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Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Chapter 1


From days of primitive society, humans and animals have used the
resources of the earth to support life and dispose wastes. In early times,
the disposal of human wastes did not pose a significant problem, for the
population was small and the amount land available for the assimilation
of wastes was large. Although emphasis is currently being placed on
recycling values of solid wastes, the farmer in ancient times probably
made bolder attempt at this.
Problems with the disposal of wastes can be traced from the times
human first began to congregate in tribes, villages and communities and
accumulation of wastes became a consequence of life. Littering of food
and other solid wastes in medieval towns led to the breeding of rats, with
their attendant fleas carrying bubonic plague. This led to killing of half of
fourteenth century Europeans. It was not until recently that public health
control measures became a vital consideration to public officials, who
realized that wastes had to be collected and disposed of in a sanitary
Ecological phenomena such as water and air pollution have also
been attributed to improper management of solid wastes. For instance,
liquid from dumps and poorly engineered landfills has contaminated
surface waters and groundwater. Although the nature has the capacity to
dilute, disperse, degrade, absorb, or otherwise reduce the impact of
unwanted residues in the atmosphere, in the waterways, and on land,


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

ecological imbalances have occurred where the natural assimilative

capacity has been exceeded.


The development of a technological society can be traced to the
beginnings of the industrial revolution in Europe; unfortunately, so can
increase in solid waste disposal problems. In fact, in the latter part of the
nineteenth century, conditions were so bad in England that an urban
sanitary act was passed in 1888 prohibiting the throwing of solid wastes
into ditches, rivers, and waters. This preceded by about 11 years the
enactment of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 in United States, which
was intended to regulate the dumping of debris in navigable waters and
adjacent lands.
Thus, along with the benefits of technology have also come the
problems associated with disposal of resultant wastes. To understand the
nature of these problems, it will be helpful to examine the flow of
materials and the associated generation of wastes in a technological
society and to consider the direct impact of technological advances on the
design of solid waste facilities.
Modern technological advances in packaging of goods create a
constantly changing set of parameters for the designer of solid waste
facilities. Of particular significance are the increasing use of plastics and
the use of frozen foods, which reduce the quantities of food wastes in the
home but increase the quantities at agricultural processing plants. The use
of packaged meals, for example, results almost in no wastes in the home
except for packaging materials. These continuing changes present
problems to the facilities designer because engineering structures for the
processing of solid wastes involves such large capital expenditures that


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

they must be designed to be functional for approximately 25 years. Thus,

the engineers responsible for the design of solid waste facilities must be
aware of trends, even though they cannot, of course, predict all the
changes in technology that will affect the characteristics of solid wastes.
On the other hand, every possible prediction technique must be
used in this ever-changing technological society so that flexibility and
utility can be designed into the facilities. Ideally, a facility should be
functional and efficient over its useful life, which should coincide with
the maturity of bonds that were floated to pay for it. But important
questions arise : Which elements of society generate the greatest
quantities of solid wastes and what is the nature of these of wastes? How
can the quantities be minimized? What is the role of resource recovery?
Can disposal and recovery technology keep up with consumer product


Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline
associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and
transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in
accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering,
conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that
is also responsive to public attitudes. In its scope, solid waste
management includes all administrative, financial, legal, planning and
engineering functions involved in solutions to all problems of solid
wastes. The solutions may involve complex interdisciplinary
relationships among such fields as political science, city and regional
planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, demography,


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

communications, and conservation, as well as engineering and materials



The problems associated with the management of solid wastes in
today’s society are complex because of the quantity and diverse nature of
the wastes, the development of sprawling urban areas, and the funding
limitations for public services in many large cities, the impact of
technology, and the emerging limitations in both energy and raw
materials. As a consequence, if solid waste management is to be
accomplished in an efficient and orderly manner, the fundamental aspects
and relationships involved must be identified, adjusted for uniformity of
data, and understood clearly.

In this text, the activities associated with the management of solid

waste from the point of generation to final disposal have been grouped
into six functional elements:
(1) Waste generation
(2) Waste handling and separation, storage, and processing at the source;
(3) Collection
(4) Separation and processing and transformation of solid waste
(5) Transfer and transport and
(6) Disposal
By considering each functional element separately, it is possible
(1) to identify the fundamental aspects and relationships involved in each
element and


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

(2) to develop, where possible, quantifiable relationships for the purpose

of making engineering comparisons, analyses, and evaluations. This
separation of functional elements is important because, it allows the
development of a framework within which to evaluate the impact of
proposed changes and future technological advancements. For example,
the means of transport in the collection of solid waste has changed from
the horse-drawn carts to the motor vehicle, but the fundamental method
of collection –that is, the manual physical handling required-remains the
The discussions purpose of the discussions is to introduce to the
reader the physical aspects of solid waste management and to establish a
useful framework within which to view the activities associated with
management of solid wastes.


The facilities that compose a solid waste management system are
often identified as solid waste management system units. The planning
and engineering of solid waste management units include social, political,
and technical factors. The combinations of all of these factors form a
series of issues that must be addressed by community decision makers.
Some contemporary solid waste management issues and future challenges
and opportunities are introduced as follows:

1.5.1 Management Issues: In addition to meeting the requirements

associated with Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM), a number
of other management issues must be addressed in the operations of
ISWM systems. The solid waste practitioner must acknowledge these


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

management issues or face a high risk of failure in the implementation of

solid waste management programs.

1.5.2 Setting Workable but Protective Regulatory Standards:Solid

waste management units are subjected to an increasing number of
regulations. The attention is justified and timely, but strict adherence to
very protective regulatory standards often causes failure of these
processes by which waste management units are put in place.
Municipal solid waste management is caught in the backlash of
understandable public concerns over hazardous waste management.
Regulatory agencies, in setting standard for construction, operation, and
monitoring units, are beset by lawyer and environmental groups recently
armed with scientific data derived from experiments with massive doses
of toxic compounds. Municipal waste does not contain massive quantities
of toxics, but it does contain the small amounts found in the waste from
normal household activities. An unworkable regulation is one that ignores
reality and deals only with certain technical data. Nobody wants waste.
Solid waste cannot be washed away and hidden by paper regulations.

1.5.3 Improving Scientific Methods for Interpretation of Data:The

need to know about hazards in the environment has generated large
amount of data on toxics. Billion of dollars has been invested in
analytical equipments, laboratory, and data accumulation since the
passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act
(CERLA). Even with all the data, however, there is a lack of uniform
basis for data interpretation. Analytical equipment and laboratory
techniques produce data of accuracy in parts per billion or trillion. What
does such detection accuracy mean to a solid waste management unit?


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

The goal is to understand the effects of very small quantities of

toxic components on the environment. In the meantime, how much data
should be presented to the public? How does the public participate in data
gathering and interpretation?

1.5.4 Identification of Hazardous and Toxic Consumer Products

Requiring Solid Waste Management Units: Municipal solid waste is a
heterogeneous mass made up of every discard from home, businesses and
institution. Although small in quantities, some are less hazardous.
Example: bleach, gasoline, insecticides, and cleaning fluids.
The issue is whether household hazardous waste contaminates the
municipal waste management unit and whether, because of the large land
areas in landfills, certain household waste should be removed from the
garbage can for disposal in smaller, highly controlled waste management
unit. Which products are more hazardous? How will the consumer store
hazardous discards until they are picked up or delivered to the special
management units? Who will setup and operate special management units
as such units will be defined by regulators as hazardous waste units?

1.5.5 Paying for Improved Waste Management Units: Solid waste

management has a tradition of low cost. The improvements demanded by
a concerned public are more costly than past practices. The increased cost
must be paid by waste generators. This issue involves changing the
manner in which a consumer thinks about paying for waste disposal. How
is the cost of waste disposal presented to the consumer? When the
consumer is asked to pay-at the time of product purchase or when the
product is discarded? Since solid waste decays very slowly, who pays for
long term maintenance of land disposal waste management unit-the


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

generator at the time of the discard or future users as maintenance costs

are incurred?

1.5.6 Designating Land Disposal Units at or near Large Urban

Centers: Waste management units are difficult to place in an urban
environment. A suspicious public views these units as open dumps and
littered transfer stations served by odorous, dripping garbage collecting
trucks. Yet it is within urban centers that the greatest quantity of solid
waste is generated. Urban land use planning is facing a severe challenge
to provide designated waste management units, especially land disposal
The issues are identifying environmentally acceptable land areas
for land disposal units and then preserving lands for the intended use.
Who will set a standard for “environmentally acceptable”? Will different
standard apply for urban and rural areas? Can a scientific basis be
identified that will satisfy a suspicious public regarding the safety of land
disposal units?

1.5.7 Establishing and Maintaining More Qualified Managers to

Develop and Operate Waste Management Units: Solid waste
management units are increasing in quantity and complexity. In response,
a set of managers must be trained and put in appropriate positions to
develop and operate expanded and improved management units.
The goal is to develop the human resources needed to develop and
operate waste management units. Who will train the managers/ how will
the cost of training be paid? What standards will apply during the interim
period while managers receive training?


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities


Countries like India with urban cities like Mumbai which generate
large quantities of waste, that is, about 6000 tonnes have no major
treatment facility available. Mumbai specifically is just lifting and
shifting its wastes but is not able to find a permanent solution to the heaps
of solid wastes that is generated on its streets everyday. This lethargic
approach of the administration and the people have given rise to major
Environmental Concerns.
The collection fleets are being woefully stretched, dump yards are
fast filling out and absence of recycling facilities have made Mumbai’s
garbage disposal system a MESS. We are already 50 to 60 years behind
the US and European nations in treating the garbage and implementing
waste technologies and any further delay in this respect can cause
irreparable consequences to our city of Mumbai.
With concern towards this grave problem which our own city of
Mumbai is facing, we the students of FINAL YEAR of CIVIL
ENGINEERING with our limited knowledge have thought to provide
suitable alternatives and solutions to this problem of solid waste.
The main aim of ours of taking up this project is to propagate to the
society the need of solid waste management and to suggest improvement
in the collection, handling, transportation, treatment, and disposal of solid
waste with the help of simple management, improved legislations,
changes in revenue systems and by adopting economical technologies.
This all will not only solve the problem facing us but it will also generate
enough job opportunities for the unemployed youth and will turn the
mountain of solid waste generated by the city into a gold mine from
which wealth can be generated to sustain the growth and even diversify
the funds for other potential use.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Chapter 2
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Solid waste is often called the third pollution after air pollution air
&water pollution, is that material which arises from various human
activities &which is normally discarded as useless or unwanted. It
consists of highly heterogeneous mass of discarded material from the
urban community.


The reasons for the rapid growth in the quantity of solid waste are over
population, affluence and technology.

2.1.1 Over-population: As the number of people producing a pollutant

increases, pollution will naturally increase. Same is true for solid waste
pollution also which increases with the increase in population.

2.1.2 Technology: Rapidly growing technologies for most economic

gods indicate a shift in technology from the returnable packaging to non
returnable packaging. This has resulted in phenomenal growth of
packaging industry which encourages self service merchandising by
packages that help to sell the product by themselves. Returnable glass
containers and bottles are being replaced by non-returnable cans, bottles,
and paper board and plastic containers.
Packaging is largely responsible for causing solid waste pollution
because packaging materials like plastic bags and cans etc. are not
biodegradable and persist unchanged in disposal operations such as


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

landfills. Plastic can be recycled to make new packs but recycled plastic
soon loses its strength, becomes brittle and is easily broken up by wind or
The per capita contribution of solid waste has increased manifold due
to increase in urbanization, lack of awareness, lack of public participation
and poor enforcement of laws.


Because of the heterogeneous nature of solid waste, no single method
of classification is entirely satisfactory. In some cases it is important for
the solid waste to know the source of waste, so that the classification as
domestic, institutional, commercial, street waste, industrial waste,
construction and demolition waste etc. is useful. For other situations, the
type of waste garbage, rubbish, ash, hazardous waste etc. which gives a
better indication of its physical and chemical characteristic is more

i) Domestic/Residential waste: This category of waste

comprises the solid waste that originates from household.
These wastes are generated as consequence of house hold
activities such a cooking, cleaning, repairs, hobbies and
redecoration and contain empty containers, packing clothing
book, writing, and furnishing. Residents in developed
countries sometimes discard bulky waste such as furniture
and large appliances which cannot be repaired and used.
ii) Commercial waste: Included in this category are solid
wastes that originate from offices, whole sale and retail


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

stores, restaurants, hotels, market, warehouse, and other

commercial establishments.
iii) Institutional waste: Institutional wastes are those arising
from institutions such as school, universities, hospitals and
research institutes.
iv) Street waste: this term applies to waste that is collected
from streets, walkways, alley and vacant areas. Street waste
includes paper, cardboard, plastic, dirt, leaves and other
vegetables matter discarded by road users. It also includes
the waste left by the vehicles moving over the road
v) Construction and demolition waste: Construction and
demolition waste is the waste material generated by the
construction, refurbishment, repair and demolition of houses,
commercial buildings and other structures. It consists of
earth, stones, concrete, bricks, lumber, roofing material,
plumbing material, heating system and electrical wires etc.
vi) Industrial waste: Included in this category is the discarded
solid material of manufacturing processes and industrial
operation. They cover a vast range of substances which are
unique to each industry. For this reason they are dealt with
separately from municipal waste. However, solid waste from
small industrial units and ash from power plants are
frequently disposed off at municipal landfill sites.
vii) Sewage waste: The solid by-products of sewage treatment
are classified as sewage waste. They are mostly organic and
derive from treatment of organic sludges from both the raw
and treated sewage. The inorganic fraction of raw sewage
such as grit is separated at the preliminary stage of treatment


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

and is disposed off. The bulk is treated; dewatered sludge is

useful as a soil conditioner but invariably its used for this
purpose is uneconomical. Such sludge therefore may enter
the stream of municipal wastes unless special arrangements
are made for its disposal.
viii) Garbage: Garbage is the term applied to animal and
vegetable wastes resulting from handling, storage, sale,
preparation, cooking and serving of food. Since such wastes
contain putrescible organic matter which produce strong
odours and, therefore, attracts rats, flies and other vermin, its
storage, handling and disposal requires immediate attention.
ix) Rubbish: Rubbish is a general term applied to dry, non
putrescible solid wastes originating in households,
commercial establishments an institutions, excluding
garbage and ashes.
x) Ashes: Ashes are residue from burning of woods, coal,
charcoal, coke and other combustible material, for cooking
and heating in houses, institutions and small industrial
establishments. When produced in large quantities at power
generating plants and factories these wastes are classified as
industrial wastes. Ashes mainly consist of fine powdery
residue, cinders and clinkers.
xi) Hazardous waste: Hazardous waste may be defined as
waste of industrial, institutional or consumer origin which,
because of its physical, chemical or biological characteristics
is potentially dangerous to humans and the environments. In
some cases although the active agents may be liquid or
gaseous, it is classified as solid waste because it is confined


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

in solid containers. Typical examples are: solvents, paints

and pesticides whose spent container are frequently mixed
with municipal waste and become part of urban waste
stream. Certain hazardous waste causes explosions in
incinerators and fires at landfills sites. Others, such as
pathological waste from hospitals and radioactive waste,
require special handling at all times. Good management
practice should ensure that hazardous waste is stored,
collected transported and disposed off separately, preferably
after suitable treatment to render it innocuous.
xii) Dead animals: This a term applied to dead animals that die
naturally or are accidentally killed. This category does not
include carcass and animal parts from slaughterhouses which
are regarded as industrial wastes. Dead animals are divided
into two groups, large and small. Among the large animals
are horse, cows, goats, sheep, hogs and the like. Small
animals include dogs, cats, rabbits and rats. The reason for
this differentiation is that large animals require special
equipments for lifting and handling during their removal. If
not collected promptly, dead animals are threat to public
health because they attract flies and other vermin while they
putrefy. Their presence in public places is particularly
offensive from the aesthetic point of view. In large cities,
collection and disposal of large dead animals is often
entrusted to NGOs or private agencies while the small
animals are collected by municipal agency.
xiii) Bulky waste: In this category is included the bulky
households waste which cannot be accommodated in the


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

normal storage containers of households. For this reason

they require special collection. In developed countries bulky
waste are large household appliances such as cookers,
refrigerators and washing machines as well as furniture,
crates, vehicle parts, tyres, wood, trees and branches.
Metallic bulky waste is sold as scrap metal but the greater
portion is disposed of at sanitary landfills. Except lawn
cutting, branches of trees and banana stems (in coastal cities)
no other bulky waste is expected in the solid waste stream in
xiv) Abandoned vehicles: In this category are automobiles,
trucks and trailers that are abandoned on streets and other
public places. Responsibility of their removal varies from
country to country but is more commonly that of the
municipal agency. The value of abandoned vehicle is highly
variable. In developing counties abandoned vehicles are
greatly valued for their parts, since there is no dearth of skill
and technical expertise in keeping the old vehicle
serviceable. Hence, abandoned vehicles are rarely found in
the waste from developing countries. On the other hand, the
developed countries find it more economical to abandon
vehicle after relatively short lives, in favour of new
purchases. Abandoned vehicles have significant scrap value
fro their metal and are sold to scrap merchants. However, the
equipments and machinery used for scrapping, transport and
processing of the vehicle for the scrap market are expensive
and require large capital investment. The economics of such
an enterprise dictates that only a large operation is feasible.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

About 10% o abandoned vehicles were recycled in

industrialized countries in 1996.
Improper collection and disposal of solid waste can cause serious
problems such as:
• The organic portion of solid wastes favours fly breeding.
• The garbage, in the refuse, attracts rats and rodents.
• The pathogens may be conveyed to man through flies and dust.
• There is always a possibility of water pollution, if rain water
passes through the deposits of fermenting refuse.
• There is a risk of air pollution, loss of property and life, if there is
accidental combustion of inflammable refuse.
• Heaps of refuse are a nuisance from an aesthetic point


The characteristics of municipal solid waste vary throughout the
world. Within the same countries too, they change from place to place
since it depends on several factors such as social customs, standard of
living, geographical location, climate, etc.

