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Engineering Letters, 15:1, EL_15_1_4


Generation of Crowned Parabolic Novikov gears

Somer M. Nacy, Member, IAENG, Mohammad Q. Abdullah, and Mohammed N.Mohammed

Abstract - The Wildhaber-Novikov gear is one of the where u i is a variable parameter that determines the
circular arc gears, which has the large contact area between location of the current point in the normal section and
the convex and concave profiled mating teeth. In (June 28,
ai is the parabolic coefficient.
1999), a new geometry of W-N gear with parabolic profile in
normal section has been developed. This paper studies the
generation of rack-cutters for parabolic crowned profiles
with its generation in order to select the requirements of W-
N gears.

Index Terms- crowned parabolic profile, generation of

gears, Novikov gears

Circular arc helical gears were proposed by Wildhaber
and Novikov. However, there is a significant difference
between the ideas proposed by the previously mentioned
inventors. Wildhaber’s idea [1] is based on generation of
the pinion and gear by the same imaginary rack-cutter
that provides conjugate gear tooth surfaces that are in line
contact at every instant. Novikov [2] proposed the
application of two mismatched imaginary rack-cutters
that provide conjugated gear tooth surfaces that are in Fig. 1- Parabolic profile of rack-cutter in
point contact at every instant. Point contact of Novikov normal section.
gears has been achieved by application of two
mismatched rack-cutters for generation of the pinion and
gear, respectively.
There are two versions of Novikov gears (with circular-
arc profile), the first having one zone of meshing, and the A. Pinion Rack-Cutter Surface ∑ c
other having two zones of meshing. The design of gears
with two zones of meshing was an attempt to reduce high The derivation of rack-cutter surface ∑ c is based on
bending stresses caused by point contact. the following procedure:
The proposed new version of helical gears is based on 1. The normal profile of ∑ c is a parabola and is
the following ideas [3]: represented in coordinate system S a , Fig. 2-b, by
1. The bearing contact is localized and the contact
equations that are similar to (1):
[ ]
stresses are reduced because of the tangency of concave- T
convex tooth surfaces of the mating gears. ra (u c ) = u c a c u c2 0 1 (2)
2. The normal section of each rack-cutter is a parabola as where ac is the parabolic coefficient; u c is the variable
shown in Fig.1. A current point of the parabola is
determined in an auxiliary coordinate system S i by the
2. The normal profile is represented in Sb by matrix
xi = u i y i = ai u i2 (1) rb (u c ) = M ba r a (u c ) (3)
Manuscript received January 27, 2007. M ba indicates the 4×4 matrix used for the coordinate
S. M. Nacy is with Al-Khawarizmi College of Engineering, transformation from coordinate system S a to Sb [4]:
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Phone 009647901387055 3. Consider that rack-cutter surface ∑ c is formed in
e-mail: smnacy@elearningiq.net
M. Q. Abdullah is with the College of Engineering, University of
S c while coordinate system Sb with the normal profile
Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. performs a translational motion in the direction a-a of the
M. N. Mohammed is with Al-Khawarizmi College of Engineering, skew teeth of the rack-cutter, Fig. 3. Surface ∑ c is
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

(Advance online publication: 15 August 2007)

Engineering Letters, 15:1, EL_15_1_4
components; k a is the unit vector of axis z a . The
transverse section of rack-cutter ∑ c is shown in Figs. 4-a
and b.

Fig. 4- Rack-cutter transverse profiles.

(a) Mating profiles. (b) Pinion rack-cutter profile.
(c) Gear rack-cutter profile.

B. Determination Of Pinion Tooth Surface ∑ 1

The determination of ∑ 1 is based on the following
1. Movable coordinate systems S c and S1 , Fig. 5, are
rigidly connected to the pinion rack-cutter and the pinion,
respectively. The fixed coordinate system S m is rigidly
Fig. 3- For derivation of pinion rack-cutter surface ∑ c connected to the cutting machine.
2. The rack-cutter and the pinion perform related motions,
as shown in Fig. 5, where s c = rp1 ψ 1 is the displacement
determined in coordinate system S c in two-parameter
of the rack-cutter in its translational motion, and ψ 1 is the
form by the following matrix equation
rc (u c , θ c ) = M cb (θ c ) r b (u c ) angle of rotation of the pinion.
3. A family of rack-cutter surfaces is generated in
coordinate system S1 and is determined by the matrix
4. The normal N c to rack-cutter surface ∑ c is
determined by matrix equation, [4]
r1 (u c , θ c ,ψ 1 ) = M 1c (ψ 1 ) rc (u c , θ c )
N c (u c ) = Lcb Lba N a (u c ) (5)
∂r M 1c (ψ 1 ) =M 1m M mc
N a (u c ) = k a × a (6) (9)
∂u c
The pinion tooth surface ∑ 1 is generated as the
and the unit normal to the surface is
envelope of the family of surface r1 (u c ,θ c ,ψ 1 ) .Surface
N N c (u c )
n c (u c ) = c = (7) ∑ 1 is determined by
Nc 1+ 4a2 u2
c c
f1 p (u c , θ c ,ψ 1 ) = 0 (10)
where Lcb indicates the 3×3 matrix that is the sub-matrix
simultaneous consideration of vector function
of M cb and is used for the transformation of vector r1 (u c , θ c ,ψ 1 ) and the so-called equation of meshing .

