Doctoral Fellow Program from Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology [13] in Guwahati Assam in 1998 as Research Associate in Plasma Physics Division in theory group studying the Sheath phenomenon. As a Part-time Lecturer in Nowgong college, Assam before joining the present position in Diphu Government College ,Diphu in Karbi Anglong district [14] , [15] He is a member of the wikipedia [16] , [17] . He is Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society [18] ,member of International Association Mathematical Physics [19] , member of World Academy of Science,Engineering & Technology [20] , [21] , member of Plasma science Society of India [22] , [23] ,member of Focus Fusion Society forum [24] ,member of Dense Plasma Focus [25] , Member of Assam Science Society [26] , Member of Assam Academy of Mathematics [27]

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He joined the Diphu Government College in July2004 as Lecturer in Mathematics (Gazetted officer), through Assam Public Service commission [28] in Assam Education Service [29] , AES-I. [30] now redesignated as Assistant Professor.

Career

In May 1993, Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika was awarded Junior Research Fellowship,University Grants Commission, National Eligibility Test and eligibility for Lecturership ,Govt. of India and worked as JRF(UGC,NET) in Department of Mathematics and Statistics of J N Vyas University in Jodhpur. Later on in May 1995 got Senior Research Fellowship(UGC,NET) and continued research for completion of PhD on 27th Dec 1995 .From 1993 onwards taught in Kamala Nehru College for women, Jodhpur and in Faculty of Science in J N Vyas University in Jodhpur up to the completion of PhD .In 1998 May joined Plasma Physics Division of Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology in Guwahati as Research Associate for PDF in theory group to study the sheath phenomena of National Fusion Programme [31] of Govt. of India . Then joined Nowgong College as a part-time Lecturer after which in 2004, July joined the present position of Lecturer in Diphu Government College which is redesignated as Assistant Professor.

Research

During PhD [32] [33] [34] [35] [36]

The research was based on Astronomy,Astrophysics, Geophysics , for plasma instability with the title of thesis as Some Problems of instabilities in partially ionized and fully ionized plasmaswhich later on in 1998 was assessed as best thesis of the year by Association of Indian Universities in New Delhi. He is known for Bhatia-Hazarika limitResearch at Diphu Govt. College [37] , [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] Applied for patent in US patent and trademarks office [45] [46]

Research guidance is given to students in Mathematics for MPhil. He has written six books entitled Inventions of Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika on future devices and Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's Pattern recognition on fusion ,Application of Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's conceptual devices , Green tecnology for next genration , Invention of Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's devices ,VASIMR DANISHA:A Hall Thruster Space Odyssey , [47] , [48] , [49]

He has derived a formula Hazarika's constant for VASIMR DANISHA as Hazarika constant C h =1+4sin3φ sin θ-2sin φ-2sin θ the value is 2.646

Personal life

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika has a metallic Scarlet red Tata Indigo CS of Tata motors make and loves to drive himself.He is married to Helmin Begum Hazarika and have two chidrens Laquit(son) and Danisha(daughter).

Quotes

• "Fakir(saint) and lakir(line) stops at nothing but at destination"

• "Expert criticizes the wrong but demonstrates the right thing"

Intellectuals are measured by their brain not by their age and experience

Two type of persons are happy in life one who knows everything another who doesnt know anything

Implosion in device to prove every notion wrong for fusion

Meditation gives fakir(saint) long life and fusion devices the long lasting confinement

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Awards and recognition

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika got Junior Research Fellowship,Government of India Senior Research Fellowship,Government of India Research AssociateshipDSTGovernment of India Fellowof Royal Astronomical Society [50] Member of Advisory committee of Mathematical Education Royal Society London Member of Scientific and Technical committee & editorial review board on Natural and applied sciences of World Academy of Science ,Engineering &Technology [51] Leading professional of the world-2010 as noted and eminent professional from International Biographical Centre Cambridge

References

53

578

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External links

• Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's profile on the Linkedin Website (http://in.linkedin.com/pub/dr-a-b-rajib-hazarika/25/

Rajah2770 (talk) 18:12, 7 February 2011 (UTC)

Cybernetics

Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory. Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second-half of the 20th century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.

