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1. Pratik Kumar Gupta


2. Priyank Patel

3. Apoorva Prakhar Sharma


4. Siddharth Richhariya

5. Shobhit Tiwari



Fly ash is one of the residues generated in combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise
with the flue gases.
In an industrial context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal. Fly ash is
generally captured from the chimneys of coal-fired power plants, and together with bottom ash
removed from the bottom of the furnace is in this case jointly known as coal ash.

Component Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite

Sio2 (%) 20-60 40-60 15-45

Al2O3 (%) 5-35 20-30 20-25

Fe2O3 (%) 10-40 4-10 4-15

Cao (%) 1-12 5-30 15-40

LOI (%) 0-15 0-3 0-5

 Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 0.5 µm to 100 µm.
 They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (sio2), which is present in two forms: amorphous,
which is rounded and smooth, and crystalline, which is sharp, pointed and hazardous;
aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).
 Fly ashes are highly heterogeneous, consisting of a mixture of glassy particles with various
identifiable crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite, and various iron oxides.

Boiling/Melting Point: Melting point > 1400 o C

Specific Gravity: 2.05 to 2.8

Solubility In Water: Essentially insoluble. Some Class C fly ashes may have soluble sodium sulfate

Respirable Fraction: Approximately 20% - 40% of particles are below 7 micron in diameter (i.e. in
the respirable range).
Fly ash contains environmental toxins in significant amounts

Toxins Amount (ppm)

zinc 178
Vanadium 252
Thallium 9
Strontium 775
Selenium 7.7
Nickel 77.6
Manganese 250
Lead 56
Fluorine 29
Copper 112
Cobalt 35.9
Chromium VI 90
Cadmium 3.4
Chromium 136
Boron 311
Beryllium 5
Arsenic 43.4

Classification as per ASTM C618:

1. Class F fly ash
 This fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, and contains less than 20% lime (CaO).
 The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal typically produces Class F fly
 Possessing pozzolanic properties, the glassy silica and alumina of Class F fly ash
requires a cementing agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime, with
the presence of water in order to react and produce cementitious compounds.
 The addition of a chemical activator such as sodium silicate (water glass) to a Class F fly
ash can lead to the formation of a geopolymer.

2. Class C fly ash

o Fly ash produced from the burning of younger lignite or subbituminous coal,
o in addition to having pozzolanic properties, also has some self-cementing properties.
o In the presence of water, Class C fly ash will harden and gain strength over time.
o Class C fly ash generally contains more than 20% lime (CaO).
o Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C fly ash does not require an activator.
o Alkali and sulphate (SO4) contents are generally higher in Class C fly ashes.
Economic feasibility:

1. Flyash is an industrial waste product.

2. The cost incurred is mainly that of transportation from the power plant to the construction
site. Cost of fly ash with in 200 km from a thermal power plant is as low as 10% to 20% of
the cost of cement. This offers a certain economic advantage.
3. Concrete requiring 400 kg / m3 binding material, may result in saving of 15% to 18% in
overall cost of concrete with 45% to 50% replacement by fly ash.
The HVFAC satisfies the economic dimension of sustainable development.
Fly ash is economically feasible due to its wide applications also,


1. Portland cement

Owing to its pozzolanic properties, fly ash is used as a replacement for some of the Portland
cement content of concrete, as pozzolana greatly improves the strength and durability of concrete,
the use of ash is a key factor in their preservation.
Use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement is generally limited to Class F fly ashes.

2. Embankment

Fly ash has a large uniformity coefficient consisting of clay-sized particles.

Engineering properties that will affect fly ash’s use in embankments include grain size distribution,
compaction characteristics, shear strength, compressibility, permeability, and frost susceptibility.
Nearly all fly ash used in embankments are Class F fly ashes.

3. Soil stabilization

Soil stabilization is the permanent physical and chemical alteration of soils to enhance their
physical properties.
Stabilization can increase the shear strength of a soil and/or control the shrink-swell properties of a
soil, thus improving the load bearing capacity of a sub-grade to support pavements and
Stabilization can be used to treat a wide range of sub-grade materials from expansive clays to
granular materials.

4. Flowable fill

Fly ash is also used as a component in the production of flowable fill (also called controlled low
strength material, or CLSM), which is used as self-leveling, self-compacting backfill material in lieu
of compacted earth or granular fill.
The strength of flowable fill mixes can range from 50 to 1,200 lbf/in² (0.3 to 8.3 MPa), depending
on the design requirements of the project in question.
Flowable fill includes mixtures of Portland cement and filler material, and can contain mineral
Fly ash can replace either the Portland cement or fine aggregate (in most cases, river sand) as a
filler material.

5. Asphalt concrete

Asphalt concrete is a composite material consisting of an asphalt binder and mineral aggregate.
Both Class F and Class C fly ash can typically be used as a mineral filler to fill the voids and
provide contact points between larger aggregate particles in asphalt concrete mixes. This
application is used in conjunction, or as a replacement for, other binders (such as Portland cement
or hydrated lime).