2.4.1 Physical characteristics: The collected sample is physically sorted

out on a sorting platform into various ingredients such as paper, glass,
plastic etc. The individual components are stored in bins and weighed.
The weights are expressed as a percent of the original sample on a wet
weight basis.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

NEERI has carried out extensive characterization solid waste from

43 cities during 1970-1994. the average characteristics are presented in
table 2.1.

Population Number Paper Rubber, Glass Metals Total inerts

range of cities leather, compostable
(in surveyed and matter
millions) plastic
0.1 to 0.5 12 2091 0.78 0.56 0.33 44.57 43.59
0.5 to 1.0 15 2.95 0.73 0.35 0.32 40.04 48.38
1.0 to 2.0 9 4.71 0.71 0.46 0.49 38.95 44.73
2.0 to 5.0 3 3.18 0.48 0.48 0.59 56.67 49.07
>5 4 6.43 0.28 0.94 0.80 30.84 53.9

Table 2.1 Physical characteristics of municipal solid wastes in Indian


The biodegradable fraction is quite high, essentially due to habit of

using the fresh vegetable in India. The inerts (ashes and fine earth)
content of Indian municipal solid waste is high due to the practice of
inclusions of street sweepings, drain silts, and construction and
demolition debris in municipal solid waste. The proportion of ash and
fine earth reduces with increase in population due to improvement in the
road surface.

The paper content generally varies between 2.9% to 6.5% and

increases with the increase in the population. The plastics, rubber and
leather content are lower than the paper content, and do not exceed 1%
except in metropolitan cities. The metal content is also low, viz. less than
1%. The low values are essentially due to large scale recycling of these


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

constituents. During a recent study in Mumbai (1993-94), samples were

collected both at the sources as well as disposal sites to ascertain the
extent of recycling (table 2.2). In Mumbai, paper is recycle don a priority
basis while the plastics and glass are recycled to a lesser extent.

Zones Paper Plastic Glass and

Source DS Source DS Source DS
City 6.16 5.38 4.23 4.10 1.28 1.10
Eastern suburbs 10.93 7.08 4.87 3.54 0.87 0.42
Western 6.61 3.98 5.47 3.85 3.48 2.80

Table 2.2 Recyclable constituents of municipal solid waste in greater


A large organic content indicates the need for its frequent

collection and removal. A high value of paper content indicates that the
waste can be thermally treated. High plastic content poses a problem in
its disposal. A large percentage of ash indicates that putrefaction will not
readily occur and collection could be less frequent. In such a case sanitary
land filling is preferable.
Since income directly affects the lifestyle and consumption pattern,
the physical composition of waste also changes accordingly. This is
apparent from table 2.3. The data in table 2.4 also illustrates the
differences in physical composition of waste with socio-economic


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Composition: Low income Middle income High income

(% by weight) countries countries countries
Metal 0.2-2.5 1-5 3-13
Glass, ceramic 0.5-3.5 1-10 4-10
Food and garden 40-65 20-60 20-50
Paper 1-10 15-40 15-40
Textiles 1-5 2-10 2-10
Plastic\rubber 1-5 2-6 2-10
Misc. 1-8 - -
Inert 20-50 1-30 1-20
Density (kg\m3) 250-500 170-330 100-170
Moisture content 40-80 40-60 20-30
(% by wt)
Waste generation 0.4-0.6 0.5-0.9 0.7-1.8

Table 2.3 Patterns of composition, characteristics and quantities

Component Range in percent by weight

Developed countries Developing countries
Food waste 6-26 20-35
Paper\cardboard 28-60 4-10
Plastics 2-8 2-5
Textiles 0-4 2-8
Rubber 0-2 0-2
Leather 0-2 1-3
Garden trimming 0-20 0-6
Wood 1-4 0-2
Glass\ceramics 4-16 0.5-5
Metals 3-13 0.5-2
Dirt, ashes, brick etc. 0-10 20-40

Table 2.4 Physical composition of municipal solid wastes from

developed and developing countries


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The data clearly shows that

• The proportion of paper in waste increases with national income.

• The proportion of putrefaction organic matter is greater in
countries of low income than those in high income.
• Moisture content is high in low income countries with higher
agricultural activities.
• Density of waste is a function of national income being 2 to 3
times higher in low income countries than in countries of high

2.4.2 Chemical characteristics: Ultimate analysis: Ultimate analysis is useful during mass

balance calculations for a chemical or thermal process. Ultimate analysis
is carried out to determine the proportions of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen and sulphur. The ash factor should also be determined because
of its potentially harmful environmental effects, brought about by the
presence of toxic metals-cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, tin
and zinc. Other metals, such as iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium
and sodium, are also present but because they are not toxic, they do not
present a serious problem. Proximate analysis: Proximate analysis is important in

evaluating the combustion properties of waste or waste derived fuel
(refuse derived fuels). The fractions of greatest interest are: moisture
content, as, volatile matter and fixed carbon. Moisture adds weight to the
waste\fuel without increasing its heating value and evaporation of water


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

reduces the heat released from the fuel. Ash also adds weight without
releasing any heat during combustion.
Volatile matter is that portion of waste that is converted into gas
before and during the combustion. The gases are passed through
secondary combustion chamber where rapid combustion occurs. Fixed
carbon represents the carbon remaining on the surface of grates as char.
Waste or fuel with high proportion of fixed carbon requires longer
retention time on the furnace grates to achieve complete combustion than
does waste\fuel with a low proportion of fixed carbon.

2.4.3 Biological properties of MSW: Excluding plastic, rubber, and

leather components, the organic fraction of most MSW can be classified
as follows:
• Water soluble constituent as sugar, starches, amino acids, and
various other organic acids,
• Hemicelluloses, a condensation product of fiver and six carbon
• Celluloses, a condensation product of six carbon sugar glucose,
• Fats, oils, and waxes, which are esters of alcohols and long chain
fatty acids,
• Lignin, a polymeric material containing aromatic rings with
methoxyl groups (-OCH3), the exact chemical nature of which is
still not known (present in some paper products such as news print
and fiberboard)
• Lignocellulose, a combination of lignin and cellulose,
• Proteins, which are composed of chains of amino acids.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Perhaps the most important biological characteristic of the

organic fraction of MSW is that almost all of the organic components
can be converted biologically to gases and relatively inert organic and
inorganic solids. The production of odors and the generation of flies
are also related to the putrescible nature of the organic materials found
in MSW. (e.g., food waste)


2.5.1 House to house collection: In the house-to-house collection, refuse

generated and stored in individual premises is collected by several
methods, some of which are described below:

• Curb services: the hose owner is responsible for placing the

refuse containers at the curb on the scheduled day, when the
workmen from solid waste collection vehicles collect and empty
the containers in the collection vehicle and place them at the
• Alley service: The containers are placed at the alley line from
where they are picked up from the workmen from solid waste
collection vehicles who deposit back the empty containers.
• Set-out, set-back service: Set-out men go to the individual
houses, collect the containers and empty them in the in the solid
waste collection vehicle. Another group of persons return them
to house owners.
• Set-out: The workers of the solid waste collection vehicles
collect the containers from individual houses and empty them in


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

the collection vehicle. The house owner is required to take back

the containers.
• Backyard service: solid waste workers carry a bin, handcraft or
sack or cloth to the yard and empty the solid waste container in
it. The handcraft or bin is subsequently taken to solid waste
collection vehicles.

Sr. Description Curb Alley Setout Setout Backyard

no service service set- service service
1. House owners’ cooperation
is required: Yes Option No No No
i) to carry full cans Yes al No No No
ii) to carry empty Option
cans al
2. Scheduled service s Yes Yes No Yes No
necessary for obtaining
houseowners’ cooperation
3. Prone to upset Yes Yes No Yes No
4. Average crew size 1-3 1-3 3-7 1-5 3-5
5. Complains regarding Low Low High High High
6. Special service - Requir - - -
7. Evaluation with reference
to: Poor Low Fair Low Good
i) service to citizen High Fair Medium Good Medium
ii) crew cost

Table 2.5 Comparison of various methods of house to house collection


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

A modified form of house to house collection called “Block

collection” is also sometimes adopted in developing countries. In this
system, the collection vehicle stops at selected locations on specific days.
The house owner brings his waste and deposits the same in the vehicle
which then moves ahead and the process is continued till the vehicle is
Storage of waste at individual premises should be in the containers
of specific size, capacity and design. The house to house collection
system works efficiently, if location of bins in individual premises is
carefully planned and fixed. Indian cities are by and large outgrowth of
small town and have narrow streets and crowded localities. It is therefore
difficult to provide specific locations outside the house for waste
containers and these must therefore be stored within the houses. This
poses a number of sociological and aesthetic problems.
Further, if the house to house collection is to be effective, standard
containers should be used by the individuals. This is difficult to achieve
due to the low purchasing power of the citizens. The municipal agencies
are unable to provide and maintain such a large inventory of containers
due to their poor financial conditions.
In India the daily volumetric contribution of waste per house hold
is small and as the waste requires frequent collection (to prevent
decomposition at source) the vehicle will be required to make a large
number of halts. This increases the cost of collection in house to house
collection system.

2.5.2 Community bin system: This system is commonly adopted in

India wherein community bins are located at street corners, and at
specific frequencies along the straight roads. The residents are expected


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

to bring their waste and deposit the same in the community bins. The
capacity of the community bins should be at least 50% in excess when
collection is made daily and 100% in excess when collection is made on
alternative days. The spacing of the containers should be fixed on the
basis of per capita quantity and the population contributing the waste.
However, the distance between the containers should never be more than
100 metres. In the case of larger spacing, the workers tend to avoid
transportation of waste to the community bins and private start operating
in such areas.

2.5.3 Bell ringing system: It is observed that in some cities a modified

form of house to house collection system is adopted. In this system the
collection vehicle is provided with a bell and on reaching specific points
it is rung. Residents from adjoining areas come to the vehicle and deposit
the waste in the vehicle. This system can work efficiently if the
movement of the vehicle is appropriate and continuously controlled and
the citizens also cooperate.
In come cities e.g. Ban dung, Indonesia, workers with large sized
handcarts move along the streets and residents deposits the waste in these
carts. Often the worker uses the bell to inform the residents of his arrival.
As he moves slowly, residents can still find him in the vicinity and
deposit the waste in the handcart. He waits at specific points and deposits
the waste in the waste transport vehicle when it arrives.

2.5.4 Street cleansing: In addition to the waste generated in the

premises, waste is also generated along the streets. The waste comprises
of i) Natural waste-waste blown from adjoining open spaces. ii) Traffic


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

waste-waste from the tyres of the truck and other vehicle. iii) Behavioral
waste-waste deposited by the pedestrians and people using the streets.
Besides, waste from residents is often thrown by the roadside and hence
street sweeping is de facto a waste collection activity. The sweeping is
carried out mutually by using short handled brooms, although there is a
perceptible trend towards use of long handled brooms.
Only the major roads were swept everyday, other roads were swept
on alternate days and minor roads in peri urban areas are swept only once
a week. The duty norms are not clearly specified and workers do not have
specific facilities, except for the fact that in a few cities they assemble at
mustering check posts for attendance.
The manual cleaning work is usually carried out in pairs-one
person (commonly female) sweeping the road and other collecting the
swept material in the handcart. They work in two shifts form 6 to 12 AM
in the first shift and 3 to 5 PM in the second shift. They are usually
assigned a ‘beat’ where they work. The area to be served should be 300 to
500 sq.m in highly dense region, 500 to 1000 sq.m in medium dense
regions and more than 1000 sq.m in low density and periurban areas.
They work on six days a week but it is desirable that the work be carried
out daily and holidays to different workers are staggered.


2.6.1 Land fills: Land filling involves the controlled deposal of solid
wastes on or in the upper layer of the earth’s mantle. Important aspects in
the implementation of sanitary landfills include:


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Landfilling methods and operation: To use the available area at

a landfill site effectively, a plan of operation or the placement of solid
waste must be prepared. Various operational methods have been
developed, primarily on the basis of field experience. The methods used
for landfilling dry may be classified as (1) area, (2) trench, and (3)
The area method is used when the terrain is unsuitable for the
excavation of trenches in which to place the solid waste. The filling
operation usually is started by building an earthen levee against which
wastes are placed in thin layers and compacted. Each layer is compacted
as the filling progresses, until the thickness of the compacted waste
reaches a height varying from 2 to 3 m (6 to 10 ft.). At the time, and at
the end of each day’s operation, a 150 to 300 mm (6 to 12 in.) layer of
cover material is placed over the completed fill. The cover material must
be hauled in by the truck or earth moving equipments from adjacent land
or from borrow pit areas. In some newer landfill operations, the daily
cover material is omitted. A completed lift, including the cover material,
is called a cell. Successive lifts are placed on top of one another until the
final grade called for in the ultimate development plan is reached. A final
layer of cover material is used when the fill reaches the final design
The trench method of landfilling is ideally suited to areas where
an adequate depth of cover material is available at the site and where the
water table is well below the surface. To start the process (for a small
landfill), a portion of the trench is dug with a bulldozer and the dirt is
stock piled to form an embankment behind the first trench. Wastes are
then placed in the trench, spread into thin layer and compacted. The
operation continues until the desired height is reached. Cover material is


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

obtained by excavating an adjacent trench or continuing the trench that is

being filled. In large landfills, a dragline and one or more scrapers are
used to excavate a deep rectangular pit.
At locations, where natural or artificial depressions exist, it is often
possible to use them effectively for landfilling operations. Canyons,
ravines, dry borrow pits, and quarries have all been used for this purpose.
The technique to place and compact solid waste in depression landfills
vary with the geometry of the sites, the characteristics of the cover
material, the hydrology and geology of the sites, and the excess of the
site. In a canyon site, filling start at the head end of the canyon and ends
at the mouth. This practice prevents the accumulation of water behind
pushed up against the canyon face at a slope of about 2 to 1. In this way,
a high degree of compaction can be achieved. Gases in Landfills: Gases found in landfills include air,

ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide,
methane, nitrogen, and oxygen. Carbon dioxide and methane are
principal gases produced anaerobic respiration of organic solid waste
The anaerobic conversion of organic compounds is thought to
occur in three steps:
The first involves the enzyme-medicated transformation
(liquefaction) of higher-weight molecular compounds into compounds
suitable for use as source of energy and cell carbon;
The second is associated with the bacterial conversion of
compounds resulting from the first step into identifiable lower-molecular-
weight intermediate compounds; and the third products such as carbon
dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

The rate of decomposition in unmanaged landfills, as measured by gas

production reaches a peak within the first 2 years and then slowly tapers
off, continuing, in many cases, for a period of 25 years or more. Control of Gas Movement: The movement of gases in landfills

can be controlled by construction of vents and barriers and by gas
recovery. The lateral movement of gases produced in a landfill can be
controlled by installing vents made of materials that are more permeable
than surrounding soil. Gas vents are constructed of gravels. The spacing
of cell vents depends upon the width of the waste cells but usually varies
from 18 to 60 m (60 to 200 ft). The thickness of the gravel layer should
be such that it will remain continuous even though there may be
differential settling; 0.30 to 0.45 m (12 to 18 in) is recommended. Barrier
or well vents can be used to control the lateral movement of the Leachate in landfills: Leachate may be defined as liquid that has

percolated through solid waste and has extracted dissolved or suspended
materials from it. Under normal conditions, leachate is found in the
bottom of landfills. From there, its movement is through underlying
strata, although some lateral movement may also occur, depending on the
characteristics of the surrounding material. The rate of seepage of
leachate from the bottom of the landfill can be estimated by Darcy’s Law
by assuming that the material below the landfill to the top of the water
table is saturated and that a small layer of leachate exists at the bottom of
the fill. Under these conditions the leachate discharge rate per unit are is
equal to the value of the coefficient of permeability K expressed in meters
per day. The computed value represents the maximum amount of seepage
that would be expected, and this value should be used for design


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

purposes. Under normal conditions, the actual rate should be less than
this value because the soil column below the landfill would not be
saturated. Control of leachate movement: As leachate percolates through

the underlying strata, many of the chemical and biological constituents
originally contained in it will be removed by the filtering and adsorptive
action of the material composing the strata. In general, the extent of this
action depends on the characteristics of the soil, especially the clay
content. Because of the potential risk involved in allowing leachate to
percolates to the underground water, best practice calls for its elimination
or containment. Ultimately, it may be necessary to collect and treat the
The use of clay has been the favored method of reducing or
eliminating the percolation of leachate. Membrane liners have also been
used, but they are expensive and require care so that they will not be
damaged during filling operations. Equally important in controlling the
movement of leachate is the elimination of surface-water infiltration,
which is the major contributor to the total volume of leachate. With the
use of an impermeable clay layer, and appropriate surface slope (1 to 2
percent) and adequate drainage, surface infiltration can be controlled


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 2.1 Typical Landfill cross section

2.6.2 Incineration: Incineration is the complete oxidation (at high

temperature) of the waste material. It is the most widely used thermal
treatment technique. But, it has to be mentioned right in the beginning
that in India incineration of SW is not at all popular at present. This is
mainly due to fact that in general, Indian SW has gat relatively high
moisture content (22-45%), high density (260-560 kg/m3), high inert
content (30-45%) and a low heat content (3400-5000 kJ/kg). A heat
content of more than 5000 kJ/kg has been found to be required to make
the refuse incineration viable and economical justifiable. Also, the
installation cost of incineration is quite high.
The problem of municipal solid waste disposal has become public
concern as availability of landfill sites is becoming limited. Incineration
technology has proved to be reliable technique for reduction of MSW


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

even though it is not ultimate disposal method as it yields residual end

product, which require further disposal. MSW incineration achieves up to
70% and 90% reduction in waste mass and volume respectively.
The term ‘incineration’ and ‘combustion’ have the same definition;
a process of burning, resulting from the rapid oxidation of the substances.
Both of these terms have been used interchangeably in waste incineration
documents. However, combustion is generally used for steam power
generation. Incineration on the other hand is a controlled burning of waste
in properly designed and constructed furnaces with proper care of air
Incineration technique can be used for destroying a variety of
waste including municipal, medical, hazardous waste and residue from
dump-site clean-up. Infact US EPA(Environment Protection Agency)
research data and industry’s opening experience indicate tat incineration,
when compared to other alternative technologies, has the highest overall
degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of waste stream. Parts of incineration unit: The incineration unit consists of

furnace, cooling equipment, air pollution control equipment and stack

Cooling Air pollution

Equipment Control equipment

Air Bottom ash Flyash Stack

Fig2.2 flow diagram of incineration plant


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Furnace: The furnace/combustion chamber consists of primary

and secondary chamber. In the primary chamber wastes are fed and fired
with less than and more than stoichiometric air requirement depending on
the type of furnace. The off-gases are burned out in the secondary
chamber, where 100% to 140% of the stoichiometric air requirement is
injected. Each of the chambers normally has one or two burners to
provide the heat required to bring the furnace up to operating
temperatures and maintain its required operating temperature. For
properly operated incinerator, the combustion is essentially complete by
the time the hot gases exit the secondary chamber i.e. no further
significant changes occur in the concentration of principals combustion
gas variables such as CO, CO2 and O2, except by dilution due to leakage
or the introduction of air. The temperature should be maintained at 800±
50ºC in the primary and 1050±50ºC with the retention time of at least one
second in the secondary chamber. Combustion temperatures lower than
the mentioned temperature favours dioxin and furan emissions.
The furnace is fitted with waste feeding, fuel feeding, refractor and
ash remover systems. The feeding of refuse may be either batch or
continuous. Batch feeding of refuse directly in to the furnace is done in
most cases, with a hydraulic ram expelling waste from the hopper. Cooling equipment: Cooling of flue gas required after it has

left combustion zone to permit discharge to air pollution controlled
device. In general, cooling at 230-370ºC is necessary if the gas is
discharged to air pollution control equipment while cooling to 470-590ºC
is adequate for discharged to a refractory lined stack. Cooling can be
done by water evaporation or by dilution with air. Water evaporation
condition can be installed as either an alternative to heat removal in boiler


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

type incinerator or add-on to boiler system to lower gas temperature

below those considered safe in a boiler to improved removal efficiency of
acid gases, mercury, dioxin/furan compound and some other pollutants.
In wet method, water is introduced into the hot gas stream and
evaporation occurs. Wet cooling can be: wet bottom method or dry
bottom method. In wet bottom water much more than required for
cooling the flue gas is sprayed. In the dry bottom method, only enough
water is added to cool the gas to preset temperature and the system is
designed and operated to assure complete evaporation. In both cases there
is reduction in gas volume and the gas is humified during the cooing,
which may be advantageous to some type of APCE (Air Pollution
Control Equipment) and disadvantageous for other (fabric filter). Dilution
with air is the simplest method for the flue gas cooling. Only damper of
air control is necessary for a system with adequate chart. On the other
hand large quantities of air are required for dilution. The increase in
volume increase the capacity and operating cost of the equipment which
follows the point at which dilution take place.
Another method for cooling the flue gas is by use of convention
boiler in which heat is removed from the flue gas by the generation of
either stream or hot water. The advantages of this system are that heat is
recovered and that the shrinkage in the flue gas is greater than with other
method. Hot water can be used for low-temperature industrial as space-
heating application. Stream can be used for both heating and generation
of electricity. Air pollution control equipment(APCE): Emission from

combustion of solid waste and their potential health impacts have become
an increasing concern, especially as more incineration facilities are


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

planned and built. To meet the stringent standard established by the state
and the federal government, it is therefore required to install APC
equipment in the incineration unit. The APCE effectively collects
particulate matter, capture trace matter and organics and neutralize acid
gases produced in the combustion chamber. The process of selecting an
optical APC technology is complex. The following criteria should be
• Pollutant removal efficiency
• Capital investment to include
• Operating cost
• Impact on incinerator availability
• Operability and maintainability
• Compatibility with other regulation e.g. noise, odor etc. Different types of APCE are discussed below Dry cyclonic separators: The cyclonic is an inertial separator.

Gas entering the cyclone forms e vortex eventually reverses the direction
and forms a second vortex leaving the cyclonic chamber. Particulate
matter, because of their inertia, tends to move towards outside wall. They
will drop from this wall, the sides of the cyclone, to an external receiver
for an ultimate disposal. Venture scrubber: Venture scrubbers are widely used, where

water is readily available. The heart of the system is a wetted venture
throat zone, where gas passes through a contracted area, reaching
velocities of 200 to 600 feet per second, and then pass through an
expansion system. From the expansion system the gas enters the enlarge


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

chamber where its velocity suddenly decreases. The higher inertia of the
water particles throws than against the bottom of the scrubber where they
eventually exit the gas stream. Electrostatic precipitator: Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs)

are effective devices for the removal of airborne particulate matter. A
negative charge is induced in the particulate matter passing through the
corona. A grounded surface, or collector electrode, surrounds the
discharge electrode. Charged particulate will collect on the ground
surface by a series of rappers for collection an ultimate disposal. Heat recovery and power generation: The simplest method of

waste heat recovery from MSW incineration has been the incorporation
of the waste heat boilers immediately following the incinerator for the
regeneration of hot water or stream. The cooling water under pressure is
passed into pipes or tubes immersed in hot gas stream or arranged in
panel lining of furnace wall. Often, the wall tubes are welded together
with a narrow steel strip between the individual tubes to form a
continuous, gas tight membrane or water wall enclosure. Boiler can also
be built as a separate device, as in waste heat boilers. Steam can be used
directly for industrial process and building heating. Steam can also be
used to produce mechanical or electrical energy with a steam turbine.
The principal components used for energy recovery are boilers of
steam production, steam turbines’ and reciprocating engines as prime
move for mechanical energy, and electrical generators for the conversions
of mechanical energy into electricity. Steam turbines are used in larger
systems (10 to 50 MW) and gas turbines and reciprocating engines are
used in smaller systems.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

The amount of steam generated per pound of refuse burned

depends on many factors. The most efficient generation has been in
water-tube-wall boiler operating with low excess air without interruption
for 24 hours a day. To achieve satisfactory heat generation, it is necessary
to provide auxiliary fuel to maintain constant generation because often
the varying moisture content of the refuse and the varying supply of the
refuse. Energy from the waste plant attain 80% efficiency in the
conversion, from fuel to steam (fluidized bet boilers firing MSW achieve
85% efficiency). The majority of energy from the waste plant limits
steam pressure to 40-50 bar and steam to 400ºC. the major purpose of
energy from waste plant is to dispose off waste in a hygienically and
environmentally sound manner and generate power. Advantages of incineration are:

• Relatively reliable and full proof.
• Not affected by external parameters.
• Treatment is relatively complete.
• Compact unit i.e. large area not required
• Chance of heat recovery and power generation.
• Relatively faster treatment.
• Technology which is evolved with time and modernization.
• Availability of many different types.
• Last resort when all other techniques have failed. The disadvantages of incineration are:

• Relatively high cost.
• If not properly operated there is probability of causing air pollution.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• It may cause hazards like explosion.

• Odours problems (it is not more than from other treatment units).
• Emission of toxic like dioxins and furans.

Fig 2.3 Cross section of incineration plant

1. Waste holding area/pit

2. Grab
3. Feed hoppers
4. Moving grate
5. Hydraulic arm to push the waste
6. Air holding chamber
7. Ash quenching
8. Boiler
9. Flue gas cleaning system
10. Flue gas cleaning system
11. Stack


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

2.6.3 Composting: Composting is a natural microbiological process

where bacteria break down the organic fractions of the municipal-solid-
waste stream under controlled conditions to produce a pathogen-free
material called Compost that can be used for potting soil, soil
amendments (for example, to lighten and improve the soil structure of
clay soils), and mulch. The microbes, fungi, and macro-organisms that
contribute to this biological decomposition are generally aerobic.
Systematic turning of the material, which mixes the different components
and aerates the mixture, generally accelerates the process of breaking
down the organic fraction. The composting process takes from 14 to 180
Composting being e biological process is sensitive to
environmental influence along with physical and chemical characteristics
of waste. Some of the important parameters generally affecting the
activity of the organisms causing stabilization are moisture content,
particle size, aeration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, pH, and temperature. In
the succeeding section the effect of these parameters on composting is
briefly discussed. Methods of composting: Indore method of composting: In pits it is similar to Bangalore

method except that it is timed at specific intervals to help maintain
aerobic conditions which will ensure high temperature, uniform
decomposition as well as absence o flies and odour. While filling with
refuse and night soil, about 60cm on the longitudinal side of the pit is
kept vacant for starting the timing operation. The timing is manually


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

carried out after 4-7 days using long handled rakes and the second timing
after 5-10 more days

Fig 2 4 Typical cross section of Composting Bangalore method: A layer of coarse refuse is first put at the

bottom of the pit to a depth of 15-20cm which is 7.5cm deeper for a 25cm
width at the pit edges. Night soil is poured to thickness of 5cm in the
depressed portion and the elevated edges prevent its drainage to sides. On
top of this, e second layer of refuse is spread which sandwiches the night
soil layer. Such alternate layers of refuse and night soil are repeated till it
reaches a height of 30cm above the edges of the pits. The top layer of the
refuse should be atleast 25-30cm thick. The top of the mass is rounded to
avoid rainwater entering the pit. Sometimes a top layer of soil is given to
prevent fly breeding. It is allowed to decompose for 4-6 months, after


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

which the compost can be taken out for use. The above method is
anaerobic in nature (absence of O2). Windrow composting: In tropical region with higher ambient

temperature, composting in open windrows is preferred. The windrows
(stack or piles in rows) have to be timed at suitable intervals to maintain
the aerobic reaction. Vermicomposting: Vermicomposting or composting with

earthworms, in an excellent technique for recycling food waste in the
apartments as well as composting yards wastes in the backyard. Worm
bins located in near a hot water heater in the garage during the winter will
save many a trip through snow to the backyard compost bin. Letting
worms recycle your food waste also saves your back, because you don’t
have to turn over the compost to keep it aerated.
Vermicomposting contains not only worm castings, but also
bedding material and organic waste s at various stages of decomposition.
It also contains worms at various stages of development and other
microorganisms associated with the composting processing.
Earthworm casting in the home garden often contains 5-11
times more nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium as the surrounding soil.
Secretion in the intestinal tracts of earthworms, along with soil passing
though earthworms, makes nutrients more concentrated and available for
plant uptake, including micronutrients.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Parameter* Garden compost Vermicompost

pH 7.80 6.80
EC (mmhos/cm)** 3.60 11.70
Total Kjehdahl nitrogen 0.80 1.94
Nitrate nitrogen (%)**** 156.50 902.20
Phosphorous (%) 0.35 0.47
Potassium (%) 0.48 0.70
Calcium (%) 2.27 4.40
Sodium (%) <.01 0.02
Magnesium (%) 0.57 0.46
Iron (ppm) 11690.00 7563.00
Zinc (ppm) 128.00 278.00
Manganese (ppm) 414.00 475.00
Copper (ppm) 17.00 27.00
Boron (ppm) 25.00 34.00
Aluminum (ppm) 7380.00 7012.00
Table 2.6 parameters of vermin composting
* units-ppm=parts per millions, mmhos/cm=millimhos per cm, **
EC=electrical conductivity is a measure (millimhos per cm) of the
relative salinity of soil or the amount of soluble salts it contains.
***Kjehdahl nitrogen= is a measure of the total percentage of the
nitrogen in the sample including that in organic matter.**** nitrate
nitrogen= that nitrogen is the sample that is immediately available for
plant uptake by the roots.

Chapter 3


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Mumbai, the commercial and financial capital of India is spread

over an area of around 437.71 km2 and houses more than 12 million
people. Financial and commercial institutions as well as the industrial
houses in Mumbai provide considerable employment opportunities. The
consequent large scale migration has resulted in very high densities of
population and corresponding demand on its infrastructure. One of the
important components of urban infrastructure is Solid Waste management
(SWM) which has a direct impact on health and environmental safety of
the city.

MCGM is responsible for municipal solid waste management of

Mumbai running a comprehensive operation of street cleaning,
construction, maintenance and cleaning of public sanitary conveniences,
waste collection, waste transportation, and waste disposal (including
disposal of dead bodies of animals). MCGM maintains a large fleet of
vehicles for transportation and secondary collection of waste from
various waste storage containers and bins. The present municipal solid
waste disposal facilities include three disposal sites located at Deonar,
Mulund and Gorai.