Overview

Cybernetics is most applicable when the system being analysed is involved in a closed signal loop; that is, where action by the system causes some change in its environment and that change is fed to the system via information (feedback) that causes the system to adapt to these new conditions: the system's changes affect its behavior. This "circular causal" relationship is necessary and sufficient for a cybernetic perspective. System Dynamics, a related field, originated with applications of electrical

engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s. Convenient GUI system dynamics software developed into user friendly versions by the 1990s and have been applied to diverse systems. SD models solve the problem of simultaneity (mutual causation) by updating all variables in small time increments with positive and negative feedbacks and time delays structuring the interactions and control. The best known SD model is probably the 1972 The Limits to Growth. This model forecast that exponential growth would lead to economic collapse during the 21st century under a wide variety of growth scenarios.

the 21st century under a wide variety of growth scenarios. Exam p le of c y

Example of cybernetic thinking. On the one hand a company is approached as a system in an environment. On the other hand cybernetic factory can be modeled as a control system.

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, anthropology, and

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psychology in the 1940s, often attributed to the Macy Conferences.

Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, and architecture and organizational theory. [1]

Definition

The term cybernetics stems from the Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder the same root as government). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal, and again to action. Studies in cybernetics provide a means for examining the design and function of any system, including social systems such as business management and organizational learning, including for the purpose of making them more efficient and effective.

purpose of making them more efficient and effective . Cybernetics was defined by Norbert Wiener ,

Cybernetics was defined by Norbert Wiener, in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks [2] . A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" [3] . The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics, "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" [4] .

Concepts studied by cyberneticists (or, as some prefer, cyberneticians) include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device.

Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory; system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); psychology, especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology and cognitive psychology; philosophy; anthropology; and even theology, [5] telematic art, and architecture. [6]

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History

The roots of cybernetic theory

The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Laws to signify the governance of people. The word 'cybernétique' was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (17751836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge.

The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a water clock, was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they considered it a field of engineering), Ktesibios and others such as Heron and Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles.

to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles. James Watt The study of teleological

James Watt

The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or telos for end,

goal, or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back as the late 18th century when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a governor, a centrifugal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle (Funktionskreis) in order to explain animal behaviour and the origins of meaning in general.

The early 20th century

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s. Electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. The ideas are also related to the biological work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory.

Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts and radar antenna during WWII. Jay Forrester, a graduate student at the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT during WWII working with Gordon S. Brown to develop electronic control systems for the U.S. Navy, later applied these ideas to social organizations such as corporations and cities as an original organizer of the MIT School of Industrial Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Forrester is known as the founder of System Dynamics.

W. Edwards Deming, the Total Quality Management guru for whom Japan named its top post-WWII industrial prize, was an intern at Bell Telephone Labs in 1927 and may have been influenced by network theory. Deming made "Understanding Systems" one of the four pillars of what he described as "Profound Knowledge" in his book "The New Economics."

Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P.K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback ("back afferentation") was studied. The study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in 1943. These papers

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were "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow; and the paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts.

Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as W. Ross Ashby and W. Grey Walter.

Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. Together with the US and UK, an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was France.

In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in Nancy, France. The event was organized by the Bourbaki, a French scientific society, and mathematician Szolem Mandelbrojt (18991983), uncle of the world-famous mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot.

During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory. The name cybernetics was coined to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine (Hermann & Cie, Paris, 1948). In the UK this became the focus for the Ratio Club.

In the UK this became the focus for the Ratio Club . John von Neumann In

John von Neumann

In the early 1940s John von Neumann, although better known for his work in mathematics and computer science, did contribute a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: Von Neumann cellular automata, and their logical follow up the Von Neumann Universal Constructor. The result of these deceptively simple

thought-experiments was the concept of self replication which cybernetics adopted as a core concept. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study.

Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).

While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics, the Biological Computer Lab [7] at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, under the direction of Heinz von Foerster, was a major center of cybernetic research [8] for almost 20 years, beginning in 1958.

The fall and rebirth of cybernetics

For a time during the past 30 years, the field of cybernetics followed a boom-bust cycle of becoming more and more dominated by the subfields of artificial intelligence and machine-biological interfaces (i.e. cyborgs) and when this research fell out of favor, the field as a whole fell from grace.