6. Geopolymer

The reactivity of the fly ash glasses is used to generate a binder comparable to a hydrated Portland
cement in appearance and properties, but with possibly reduced CO 2 emissions.
the total carbon footprint of the alkali required to form geopolymer cement is considered, including
the calcining of limestone as an intermediate to the formation of alkali, the net reduction in total CO 2
emissions may be negligible.

7. Roller compacted concrete

Another application of using fly ash is in roller compacted concrete dams. Many dams in the US
have been constructed with high fly ash contents.
Fly ash lowers the heat of hydration allowing thicker placements to occur.
Data for these can be found at the US Bureau of Reclamation. This has also been demonstrated in
the Ghatghar Dam Project in India.

8. Bricks

Bricks of fly ash can be made of two types.

1. Made mixing it with about equal amount of soil and proceeding through the ordinary process
of making brick. This type of formation reduces the use of fertile sand in making bricks.
2. Made by mixing soil, plaster of paris and fly ash in a definite proportion with water and
allowing the mixture to dry. As it does not need to be heated in a furnace this technique
reduces air pollution.
Fly ash brick making

9. Metal matrix composites

Hollow fly ash can be infiltrated by molten metal to form solid, alumina encased spheres.
Fly ash can also be mixed with molten metal and cast to reduce overall weight and density, due to
the low density of fly ash.

10. Waste management

Fly ash, and its alkalinity, may be used to process human waste sludge into fertilizer.
The Rhenipal process uses fly ash as an admixture to stabilize sewage and other toxic sludges, the
process has been used since 1996 to stabilize large amounts of chromium(VI) contaminated
leather sludges in Alcanena, Portugal.

Effect on environment and society

The production of 1 tonne of cement releases almost 1 tonne of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse
gas), about 3 kg of NOX (an air contaminant that contributes to ground level smog and 0.4 kg of
PM 10(an air borne particulate matter that is harmful to the respiratory tract when inhaled).
The replacement of cement with certain amount of flyash reduces the dependence of the
construction industry on cement production. This in turn reduces the amount of carbon dioxide
released, to some extent.
The other potential environmental benefit of HVFAC technology is the utilization of the industrial
waste product - flyash. At present this flyash is disposed off in ash ponds. Currently 65,000 acres of
land in India is under these ponds. This is a serious concern in a country like India where land is a
scarce resource.
Fly Ash is a chemically complex pollutant and, if not properly disposed, may cause serious
environmental problems .Such as:
 Scattering of ash particles over land surface by precipitation results in degeneration of soil
 Wet disposal of fly ash results in direct entrainment leading to leaching of the heavy metals
into ground water.
 Particulate Matter Concentration in the atmosphere increases, causing increasing the
incidents of pulmonary ailments.
 Visibility reduction around power stations when atmospheric moisture forms aerosols with
the fine fly ash particles,
 Corrosion of metallic surfaces
 Construction of large ash disposal areas results in land use issues such as resettlement,
loss of agricultural production, grazing land and habitat as well as wastelands.
 Elevated RSPM ambient air concentration in the vicinity of under-maintained ash ponds
 Slurry disposal systems put a strain on fresh water resources

Fly ash, though dry and therefore less at risk to flooding, presents just as serious a hazard to the
local ecosystem, including surrounding communities, wildlife, and groundwater reserves. Fly ash is
stored in landfills, most of which are lined, but all of which are failure-prone. Particles in the air,
blown from these ash impoundments, can cause serious health problems such as asthma and
other respiratory diseases. Like wet slurry, fly ash contains a cocktail of harmful heavy metals and
other contaminants that present a serious threat to the local and regional ecosystem… and to
human health.

Social Aspects of Construction

The concept of social sustainability in this sector is much more difficult to grasp than those of
environmental and economic sustainability. Social responsibility is about minimizing the negative
and maximising the positive effects economic activity has on people and society.
The economic activity impacts the society in three major ways:
 Impact on those involved in the activity itself;
 Impact on the local community where the activity takes place;
 Implications for the wider global community.

Environmental Impacts of Cement production

 The global release of CO2 from all sources is estimated at 23 billion tonnes a year and the
portland cement production accounts for about 7% of total carbon emissions.
 The cement industry has made significant progress in reducing CO2 emissions through
improvements in process and efficiency, but further improvements are limited because CO2
production is inherent to the basic process of calcinating limestone.
 The cement industry does not fit the contemporary picture of a sustainable industry because
it uses raw materials and energy that are non-renewable; extracts its raw materials by
mining and manufactures a product that cannot be recycled.
 Through waste management of its power plants, fertiliser units and steel factories, they can
reduce energy use. This cuts energy bills, raw material costs as well as green house gas
emissions. In the process, it can turn this waste, whether it is fly ash, phosphogypsum, and
slag or mill scale, into a valuable product.
Exposure concerns