Mumbai generates approximately 6,000 tons per day (TPD) of

MSW at the rate of 0.475 kilograms per capita per day. In addition,
approximately 2,400 TPD of construction and demolition waste is also
generated. Final disposal of the MSW in Mumbai since last many years is
by open dumping method without any waste treatment. The dumping
grounds are near creeks and surrounded by residential development
around it. Waste dumping at the site is not scientific and unsanitary
condition prevail which causes nuisance to the surrounding land uses.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Deonar Mulund Gorai

Total 132 25 19.6
Year of 1927 1968 1972
MSW received 4100 600 1200
Debris received 1000 200 1200
Wards supplying A, B, C, D, E, A, C, D, E, F/N, R/S, R/N, R/C,
waste F/N, F/S, G/N, K/W, P/N, P/S
G/N,G/S, H/E, G/S, H/W, H/E,
H/W, K/W,.K/L,
K/E, L, M/W, M/W,
M/E, N, M/E, N, S, and T

Table 3.1 Details of the Existing Dumping Grounds and Approximate

Quantity of MSW and Debris Received


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.1 Dumping ground locations


The population of Mumbai as per 2001 census was 11.91 million.
The past data shows that the population has grown four folds from 1951
(2.97 million). Though, the growth rate has been coming down, the last
decade shows 20% growth in population. The population has been
projected for a period of 25 years using the arithmetic method. Similarly,
waste quantity generated per capita per day has also been projected for a
period of 25 years to estimate the quantum of waste generated as
tabulated below. It is estimated that the waste quantity will increase from


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

the present 0.475 kilograms/capita/day to 0.65 kilograms/capita/day

during the projected period.
Year Population Waste Quantity in TPD

2005 12.8 6000

2015 14.4 8100
2025 15.9 9780
2030 16.2 10530
Table 3.2 Population and MSW Generation Projection


1. B ward is the smallest of all the Municipal wards in Mumbai.

However the density of population is the highest (8 persons per sq.

2. B ward is the centre for commodities trading activity and has largest
number of wholesale markets, which attract a large number of floating
3. Presence of a large number of house gullies which are filled with

drainage water, garbage and rodents like rats.

4. A large number of residential premises with very low rentals, which

are old structures and need substantial repairs. These include private
as well as govt/MCGM owned properties such as BIT chawls. Some
of these are as old as 70 years. They account for as much as 30 to 50%
of residential population of the ward. They are characterized by very
low rentals – Rs. 30 pm inclusive of water supply and sanitation
services and full building maintenance for MCGM properties such as
BIT chawls.
5. No system for house-to-house waste collection is provided by MCGM

as it is very difficult to cater to several small residences in a very


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

small area and narrow lanes and prevalence of “infamous house

gullies” where age-old habits of throwing garbage prevail.
6. As a result the waste disposal system is dominated by a few critical
collection spots such as Memonwada, Koliwada, Bibijan and
Pydhonie which overflow with garbage at all times of the day.
7. Waste is primarily collected and deposited at collection spots by

municipal staff, restaurants and other commercial establishments. It is

then transported by a private contractor to the dumping ground at
8. No separate systems exist for collection and disposal of Institutional

wastes such as Hotels and Markets which account for over 35% of the
total waste generated in the ward.
9. The distance from ward office to Deonar dumping ground is 19.75


B ward is one of the smallest wards of Municipal Corporation of Greater
Mumbai. The density of population is the highest. The boundaries of the
ward are –
East – Upto P D ‘Mello Road
West – Upto Ibrahim Rehimtulla Road & Abdul Rehman Street
North – Upto Ramchandra Bhatt Marg & Jinabhai Mulji Rathod Marg
South – Upto Lokmanya Tilak Marg
The ward has wholesale markets located on Narsi Natha Street,
Keshavji Naik Road, Nagdevi Street, Abdul Rehman Street and
Mohammad Ali Road


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.2 Wards of Mumbai

Area of Ward 2.47 km


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Population 1.4 lacs(approx)

Floating Population per day 1.5 lacs(approx)
Total Premises Residential 3229 properties
Approximate Slum Population 50000
No. of Hawkers
Licensed 825
Unatuthorized 5000
Shops and Establishments 17,677
Eating Places 237
Markets 2 Nos.
Municipal 8 Nos.
Private Nil
Hospitals 5 Nos.
Community Bins 14 Nos.(Trolley and open dump
(MCGM Collection Points) +10 TDP spots)
Table 3.3 factual data about the ward
Population of the ward : 1.4 lacs
Floating Population : 1.5 lacs
Total Estimated population per day : Around 3 lacs.

Hence while preparing the plan for SWM of B ward, it is important

to consider the population of the ward as 3 lacs and not 1.4 lacs.
(Estimated generation of waste based on the norm of 450 gm. per capita
waste generation per day: 135 tpd)


Current system at B ward is really geared to collect the garbage in
whichever form it is available from the collection points and transported
by the private contractor but the labour for putting the waste into the
trucks is provided by the municipal staff.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Municipal sweepers try to clean the house gullies as well as

municipal properties such as BIT chawls as much as possible.
• There is no house to house collection done.
• While the dept does the job of removing the garbage fairly
competently under very difficult circumstances, there is no thought, no
plan to improve the practices,introduce segregation at least in a limited
• There is a lack of morale, motivation and sense of ownership in the
staff at all levels in the ward especially in solid waste management.

Eateries and markets generate a lot of pure bio degradable waste.

Current waste handling system mixes such waste with dry and other
waste and transports all the mixed waste to Deonar dumping ground. It is
virtually impossible to get segregated waste from most parts of residential
areas from this ward except via a few isolated efforts in buildings.
But low grade/ high volume eateries and markets as well as unofficial
slaughtering provides a good opportunity to obtain mostly segregated bio
degradable waste and establishing a bio gas plant as a demo can be quite
effective in this area.
In fact, preventing 500 kg wet waste from such origins will
definitely reduce the transportation load and to that extent, there is some
return on the investment.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.3 Composition of waste


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.4 Existing approximate composition of waste in B-ward

Sr. Sources of waste in B-ward Approx. Weight (tpd)

1 Eating houses/stalls/ hawkers 35
2 Residential Commercial 70
3 Markets 17
4 Debris 15
5 Animal Waste 5
Total 142
Table 3.4 Composition of Waste in B-ward




Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

The ward has adopted 4 systems for the collection and disposal of
waste generated in the ward.
• Compactor system (Privately managed) – These compactors can
carry 8 tonnes of waste, which is not effectively compacted.
Compactor attends10 sheds and 3 open dumps out of which 4 sheds
and 1 open dump are very critical with heavy generation of waste.
These compactors are old compactors and do not provide standard
bins lifting arrangements.

• Tempo (Privately managed by M/s DCON India Pvt. Ltd.) –

Having a capacity of 1.5 tonnes waste (35 baskets with 85 ltr capacity
each) 5 tempos –2morning+2afternoon+1night

• TDP – (Municipal) – Having 2.5 tonnes of waste capacity. TDPs

are placed at 10 places in the ward having total number of 15 TDP
containers served by 4 TDP vehicles

• Dumper lifting thru JCB (Municipal) – Having a capacity of 8 m.t.

3 dumpers are provided twice a week


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.5 Garbage collection spots at B-ward


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Table 3.5 Quantity of waste lifted


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.6 Garbage lifting by compactor

Fig 3.7 Condition of trolleys

3.5.1 Garbage Compactor Observations:

• System handled by private compactor and Payment to the contractor
per tonne of waste is Rs 545/-
• Ceiling put on waste lifting by Compactor is 57 tpd
• Compactor lifts around 65-70 tpd
• Eventhough it is a compactor it does not do technically effective
• There are total 14 dumping spots from where the private compactor
lifts garbage (11sheds and 3 open dumps)


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Compactor also lifts harkat i.e. housegalli waste Total 5 compactors

are provided – Work is done in 3 shifts (5+4+2 hours)
• Motor loaders are BMC labor and the private contractor doesn’t have
control on the motor loaders
• Sometimes the compactor comes late for the shift, sometimes the
labour gathers late eventually the shifts starts quite late and timings
cannot be fixed at the spots for local people.

3.5.2 Tempo (managed privately by M/s DCON India Ltd):

• Private contractor provides 5 tempos - 2 in the morning, 2 in the
afternoon and 1 at night (For afternoon shift one additional tempo has
been started)
• No ceiling on weight lifting but each tempo is supposed to make 3
trips per shift
• Tempo lifts housegalli waste during day time
• Per shift the contractor gets Rs 576/- (3 trips per shift)
• Payment is made at the end of the month on the basis of actual trips
• The contractor provides a driver and 35 baskets (85 ltr each – apprx
60-65 kgs capacity) in the tempo as per BMC specifications
• BMC provides a staff of 2 labour and 1 Mukadam on the tempo
• BMC labour lifts around 60-65 ltr i.e. apprx 40 kgs
• 35 baskets*40kgs = 1575 kgs total weight per trip and such 3 trips of 4
• Weight of waste lifted by tempo per day is 18,900 kgs i.e. 18-19 tpd
• Reporting is done at the ML chowky but quantity lifted is not cross
checked strictly at the chowky


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Generally tempos are unloaded at BRC (Bulk Refuse Container) at C

• In the morning due to traffic jams at the c ward spot, B ward tempos
are emptied at some TDP spot in the ward, even at night in the last trip
the Tempo is emptied at some TDP spot (There is triple handling of
waste – when waste is lifted by tempo and emptied in TDP container
which is emptied at Mahalaxmi transfer station and from there this
waste is loaded in dumper/truck to dump at Deonar)
• During day shift the trip is scrutinized at the C ward along with
scrutiny at ML chowky in the Ward
• At night there is no verification at the C ward because there is no
BMC staff for night shift (No source to cross check tempo dumping)
• Tempo trips are organised as per the reporting done by JOs(Junior
Overseer) regarding housegalli waste in the section/bit. Tempo also
collects garbage from Sydneham compound, which is a BMC
• At night (with respect to hotel service) the route is defined but tempo
leaves from ward at irregular timings.
• By the time the tempo starts its 3rd trip at night many hotels are closed
• The baskets in the tempo are not user friendly, when they are full
workers cannot lift them and put into the tempo or unload at the BRC

3.5.3 TDP- Tata Dumper Placer (Managed by MCGM):

• There are 10 TDP spots having total number of 15 TDP containers in
B Ward
• Almost all the TDPs are placed in areas, which are not high waste
generation spots (With the exception of trolley spot recently converted


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

to TDP spot at Koliwada). TDPs in the ward are mostly placed in the
commercial areas and not in residential areas.
• Waste carrying capacity of the TDP is 2.5 tonnes
• 4 vehicles are provided to lift the containers, these TDPs are unloaded
at Mahalaxmi transfer station
• These vehicles are provided from Worli (garage) office along with a
• There is no ward labour on the vehicle
• The vehicle trip is scrutinized at both ward level (ML chowky) and at
Mahalaxmi transfer station - The weight lifted is not checked at any of
the check posts, sometimes half loaded TDPs are also lifted just
because the vehicle has to complete its trips
• Segregation of waste is not possible in the TDP. Many times good
quality biodegradable waste generated by hotels and markets gets
mixed with dry as well as wet waste from house gallis
• It was observed that unlike the compactor spots, TDP spots are loaded
with more of dry waste

Fig 3.8 TDP spot on Kalyan street fully occupied by Drug addicts
3.5.4 Dumpers (Managed by Municipality):


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.9 Dumpers managed by municipality

Dumpers are used by Conservancy and Maintenance Dept. at the ward

level. The tempo, compactor and TDPs are supposed to take care of the
mixed waste and dumpers were looked upon as vehicles to lift debris
from different places in the ward. But the ward office doesn’t have any
guideline for the use of dumpers.

3.5.5 Debris:
Apart from Maintenance dept, Roads dept gets a dumper every day,
where debris lifting is done manually by 6 labour and 1 mukadam.
Sometimes if urgent work comes (e.g. complaint from local corporator
regarding lifting debris in his/her constituency) then the debris lifted is
unloaded in the ward itself (Elphinston bridge is a regular place for such
debris unloading), and surprisingly such debris remains unattended for
quite a long period. Maintenance dept lifts debris that is created mainly
because of road work, some repairs etc. Because of the dual authorities
involved in debris collection and disposal becomes nobody’s
responsibility leading to emergence of debris dumping spots at many


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

3.5.6 Informal debris dumping spots in the ward

• Under J J Flyover
• On Carnac Bridge
• Near Mandvi Post Office
• On Solapur Street – parallel to Raichur Street
• On the bridge at Jinabai Mulji Rathod Marg - from Walpakhadi
towards Wadi Bunder and on Issaji Street

3.5.7 Dry waste observation:

• The ward generates more quantity of wet waste as compared to the
dry waste
• On all the municipal collection spots, the waste is dumped and
lifted in mixed form Dry waste is mainly found in the areas where
wholesale markets are situated and where waste is mainly collected in
• Many TDP spots are managed by rag pickers who take out the dry
waste from the bins and sell it to the scrap vendors in the ward
• Many a times municipal labour on the compactor is seen
segregating the waste at the compactor spots
• Most of the hotels mainly bars have there own system to manage
the dry waste which is mostly pet bottles and or glass bottles

3.5.8 Market waste observation:

There are 4 markets in the ward –
• J B Shah Market (Municipal Market)
• Dongri Municipal Market (Municipal Market)
• Char Nal Market (Unauthorized market)


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Vegetable market at Lokmanya Tilak Marg near Crawford Junction

(Unauthorized market).

Other commodity markets are situated on Narsi Natha street, Keshvji

Naik Street, Nagdevi street and Abdul Rehman street. The commodity
markets have more generation of dry waste which is picked up by the rag
pickers at some of the collection spots especially at TDP spots. J B Shah
Market is a wholesale market and mainly has a sale of spices, food grains
and fruits whereas Dongri market has a sale of food grain items,
vegetables and also sizable amount of nonveg (chicken, mutton and fish).
J B Shah Market is located besides Masjid Bunder Railway station which
is mostly commercial and wholesale market area and Dongri market is
located in an area near Sandhurst Rd station which is a combination of
residential population and commercial activities. Only common situation
in this is both the markets are cleaned by labour from Market dept. This
entire market activity is not under the charge of ward authorities. Both
these markets contribute a small share of waste at the collection spots
named after the markets. Lot of waste is section waste and then the waste
from hotels and hawkers in the surrounding areas. J.B. Shah Market has
120 shops out of which 38 are big store rooms (warehouses) whereas
Dongri Markethas 152 shops. The non-veg waste generated in Dongri
Market is collected by an offal van(vehicle used for transporting non-veg
waste), which collects the non-veg waste twice in a day.

3.5.9 Dongri Market:


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• The market generates around 2 m3 waste which is mixed in nature

• This spot was created only for the market waste but it is used for
dumping of BMC section waste, hotel waste from the hotels in the
vicinity, non- veg waste from the mutton, chicken stalls
(authorized/unauthorized) and residential waste
• A shed has been constructed outside the market from the local
corporator’s fund but the surface is uneven
• There are total 152 shops out of which 45 belong to fish vendors,
22 mutton shops and 10 chicken shops make it a market with more
sale of non veg items
• This shows that the market generates more of non-veg waste rather
than the green vegetable waste
• The sweeping and maintenance of the market is done by the market
department and the ward doesn’t have any control on the market
• Eventhough the market is cleaned by the market labour, the waste
other than non-veg waste is lifted by conservancy department from the
community collection spot outside the market
• An offal van comes to lift non-veg waste twice a day
• Generally 2 trolleys are kept on the spot outside the market
• Private compactor attends the spot in 3 shifts – morning, afternoon
and night
• Many a times rag pickers are seen on the spot who segregate dry
waste which has resale value –these rag pickers are mainly drug
addicts and female rag pickers are hardly seen on the spot

3.5.10 Hotel waste observation:


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

There are around 233 hotels in the ward registered with the ward
office. Besides these, there are a large number of small movable eating
joints such as tea stalls, coconut stalls, sugarcane juice stalls etc. (called
as Tapryas). There are also a lot of stalls of non vegetarian eatable items
such as kabab and meat stalls.

