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University college of Engineering
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ABSTRACT - The majority o f Industrial drives use Power electronics is a branch of engineering, which
electric motors , since they are controllable and readily is concerned with conversion and control of electrical
available. In practice, most of these drives are based on power for various applications. The converters could be
an induction motor because such motors are rugged,
classified as
reliable, and relatively inexpensive.
Rectifier : ac to dc
Single phase to three phase converter have a wide
range of application in rural area and also in industries Inverter : dc to ac
where three phase equipment or motors are to be operated
Chopper : dc to dc
from the easily available single phase supply. These
converters are excellent choice for situation where three Ac power controller : at same frequency
phase power supply is not available. The added advantage is
Cyclo - converter : direct frequency changer
that the three phase motors are more efficient and
economical than single-phase motors. Also the starting Often a conversion system is a hybrid type that
current in three phase motors is less severe than in single mixes more than one basic conversion process. To
phase motors. This needs a strong, efficient cost effective and achieve high efficiency of conversion ON / OFF
high quality single phase to three-phase conversion. switching device is used. The switching type of
Advanced PWM techniques are employed to guarantee high
conversion can introduce distortion and generates
quality output voltage and sinusoidal input at the terminal of
harmonics on source line and load; such problems can be
single phase source. By using the interleaved boost converter
eliminated by introducing filter at the input.
in continuous current mode with high power factor will give
required dc voltage to develop output ac line to line voltage
at its rated value. In an uncontrolled converter the output is almost
Three phase ac drive using single phase supply is fixed and the line current contains harmonics. In phase
an approach to implement high frequency induction control converter, the output voltage can be varied but the
boosting along with the three phase PWM inverter for line currents are rich in harmonics, and the line
controlling the speed of three phase induction motor by v/f fundamental current lags the voltage. The distorted line
ratio control. This scheme can be used in lathe machines,
current tends to distort the line voltage and which leads to
small cranes, lifts etc., which are frequently switched ON
problems in the equipment operating on the same bus.
and OFF, so that they can be run from a single-phase
The output of an uncontrolled converter can be

INTRODUCTION controlled by controlling the duty cycle of the boost

switch connected at the output of converter. In order to
control the duty cycle of output, PWM techniques are
often used to reduce the harmonics content. Since, the The schematic representation of the implementation of the
frequency of operation is very high the filter used in boost setup shown in figure. The schematic diagram can be
converter is also reduced. divided into two parts part 1 represents the bridge
The proposed Topology employs a boost rectifier, filter and HF induction boost converter using the
converter to boost the dc link voltage to 325 V using principle of interleaved boost converter. Number of stages
interleaved boost converter. The dc link voltage is fed to of interleaved boost converter may be used depending on
three-phase PWM inverter. PWM inverter reduces the the power to be handled by the converter. In this setup
harmonic content to larger extent. Changing the only two interleaved stages are used MOSFETs are being
modulation index can easily vary the output voltage of used as switching device. Part 2 represents three-phase
inverter IC HEF4752 V is a special purpose IC which can voltage source, PWM inverter with motor load.
be used to control the speed of three phase ac motor using Transistors are being used as switching device along with
v/f control. ant parallel diodes. This boosted dc voltage is connected
to three phase induction motor through a three phase
SYSTEM OVER VIEW bridge inverter with a suitable control circuit.


generate two, out phase square wave signals and the
frequency of which can be vary between 20khz to 100khz.
The single-phase ac power supply can be
This IC generates dead time between the two signals
converted in to dc by using bridge rectifier and then ripple
depending on the value of CT. These two signals are
less dc output can be obtained by using EMI filter.
applied to the driver circuit. The driver circuit drives the
power MOSFET accordingly to the input signal fed to it.
Interleaved boost converter:
A Driver circuit has been developed using fast switching
transistor BUX48 and transistor 2N2222 as Darlington
The required boost voltage is achieved using the
principle of interleaved cell operating in continuous
inductor current mode. For high efficiency requirement
the interleaved stages were operated in continuous current
mode. Inter- leaving, virtually eliminates discontinuity in
The over current protection requirement of the
input current under continuous current mode operation,
circuit has been incorporated by using same IC SG 3524
the inductor current tracks the sinusoidal wave
current limit feature. A small resistance of 0.1ohm is
continuously, so that there no double peak current and
connected in series with load circuit. When the current
suitable for high power applications. Interleaving can also
exceeds 2A the duty cycle will be reduced to zero and the
significantly reduce the switching losses and dramatic in
gate signal will be stopped. The maximum output voltage
overall size reduction of energy storage inductor and the
desired is 325V dc.
differential mode EMI filter. More number of interleaved
stages had to be used for higher power requirement. In
our case a two stage interleaved boost converter is
designed and assembled which will satisfy our
For stabilization of this 325V output voltage,
a potential divider has been used at the output voltage
terminal. A fractional voltage is fed to INV of SG 3524.
Control unit:
By using a preset in potential divider circuit the reference
voltage can be varied such that output will be stabilized to
The switch described here is a MOSFET
desired level. Any increase in input ac voltage, and hence
(IRF450) along with its gate drive circuit. The output
the increase in output dc voltage will be sensed by
voltage can be varied by varying the duty cycle and
potential divider and pulse width of the control signal
keeping frequency constant or keeping duty cycle
varies so as to maintain output dc voltage constant.
constant and varying the frequency. IC SG 3524 is used to



