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Mitosis:

● diploid to diploid
● for repair and development in cells
● same as parent
Meiosis:
● diploid to haploid
● to produce offspring
● different from parent
Sexual reproduction: mixes up traits, creating a more diverse gene pool
Autosomes: all chromosomes that are in pairs 1-22
Sex Chromosomes: chromosomes in pair 23
Genetic disorders: are passed down from generation to generation
Chromosomal abnormalities: causes include mutations in the DNA (inversion, nondisjunction,
deletion, duplication, insertion)
Down syndrome: has a group of 3 chromosomes in position 21, condition is called Trisomy21
● symptoms include:
○ heart/ respiratory/ speech/ visual/ stomach problems
○ slanting eyes
○ poor muscle tone
○ short broad hands
○ small hands
○ small mouth
○ broad feet
○ impaired IQ
Klinefelter syndrome: is when a male has an extra “X” at position 23 {XXY, XXYY, XXXY}, a
condition called Trisomy23, results from a nondisjuntion during meiosis
● symptoms include:
○ secondary characteristics develop or develop late
○ infertility
○ small testicles
○ breast enlargment
○ osteoporosis
○ barely any facial hair
○ slight pubic hair
○ impaired IQ
Turner syndrome: is when a female has only 1 “X” at position 23 {x}, a condition called
monosomy23, results from a nondisjuntion during meiosis
● symptoms include:
○ infertility
○ no menstruation
○ faulty ovaries
○ short in stature
Jacob syndrome: is when a male has an extra “Y” at position 23 {XYY}, a condition called
Trisomy23, results from a nondisjuntion during meiosis
● symptoms include:
○ tall and thin
○ anitsocial or behavioral problems
○ environmental influences important
This is the study of GENETICS
Father of genetics: Mendel
Karyotype vs. DNA fingerprint:
● a karyotype lets a scientist examine chromosomes and genes individually
● a DNA fingerprint helps in investigations as to if a person’s DNA matches up with
anothers
Rule of Dominance (or Principal of Dominance): Some alleles are dominant and others are
recessive
Law of Segregation: When two parents produce offspring, the two alleles segregate from each
other so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each gene. Therefore each F1 parent
gives a copy of genes to the offspring, so the offspring has a copy of genes from each parent.
(hybrid punnett square)
A.K.A. alleles separate when offspring is created (meiosis)
Law of Independent Assortment: genes for different traits can segregate independently during
the formation of gametes. Genes are mixed up when offspring is producing. (kiss the cousins
part, dihybrid), accounts for genetic variations
Rule of Unit Factors: each organism has two alleles that control each trait
Incomplete dominance: one allele not completely dominant over another. red + white = pink.
Co-dominance: both alleles contribute. black + white -> Dalmatian spotted
multiple alleles: more than two POSSIBLE alleles, but still Unit Factors b/c it’s two alleles in the
end.
polygenic: traits controlled by two or more genes
Pedigrees: squares are male, circles are female, shaded in means it is affected
● mostly in males: x-linked
● skips generations: recessive
Cloning:
GMO: genetically modified organisms
Recombinant: combines DNA from two species, ex) fish that doesnt freeze added to
tomatoes= tomatoes that dont freeze

DNA fingerprinting:

Skills:
● be able to look at a karyotype and diagnose it
● diagnose a pedigree