3.5.11 Present System of Collection and disposal of Hotel waste in B

The total generation of hotel waste in the ward is around 35 tpd.
This includes waste generated by the tea stalls, sugarcane juice and
coconut vendors as well as a large number of non-veg eatable stalls.
All the vendors dump their waste at the collection spots at different
times of the day. The hotel waste which is a relatively segregated wet
waste is also dumped at the collection spots and gets mixed with the other
waste at the spot.

3.5.12 Hospital waste observations:

• No use of biomedical van door to door service by small
dispensaries and clinics in the ward.
• Waste is disposed off mostly at the collection spots or in
housegallis if the quantity is small.
• Type of the garbage is- Cotton, Needles (used to give shots or draw
blood), Injection Wrapper Strips, Plastic, Plastic Saline bottles , Blood
Soaked Bandage , discarded surgical gloves (after surgery), syringe
• Vehicle service for the collection of Bio-Medical Waste is twice a
Week only for the hospitals.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Quantity of Dry Waste is greater than Wet Waste. Some hospitals

do not keep the garbage separately.
• In absence of the service by the vehicle of Bio-medical waste ,
private sweepers of hospital burn that waste or they burry that waste
under the nearby land available like garden etc.

Total number of House gullies which are Cleaned daily 557

in B ward
Total number of House gullies which are Cleaned 110
Total number of House gullies which are Cleaned Twice 163
Total number of House gullies which have been 127
Total number of house gullies in B ward 947
Table 3.5 House gullies observation

Fig 3.10 Unhygienic conditions were observed in the house gully due to
leakages from downtake pipe


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.11 Due to garbage resultant filthy conditions in the house gullies
the nuisance of pest and rodents was more

Fig 3.12 Garbage thrown in housegully

Fig 3.13 Drinking water supply lines and sewerage connections

were observed side by side which may contaminate water


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Fig 3.14 Numerous water connections in the House gully from the Main
supply lines

Fig 3.15 Encroachments within the house gullies

3.5.13 Important observations:

• The house gullies are provided for installation of drainage systems
for the two adjacent buildings, but these house gullies are used for
throwing garbage from the households.
• The House gullies are in total unhygienic condition with leaking
drainage systems, heaps of garbage and presence of pests and rodents.
• Some of the house gullies in the ward are already encroached
whereas in some cases some constructions were seen within the House


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Many illegal water connection lines can be seen within the house
gullies, which have been taken (tapped) from the main supply lines.
• Drinking water connection pipes and drainage (down take) pipes
were seen side by side from where contamination of the drinking
water is possible if the drinking water pipes are damaged.
• In most of the cases underground chamber lids have been broken
which makes it easier for the garbage in the house gully to enter into
the chambers and further blocking drainage lines.
• House gullies are cleaned by the conservancy labour and if the
waste is less in quantity i.e. 2-3 baskets per house gully then the
labour takes the waste which is removed from the house gully to the
nearby common collection spots and if the quantity is more then the
waste is dumped outside the house gully on the road for about 1-2
days so that water drains out from the waste. It is collected by the
tempo and is dumped at a TDP spot in the ward.
• Sometimes if the house gullies are not cleaned regularly, and the
quantity of waste dumped outside the house gullies is more than the
capacity of the tempo then dumpers along with JCB and even
compactors are used for collecting the waste.
• House gullies from Nagdevi street, Sarang St, Bhajipala lane
Janjikar street (which is mostly the commercial area) were found full
of commercial waste i.e. dry waste including papers, polythene bags,
cardboard packing etc.
• Another major problem of pests and rodents was observed in
almost all house gullies of the total surveyed house gullies were
observed with full of garbage and similarly the house gullies were
observed with drainage problems such as leakages from the down take
pipes, due to poor conditions of sewer traps and gully traps further


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

creating problems with the garbage entering the underground

chambers thus blocking the drainage lines.

3.5.14 Problems faced by House gully cleaning labour:

• In some cases the underground chamber covers were either missing or
in bad condition which makes it difficult for the sweepers to work in.
• In some places the entrances of the house gullies were blocked
because of which the sweepers cannot clean it regularly.
• One of the biggest problems faced by the house gully labour is that
even when they are cleaning the house gullies the residents facing the
house gullies throw waste directly on them.
• Plumber shops, tea stalls, dry cleaning or ironing shops were seen at
the entrances of the house gullies which make it difficult for the
workers to clean it regularly and if it is cleaned then these shop
keepers don’t allow the workers to leave the garbage in front of their
stalls or shops.

There are 79 people working for cleaning of house gullies which is

permanent labour. There is only one shift and the shift timings are 6.30
a.m. to 1.30 p.m. The staff cleaning the house gullies has to work in
inhuman conditions. Many house gullies have drainage leakages and a lot
of waste. Some of the house gullies are very narrow making it very
difficult for the labour to enter in them for cleaning.
The sweepers cleaning the housegallis collect the waste in baskets
which are hung to a wooden pole and are carried to the nearby collection
spot by the two sweepers on their shoulders.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

3.5.15 Slaughtering :
A sizable quantity of animal slaughter waste is dumped on the
collection spots especially at the Dongri market and Memonwada
collection spot slaughtering in the ward.

3.5.16 Animal waste generated in the ward:

• There is only one municipal Market (Dongri Market) which has
licensed shops for selling meat, chicken and fish in B ward.
• There are around 19 Meat stalls, 8 poultry (chicken) stalls, 5-6 dry
fish squatters and around 100 fish squatters. Waste from these stalls is
collected twice a day by BMC offal van.
• Except Dongri Market, there is no special BMC service for
collection of non-veg waste.
• Private shopkeepers and stall owners, outside BMC market, are
dumping the slaughter waste at the community collection spots.
• Animal waste is brought to the community collection spots in open
containers through their own staff or many a times through drug

Fig 3.16 Slaughtering in B ward


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Illegal slaughter business was observed (goat cutting) in some

lanes such as Attar gully, Dr Memon Marg and M.A. Sarang Marg
• This illegal slaughtering is carried out in extremely unhygienic



fig no 3.17 Structure Of Conservancy Department At Ward Level

3.7 The general procedure at ML(Motor Loaders) chowkey is as

• The shift starts at 6.30 a.m. But the labour assembles by 6.45am.
Compactor comes by 6.45-7 a.m.
• The labour signs the attendance register-There are two registers for
beat B1 and B2. Time taken 15 minutes.
• The Mukadum fills the log sheet on the basis of the attendance
register manually.-Time taken 15 minutes.
• DR labour is called to fill in the gaps for permanent labour.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Their names are entered in the DR attendance register and then the
labour signs.
• Their names are entered in the log sheet.
• Log sheet is given to the compactor driver who carried it with him
to the dumping ground.

The total time taken for completing this procedure is atleast 45 minutes to
one hour.


Sr.N Collectio Name of Name of Generati Time of

o. n Spot Collection spot Road on in collection
No. cu.m3
1 C-1 Abdul rehman Abdul 6 m3 7:30am to
street rehman street 8:30am
2 C-3 Mirchi Abhaychand 8m 8:45am to
Gndhi marg 11:00am
3 C-2 Bibijan street Bibijan street 16m 7:15am to
4 C-4 Chunabhatt Miyan 6m 10:45am to
Ahmed 11:30am
5 C-5 Mandvi police Mohd Ali 1m3 7:15am to
quarter road 7:45am
6 C-6 Pydhonie Ibrahim 17m 8:00am to
Mohd 11:30am


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

7 C-10 Memonwada Imamwada 16m3 7:15am to

road 10:45am
8 C-8 Asha Sadan Samantbai 1m 11:00am to
nanji marg 11:30am
9 C-11 Koliwada Madhav rao 12m 7:15am to
rokade marg 11:00am
10 C-12 Sydnam S.R. road 3m 11:15am to
Compound 11:45am
11 C-4 Chunabhatt Miyan 4m 2:15pm to
Ahmed 3:00pm
12 C-2 Bibijan street Bibijan street 6m3 3:15pm to
13 C-10 Memonwada Imamwada 10m 2:00pm to
road 4:15pm
14 C-7 Dongri market Navroji hill 10m 4:30pm to
road no.4 6:30pm
15 C-6 Pydhonie Ibrahim 17m 2:00pm to
Mohd 5:00pm
16 C-8 Asha Sadan Samantbai 1m3 5:15pm to
nanji marg 6:00pm
17 C-3 Mirchi Abhaychand 12m 2:15pm to
Gndhi marg 5:00pm
18 C-9 Keshavji naik K.Naik marg 4m 5:15pm to
19 C-12 Sydnam S.R. road 8m 2:15pm to
Compound 4:45pm
20 C-11 Koliwada Madhav rao 2m 5:00pm to
rokade marg 5:30pm


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

21 C-10 Memonwada Imamwada 10m3 10:15pm to

road 12:30am
22 C-7 Dongri market Navroji hill 10m 12:45am to
road no.4 2:00am
23 C-6 Pydhonie Ibrahim 12m 10;30pm to
Mohd 12:30am
24 C-4 Chunabhatt Miyan 2m3 12:45am to
Ahmed 1:30am
25 C-9 Keshavji naik K.Naik marg 1m3 1:45am to
26 C-11 Koliwada Madhav rao 4m 10:00pm to
rokade marg 11:30pm
27 C-4 Chunabhatt Miyan 1m 11:45pm to
Ahmed 12:30am
Table 3.6 Route maps for Municipal Compactor (16m3)

Sr.No. Collection Name of Name of Generatio Time of

Spot No. Collection Road n in cu.m collection
1 T-7 Masjid Y.M Road 5m3 7:00am to
bunder 1:30pm
2 T-8 Masjid Y.M Road 5m 7:00am to
bunder 1:30pm
3 T-9 65 Clive 65 Clive 5m 7:00am to
road road 1:30pm
4 T-10 65 Clive 65 Clive 5m 7:00am to


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

road road 1:30pm

5 T-14 Nadi bunder J.M. Rathod 5m3 7:00am to
marg 1:30pm
6 T-6 Koliwada Madhav rao 5m 7:00am to
rokhade 1:30pm
7 T-5 Surat Surat street 5m3 7:00am to
8 T-11 Kalyan Kalyan 5m 7:00am to
street 1:30pm
9 T-3 Ahmedabad Ahmedabad 5m3 7:00am to
street 1:30pm
10 T-4 P.D.Mello P.D.Mello 5m 7:00am to
road road 1:30pm
11 T-6 Koliwada Madhav rao 5m 2:00pm to
rokhade 4:30pm
12 T-12 Kalyan Kalyan 5m3 2:00pm to
street 4:30pm
13 T-7 Masjid Y.M Road 5m 2:00pm to
14 T-8 Masjid Y.M Road 5m 2:00pm to
15 T-1 Sant tukaram Sant 5m 2:00pm to
tukaram 4:30pm
16 T-13 Raichur Raichur 5m3 10:15pm
to 5:45am
17 T-6 Koliwada Madhav rao 5m 10:15pm
rokhade to 5:45am
18 T-10 65 Clive 65 Clive 5m3 10:15pm


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

road road to 5:45am

19 T-9 65 Clive 65 Clive 5m 10:15pm
road road to 5:45am
20 T-2 Sant tukaram Sant 5m 10:15pm
tukaram to 5:45am
Table 3.7 Route maps for Municipal Dumper placer (5m3)

Chapter 4
MSW Rules and Regulation


Municipal Solid Waste (Prohibition of Littering and Regulation of

Segregation, Storage, Delivery & Collection) Rules 2006

w.e.f. 1st March 2006


Whereas solid waste management and handling is an obligatory

function under Section 61 (A), 61(C) and 61 (N) of the Brihanmumbai


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Municipal Corporation and has to be done in accordance with the

Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 framed
under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986.

And whereas, management and handling of hazardous industrial

waste and bio-medical waste are governed by separate sets of rules
framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

And whereas, the effective implementation of a Solid Waste

Management Programme requires an integrated plan that covers all
aspects of the situation ranging from framing of appropriate regulations
to rationalisation of existing waste management contracts and operations,
stringent enforcement of applicable rules as well as active citizen

And whereas, some of the initiatives undertaken by the

Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation include:

• New Solid Waste Management contracts and collection processes

which emphasise reduction of community waste storage centres on
public roads and a corresponding increase in “on-time” point-to-
point collection through bell-ringing vehicles and collection at
source of segregated waste.
• Policy Guidelines for Granting Permission to Utility and Municipal
Agencies for Excavation and Reinstatement thereafter – Jan. 2005
• Construction & Demolition & De-silting waste (Management &
Disposal) Rules – 2006
• Facilitation of the implementation of the Bio-Medical Waste (M &
H) Rules, 2000, under the direction of Maharasthra Pollution
Control Board (MPCB)


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• Establishment of waste processing plants and sanitary landfills and

the closure of existing dumping grounds in a scientific manner in
phases with the advice and assistance of expert consultants.
• Promotion of waste segregation, recycling and composting.
• A MOU with the NGO Council for devising collaborative
structures to ensure greater citizens participation in Solid Waste
Management and other areas.
• Expansion and strengthening of the Dattak Vasti Yojana for
cleanliness of slum localities.

And whereas the apathy of generators of waste regarding their

responsibility to keep the city clean, to avoid littering, and to ensure
proper segregation, storage, and delivery of Municipal Solid Waste as
well as some constraints in the storage, collection and transport systems
have resulted in incomplete or inadequate compliance with the relevant
criteria and procedures for different parameters of management of
Municipal Solid Waste given in Schedule II of the Municipal Solid Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules 2000.

Now, therefore, in exercise of his powers conferred by Section 368 of the

Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, read along with Sections 372
and 373, the Municipal Commissioner of the Brihanmumbai Municipal
Corporation (BMC) hereby notifies the rules for Prohibition of Littering
and Regulation of Segregation, Storage, Delivery and Collection of
Municipal Solid Waste.

The following are the overall objectives of these Rules:


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• improving solid waste management practices so as to reduce

environmental pollution and improve the quality of life in the city
• a clean city with increased public health and hygiene levels
• no visible waste in public spaces
• segregation of waste into specified types
• maximum recycling of waste
• maximum local composting of bio-degradable waste
• minimising the quantity of waste received at the land-fill
• minimising transport and handling costs
• preventing choking of drains and flooding of streets caused by
• improving public awareness and understanding of the waste
• promoting transparency of the processes involved, and sharing of
information publicly
• facilitating formal BMC-Civil Society partnerships
• encouraging the involvement of Municipal Councillors
• strengthening and empowering citizen groups for more effective
and sustainable participation in the enforcement of the Rules.

(1) Title and Commencement:

a. These Rules shall be referred to as the “Municipal Solid

Waste (Prohibition of Littering and Regulation of
Segregation, Storage, Delivery and Collection) Rules


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

b. Save as otherwise provided in these Rules, they shall come

into force from 1st March 2006 .

(2) Application:

These Rules shall apply to every public place within the

limits of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, to every
generator of Municipal Solid Waste and to every premises under the
ownership or occupation of any person within the limits of the
Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation.