(Advance online publication: 15 August 2007)

Engineering Letters, 15:1, EL_15_1_4
4. To derive the equation of meshing (10), apply the
theorem of [5] and [4] to obtain,
∑ c . The normal profile of ∑ t is a parabola represented
in S e , referring to Fig. 2-c,

re (u t ) = u t at ut2 0 1 ] T
which is similar to (2). Use coordinate systems S k , Fig.
2-c, and S t that are similar to Sb and S c , Fig. 3, to
represent surface St by matrix equation,
rt (ut ,θ t ) = M tk (θ t ) M ke re (ut ) (18)
The normal to the surface ∑ t is determined by equations
similar to (5) to (7). The difference in the representation
of ∑ t is the change in the subscript c to t.
B. Determination Of Gear Tooth Surface ∑ 2
The generation of ∑ 2 by rack-cutter surface ∑ t is
represented schematically in Fig. 6. The rack-cutter and
the gear perform related translational and rotational
motions designated as st = rp2 ψ 2 and ψ 2 .
The gear tooth is represented
r2 = r2 (ut ,θ t ,ψ 2 )
Fig. 5- Generation of pinion by rack-cutter ∑ c (19)
f 2t (ut ,θ t ,ψ 2 ) = 0
Oc O1 = −rp1 i + rp1ψ 1 j (11) (20)
Equation (20) represents in S 2 the family of rack-cutter
v c = ω (1) rp1 j where ω (1) = ω k (12)
surfaces ∑ t determined as,
v1 = ω (1)
× rc + Oc O1 × ω (13) r2 (ut ,θ t ,ψ 2 ) = M 2t (ψ 2 ) rt (ut ,θ t ) (21)
The relative velocity is Here
v c1 = v c − v1 = −ω [(rp1ψ 1 − yc ) i + xc ] (14) M 2t (ψ 2 ) = M 2 m (ψ 2 ) M mt (ψ 2 ) (22)
Thus, the equation of meshing is
N c • v c1 = 0 (15)
That yields
f1c (u c ,θ c ,ψ 1 ) = (rp1ψ 1 − yc ) N xc + xc N yc = 0 (16)
where ( xc , yc , z c ) are the coordinates of a current point of
∑ c ; (N c ) is the normal to the surface ∑ c ; ω is the
angular velocity; v c and v1 are the velocities of the rack-
cutter c and pinion respectively; v c1 represent the
relative velocity (sliding velocity) between the rack-
cutter and pinion, Fig. 5.
Equations (8) and (16) represent the pinion tooth
surface by three related parameters. Taking into account
that the equations above are linear with respect to θ c ,
hence θ c may be eliminated and represent the pinion
tooth surface by vector function r1 (u c ,ψ 1 ) .


A. Gear Rack-Cutter Surface ∑ t

The derivation of rack-cutter surface ∑ t is based on Fig. 6- Generation of gear by rack-cutter ∑ t
the procedure similar to that applied for derivation of

(Advance online publication: 15 August 2007)

Engineering Letters, 15:1, EL_15_1_4

The derivation of the equation of meshing (20) may be Also to find the slope of fillet curve at any point, the
accomplished similarly to that of (16), circle equation is:-
f 2t (ut ,θ t ,ψ 2 ) = (rp2 ψ 2 − yt ) N xt + xt N xt = 0 (23) ( y − h) 2 + ( x − k ) 2 = r f2
Equations (21) and (23) represent the gear tooth surface (25)
y 2 − 2 h y + h 2 + x 2 − 2 k x + k 2 = r f2
by three related parameters. The linear parameter θ t can
differentiating (25) with respect to y as follows:
be eliminated and the gear tooth surface represented in
dx dx dx dx
two-parameter form by vector function r2 (ut ,ψ 2 ) . y−h+ x −k =0 ⇒ h = y+ x −k (26)
dy dy dy dy
by substituting (13) , (24) and (26) in (25), thus obtaining
a non-linear equation which is solved numerically using
Secant Method to get the coordinates of smoothing point
A fillet part is a circular arc which has coordinates x (A).
and y, k and h –center coordinates and a radius rf. For the crowned parabolic profile, the fillet curve can be
This arc lies between points A and B, where point A represented as follows:
represent the mating point, which satisfy smoothing ⎡ b⎤ ⎡ f
x r sin (θ f ) + x of ⎤
contact, between the circular-arc or parabolic curve and rb = ⎢⎢ yb ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢r f cos(θ f ) + yof ⎥⎥ (27)
the fillet curve, point B represent the meeting point, ⎢⎣ zb ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
which satisfy smoothing contact, between the fillet curve
and the horizontal straight line, as shown in Fig. 7. Here, r f is the fillet radius; ( xof , yof ) are the arc center
Therefore, to find the x and y-coordinates of points A and coordinates; θ f is the variable parameter.
B, angles θ A and θ B which satisfy smoothing contact
Using coordinates systems similar to Sb and S c , Fig. 3,
must be found.
To satisfy smoothing contact at point B, angle θ B may to represent surface S c f , the subscript f means the fillet