In the 1970s new cyberneticians emerged in multiple fields, but especially in biology. The ideas of Maturana, Varela and Atlan, according to Dupuy (1986) "realized that the cybernetic metaphors of the program upon which molecular biology had been based rendered a conception of the autonomy of the living being impossible. Consequently, these thinkers were led to invent a new cybernetics, one more suited to the organizations which mankind discovers in nature - organizations he has not himself invented" [9] . However, during the 1980s the question of whether the features of this new cybernetics could be applied to social forms of organization remained open to debate. [9]

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In political science, Project Cybersyn attempted to introduce a cybernetically controlled economy during the early 1970s. In the 1980s, according to Harries-Jones (1988) "unlike its predecessor, the new cybernetics concerns itself with the interaction of autonomous political actors and subgroups, and the practical and reflexive consciousness of the subjects who produce and reproduce the structure of a political community. A dominant consideration is that of recursiveness, or self-reference of political action both with regards to the expression of political consciousness and with the ways in which systems build upon themselves". [10]

One characteristic of the emerging new cybernetics considered in that time by Geyer and van der Zouwen, according to Bailey (1994), was "that it views information as constructed and reconstructed by an individual interacting with the environment. This provides an epistemological foundation of science, by viewing it as observer-dependent. Another characteristic of the new cybernetics is its contribution towards bridging the "micro-macro gap". That is, it links the individual with the society" [11] Another characteristic noted was the "transition from classical cybernetics to the new cybernetics [that] involves a transition from classical problems to new problems. These shifts in thinking involve, among others, (a) a change from emphasis on the system being steered to the system doing the steering, and the factor which guides the steering decisions.; and (b) new emphasis on communication between several systems which are trying to steer each other" [11] . The work of Gregory Bateson was also strongly influenced by cybernetics.

Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields as game theory (the analysis of group interaction), systems of feedback in evolution, and metamaterials (the study of materials with properties beyond the Newtonian properties of their constituent atoms), have led to a revived interest in this increasingly relevant field. [2]

Subdivisions of the field

Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many types of subject matter. These subjects also extend into many others areas of science, but are united in their study of control of systems.

Basic cybernetics

Cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as

Robotics

Emergence

• Interactions of Actors Theory • Conversation Theory ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid

ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid obstacles and navigate stairs.

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In biology

Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to generation [12] . There is also a secondary focus on combining artificial systems with biological systems.

Bionics

bernetics • S y nthetic Biolo gy • Systems Biology In computer science Thermal image of

In computer science

Thermal image of a cold-blooded tarantula on a warm-blooded human hand

Computer science directly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of information.

Robotics

In engineering

Cybernetics in engineering is used to analyze cascading failures and System Accidents, in which the small errors and imperfections in a system can generate disasters. Other topics studied include:

• Biomedical en g ineering • Systems engineering An artificial heart , a product of biomedical

An artificial heart, a product of biomedical engineering.

In management

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In mathematics

Mathematical Cybernetics focuses on the factors of information, interaction of parts in systems, and the structure of systems.

In psychology

In sociology

By examining group behavior through the lens of cybernetics, sociology seeks the reasons for such spontaneous events as smart mobs and riots, as well as how communities develop rules, such as etiquette, by consensus without formal discussion. Affect Control Theory explains role behavior, emotions, and labeling theory in terms of homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. The most comprehensive attempt ever made in the social sciences to increase cybernetics in a generalized theory of society was made by Talcott Parsons. In this way, cybernetics establish the basic hierarchy in Parsons' AGIL paradigm, which is the ording system-dimension of his action theory. These and other cybernetic models in sociology are reviewed in a book edited by McClelland and Fararo [13] .

Memetics

In Art

The artist Roy Ascott theorised the cybernetics of art in "Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision". Cybernetica, Journal of the International Association for Cybernetics (Namur), 1967.

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Related fields

Complexity science

Complexity science attempts to understand the nature of complex systems.