Gate drive signals for MOSFETS of Interleaved boost converter


The output frequency and voltage of inverter
(PART -2)
can be controlled by Varying the frequency of FCT and
voltage of VCT can control the output frequency and
The block diagram of part- 2 represents the voltage
voltage of the inverter. These are supplied from NE
source, PWM inverter with control circuit.
566VCO, which provides simultaneous square wave and
triangular wave outputs as a function of input voltage and
PWM in three-phase voltage source inverter:
IC 74C14,which are capable of transforming slowly
PWM is a technique of reducing output changing input signal in to sharply defined, jitter –free
harmonics from the inverter output .To generate PWM output signals.
signal, a special purpose IC HEF4752V manufactured by In this system the power transistor BU508A
Phillips is used. The IC HEF4752V has 12 outputs, out of switches operation is controlled by PWM techniques. The
which 6 outputs have been used. The basic function of use of PWM in the control system has reduced the
PWM IC is to provide three complementary pair of output complexity and increased reliability significantly. The
drive wave forms which, when applied to the 6 element minimum base current required to drive the power
inverter, open and close the switching element in the transistor in to saturation is 16Amps. A current of this
appropriate sequence to produce a symmetrical three can’t be supplied by PWM directly. The PWM signal has
phase output. The drive waveforms are applied to upper 5Volts and output current is very low. So the current gain
three transistors of the inverter with isolation. In our case of PWM signals are amplified with the help of a
BUX508A power transistor is chosen as switching Darlington pair connected through an Opto-coupler
element of the inverter. This IC is completely digital, so (MCT2E), which isolates the control circuit from the
that the repetition frequency of PWM signal is always an main circuit.
exact multiple of the inverter output frequency. This Since there are 6 power transistor switches and
result in excellent phase and voltage balance and each has to be operated separately to avoid the short
consequent low motor losses. circulating of the source due to simultaneously switching
ON and OFF the switches of a limb, 6 separate base drive
In applications such as uninterruptible ac power circuits (PWM signal generator, electrical isolation,
supplies and ac motor drives, three phase inverters are Darlington pair circuit) are required.
commonly used to supply three phases. It is possible to
supply a three phase inverters, where each inverter Speed control of induction motor:
produces a output displaced by 120degees with respective
each other .The most frequently used three phase inverter The speed of an ac machine is related to the total
circuit consists of three legs, one for each phase. supply frequency, which has to be altered. High power
transistors have simplified the problem to some extent.
Control unit:
For continuously variable speed control, the output
The control circuit, which produces switching, frequency of inverter must be varied. The applied voltage
pulses to the power transistors used in the three phase to the motor must also be varied in linear proportion to
inverter circuit, i.e., shown in schematic diagram. This the supply frequency to maintain constant motor flux.
circuit plays very important role in the inversion process. Thus control of both voltage and frequency is necessary
The circuit basically consists of IC HEF4752V, NE566 for proper variable speed operation.
VCO, IC 74C14,MCT2E& base drive.




Output Voltage waveforms (line to line) of Three-phase Inverter.


A single phase to three-phase converter with HF

1. D.N. Kyatanvar and A.N.Tiwari. ‘LSI Based
induction boost was implemented. The induction boost
PWM control of ac Three-Phase Induction
was carried out at a frequency of 50 KHz. The testing was motor’. ‘Journal of the Institution of
Engineers (India), Vol-76, pt E1. February
carried out at a dc link voltage of 325 V. A PWM inverter
1996, P233.
was designed and tested whose switching frequency was
selected as 1 KHz. A PWM inverter along with the high
2. P.C. Sen. ‘Power Electronics’. ‘Tata MC
frequency boost converter was tested for various load Graw – Hill publishing company Ltd., New
Delhi, P831.
conditions by loading the motor. For a constant dc link
voltage, with the variation of reference controller, FCT
3. R.Gaikwad – ‘ Op-Amp and Linear
the terminal voltage and speed can be varied.
Integrated circuits’. ‘Prentice Hall,P395’.

Line to Line (YB and RB) output voltage of the

4. P.M.Patil, D.N.Kyatanavar, R.G.Zope,
three – phase bridge inverter are obtained. Waveforms are D.V.Jadhav. ‘Three AC Drive using single
phase supply’. ‘Journal of the institution of
phase shifted by 120 degree with each other. The nature
Engineers (India),Vol.82,Pt EL, June
of waveform is sine weighted PWM which fully satisfies 2001,P43’.
the magnitude and phase balance. Use of PWM control
has the advantage of reduction in harmonics in the output
voltage waveform, hence the reduction in heating of
motor compared to the 6 – step square wave inverter.
PWM technique also reduces pulsating torque of the
motor. Motor line current is nearly sinusoidal in nature,
which fully satisfies the design requirement. With the
increase of switching frequency the motor line current can
be made more sinusoidal. At an increase load a small
distortion in the PWM output voltage, occur. Thus
distortion can be filtered out using appropriate filter.

With increase in demand for more power and

better power quality from a standard 230 V ac line, power
factor correction becomes an integral part of a switching
power supply. Here an inductor has been provided in the
ac mains side to improve the line power factor.