equal to 90 o because the radius of fillet may be surface, thus

perpendicular on the tangent, which is the horizontal rc f (θ f ,θ c ) = M c f b f (θ c ) rb f (θ f ) (28)
straight line at this point, also to satisfy smoothing The unit normal to the surface can be found as
contact at point A the fillet radius may be perpendicular ∂rc f ∂rc f Nc f
on the tangent at this point, or in other words the slope of Nc f = × and nc f = (29)
circular-arc or parabolic curve must be equal to the slope ∂θ f ∂θ c Nc f
of the fillet curve at this point, [6]. The representation of the pinion tooth fillet surface by
Thus, to find the slope of parabolic curve at any point, equations similar to (8) and (16), and also the
using (3), to get, representation of the gear tooth fillet surface by equations
dx dx du cos(α n ) − 2ac u c sin(α n )
= * = (24) similar to (21) and (23). Then the generation of pinion
dy du dy sin(α n ) + 2ac u c cos(α n ) and gear for parabolic profiles with fillet radius can be
obtained as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8- Generation of parabolic tooth with fillet

Fig. 7- Fillet part of rack-cutter.

(Advance online publication: 15 August 2007)

Engineering Letters, 15:1, EL_15_1_4
M ij , L ij Matrices of coordinate transformation from

coordinate system S i to S j .
n i( j ) , N i( j ) Unit normal and normal to surface ∑i in coordinate
The developed approach of design and generation of the
crowned parabolic Novikov gear drives has successfully system Sj.
been applied. The conjugation of gear tooth surfaces with ri Position vector of a point in coordinate system Si .
profile crowning is achieved by applying two rack-cutters
with crowned profile in normal section. rf Fillet radius .

rpi Radius of cylinder of pinion (i=1) or for gear (i=2).

Wildhaber, E., "Helical Gearing", U.S. Patent No. 1,601,750, si Displacement of rack-cutter for pinion (i=1) or for gear
[2] Novikov, M.L., U.S.S.R., Patent No. 109,750, 1956. (i=2) .
[3] Litvin, F.L., Feny, P., and Sergei A. L., "Computerized Generation
and Simulation of Meshing of a New Type of Novikov-Wildhaber Si (Oi,xi,yi,zi) Coordinate system (i=c,t,p,g,1,2,m,a,b,f,fs,cf,r,k,e)
Helical Gears", NASA/CR—2000-209415, 2000.
[4] Litvin, F.L., "Gear Geometry and Applied Theory", Prentice-Hall,
αn Pressure angle in Normal section.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994. β Helix angle .

[5] Litvin, F.L, "Theory of Gearing", NASA RP-1212 (AVSCOM 88-
C-035), 1989. Surfaces (i=c,t,p,g,1,2).

[6] Mohammed Qasim Abdullah, "Computer Aided Graphics of
Cycloidal Gear Tooth Profile", University of Baghdad, Fifth Angle of rotation of the pinion (i=1) or the gear (i=2) in
Engineering Conference, 2003.
the process of generation for circular-arc profile .

Nomenclature ψi Angle of rotation of profiled-crowned pinion (i=1), the

ai Parabolic coefficients of profiles of pinion rack cutter double crowned- profile (i=p) or for gear (i=2) in the process of
(i=c) and gear rack cutter (i=t). generation for circular-arc profile .
f ij Equation of meshing between tooth surface (i) and rack- (ui ,θ i ) Parameters of surface ∑ i .
cutter (j).
θ A ,θ B Angles which satisfy smoothing contact curves .
li Parameter of location of point tangency Q for pinion
(i=c) or gear (i=t). ρi Profile radii (i=p,g,c,t,1,2).

(Advance online publication: 15 August 2007)