References

[1] Tange, Kenzo (1966) "Function, Structure and Symbol". [2] Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of control: The new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-48340-8. OCLC 221860672 32208523 40868076 56082721 57396750. [3] Couffignal, Louis, "Essai dune définition générale de la cybernétique", The First International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, Belgium, June 2629, 1956, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1958, pp. 46-54 [4] CYBCON discusstion group 20 September 2007 18:15 [5] Granfield, Patrick (1973). Ecclesial Cybernetics: A Study of Democracy in the Church. New York: MacMillan. pp. 280. [6] Hight, Christopher (2007). Architectural Principles in the age of Cybernetics. Routledge. pp. 248. ISBN 978-0415384827. [7] http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/pubs/bcl/mueller/index.htm [8] http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/pubs/bcl/hutchinson/index.htm [9] Jean-Pierre Dupuy, "The autonomy of social reality: on the contribution of systems theory to the theory of society" in: Elias L. Khalil & Kenneth E. Boulding eds., Evolution, Order and Complexity, 1986. [10] Peter Harries-Jones (1988), "The Self-Organizing Polity: An Epistemological Analysis of Political Life by Laurent Dobuzinskis" in:

Canadian Journal of Political Science (Revue canadienne de science politique), Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun., 1988), pp. 431-433. [11] Kenneth D. Bailey (1994), Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis, p.163. [12] Note: this does not refer to the concept of Racial Memory but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular niche, such as the case of the pepper moth having genes for both light and dark environments. [13] McClelland, Kent A., and Thomas J. Fararo (Eds.). 2006. Purpose, Meaning, and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Further reading

Roy Ascott (1967). Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision. Cybernetica, Journal of the International Association for Cybernetics (Namur), 10, pp. 2556

Andrew Pickering (2010) The Cybernetic Brain: Sketches of Another Future (http://www.amazon.com/ Cybernetic-Brain-Sketches-Another-Future/dp/0226667898) University Of Chicago Press.

• Slava Gerovitch (2002) From Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics (http://web.mit.edu/ slava/homepage/newspeak.htm) MIT Press.

• John Johnston, (2008) "The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI", MIT Press

• Heikki Hyötyniemi (2006). Neocybernetics in Biological Systems (http://neocybernetics.com/report151/). Espoo: Helsinki University of Technology, Control Engineering Laboratory.

• Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile." Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606.

• Lars Bluma, (2005), Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Münster.

Francis Heylighen, and Cliff Joslyn (2001). " Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics (http://pespmc1.vub. ac.be/Papers/Cybernetics-EPST.pdf)", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.

Charles François (1999). " Systemics and cybernetics in a historical perspective (http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/ ~gossimit/ifsr/francois/papers/systemics_and_cybernetics_in_a_historical_perspective.pdf)". In: Systems Research and Behavioral Science. Vol 16, pp. 203219 (1999)

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Heinz von Foerster, (1995), Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics (http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/4-2/ text/foerster.html).

• Steve J. Heims (1993), Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953, Cambridge University Press, London, UK.

• Paul Pangaro (1990), "Cybernetics A Definition", Eprint (http://pangaro.com/published/cyber-macmillan. html).

Stuart Umpleby (1989), "The science of cybernetics and the cybernetics of science" (ftp://ftp.vub.ac.be/pub/ projects/Principia_Cybernetica/Papers_Umpleby/Science-Cybernetics.txt), in: Cybernetics and Systems", Vol. 21, No. 1, (1990), pp. 109121.

• B.C. Patten, and E.P. Odum (1981), "The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems", The American Naturalist 118,

886-895.

• Hans Joachim Ilgauds (1980), Norbert Wiener, Leipzig.

• Steve J. Heims (1980), John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, 3. Aufl., Cambridge.

Stafford Beer (1974), Designing Freedom, John Wiley, London and New York, 1975.

Gordon Pask (1972), " Cybernetics (http://www.cybsoc.org/gcyb.htm)", entry in Encyclopædia Britannica

1972.

• Helvey, T.C. The Age of Information: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Cybernetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:

Educational Technology Publications, 1971.

W. Ross Ashby (1956), Introduction to Cybernetics. Methuen, London, UK. PDF text (http://pespmc1.vub.ac. be/books/IntroCyb.pdf).

Norbert Wiener (1948), Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, (Hermann & Cie Editeurs, Paris, The Technology Press, Cambridge, Mass., John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1948).