 Exposure to fly ash through skin contact, inhalation of fine particle dust and drinking water
may well present health risks.
 The National Academy of Sciences noted in 2007 that "the presence of high contaminant
levels in many CCR (coal combustion residue) leachates may create human health and
ecological concerns.
 Fine crystalline silica present in fly ash has been linked with lung damage, in particular
silicosis. OSHA allows 0.10 mg/m3, (one ten-thousandth of a gram per cubic meter of air).
 Another fly ash component of some concern is lime (CaO). This chemical reacts with water
(H2O) to form calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], giving fly ash a pH somewhere between 10 and
12, a medium to strong base. This can also cause lung damage if present in sufficient

Quality of Fly Ash

The most relevant characteristics of fly ash for use in concrete are loss on ignition (LOI), fineness,
chemical composition and uniformity.
Loss on Ignition

It is a measurement of unburned carbon (coal) remaining in the ash and is a critical characteristic of
fly ash, especially for concrete applications. High carbon levels, the type of carbon, the interaction
of soluble ions in fly ash, and the variability of carbon content can result in significant air-
entrainment problems in fresh concrete and can adversely affect the durability of concrete.


The fineness of fly ash is most closely related to the operating condition of the coal crushers and
the grindability of the coal itself.
For fly ash use in concrete applications, fineness is defined as the percent by weight of the material
retained on the 0.044 mm (No. 325) sieve. A coarser gradation can result in a less reactive ash and
could contain higher carbon contents. Fly ash can be processed by screening or air classification to
improve its fineness and reactivity.
To experience all the benefits of fly ash concrete high volume fly ash concrete [HVFAC] is
recommended. The HVFAC is typically characterized by:
 Very low water content
 Low cement content
 High fly ash content
 Very low water to cementitious materials ratio
 Requires the use of superplasticizer to achieve the desired workability


Short Term Exposure

 Swallowed: Unlikely under normal conditions of use. Swallowing fly ash may cause
abdominal discomfort.
 Eyes: Irritating to eyes causing watering and redness.
 Skin: Irritating to skin - can cause irritant/contact dermatitis from mechanical abrasion or
alkaline composition(Class C fly ash).
 Inhaled: Irritating to the nose, throat and respiratory tract causing coughing and sneezing.

Long Term Exposure

 Swallowed: Not Applicable

 Eyes: Not Applicable
 Skin: Not Applicable
 Inhaled: Repeated inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica can cause bronchitis,
silicosis (scarring of the lung) and lung cancer. It may also increase the risk of scleroderma
(a disease affecting the connective tissue of the skin, joints, blood vessels and internal
organs). Studies have shown that smoking increases the risk of bronchitis, silicosis and lung
cancer in persons exposed to crystalline silica.

Exposure Limits

 Crystalline Silica (Quartz): 0.2 mg/m 3 TWA (time-weighted average) as respirable dust.
 Dust (NOS - not otherwise specified): 10 mg/m 3 TWA as inspirable dust. However, where a
state, territory or local authority prescribes a lower exposure standard, the lower standard
applies. Recommendations: Keep exposure to dust as low as practicable. Respirable
crystalline silica levels should be kept below 0.1 mg/m 3 TWA, and respirable dust below 5
mg/m 3 TWA.
Engineering Controls
 Avoid generating dust. When handling fly ash, use local mechanical ventilation or extraction
in areas where dust could escape into the work environment. For bulk deliveries, closed
pumping systems are recommended.
 For handling of individual bags, follow instructions below if no local exhaust ventilation is
available. Work areas should be cleaned regularly by wet sweeping or vacuuming. If
generating dust cannot be avoided, follow personal protection recommendations below.
 Personal Protection: Skin: Wear loose comfortable clothing. Wash work clothes regularly.
Apply barrier cream to hands or wear cotton or light duty leather gloves or equivalent.
 Eyes: Safety spectacles with side shields or safety goggles should be worn if dust likely to
be generated.
 Respiratory: None required if engineering and handling controls are adequate. If dust is
generated wear a suitable particulate respirator . Use only respirators which bear the
standards mark and are fitted correctly. Note that persons with facial hair will have difficulty
in obtaining a satisfactory face seal



 Building construction and material techniques by Gurucharan Singh

 Civil engineering materials by S.C. Rangwala
 Building construction materials by Sushil Kumar


 Google Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki

 Use of fly ash in cement concrete: www.flyash.com/
 Fly ash information center dirk india: www.fly-ash-information-center.org.in/ -
 Composition of fly ash: www.nsic.co.in/schemes/documents/.../fly%20ash%20bricks.
 Fly ash bricks: www.apexflyashbricks.com
 Machines: www.flyashbrickmachine.org
 Fly ash experimental results: www.saroyastoneco.com/fly-ash
 Fly ash study material : www.books-express.co.uk
 Fly ash concrete: www.flyashconcrete.in
 Fly ash disasters : www.knoxnews.com/.../fly-ash-flood-covers-acres/ - United States