(3) Definitions:

In these Rules, unless the context otherwise requires: -

1. “aangan” means the public place in front of or adjacent to any

premises extending to the kerb side and including the drain, footpath and

2. “Assistant Commissioner” means the Assistant Commissioner of

the concerned ward of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation

3. “agency / agent” means any person / entity appointed or authorised

by BMC to act on its behalf, based on an agreement between the Agent
and BMC for discharge of duties or functions such as sweeping of streets,
collection of waste, collection of charges, etc.;

4. "bio-degradable waste" means the waste of plant and animal origin

e.g. kitchen waste, food & flower waste, leaf litter, garden waste, animal


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dung, fish/meat waste;

5. “bio-medical waste” means any waste which is generated during

the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals or in
research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of
biologicals, and including categories mentioned in Schedule IV;

6. "bio-methanation" means a process which involves the enzymatic

decomposition of organic matter by microbial action to produce methane-
rich biogas;

7. “Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation” means the

Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) and, where the context
requires, its Agent(s);

8. “bulk generator” means the owner, occupier or any other person

representing owners and occupiers of any housing society or complex with
200 or more households / units, first and second grade restaurants; star and
non-star hotels; markets, industrial estates and shopping complexes / malls
and includes any government or public office building, or other users such
as clubs, gymkhanas, “marriage halls”, recreation / entertainment
complexes that are specifically identified and notified by the Assistant
Commissioners of the concerned Ward will also be considered as bulk

9. “Chief Engineer” means the Chief Engineer of the Solid Waste

Management Department of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation;


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

10. “Citizens Cleanliness Team (CCT)” means a team of citizens in a

Councillor Ward who have come forward to make regular surveys

and reports about the cleanliness situation and participate in the
organisation of cleanliness drives or awareness campaigns in their
Councillor Ward and who are registered by the Assistant
Commissioner of the concerned ward;

11. “Clean Mumbai Zone” means any specified public road or group

of roads, any other public space or any specified area consisting of

all the public roads and other public spaces and public buildings in
that area, notified by the Municipal Commissioner or the Assistant
Commissioner of a Ward for the purpose of maintenance of a high
standard of cleanliness at all times and “zero-tolerance” of littering
and other public nuisances and “zero-visibility” of garbage;
12. "collection" means lifting and removal of Municipal Solid Waste
from fixed collection points or any other location;

13. “collection at source” means the collection of Municipal Solid

Waste by BMC directly from within the premises of any building or
common premises of a group of buildings. This is also referred to as
“house-to-house collection” or “door-step collection”;

14. “community waste storage centre” means any storage facility set
up and maintained collectively by owners and / or occupiers of one or more
premises for storage of Municipal Solid Waste in a segregated manner in
the premises of any one of such owners / occupiers or in their common


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15. "composting" means a controlled process involving microbial

decomposition of organic matter; it includes vermi-composting which is a
process of using earthworms for conversion of bio-degradable waste into

16. "construction and demolition waste" (C&D waste) means non-

hazardous waste from building materials, debris and rubble resulting from
construction, remodelling, repair and demolition operations;

17. “Dattak Vasti Yojana (Slum Adoption Scheme)” means the

scheme referred to by this name which is operated by BMC through
Community Based Organisations for achieving cleanliness in slums;

18. “delivery” means handing over any category of solid waste to a

BMC worker or any other person appointed authorised or licensed by the
BMC for taking delivery of such waste or depositing it in any vehicle
provided by the BMC or by any other authorised or licensed by the BMC
to do so;

19. “dry waste” means the category of Municipal Solid Waste referred
to at Rule 5.1(6) of these Rules;

20. “dry waste sorting centre” means any designated land, shed, kiosk,
or structure located or any municipal or Government land or in a public
space which is authorised to receive & sort dry waste;

21. “familiarisation/warning period” means that specific period as

provided in Schedule I, during which there is a relaxation in the Fines for


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contravention of these Rules;

22. “bulk garden and horticultural waste” means bulk waste from
parks, gardens, traffic islands, etc. and includes grass clippings, annual
weeds, woody 'brown' carbon-rich material such as prunings, branches,
twigs, wood chippings, straw or dead leaves and tree trimmings, which
cannot be accommodated in the daily collection system for bio-degradable

23. "generator of waste" means any person generating Municipal Solid

Waste within the limits of Municipal Corporation of Brihanmumbai;

24. “ghanta-gadi” means the bell-ringing vehicle provided by BMC for

point-to-point collection of Municipal Solid Waste;

25. “hazardous waste” means waste that can catch fire, react, or
explode under certain circumstances, or that is corrosive or toxic;

26. “house gully” means a passage or strip of land, constructed, set

apart or utilised for the purpose of serving as or carrying a drain or
affording access to the latrine, urinal, cesspool or other receptacle for waste
or other polluted matter by persons employed in the clearing thereof or in
the removal of such matter therefrom;

27. “inert solid waste” means any solid waste or remnant of processing
whose physical, chemical and biological properties make it suitable for
sanitary landfilling;


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28. “landfill” means a waste disposal site for the deposit of residual
solid waste in a facility designed with protective measures against pollution
of ground water, surface water and air fugitive dust, wind-blown litter, bad
odour, fire hazard, bird menace, pests or rodents, greenhouse gas
emissions, slope instability and erosion;

29. “litter” includes:

(a) any solid or liquid domestic or commercial refuse, debris or

rubbish and includes any glass, metal, cigarette butts, paper, fabric,
wood, food, abandoned vehicle parts, furniture or furniture parts,
mattresses, construction or demolition material, garden waste and
clippings, soil sand or rocks, pet litter, and (b) any other material,
substance or thing deposited in a public place if its size, shape,
nature or volume makes a nuisance or detrimentally affects the
proper use of that place;

30. "littering " means putting litter in such a location that it falls,

descends, blows, is washed, percolates or otherwise escapes or is

likely to fall, descend, blow, be washed, percolate or otherwise
escape into or onto any public place, or causing, permitting or
allowing litter to fall, descend, blow, be washed, percolate or
otherwise escape into or onto any public place;

31. “Local Area Citizen Group” (LACG) means a group of owners

or occupiers of residential or commercial premises or associations

of such owners or occupiers of a particular neighbourhood, that has
been defined by the BMC based on specified criteria, who have
come forward in order to take responsibility for the maintenance of
cleanliness and promotion of waste reduction, segregation and


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

recycling in that area, provided they are registered with the

Registrar of Co-operative Societies and their stated aims and
objectives include maintenance of cleanliness and promotion of
waste reduction, segregation and recycling in their neighbourhood,
and which has been approved by BMC as the LACG of that

32. "Municipal Commissioner" means the Municipal Commissioner

or an Additional Commissioner of Brihanmumbai Municipal

Corporation, and where the context requires, any or any officer of
the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation who is vested or
delegated with the relevant powers of the Municipal
Commissioner under the MMC Act 1888 or any other law;

33. “Municipal Corporation” means the Brihanmumbai Municipal

Corporation and, where the context requires, its Agent(s);

34. "Municipal Solid Waste" includes commercial, residential and

other waste generated in the Municipal Corporation of

Brihanmumbai area in either solid or semi-solid form excluding
industrial hazardous waste, but including treated bio-medical

35. “neighbourhood” means a clearly defined locality, with reference

to its physical layout, character or inhabitants;

36. “new construction” means all buildings constructed after 9th

January 2003, as specified in the BMC (Building Proposals)

circular of the same date regarding the mandatory provision of


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

vermi-composting units within such premises;

37. “NGO Council” means the Council of Non-Governmental

Organisations of Mumbai that is a representative body of Civil

Society Organisations and the NGO sector in Mumbai, and
comprises a mix of organisations with complementary expertise
covering different concerns. This Council was formed, recognising
that institutionalized partnership between municipal bodies and
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)/ civil society
organizations (CSOs) is critical for promoting good city
governance. BMC has entered into an MoU with the NGO Council
for a formalized collaborative working structure;

38. “nuisance detectors” (NDs) means those employees of BMC who

are appointed by BMC to enforce these Rules by detecting

instances of contraventions of any of these rules and collecting
Fines as specified for contravention of the same;

39. "occupier/occupant" includes any person who for the time being

is in occupation of, or otherwise using, any land or building or part

thereof, for any purpose whatsoever;

40. "owner" means any person who exercises the rights of an owner of

any building, or land or part thereof;

41. "person" means any person or persons and shall include any shop

or establishment or firm or company or association or body of

individuals whether incorporated or not and their Agents;


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

42. “point-to-point collection” means the system of collection of

Municipal Solid Waste from specific pick-up points as designated

by BMC, up to which the generator must bring the collected and
stored waste for delivery to a ghanta-gadi;

43. "premises" includes buildings, tenements in a building, house,

outhouse, stable, shed, hut, and any other structure whether of

masonry, brick, mud, wood, metal or any other material
whatsoever and lands of any tenure whether open or enclosed
whether built upon or not being used for the time being for
purposes of residence, trade, industry, service, business,
government or any other public or private purpose including
weddings, banquets, meetings, exhibitions, organized events, etc.
It also includes any portion of a public road that is permitted by the
Municipal Commissioner to be used for the time being for
parking of vehicles, street vending, storage of materials at a work
site or for any public or private purpose whatsoever other than the
movement of vehicles;

44. "processing" means any scientific process by which solid waste is

treated for processing for the purpose of recycling or making it

suitable for landfilling;

45. "public place" includes any road, arch road, viaduct, lane,

footway, alley or passage, highway, causeway, bridge, square alley

or passage whether a thoroughfare or not over which the public
have a right of passage, and such places to which the public has
access such as parks, gardens, recreation grounds, playgrounds,
beaches, water bodies, water courses, public plazas and


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

promenades, government and municipal buildings, public hospitals,

markets, slaughter houses, courts, etc.;

46. “receptacle” means any container, including bins and bags, used

for the storage of any category of municipal waste;

47. "recycling" means the process of transforming segregated non-

biodegradable solid waste into raw materials for producing new

products, which may or may not be similar to the original products;

48. “refuse removal charges” means fees or charges notified by BMC

from time-to-time for collection, transport and disposal of

Municipal Solid Waste from different categories of waste
generators. It includes “trade refuse charges” as made applicable
to various categories of licensees;

49. "Schedule" means a schedule appended to these Rules;

50. "segregation" means to separate Municipal Solid Waste into the

specified groups of bio-degradable, hazardous, bio-medical,

construction and demolition, bulk garden and horticultural, and all
other inert waste;

51. “source” mean the premises in which waste is generated or a

community storage centre used by owners / occupiers of one or

more premises for segregated storage of Municipal Solid Waste;

52. “stabilised biodegradable waste” means the biologically

stabilized (free of pathogens) waste resulting from the mechanical /


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biological treatment of biodegradable waste; only when stabilised

can such waste be used with no further restrictions;

53. "storage" means the temporary containment of Municipal Solid

Waste in a manner so as to prevent littering, attraction to vectors,

stray animals and excessive foul odour;

54. “Superintendent of Gardens” means the Superintendent of

Gardens of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corportation;

55. "transportation " means conveyance of Municipal Solid Waste

from place to place;

56. “ward” means an administrative ward of BMC unless specified


57. “ward office” means the office of an administrative ward which is

headed by an Assistant Commissioner of BMC;

Words and expressions used in these Rules but not defined shall have the
meanings respectively assigned to them in the Mumbai Municipal
Corporation Act, 1888, or the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules 2000, unless the context otherwise requires.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

(4) Prohibition of littering, and other nuisances and ensuring “Saaf


4.1) Littering in any public place: No owner / occupier shall throw,

deposit or cause to be thrown or deposited any waste whether liquid,
semi-solid or solid including sewage and waste water upon or in any
public place, including in any type of water body (natural or man-made)
except in a manner provided for in these Rules, the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986, the Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, or
any other Act or Rules framed under any such Act.

4.2) Creating Public Nuisance: No person shall bathe, spit, urinate,

defecate, feed groups of animals or birds, wash vehicles, utensils or any
other object, in any public place except in such public facilities or
conveniences specifically provided for any of these purposes.

4.3.) “Ensuring Saaf Aangan”: Every person shall ensure that any
public place in front of or adjacent to any premises owned or occupied by
him including the footpath and open drain/gutter and kerb is free of any
waste whether liquid, semi-solid or solid including sewage and waste
water and every such owner / occupier shall provide an adequate number
of litter bins on such premises.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

(5) Segregation, storage, delivery and collection of Municipal Solid


5.1) Segregation of waste into six specified groups: Every generator of

Municipal Solid Waste shall store unmixed in or separate the waste at the
source of waste generation into the following six categories:

1) bio-degradable (“wet”) waste

2) specified household hazardous waste

3) bio-medical waste

4) construction and demolition waste

5) bulk garden and horticultural waste including tree trimmings

6) all other non-bio-degradable (“dry”) waste including

recyclable and
non-recyclable waste

5.2) Delivery of segregated waste: At the co-operative society/multi-

storied building/community level, as well as at the point of collection-at-
source or the point of delivery, waste shall be kept unmixed / segregated
and stored and delivered in the above specified groups. If the waste
delivered is found to be mixed, this will be considered a breach of the
Rules, and a fine will be applied as per the Schedule of Fines. Repeated
breach may also result in other penal measures.

Proviso: The Municipal Commissioner may separately notify from time

to time the mandatory colour coding and other specifications of
receptacles prescribed for storage and delivery of different types of solid


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

waste to enable safe and easy collection without any manual handling or
spillage of waste, which generators of different types of solid waste shall
have to adhere to.

5.3) Bio-degradable waste: Segregated Biodegradable Municipal Solid

Waste (as per the illustrative list in Schedule II), if not composted by the
generator, shall be stored by generators of such waste within their
premises and its delivery shall be ensured by every such generator to the
ghanta-gadi, or to the biodegradable waste collection vehicle provided for
specified commercial generators of bulk biodegradable waste such as
hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, eating places, clubs, canteens,
markets, etc. or to the designated biodegradable waste storage centres
from where biodegradable waste collection vehicles provided by BMC
shall collect such waste daily at such times as the concerned Assistant
Commissioner may notify from time to time.

5.4) Composting by all generators: With a view towards achieving the

larger objective of reducing the cost of transportation of waste and of
promoting local processing of waste it shall be mandatory for any
generator of waste who receives a Notice from the concerned Assistant
Commissioner to compost the bio-degradable waste at source after a
suitable notice period as specified, or at the sites designated for this
purpose in the Notice. Suitable exemptions / reductions in applicable
fees, if any, will be available to the generators on compliance with a
Notice given under the rule.

5.5) Composting of bio-degradable waste by bulk generators and new

constructions: Notwithstanding any contained in Rule 5.4; within a
period of 6 months from the publication of these Rules, it shall be


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

mandatory for bulk generators & for owners/ occupiers of new

constructions to compost bio-degradable waste at source. Where it is not
possible to compost at site due to space constraint, alternate arrangements
may be considered and approved by BMC on merit by charging suitable
fees. Biodegradable waste may also be processed using the bio-
methanation technique. Suitable exemptions / reductions in applicable
fees for refuse removal will be available to the bulk generators who
comply with this rule.

5.6) Specified household hazardous waste: [as listed in Schedule III]

shall be stored and delivered by every generator of waste to the collection
vehicle which shall be provided weekly/periodically by BMC or any
other Agency authorised by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board
(MPCB) for collection of such waste, or to a centre designated for
collection of such waste for disposal in a manner that is mandated by the
Government of Maharashtra or the MPCB.

5.7) Untreated bio-medical waste (as listed in Schedule IV) shall be

stored in specified type of covered receptacles and delivered by every
generator of waste to the collection vehicle which shall be provided
weekly/periodically by BMC or any other Agency authorized by the
MPCB, or to a centre designated for collection of such waste, for disposal
in a manner that is mandated by MPCB in accordance with the Bio-
Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 2000.

5.8) Construction and Demolition waste (C&D waste) shall be stored

and delivered separately as per the Construction & Demolition and De-
silting Waste (Management and Disposal) Rules 2006 of BMC. These
Rules state that that for Category 4 i.e. Small Generators (household


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level), it will be the responsibility of the generator to store the segregated

C&D waste at source. The generator must then call a local Help-line of
BMC or the Agent of BMC, who will then send a vehicle to pick up the
segregated C&D waste from the generator, with a specified charge, and
then further transport this waste to a processing centre, details of which
are available in the respective ward offices of BMC. Non-compliance will
attract fines as per the Construction & Demolition & De-silting waste
(Management & Disposal) Rules 2006.

5.9) All other Non-biodegradable (“Dry”) waste – both recyclable

and non-recyclable – referred to at 5.1(6) in these Rules shall be stored
and delivered by every generator of waste to the dry waste collection
vehicle which shall be provided by BMC or its Agents at such spots and
at such times as may be notified by the concerned Assistant
Commissioner from time-to-time for collection of such waste, or to the
licensed dry waste sorting centres set up on municipal / Government /
private lands. Rag pickers' cooperatives, licensed recyclers or scrap
dealers may be appointed as the sole Licensed Agents of BMC for
providing dry waste collection services and /or operating such dry waste
sorting centres in any specified area. (Illustrative list of types of
recyclable waste is given in Schedule II)

5.10) Bulk garden and horticultural waste shall be kept un-mixed and
composted at source. Instructions/guidelines with regard to pruning of
trees and storage and delivery of tree trimmings including collection
schedules, shall be notified by the Superintendent of Gardens or the
concerned Assistant Commissioners. Where it is not possible to
compost at site, BMC will continue to collect and transport segregated


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garden and horticultural waste by charging suitable fees as notified by it

from time to time.