External links

General

• Norbert Wiener and Stefan Odobleja - A Comparative Analysis (http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Comp/ CompJurc.htm)

Principia Cybernetica Web (http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/DEFAULT.html)

• Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems (http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/indexASC.html)

• Glossary Slideshow (136 slides) (http://www.gwu.edu/~asc/slide/s1.html)

• What is Cybernetics? (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hjAXkNbPfk) Livas short introductory videos on YouTube

• A History of Systemic and Cybernetic Thought. From Homeostasis to the Teardrop (http://www.pclibya.com/ cybernetic_teardrop.pdf)

Societies

• American Society for Cybernetics (http://www.asc-cybernetics.org/)

• IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Society (http://www.ieeesmc.org/)

• The Cybernetics Society (http://www.cybsoc.org)

Cryptography

Cryptography

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Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν, gráphin, "writing", or -λογία, -logia, , "study", respectively) [1] is the practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.

Cryptology prior to the modern age was almost synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The sender retained the ability to decrypt the information and therefore avoid unwanted persons being able to read it. Since WWI and the advent of the computer, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.

increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Simple explanation of encryption and decryption methods

Simple explanation of encryption and decryption methods

Simple explanation of encryption and decryption methods German Lorenz cipher machine , used in World War

German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II to encrypt very-high-level general staff messages

Modern cryptography follows a strongly scientific approach, and designs cryptographic algorithms around computational hardness

assumptions that are assumed hard to break by an adversary. Such systems are not unbreakable in theory but it is infeasible to do so for any practical adversary. Information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken exist but they are less practical than computationally-secure mechanisms. An example of such systems is the one-time pad.

Alongside the advancement in cryptology-related technology, the practice has raised a number of legal issues, some of which remain unresolved.

Terminology

Until modern times cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information (called plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (called ciphertext). [2] Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher (or cypher) is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption and the reversing decryption. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. This is a secret parameter (ideally known only to the communicants) for a specific message exchange context. A "cryptosystem" is the ordered list of elements of finite

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possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, and the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key. Keys are important, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless (or even counter-productive) for most purposes. Historically, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks.

In colloquial use, the term "code" is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning. It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext (i.e., a meaningful word or phrase) with a code word (for example, wallaby replaces attack at dawn). Codes are no longer used in serious cryptographyexcept incidentally for such things as unit designations (e.g., Bronco Flight or Operation Overlord)since properly chosen ciphers are both more practical and more secure than even the best codes and also are better adapted to computers.

Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key normally required to do so; i.e., it is the study of how to crack encryption algorithms or their implementations.

Some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others (including US military practice generally) use cryptography to refer specifically to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis. [3] [4] English is more flexible than several other languages in which cryptology (done by cryptologists) is always used in the second sense above. In the English Wikipedia the general term used for the entire field is cryptography (done by cryptographers).

The study of characteristics of languages which have some application in cryptography (or cryptology), i.e. frequency data, letter combinations, universal patterns, etc., is called cryptolinguistics.

History of cryptography and cryptanalysis

Before the modern era, cryptography was concerned solely with message confidentiality (i.e., encryption)conversion of messages from a comprehensible form into an incomprehensible one and back again at the other end, rendering it unreadable by interceptors or eavesdroppers without secret knowledge (namely the key needed for decryption of that message). Encryption was used to (attempt to) ensure secrecy in communications, such as those of spies, military leaders, and diplomats. In recent decades, the field has expanded beyond confidentiality concerns to include techniques for message integrity checking, sender/receiver identity authentication, digital signatures, interactive proofs and secure computation, among others.

Classic cryptography

secure computation , among others. Classic cryptography Reconstructed ancient Greek scytale (rhymes with

Reconstructed ancient Greek scytale (rhymes with "Italy"), an early cipher device

The earliest forms of secret writing required little more than local pen and paper analogs, as most people could not read. More literacy, or literate opponents, required actual cryptography. The main classical cipher types are transposition ciphers, which rearrange the order of letters in a message (e.g., 'hello world' becomes 'ehlol owrdl' in a trivially simple rearrangement scheme), and substitution ciphers, which systematically replace letters or groups of letters with other letters or groups of letters (e.g., 'fly at once' becomes 'gmz bu podf' by replacing each letter with the one following it in the Latin alphabet). Simple versions of either have never offered much confidentiality from enterprising opponents. An early substitution cipher was the Caesar cipher, in which each letter in the plaintext was replaced by a letter

some fixed number of positions further down the alphabet. It was named after Julius Caesar who is reported to have used it, with a shift of 3, to communicate with his generals during his military campaigns, just like EXCESS-3 code

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in boolean algebra. There is record of several early Hebrew ciphers as well. The earliest known use of cryptography is some carved ciphertext on stone in Egypt (ca 1900 BC), but this may have been done for the amusement of literate observers. The next oldest is bakery recipes from Mesopotamia. Cryptography is recommended in the Kama Sutra as a way for lovers to communicate without inconvenient discovery. [5]

The Greeks of Classical times are said to have known of ciphers (e.g., the scytale transposition cipher claimed to have been used by the Spartan military). [6] Steganography (i.e., hiding even the existence of a message so as to keep it confidential) was also first developed in ancient times. An early example, from Herodotus, concealed a messagea tattoo on a slave's shaved headunder the regrown hair. [2] Another Greek method was developed by Polybius (now called the "Polybius Square"). [7] More modern examples of steganography include the use of invisible ink, microdots, and digital watermarks to conceal information.

Ciphertexts produced by a classical cipher (and some modern ciphers) always reveal statistical information about the plaintext, which can often be used to break them. After the discovery of frequency analysis perhaps by the Arab mathematician and polymath, Al-Kindi (also known as Alkindus), in the 9th century, nearly all such ciphers became more or less readily breakable by any informed attacker. Such classical ciphers still enjoy popularity today, though mostly as puzzles (see cryptogram). Al-Kindi wrote a book on cryptography entitled Risalah fi Istikhraj al-Mu'amma (Manuscript for the Deciphering Cryptographic Messages), in which described the first cryptanalysis techniques, including some for polyalphabetic ciphers. [8] [9]

Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to cryptanalysis using the frequency analysis technique until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher, most clearly by Leon Battista Alberti around the year 1467, though there is some indication that it was already known to Al-Kindi. [9] Alberti's innovation was to use different ciphers (i.e., substitution alphabets) for various parts of a message (perhaps for each successive plaintext letter at the limit). He also invented what was probably the first automatic cipher device, a wheel which implemented a partial realization of his invention. In the polyalphabetic Vigenère cipher, encryption uses a key word, which controls letter substitution depending on which letter of the key word is used. In the mid-19th century Charles Babbage showed that polyalphabetic ciphers of this type remained partially vulnerable to extended frequency analysis techniques. [2]

to extended frequency analysis techniques. [ 2 ] 16th-century book-sha p ed French ci p her

16th-century book-shaped French cipher machine, with arms of Henri II of France

French ci p her machine, with arms of Henri II of France Enci p hered letter

Enciphered letter from Gabriel de Luetz d'Aramon, French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, after 1546, with partial decipherment

Although frequency analysis is a powerful and general technique against many ciphers, encryption has still been often effective in practice; many a would-be cryptanalyst was unaware of the technique. Breaking a message without using frequency analysis essentially required knowledge of the cipher used and perhaps of the key involved, thus making espionage, bribery, burglary, defection, etc., more attractive approaches to the cryptanalytically

uninformed. It was finally explicitly recognized in the 19th century that secrecy of a cipher's algorithm is not a sensible nor practical safeguard of message security; in fact, it was further realized that any adequate cryptographic scheme (including ciphers) should remain secure even if the adversary fully understands the cipher algorithm itself. Security of the key used should alone be sufficient for a good cipher to maintain confidentiality under an attack. This fundamental principle was first explicitly stated in 1883 by Auguste Kerckhoffs and is generally called Kerckhoffs' principle; alternatively and more bluntly, it was restated by Claude Shannon, the inventor of information theory and the fundamentals of theoretical cryptography, as Shannon's Maxim'the enemy knows the system'.

Different physical devices and aids have been used to assist with ciphers. One of the earliest may have been the scytale of ancient Greece, a rod supposedly used by the Spartans as an aid for a transposition cipher (see image

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above). In medieval times, other aids were invented such as the cipher grille, which was also used for a kind of steganography. With the invention of polyalphabetic ciphers came more sophisticated aids such as Alberti's own cipher disk, Johannes Trithemius' tabula recta scheme, and Thomas Jefferson's multi-cylinder (not publicly known, and reinvented independently by Bazeries around 1900). Many mechanical encryption/decryption devices were invented early in the 20th century, and several patented, among them rotor machinesfamously including the Enigma machine used by the German government and military from the late '20s and during World War II. [10] The ciphers implemented by better quality examples of these machine designs brought about a substantial increase in cryptanalytic difficulty after WWI. [11]