5.11) Community waste storage centres: Where any type of Municipal

Solid Waste is collected by a BMC vehicle directly from any community
waste storage centre whether located in an open space or a closed shed
located inside any premises or in a public place, the waste shall be
deposited inside separate receptacles to be provided for different types of
segregated waste, and not around or in the general vicinity of any such

5.12) Burning of waste: Disposal by burning of any type of solid waste

at roadsides, dump sites, or any private or public property is prohibited.
(This does not refer to the facilities set up for close and controlled
incineration of specific types of waste which are authorised by the

5.13) Non-compliance of rules as specified in 5.1 – 5.12 will attract a

fine as specified in the Schedule of Fines.

5.14) Action against Transport Contractors / BMC Employees: BMC

shall take strict and swift action against the Transport Contractor and/or
BMC employees, including levying a penalty, if any worker of the
contractor or any BMC employee mixes segregated waste at any point of
collection; or does not pick up waste as per the specified time schedule.


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(6) Obligatory Responsibilities of BMC

6.1) Infrastructure facilities: BMC will provide adequate infrastructure

facilities to assist citizen compliance with these Rules. In addition to
waste collection services, litter bins, conveniently located community
storage centres, dry waste sorting centres, and composting centres will be
set up, wherever possible and essential, in consultation with local
citizens. Adequate community toilet and washing facilities will be
provided in slum localities with the participation of the local community
based organisations or Local Area Citizens Groups to prevent nuisances
such as squatting, washing and bathing on public roads, before imposing
any penalties under the relevant Rules.

6.2) Assistance for reducing and recycling waste: Exemptions and

discounts will be provided on the basis of savings made by BMC on
account of in-situ processing or recycling by generators of waste at

6.3) Citizen Resource Base: The Chief Engineer will prepare and
publish lists of composting experts, licensed scrap dealers, dealers of
recyclables, container / bin manufacturers, agencies with expertise in
recycling, etc. who are registered by the Solid Waste Management
Department of the BMC so as to facilitate and support the citizens in
recycling waste. Lists of ALMs, LACGs, CBOs under Dattak Vasti
Yogana will also be published by the Chief Engineer. The names and
telephone numbers of officials and registered persons / organisations who
can provide training, guidance and assistance in respect of these
processes will be made available through the respective Ward Offices of
BMC and the field staff of the solid waste management department. The


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details will also be made available at the website of BMC at

www.mcgm.gov.in. Awareness about the same will also be created
through the media, NGO Council and Local Area Citizen Groups.

6.4) Trade Refuse Charges: BMC will rationalise the Trade Refuse
Charges applicable to hotels, restaurants, and other generators of waste,
so that it is linked to the volume of net waste generated and not to the
licence fee charged against any license issued to such a generator of
waste. Such information will be available at all Ward Offices and on
BMC website.

6.5) Purchase of compost: Generators of waste are urged to compost

their bio-degradable waste and use the compost created for gardening and
greening of their individual premises and surroundings. The
Superintendent of Gardens of the Municipal Corporation will undertake
to purchase any extra compost, if available, from the generator, at a
specified fixed price as notified from time to time by him with the
approval of the Standing Committee of the BMC.

6.6) Local Bio-degradable waste processing units: Wherever possible

BMC will set up small scale processing units (composting or bio-
methanation) in public parks, playgrounds, recreation grounds, gardens,
markets, large vacant lands owned and maintained by BMC or any other
public authority or Government department, or will cause such units to be
set up by adopting agencies / caretakers / contractors / tenants responsible
for the maintenance of public spaces or private owners / occupiers of such
vacant lands. These will also serve as demonstration models for the local
community and will be maintained in such a manner that no nuisance or


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inconvenience is caused to the public and no damage is caused to the


6.7) Bio-degradable puja articles: The Assistant Commissioner of

every ward will himself undertake or will authorise interested
organizations to collect bio-degradable ‘puja’ articles (flowers, leaves,
fruits only) at certain designated sites near water-bodies such as beaches,
lakes, ponds, etc. as notified, in special receptacles or “kalashes”. The
collection from such receptacles will then be composted at a suitable
location, and the receptacles as well as the composting units will be
manned specifically for this purpose.

6.8) Point-to-Point waste collection services: The Chief Engineer will

provide for the collection of the Municipal Solid Waste from specific
pick-up points on a public or private road up to which the generator must
bring the collected and stored waste for delivery to a “ghanta-gadi” (bell-
ringing vehicle) that shall be provided by BMC. The services of the
ghanta-gadi shall be provided by BMC for point-to-point collection of
waste according to the route plans at such times and at spots as may be
notified by the concerned Assistant Commissioners in advance for
specified types of waste for different localities.

6.9) Collection at source: BMC will provide for the collection of

Municipal Solid Waste at source from within the premises of a building
or group of buildings from waste storage receptacles kept on the premises
to which BMC vehicles / workers are provided access at such times as
may be notified by the concerned Assistant Commissioners.

6.10) Data about waste received at landfill: BMC will release publicly,
the monthly data about the quantity of each category of waste going to


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the different landfills and waste processing sites. Such information will
be available at the Ward Office and on BMC website.

6.11) Community waste storage centres in public places: In

exceptional cases, where point-to-point collection or collection at source
is not possible or has not been started for the time being, BMC will
provide and maintain community waste storage centres on public roads or
other public spaces wherever essential and possible, as determined by the
Assistant Commissioner, by BMC itself or through an Agent, until it
becomes possible to make arrangements for collection at source or point-
to-point collection by ghanta-gadis at the required frequencies.

Segregated waste shall be delivered by the concerned generators to such

community waste storage centres, and thereafter collected by BMC.
These community waste storage centres will be manned by BMC or its
Agents to ensure compliance of segregation and avoidance of public
nuisance and health hazards. Every community waste storage centre shall
have at least two separate receptacles for bio-degradable and non-bio-
degradable waste. Where possible, composting will also be carried out at
these spots. Details of all such centres including the arrangements and
schedules of waste collection from such centres will be available at the
Ward Office and on BMC website.

6.12) Data about phasing out of community waste storage centres in

public places: The Chief Engineer will publicly release periodic data
about the number and location of the community waste storage centres on
public roads that have been phased out, and the corresponding “at-
source” or point-to-point collection for that area that has been established
prior to the bin being removed.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

6.13) Dry waste sorting centres: In order to regulate and facilitate the
sorting of the recyclable and non-recyclable waste the concerned
Assistant Commissioners will provide for as many dry waste sorting
centres as needed & possible, where dry waste is collected and then
sorted. These dry waste sorting centres may be on BMC land or land
belonging to the Government or other bodies, made available especially
for this purpose, or in the form of sheds or kiosks provided at suitable
public places and will be manned/operated by registered cooperative
societies of ragpickers / licensed recyclers or any other Agents authorised
/ appointed by BMC. The non-recyclable waste which remains after
sorting will be further transported from such sorting centres from time-to-
time to waste disposal sites for processing or land-filling. Facilities for
purchase and sale of different types of waste at notified prices at such dry
waste sorting centres will also be considered and authorised by concerned
Assistant Commissioner.

6.14) Time schedule and route of collection: The daily and weekly
time schedules and routes of BMC’s collection of different types of
Municipal Solid Waste such as i) biodegradable, ii) recyclable and non-
recyclable (dry), iii) household hazardous, and iv) bio-medical waste, will
be fixed and notified in advance by the concerned Assistant
Commissioners. Details will be available at all Ward Offices and on the
BMC website. Similarly, the arrangements for the collection of
construction and demolition waste, and garden and horticultural waste, by
BMC or its licensees will be made available to the public as well as to the
bulk generators of waste by the Chief Engineer, the Superintendent of
Gardens, or the concerned Assistant Commissioner as the case may


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

6.15) Local Area Citizen Group (LACG): Local Area Citizen Groups
who come forward will be will be authorised to collect specified
administrative charges to enable them to keep their area clean on the
basis of a model agreement. Any LACG may also enter into a model
agreement with BMC which will enable them to receive payments from
BMC based on fixed unit rates for sweeping of roads, collection of
transportation of waste, composting, etc., which are approved by the
Standing Committee of the Corporation. Details of registration
procedures and model bye-laws and model agreements for LACGs will
be made available at all Ward Offices and on BMC and on approval of
the Standing Committee of BMC

6.16) Cleanliness Drives: The Assistant Commissioners of the ward

will organise drives for the enforcement of these Rules & for cleanliness
in those areas which he identifies as requiring such special drives and
those areas where Local Councillors / Citizens Cleanliness Teams,
Government or Corporate bodies or Local Area Citizen Groups come
forward to collaborate. The additional resources / support required for
such special drives shall be provided by the Chief Engineer.

6.17) Stakeholder awareness, education and training: The Chief

Engineer along with the NGO Council will identify the educational and
training needs with regard to cleanliness of different stakeholders (e.g.
BMC staff, Agents of BMC, schools, housing societies, slums, shops,
hawkers, office complexes, industrial units, commercial unions, ALMs,
Local Area Citizen Groups, etc.) Thereafter a coordinated plan and
communication strategy will be drawn up and executed to tackle
education, awareness-raising and training of all such stake-holders and


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

BMC will invite proposals from professional agencies to undertake a

city-wide Awareness and Outreach programme.

6.18) Documentation of successful initiatives: The Chief Engineer

along with the NGO Council will invite documentation of successful
citizen and / or local Citizen–BMC partnership initiatives in cleanliness
and related areas so as to include in the Citizen Resource Base that other
citizens and the staff of BMC can utilise. Recognition, awards and
publicity will be given by BMC for such best practices. Details of such
information will be available at all Ward Offices and on BMC website.

6.19) Info-line and FAQ section: The Chief Engineer along with the
NGO Council shall set-up a special “Info-line” and FAQ section on the
BMC website with all relevant policies, procedures, forms, and other
details. Such information will also be available at all Ward Offices.

6.20) Complaints: The Chief Engineer, in consultation with the NGO

Council will upgrade the existing Online Complaint Management System
(OCMS) or suitably design a new one as part of the proposed Citizens’
Portal to integrate the systems required for the implementation of these
Rules. Statistics of complaints and Action Taken Reports shall be
displayed in the OCMS / Citizens’ Portal.

6.21) Citizens Cleanliness Team (CCT): Concerned citizens may also

form CCTs in each Councillor Ward of the city, as to survey and provide
regular reports for monitoring of cleanliness and to participate in the
organisation of cleanliness drives or awareness campaigns in their
Councillor’s Ward. These reports are filed on the internet, and then
forwarded to the relevant BMC officials, as well as displayed publicly, as


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

a means to ensure monitoring and receiving feedback about the

cleanliness of that area.

The Assistant Commissioner and the Chief Engineer will set up

mechanisms for receiving and taking cognisance of such reports of the
CCT Report. Suggestions for improvements in the implementation of the
Solid Waste Management programme in the concerned Councillor Ward,
including route planning, suggestions for placement of litter bins,
recommended areas for clean-up service, requests for Nuisance Detectors
at litter-prone spots, suggestions for beautification, as well as the
reporting by the CCT will be taken cognisance of by the concerned
registered Local Area Citizen Group and BMC officers (at Ward and
higher levels). CCT reports may also be publicly displayed by the NGO
Council. There will be periodic meetings of the Cleanliness Reporting
Teams and NGO Council with the concerned Municipal Corporation
officers, to ensure redressal and to facilitate system improvement.

6.22) Expressions of Interest: Expressions of interest will be invited by

the Chief Engineer through public advertisement to initiate any projects
for keeping an area clean, setting up segregation, recycling or waste
processing facilities, composting, vermi-composting, bio-methanation,
etc. which involves leasing of any municipal land or public space or
permission for use of same and / or involves any payment by the BMC.
Details of all such invitations of Expressions of Interest will be available
at all Ward Offices and on the BMC website, and the proposals received
will be reviewed and assessed jointly by BMC and the NGO Council.

6.23) Surprise checks: Assistant Commissioner will organise surprise

checks in various parts of their respective wards in Municipal limits at


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

any time (day or night), with a view to encourage compliance. Any

contravention will attract a Fine and any litter found during these checks
will be cleared by BMC.

6.24) Enforcement Squads: The Chief Engineer will strengthen the

existing system of Nuisance Detectors (both in numbers and capabilities)
and Enforcement Squads by providing suitable uniforms and vehicles to
Nuisance Detectors and creating a system of incentives for nuisance
detection, and non-revenue targets. “Local Area Citizen Groups”,
Citizens Cleanliness Teams or other volunteers may come forward to
assist BMC’s squad of Nuisance Detectors in the nuisance detection in
their area. Assistant Commissioners will provide prompt and adequate
Nuisance Detectors when required by LACGs and Citizens Cleanliness

6.25) Information regarding Fines: Information regarding fines

collected by BMC, it’s Agents or Nuisance Detectors will be shared
publicly by the Chief Engineer. Such information will also be available
at all Ward Offices and on the BMC website.

6.26) Redressal mechanism: Assistant Commissioners will set-up a

redressal mechanism at the Ward level for addressing situations such as
non-redressal of complaints within the stipulated time, cases where fines
have been wrongly levied for reasons such as inadequate provisions of
supporting infrastructure, etc.

6.27) Joint Review with NGO Council: BMC and NGO Council will
jointly review the effective implementation of these Rules, at least twice
a year, and take appropriate steps to ensure course correction such as
evaluation of BMC’s achievements against targets; BMC’s support to


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

LACGs; citizen response and participation; revision of Fines, evaluation

of incentives, etc. These reviews shall be presented to the Standing
Committee of BMC and shared with the public.

6.28) Specific Annual Targets: Specific Annual Targets shall be set

by BMC as per Schedule V & shall be publicly announced.

6.29) Designated officers and periodic reports: The Chief Engineer

and the Assistant Commissioner will designate officers under their
control who shall be responsible for implementing the obligatory
responsibilities of BMC specified under these Rules in accordance with
the micro-plans and time schedules for implementation during the
financial year. The specific plans and time schedules and achievements
against the same along with reasons for short falls, if any, will also be
shared publicly by the Chief Engineer through the BMC web-site.

6.30) Transparency and Public Accessibility: In order to ensure

greater transparency and public accessibility of BMC, it is necessary to
build alternate mechanisms other than those currently existing within
BMC and hence all such information that BMC is required to or intends
to share publicly, shall also be shared with the NGO Council who may
publicly display the same in www.karmayog.org for which an MoU has
been signed to act as an interface between MCGM and citizens.

6.31) Co-ordination with Government Bodies: BMC shall co-

ordinate with other government agencies and authorities, to ensure
compliance of these Rules within areas under the jurisdiction or control
of such bodies.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

(7) Obligatory Responsibilities of BMC and/or generators of waste in

case of some specific categories / situations:

Keeping in mind the particular nature of some situations, the following

responsibilities are specifically mandated:

7.1) Slums
BMC’s responsibility:

(a) Assistant Commissioners will extend the Dattak Vasti Yojana

(Slum Adoption Program) to currently uncovered areas within
their wards for solid waste management, wherever qualified
Community Based Organisations (CBOs) come forward.

(b) Where applicable, BMC’s ghanta-gadi will be provided at

fixed times to a point outside the slum, for the collection of
segregated solid waste.

(c) In exceptional cases, until the services of a ghanta-gadi at required

frequencies can be provided at designated spots on a public road
or any other public space for the time being, manned community
waste storage bins will be maintained by BMC, where segregated
waste will be deposited by the generator, and from where BMC
will collect such waste. The CBO’s participating in the Dattak
Vasti Yojana will be involved in the maintenance of such
community waste storage centres.