The computer era

The development of digital computers and electronics after WWII made possible much more complex ciphers. Furthermore, computers allowed for the encryption of any kind of data representable in any binary format, unlike classical ciphers which only encrypted written language texts; this was new and significant. Computer use has thus supplanted linguistic cryptography, both for cipher design and cryptanalysis. Many computer ciphers can be characterized by their operation on binary bit sequences (sometimes in groups or blocks), unlike classical and mechanical schemes, which generally manipulate traditional characters (i.e., letters and digits) directly. However, computers have also assisted cryptanalysis, which has compensated to some extent for increased cipher complexity. Nonetheless, good modern ciphers have stayed ahead of cryptanalysis; it is typically the case that use of a quality

cipher is very efficient (i.e., fast and requiring few resources, such as memory or CPU capability), while breaking it requires an effort many orders of magnitude larger, and vastly larger than that required for any classical cipher, making cryptanalysis so inefficient and impractical as to be effectively impossible. Alternate methods of attack

(bribery, burglary, threat, torture,

Extensive open academic research into cryptography is relatively recent; it began only in the mid-1970s. In recent times, IBM personnel designed the algorithm that became the Federal (i.e., US) Data Encryption Standard; Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published their key agreement algorithm,; [12] and the RSA algorithm was published in Martin Gardner's Scientific American column. Since then, cryptography has become a widely used tool in communications, computer networks, and computer security generally. Some modern cryptographic techniques can only keep their keys secret if certain mathematical problems are intractable, such as the integer factorization or the discrete logarithm problems, so there are deep connections with abstract mathematics. There are no absolute proofs that a cryptographic

technique is secure (but see one-time pad); at best, there are proofs that some techniques are secure if some computational problem is difficult to solve, or this or that assumption about implementation or practical use is met.

) have become more attractive in consequence.

use is met. ) have become more attractive in consequence. Credit card with smart-card capabilities. The

Credit card with smart-card capabilities. The 3-by-5-mm chip embedded in the card is shown, enlarged. Smart cards combine low cost and portability with the power to compute cryptographic algorithms.

As well as being aware of cryptographic history, cryptographic algorithm and system designers must also sensibly consider probable future developments while working on their designs. For instance, continuous improvements in computer processing power have increased the scope of brute-force attacks, thus when specifying key lengths, the required key lengths are similarly advancing. The potential effects of quantum computing are already being considered by some cryptographic system designers; the announced imminence of small implementations of these machines may be making the need for this preemptive caution rather more than merely speculative. [13]

Essentially, prior to the early 20th century, cryptography was chiefly concerned with linguistic and lexicographic patterns. Since then the emphasis has shifted, and cryptography now makes extensive use of mathematics, including

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aspects of information theory, computational complexity, statistics, combinatorics, abstract algebra, number theory, and finite mathematics generally. Cryptography is, also, a branch of engineering, but an unusual one as it deals with active, intelligent, and malevolent opposition (see cryptographic engineering and security engineering); other kinds of engineering (e.g., civil or chemical engineering) need deal only with neutral natural forces. There is also active research examining the relationship between cryptographic problems and quantum physics (see quantum cryptography and quantum computing).

Modern cryptography

The modern field of cryptography can be divided into several areas of study. The chief ones are discussed here; see Topics in Cryptography for more.

Symmetric-key cryptography

Symmetric-key cryptography refers to encryption methods in which both the sender and receiver share the same key (or, less commonly, in which their keys are different, but related in an easily computable way). This was the only kind of encryption publicly known until June 1976. [12]

The modern study of symmetric-key ciphers relates mainly to the study of block ciphers and stream ciphers and to their applications. A block cipher is, in a sense, a modern embodiment of Alberti's polyalphabetic cipher: block ciphers take as input a block of plaintext and a key, and output a block of ciphertext of the same size. Since messages are almost always longer than a single block, some method of knitting together successive blocks is required. Several have been developed, some with better security in one aspect or another than others. They are the modes of operation and must be carefully considered when using a block cipher in a cryptosystem.

considered when using a block cipher in a cryptosystem. One round (out of 8.5) of the

One round (out of 8.5) of the patented IDEA cipher, used in some versions of PGP for high-speed encryption of, for instance, e-mail

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) are block cipher designs which have been designated cryptography standards by the US government (though DES's designation was finally withdrawn after the AES was adopted). [14]

Despite its deprecation as an official standard, DES (especially its still-approved and much more secure triple-DES variant) remains quite popular; it is used across a wide range of applications, from ATM encryption [15] to e-mail privacy [16] and secure remote access. [17] Many other block ciphers have been designed and released, with considerable variation in quality. Many have been thoroughly broken; see Category:Block ciphers. [13] [18]

Stream ciphers, in contrast to the 'block' type, create an arbitrarily long stream of key material, which is combined with the plaintext bit-by-bit or character-by-character, somewhat like the one-time pad. In a stream cipher, the output stream is created based on a hidden internal state which changes as the cipher operates. That internal state is initially set up using the secret key material. RC4 is a widely used stream cipher; see Category:Stream ciphers. [13] Block ciphers can be used as stream ciphers; see Block cipher modes of operation.

Cryptographic hash functions are a third type of cryptographic algorithm. They take a message of any length as input, and output a short, fixed length hash which can be used in (for example) a digital signature. For good hash functions, an attacker cannot find two messages that produce the same hash. MD4 is a long-used hash function which is now broken; MD5, a strengthened variant of MD4, is also widely used but broken in practice. The U.S. National Security Agency developed the Secure Hash Algorithm series of MD5-like hash functions: SHA-0 was a flawed algorithm that the agency withdrew; SHA-1 is widely deployed and more secure than MD5, but cryptanalysts

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have identified attacks against it; the SHA-2 family improves on SHA-1, but it isn't yet widely deployed, and the U.S. standards authority thought it "prudent" from a security perspective to develop a new standard to "significantly improve the robustness of NIST's overall hash algorithm toolkit." [19] Thus, a hash function design competition is underway and meant to select a new U.S. national standard, to be called SHA-3, by 2012.

Message authentication codes (MACs) are much like cryptographic hash functions, except that a secret key can be used to authenticate the hash value [13] upon receipt.

Public-key cryptography

Symmetric-key cryptosystems use the same key for encryption and decryption of a message, though a message or group of messages may have a different key than others. A significant disadvantage of symmetric ciphers is the key management necessary to use them securely. Each distinct pair of communicating parties must, ideally, share a different key, and perhaps each ciphertext exchanged as well. The number of keys required increases as the square of the number of network members, which very quickly requires complex key management schemes to keep them all straight and secret. The difficulty of securely establishing a secret key between two communicating parties, when a secure channel does not already exist between them, also presents a chicken-and-egg problem which is a considerable practical obstacle for cryptography users in the real world.

In a groundbreaking 1976 paper, Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman proposed the notion of public-key (also, more generally, called asymmetric key) cryptography in which two different but mathematically related keys are useda public key and a private key. [20] A public key system is so constructed that calculation of one key (the 'private key') is computationally infeasible from the other (the 'public key'), even though they are necessarily related. Instead, both keys are generated secretly, as an interrelated pair. [21] The historian David Kahn described public-key cryptography as "the most revolutionary new concept in the field since polyalphabetic substitution emerged in the Renaissance". [22]

substitution emerged in the Renaissance". [ 2 2 ] Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman , authors

Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, authors of the first published paper on public-key cryptography

In public-key cryptosystems, the public key may be freely distributed, while its paired private key must remain secret. The public key is typically used for encryption, while the private or secret key is used for decryption. Diffie and Hellman showed that public-key cryptography was possible by presenting the DiffieHellman key exchange protocol. [12]

In 1978, Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman invented RSA, another public-key system. [23]

In 1997, it finally became publicly known that asymmetric key cryptography had been invented by James H. Ellis at GCHQ, a British intelligence organization, and that, in the early 1970s, both the DiffieHellman and RSA algorithms had been previously developed (by Malcolm J. Williamson and Clifford Cocks, respectively). [24]

The DiffieHellman and RSA algorithms, in addition to being the first publicly known examples of high quality public-key algorithms, have been among the most widely used. Others include the CramerShoup cryptosystem, ElGamal encryption, and various elliptic curve techniques. See Category:Asymmetric-key cryptosystems.

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In addition to encryption