(d) Cleanliness drives will be conducted by BMC in association with

local Councillors, Citizens Cleanliness Teams, Local Area Citizen
Groups, Government bodies / Corporates for the cleanliness of


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

areas inside the slums, from time to time, in association with

CBOs participating in the Dattak Vasti Yojana.

7.2) Poultry, Fish and Slaughter Waste (from all areas other than
designated slaughter houses and markets)

Every owner/occupier of any premises other than designated

slaughter houses and markets, who generates poultry, fish and slaughter
waste as a result of any commercial activity, shall store the same
separately in closed, hygienic conditions and deliver it at a specified time,
on a daily basis to BMC collection vehicle provided for this purpose.
Deposit of such waste in any community waste bin is prohibited and will
attract fines as indicated in the Schedule of Fines.

7.3) Vendors/Hawkers

All vendors/hawkers shall keep their bio-degradable and other

waste unmixed in containers / bins at the site of vending for the collection
of any waste generated by that vending activity. It will be the
responsibility of the generator/vendor to deliver this waste duly
segregated to the ghanta-gadi of BMC or to the nearest designated
community waste storage bin. Failure to do so will attract fines as per the
Schedule of Fines.

7.4) House-gullies:

It will be the responsibility of the owner/occupier of premises with

house-gullies to ensure that no waste is dumped in the house-gully, and to
segregate and deliver any solid waste to the waste collection vehicle


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

which shall be provided by BMC at such spots and at such times as may
be notified by BMC. Failure to do so will attract a fine as per the
Schedule of Fines.

Where owners/occupiers of such premises wish to avail of the services of

BMC for the cleaning of the house gully, they must apply to the
concerned Ward Office of BMC and pay suitable refuse removal charges
as notified may be by BMC from time to time. It will be the responsibility
of the owners/occupiers to provide access to the house gully for cleaning

7.5) Litter by owned/pet animals

It shall be the responsibility of the owner of any pet animal to

promptly scoop/clean up any litter created by pet animals on the street or
any public place, and take adequate steps for the proper disposal of such
waste. Failure to do so will attract fines as per the Schedule of Fines.

7.6) Public Gatherings and Events:

For Public Gatherings and Events, organised in public places for

any reason (including for processions, exhibitions, circuses, fairs,
political rallies, commercial, religious, socio-cultural events, protests and
demonstrations, etc.) where Police and/or BMC permission is required, it
will be the responsibility of the Organiser of the event or gathering to
ensure the cleanliness of that area as well as all appurtenant areas.

A Refundable Cleanliness Deposit, as may be notified by BMC,

will be taken from the Organiser, by the concerned ward office for the
duration of the event. This Deposit will be refunded on the completion of
the event after it is noted that the said public place has been restored back


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

to a clean state, and any waste generated as a result of the event has been
collected and transported to designated sites. (This deposit will be only
for the cleanliness of the public place and does not cover any damage to
property.) In case the Organisers of the event wishes to avail of the
services of BMC for the cleaning, collection and transport of waste
generated as a result of that event, they must apply to the concerned Ward
Office of BMC and pay the necessary charges as may be fixed for this
purpose by BMC.

(8) Penalties for contravention of these Rules: -

On and after the date of commencement of these Rules, there will

be a familiarisation/warning period as stated below, after which, any
contravention of these Rules shall be punishable with fines as per the
Schedule of Fines
(Schedule I) below for every instance of breach of these Rules and
thereafter, on a daily basis, for repeat offences.


1) For the Rules related to the Prevention of Littering (Rule 4.1),

Nuisance Creation (Rule 4.2), ensuring “Saaf Aangan” (Rule 4.3),
and for the Specific Categories / Situations (Rule 7), the
warning/familiarisation period is one month, during which time the
fine charged will be half the fine specified in the Schedule of Fines.

2) For the Rules related to the Segregation, Storage, Delivery and

Collection of Municipal Solid Waste (Rule 5), the
warning/familiarisation period is two months, during which time


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

no fine will be charged. This familiarisation period will not be

applicable to those generators of waste to whom collection-at-
source or point-to-point bell ringing waste collection services are
provided or those areas identified and notified as "Clean Mumbai

3) For breach of Rules in any notified “Clean Mumbai Zones”, the

Fines applicable will be twice the amount as stated in this Schedule
of Fines.

4) For repeat offenders, the fines charged will be five times the Fine
stated in this Schedule of Fines.

5) There will be an escalation in the fines every year by 5% or Rs.

5/-, whichever is higher, or as deemed appropriate by the
Municipal Commissioner.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Schedule – I (Schedule of Fines)

Sr. Rule No. Sub-division / Description of Rule Amount of Fine

applicable for breach
of Rule
Rule No. 4: Littering, Creating Nuisance, and Saaf Aangan
1 Rule No. 4.1 Littering Rs. 100
2 Spitting Rs. 50
3 Bathing Rs. 50
Rule No. 4.2
4 Urinating Rs. 50
5 Defecating Rs. 50
6 Creating Feeding groups of animals/birds
Rs. 50
Nuisance in non-designated areas
7 Washing vehicles Rs. 100
8 Washing utensils /clothes/any
Rs. 50
other object
9 Rule no. 4.3 For not maintaining Saaf Aangan:
for Rs. 100
a) for owners / occupiers of single
premises Rs.1000
b) for others
Rule No. 5: Segregation, storage, delivery and collection
10 Rule No 5.1 For delivering waste that is not
and 5.2 segregated and stored as specified
in separate bins: Rs. 100
a) individual Rs. 500
b) bulk generator
11 Rule No. 5.3 For not delivering bio-degradable Rs.100
waste in a segregated manner as
12 Rule No. 5.4 For non-composting by bulk Rs. 100/day
and 5.5 generators or in new constructions
within 6 months of these Rules,


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

and for others when applicable

13 Rule No. 5.6 For not delivering specified Rs. 500
household hazardous waste in a
segregated manner as specified
14 Rule No. 5.7 For not delivering biomedical Rs. 500
waste in a segregated manner as
15 Rule No. 5.8 For not delivering Construction Rs. 1000
and Demolition waste in a
segregated manner as specified
16 Rule No.5.9 For not delivering “dry” waste in Rs. 100
a segregated manner as specified
17 Rule No. For not delivering garden waste Rs. 1000
5.10 and tree trimmings as specified
18 Rule No. For depositing waste outside Rs. 100
5.11 designated community waste
storage bin or in any non-
designated area
19 Rule No. For disposal of waste by burning Rs. 500
Rule No. 7: Specific Categories / Situations
20 Rule No. 7.2 For not delivering (non- Rs. 500
household) fish, poultry and meat
waste in a segregated manner as
21 Rule No. 7.3 a) For a vendor/hawker without a Rs. 100
container/waste basket

b) For a vendor/hawker who Rs. 100

does not deliver waste in a
segregated manner as specified
22 Rule No. 7.4 a) For not keeping a house gully Rs. 1000


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

b) For not delivering solid waste
from a house gully in a Rs. 500
segregated manner as specified
23 Rule No. 7.5 For littering by pet/owned animals Rs. 50
24 Rule No. 7.6 For not cleaning-up after public Forfeiture of the
gathering/event within 24 hours Cleanliness Deposit


Illustrative list of bio-degradable and recyclable waste

Biodegradable Waste Recyclable waste

"biodegradable waste" means “recyclable waste” means “dry”
“wet” waste of plant and animal waste that can be transformed
origin. through a process into raw materials
for producing new products, which
may or may not be similar to the
original products.
· Kitchen Waste including: · Newspapers
tea leaves, egg shells, fruit and
· Paper, books and magazines
vegetable peels

· Glass
· Meat and bones


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

· Garden and leaf litter, · Metal objects and wire

including flowers
· Plastic
· Animal litter
· Cloth Rags
· Soiled paper
· Leather
· House dust after cleaning
· Rexine
· Coconut shells
· Rubber
· Ashes
· Wood /furniture

· packaging

Schedule III:

Specified household hazardous waste:

Specified Household Hazardous Waste

“hazardous waste” is waste that can catch fire, react, or explode under
certain circumstances, or that is corrosive or toxic
· Aerosol cans

· Batteries from flashlights and button cells

· Bleaches and household kitchen and drain cleaning Agents

· Car batteries, oil filters and car care products and consumables

· Chemicals and solvents and their empty containers

· Cosmetic items, chemical-based Insecticides and their empty


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities


· Light bulbs, tube-lights and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)

· Medicines, discarded

· Paints, oils, lubricants, glues, thinners, and their empty containers

· Pesticides and herbicides and their empty containers

· Photographic chemicals

· Styrofoam and soft foam packaging from new equipment

· Thermometers and mercury-containing products

Schedule IV:

List of Bio-medical waste: (Extract from the Bio-Medical Waste (M &

H) Rules, 1998)

Bio-medical waste
“Bio-medical waste” means any waste, which is generated during
the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or
animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the
production or testing of biologicals.

Category No 4 Waste sharps

(needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause
puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps)

Category No 5 Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs

(waste comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities


Category No 6 Solid Waste

(Items contaminated with blood, and body fluids including cotton,
dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, beddings, other material
contaminated with blood)

Category No. 7 Solid Waste

(waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps
such as tubings, catheters, intravenous sets etc).

Schedule V:

Specific annual targets:

Specific annual targets shall be fixed ward-wise, where applicable, by the

Chief Engineer of the Solid Waste Management Department in
consultation with the Assistant Commissioners of the respective
administrative wards and the Deputy Municipal Commissioners of the
respective Zones, with clear criteria for selection / prioritising where
applicable, for every financial year (1st April – 31st March) and shall
include the following:

1. Reduction in tons / day of the non-inert waste reaching landfills.

2. Number of "Clean Mumbai Zones" zones to be established

including roads, beaches and other important areas to prevent

littering and other nuisances and to ensure complete cleanliness at
all times.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

3. Percentage of waste generated to be segregated completely at

source and collected separately.

4. Number of waste bins on public roads to be removed and number

of such bins to be managed with arrangements for segregated

storage of waste.
5. Number of composting units to be set up – (beginning with bulk

waste generators).
6. Percentage of waste lifted throughout the city to be covered for
point to point collection / collected at source.
7. Number of Construction & Debris Waste collection and processing

centres to be set up.

8. Number of slums to be taken up for coverage under Dattak Vasti

9. Number of target stakeholders to be covered by awareness and

training programs
10. Number of public and slum community toilets to be upgraded

11. Number of new public and slum community toilets to be set up


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities


In the previous chapters we studied the various aspects of the

municipal solid waste system existing in B ward. We came across the
collection, properties, classification, management and revenue system of
solid waste of B ward. We even saw the legislation laid forward by the
M.C.G.M authorities in this respect and schedules for collecting and
treating the wastes.


There are many areas identified in the process of management of
waste which lack the basic fundamentals of collecting and disposing of
waste which are as follows,
• No house to house collection in the ward.
• No segregation done at any level from collection to disposing.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• No motivation in the staff and negligence towards work and

• Lack of coordination between motor loaders provided by M.C.G.M
and private contractors who own the vehicles.
• Delay from motor loaders and contractors lead to late shifts causing
difficulties to local people.
• No effective compaction takes place in the compactor due to unskilled
• No reporting of vehicles at any stage during the process.
• Multiple handling of wastes takes place which increases the hauling
• Absence of facilities and equipments for compaction in the ward
increases the dependence on other wards for the same.
• Baskets provided for loading and unloading the waste to tempos and
compactors are not worker friendly.
• Rs 545/tones and Rs 516/tones are the hauling charges for the
compactors and tempos operated by private contractors.
• Unhygienic conditions at collection spots and waste bins discourages
the public from using them and thus the people throw the waste any
where causing littering.
• Illegal encroachments in the house gullies hamper the cleaning
procedure of the gullies.
• Majority of conservancy workers working in B ward are staying in
Dahisar, Vasai, Nallasopara and other such faraway suburbs which
causes late arrival and early departure of workers.



Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

On account of several disadvantages and inefficient system of

collection and disposal of waste, we analyzed it and found out some new,
but very simple and basic collection and sustainable approaches to the
problem which are as follows.

• The hauling charges seems to be quiet pinching with no returns from

waste (since only dumping takes place and there is no recycling);
making it unsustainable for long run.
• To get rid of this cost permanently we can decentralize the whole
processor specifically the process after collection. Each ward can have
its own recycling unit which recycles all its waste and leads to
minimum dumping.
• This otherwise is even necessary because the waste generated in
each ward is characteristically different than then other. This can
this can be attributed to the fact that land the land use is not properly
planned by the planning agencies.
• Also in different wards people of specific religion, origin and
lifestyle reside who produce different quantities and qualities of wastes
• Thus by decentralizing the whole process of collection and treatment
we can not only save the hauling charges but can also reduce the
pressure on our dumping grounds and by treating them efficiently we
can also earn profits from it.
• In B ward itself there are quiet good residential structures which are
organized and house-to-house collection can be initiated from there. In
fact every new permission for residential structure should have a
clause for house-to-house collection.
• The problem of coordination between motor loader and private
contractor can be resolved by instructing contractor to bring its own


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

motor loaders or now since the collection and treatment is

decentralized the ward can have its own trucks and drivers and motor
• The workers are usually residing in Dahisar and suburb areas due to
which they often arrive late. Therefore accommodation within the
ward should be the top priority. Besides this they should be given
training operating vehicles, loading and loading the basket etc.
• With the help modern wi-fi systems and electronic gadgets reporting
of staff, with their arrival and departure time can be checked.
• Now since the whole process is decentralized there is hardly any
chance of multiple handling because the waste will be treated within
the ward premises which will be not to far and vehicles once start
from the collection spot will end up directly at treatment unit.
• Now since segregation is given top priority in any waste management
system the collection spot should be designed in such a manner so that
the waste not only arrives in segregated form but stays in segregated
form until it reaches treatment unit. Separate bills with colour coding
should be provided so that citizens can throw the waste accordingly.
• Offer tax incentives to zero garbage communities to promote source
reduction of waste.
• Booths can be set up where dry recyclable waste can be sold that may
even avoid multiple handling and hauling.
• Having a pay-as-you-throw scheme in households and commercials
pay charges according to the waste they throw.
• Without participation of the citizens every garbage disposal scheme is
incomplete and therefore formation of “ADVANCE LOCALITY
MANAGEMENTS” UNITS involving non governmental


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

organizations and support councilors for promoting segregation and

introducing zero waste to landfills concept.
• Public participation can be increased by wide scale publicity in
schools, colleges, local newspapers, magazines, seminars, etc.

B-ward is categorically is very congested and it is very difficult to

find out some place for treatment. But the spare land of railway yard
at Sandhurst Road can provide that required space. A symbiosis
operation can be achieved in which the profits of the project can be
shared in terms of electricity or monitory returns which can be earned
• Selling compost in the market.
• Selling refined derived fuel obtained for treatment.
• Selling burning gas obtained from biomethanation process.
• Selling electricity to sate government or city suburbs.
• Earning carbon credits in view of clean development mechanism.
• With major changes in revenue system (Transfer Revenue

The treatment unit will be designed as per the testing done on the
wastes in the next semester. This treatment unit will be designed as
per the latest EPA norms.
The hauling units like trucks, dumpers and TDP will be changed
and in their place will arrive advance mobile units which will transfer
waste in segregated form.
Collection spots and 240 litre vehicle for collection will be
upgraded and colour coding will help for segregation.


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Advanced computer system will be used that will monitor the

whole management process.
Large investments will be required for developing units in each
ward, new and efficient vehicle for hauling segregated waste,
advanced computer system for managing whole operation in each
ward, up gradation of existing collection spots and overall increase in
These investments can be catered with the help of municipal bonds
which will help the municipality to raise the funds for all their
infrastructure projects including solid waste management.


In the previous chapters we saw that the present system of

municipal solid waste is a good, in fact, a best example of a management
disaster. In the next semester with the help of advanced management
techniques and sophisticated treatment facilities, we will prove that


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

• www.wikipedia.com
• www.google.com
• B ward municipal office
• Integrated Solid Waste Management by George Tchobanoglous,
Hillary Theisen, Samuel A.Vigil
• Environmental Sanitation by Baljeet Kapoor


Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities