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# The BASICS Projectile Motion

Notation: Greek Alphabet: 11. While flying horizontally at 360 mph, a small plane releases a
αβγδεηζθικλµνοπρστυφχψω relief-aid package from its bay doors. If the plane is flying at an
Scientific Notation = 6.624 × 10–34 altitude of 40,000 ft, how far from the jungle village must the
Metric Abbreviations = f, p, µ, m, c, d – k, M, G, T release be made? Repeat for 450 km/hr and 4410 m.
Units: Meter, Kilogram, Second 12. A projectile is fired at 36.87° above the horizontal with an
Dimensional Analysis initial speed of 50 m/s. Find its range.
Capital 1 13. A toy cannon fires a ball at 30° above the horizontal. The
Concepts: Atomic Number and Mass, Density ball strikes a wall 12 m away. If the ball hits the wall 1.5 m above
Estimation: Orders of Magnitude & Approximation, Significant its launch height, what is the ball’s initial speed?
Figures, Percentage Error 14. A daredevil stunt man is shot from a cannon at 45° above the
1. How many heartbeats do you expect to have in your lifetime? horizontal at 15 m/s. If the net must be located 3 m above the
1-D Motion launch point for safety reasons, what is the horizontal distance
Terminology: Displacement, Velocity, Speed, Acceleration, Ave. from the cannon to the net in order to safely catch him?
vs. Instantaneous, Subscripts – Initial / Naught: xi ≡ x0 15. The maximum distance Jill can throw a ball on a level field is
Graphing: x(t), v(t), and a(t) and how they relate to each other. 200 ft. Jill then climbs a 100 ft tall building and throws the ball at
Equations:Derive general forms of x(t) and v(t) for constant 30° above the horizontal. How far from the base of the building
acceleration. Discuss freely falling objects. does the ball land?
2. I go to Disneyland twice a year. What is my average speed if Uniform Circular Motion
it takes 90 min to travel the 90 miles? 16. A child sits on the edge of a merry go round whose radius is 2
3. What is my average speed through Camp Pendleton if I travel m. If the child is moving at 4 m/s, what is his centripetal
9 mi in 8 min? One mi in 53 s? 100 yd in 3.0 s? 10 feet in 99 acceleration?
ms? 17. A ring-shaped space station is being designed so that people
4. x(t) = 3t2 + 5t - 1. What are v(t) and a(t)? can walk on the inside of outer wall and feel their normal weight.
5. Marie is standing on top of a 50 m high building at the edge of The station has a 1 km radius. What is the station’s period of
the roof. She throws a ball up and slightly outwards with an rotation?
initial speed of 20 m/s. (a) How high does the ball go? (b) How 18. A 4 ft tall child whirled a stone overhead in a horizontal
long does that trip take? (c) How fast is the ball going when it circle. The circle has a 3 ft radius and the stone’s acceleration is
returns to her height? (d) How high above the ground is the ball 108 ft/s2. If the child releases the stone, how far away does it fall?
when it has been in the air 5 seconds? (e) When does it hit the Relative Motion
ground? 19. A car’s velocity is 30 mph North, and a truck’s is 40 mph
Vectors West. Find the velocity of the car relative to the truck.
Scalars: Magnitude only (e.g. temperature, cost, volume, speed) 20. John can row a boat at 5 mph in stationary water. If he is in a
Vectors: Magnitude and Direction (position, velocity, river which flows South at 3 mph, where must he point his boat in
acceleration, force) order to row straight East across the river?
Trig Review: Sine, Cosine, Tangent, Pythagoras Theorem 21. A car is traveling on level ground at 15 mph. Raindrops fall
Graphing: Addition & Subtraction, Commutative Law, Unit with a speed of 20 mph with respect to the car, and the rain
Vectors streaks past the window at an angle of 36.87° from the vertical
Properties: Notations (Cartesian, Polar, Component), Scalar/Dot toward the back of the car. Find the velocity of the rain with
Product (•) respect to the ground.
6. A sailboat has a velocity of 5 m/s, at an angle of 36.87° NW. Newton’s Laws of Motion
What are the xˆ and yˆ components of the speed? Terminology: Force, Inertia, Mass, Weight, Normal, Friction,
Frictionless
7. A child walks 2 blocks N and then 5 blocks W. What is her
Newton’s Laws: 1st Law – Objects at rest stay at rest, objects in
displacement from her starting point?
motion continue moving with constant velocity as long as there
8. A golfer takes two putts to sink the ball; the first is (80 ft, 30°
are no external forces acting on it. 2nd Law – The acceleration
NE), and the second is (15 ft, 36.87°WN). What is the
of an object is (a) directly proportional to the net force acting on
displacement of a single putt that would have sunk the ball on the
it, and (b) inversely proportional to its mass. 3rd Law – If two
first try?
objects interact, the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is
9. Two ropes are attached to an eye bolt. One is directed at 40°
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force F21
left from the axis of the bolt and its tension is 150 lb. The other
which object 2 exerts on object 1.
rope is directed right at 25° from the axis of the bolt. Find the
22. What is the weight of a 10 kg mass?
tension in the second rope if the resultant force of both ropes acts
23. A 75 lb stoplight is suspended by two cables. One of the
along the axis of the bolt.
cables makes a 36.87° angle with the horizontal and the other
10. Vector A = 3 i – 4 j, vector B = (3, 4), and C = (2.5, 216.87°).
makes 30°. What is the tension in each of the cables?
Find the following: A + B, A – B, A + 2C, A • B, A • C
24. A 150 N force is applied at an angle of 30° below the
2-D Motion
horizontal to a 10 kg box which is initially at rest on a horizontal
Projectile Motion: 2 displacement equations, 2 velocity
frictionless surface. What is the acceleration of the box? What is
equations: x = x0 + v0 x t , y = y0 + v0 y t − 12 gt 2 , vx = v0 x , and the magnitude of the normal force that acts on the box?
v y = v0 y − gt 25. What is the acceleration of a 20 kg block which is sliding
down a smooth 36.87° incline?
v02 sin 2θ
Range Equation: R = , uses and limitations
g
1
26. A horizontal force is applied to a 30 kg box which is at rest 44. What angle does the ceiling strap in a San Francisco streetcar
on a frictionless 30° incline. What is the magnitude of that force make with the vertical while the car is turning a 30 m radius
if the box must remain motionless? corner at 15 m/s?
27. Find the tension in the rope of a Atwood machine that has a 45. What direction does a balloon float when you round a 90 m
40 kg mass hanging on the left side and a 60 kg mass on the right. corner at 25 m/s?
What is their acceleration? 46. If a bug is to remain stationary on a turntable as it turns at 33
28. Two blocks (20 kg and 50 kg) are in contact on a horizontal 1/3 rpm, what is the minimum coefficient of friction? The bug is
frictionless surface with the smaller block to the left of the larger 10 cm from the center of the turntable.
one. There is a 350 N horizontal force pushing the 20 kg block to 47. ** What is the formula for the terminal velocity for a drag
the right. What is the magnitude of the force pushing on the 50 kg force of the form (a) R = –bv, and (b) R = –av2?
block? Center of Mass
29. A rope is attached to the top of a smooth 53.13° incline and to 48. Calculate the center of mass of the following: a 2 kg mass at
a 30 kg block which rests on the incline. What is the tension in 2 m to the left of the origin, a 3 kg mass at 3 m to the right, and a
the rope? 5 kg mass at 1 m to the right.
30. A rope connects a 30 kg block to a 25 kg block. The rope 49. How far from the center of the Earth is the center of mass for
passes over a pulley at the top of a 53.13° incline. The larger the Earth-Moon system?
block rests on the incline and the smaller hangs from the pulley. 50. A 20 ft long 100 lb plank is lying on a frozen pond. Its left
Calculate the acceleration of either block. end rests against the shore and a 200 lb man is standing on its
31. An elevator accelerates at −5 m/s2. What is the tension in a right end out on the ice. Where is the left end of the plank
rope which holds a 3 kg tool bucket? located, after the man has walked from right to left along it?
Friction (Note: both the plank and the man move!)
32. A horizontal 180 N force is applied to a 20 kg box which is 51. There are three masses on the corners of a 6-8-10 triangle. If
initially at rest on a rough horizontal surface. What is the each mass is 100 g, where is the center of mass? Assume the
acceleration of the box? (µs = 0.8 and µk = 0.6) origin is at the smallest angle, and the right corner lies on the (+)
33. A 160 lb box is being pulled across a rough horizontal surface x-axis.
at a constant speed. The rope is held at 30° above the horizontal. Work & Energy
Calculate the coefficient of friction if the tension in the rope is Work: W = ∫ F ⋅ dx , which simplifies to F ⋅ ∆x if F = constant.
100 lbs.
Work (constant force)
34. What is the acceleration of a 20 kg block which is sliding 52. A 100 lb horizontal force pushes a 200 lb crate 10 ft across
down a rough 36.87° incline (µk = 0.5)? the floor. If the coefficient of friction is 0.3, how much work is
35. A 100 kg mass rests on a rough table top and is connected to done by each of the forces acting on the crate?
a 60 kg hanging mass by means of a rope and pulley. If µs = 0.5 53. A boy pulls a 10 kg sled 10 m at a constant speed across a
and µk = 0.2, what is the acceleration of the blocks? level floor. If the rope makes a 30° angle with the floor and the µk
36. A perfect rope connects a 20 kg block to a 25 kg block. The = 0.4, what is the work done by each of the forces?
rope passes over a pulley at the top of a 53.13° incline. The 25 kg 54. You push down on a 5 kg box while pushing it across a rough
block rests on the incline and the 20 kg block hangs from the horizontal surface. The 80 N push is angled at 20° below level. If
pulley. Calculate the acceleration of either block. Assume µ = µk = 0.3 and you move the box 2 m, how much work do you do?
0.25. Hooke’s Law & Work of a Spring
37. A 25 kg block sits on top of a 50 kg block which is being 55. A 3 kg hanging mass stretches a spring 5 cm. How much
pulled horizontally by a 450 N force. What is the minimum energy is required to stretch the spring 5 cm more?
coefficient of friction if the top block doesn’t slide across the 56. ** What is the effective spring constant when two springs are
bottom block? Assume the surface is frictionless. in parallel? In series?
Applications of Newton’s Laws Kinetic Energy
Uniform Circular Motion 57. A 20 kg box rests on a rough horizontal floor (µ = 0.6). Find
38. A 2 kg toy car completes a 1 m radius circular path in 3 s. the change in KE if a 200 N horizontal force pushes the box 10 m.
What is the magnitude of the frictional force on the car? 58. One end of a 2000 N/m spring is attached to a wall and a 5 kg
39. An unbanked highway curve has a radius of 90 ft. If a car block is attached to the other end. If the spring is compressed 10
travels at 30 mph, what is the minimum coefficient of friction cm then released, what is the maximum speed of the block?
necessary to negotiate the turn without slipping? Power
40. A banked highway curve has a radius of 90 m. If a car travels 59. A 120 lb boy climbs 15 ft up a rope. If the child can produce
at 30 m/s, what is the bank angle necessary to negotiate the turn 1/4 hp, how long does it take him to climb the rope? Assume
without slipping even in icy conditions? constant speed. 1 hp = 746 W = 550 ft-lb/s.
Non-Uniform Circular Motion 60. A car needs 15 kW in order to travel at a constant 108 km/h.
41. A car passes over the top of a small hill. Find the car’s What is the wind’s frictional force?
minimum speed if the normal force between the seat and the Conservation of Energy
passenger is zero. The radius of curvature is 100 m. Terminology: Conservative and non-conservative forces,
42. A Ferris wheel has a radius of 20 m and a period of 1 minute. potential energy, mechanical energy
What is the normal force acting on a 30 kg child at the top and at 61. A 10 kg block is connected to a 20 kg block by a rope and a
the bottom of the ride? pulley system. The smaller block hangs over the end of the table
Accelerated Reference Frames while the larger is at rest on the smooth horizontal table top. Find
43. A box rests on the bed of a truck. If µ = 0.7, find the the 10 kg block’s final speed after it has fallen 3 m.
maximum acceleration of the box should not slip.

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62. A 15 kg block starts at the top of a 30° smooth incline. Find 77. A 2 kg mass with a velocity of 6 m/s E collides with a 3 kg
the block’s final speed if it starts from rest and slides 2 m down mass whose velocity is 4 m/s N. After the collision the 3 kg mass
the incline. is traveling 53.13° NE. What direction is the 2 kg mass moving
63. A 20 kg block starts from rest at the top of a 53.13° smooth afterwards?
incline 2.0 m above the floor. The block is released and slides Rotating Systems
down the incline then out onto a smooth horizontal surface where Alphabet Soup: θ, ω, α, Ι, τ, and their links to linear dynamical
it collides with a spring. Find the distance the spring is quantities.
compressed when the block momentarily stops. The spring 78. A wheel goes from rest to 500 RPM in 2 seconds. Find its
constant it 12 kN/m. angular acceleration. What angle θ does the wheel rotate
64. A spring is connected to the upper end of a 36.87° incline and through?
to a 10 kg block which rests on the incline. If the spring has a 79. A car goes from 0 to 60 mph in 5 s. If its tires have a 1 ft
1000 N/m spring constant and the block is released from rest radius, what is the angular acceleration?
when the spring is compressed 0.20 m, how much is the spring Rotational Kinetic Energy and Moment of Inertia
stretched at its maximum extension? 80. What is the rotational inertia of the Earth – Moon system?
65. A block slides up a rough 30° incline with a coefficient of Calculate the moment of inertia of a rod (twice), ring, disk,
friction 0.4. What is the maximum distance the block travels up sphere, shell, and sphere again, then two examples with non-
the incline if its initial speed is 30 m/s? uniform density.
66. A 4 kg mass is dropped onto a 10 kN/m spring from a height 81. How much energy would be released if the Earth stopped
of 2 m above the end of the spring. What is the maximum rotating?
compression of the spring? Torque
67. A 20 kg block starts from rest at the top of a vertical ramp. It 82. Two concentric disks form a single unit. The small disk has a
slides 2 m down the ramp and then slides out onto a rough radius of 3 cm while that of the larger is 5 cm. If a cord with a 20
horizontal surface. If the block travels 3 m before stopping, what N tension is wrapped clockwise around the large disk, and a cord
is the coefficient of friction on the level surface? with a tension of 60 N is wrapped counter-clockwise around the
Linear Momentum smaller disk, what is the net torque?
Definition: F = dp/dt, Impulse 83. A cord is wrapped around a horizontal cylinder (R = 5 cm, M
Cons. Law: Σ p = constant in a collision, arises from Newton’s = 4 kg). A 2 kg pail hangs from the cord’s loose end. What is the
2nd Law. tension as the cord unwinds and the bucket falls?
Example Problems 84. A 60 kg block rests on a 36.87° frictionless incline. It is
68. If a 2000 lb car has the same momentum as a 5 ton truck attached to an 18 kg block which hangs over a pulley at the top of
going 20 mph, what is the car’s speed? the incline. The pulley is shaped like a disk with a radius of 15
69. A 2 kg ball with a speed of 10 m/s collides head on and cm and a mass of 24 kg. What is the acceleration of the 18 kg
rebounds from an infinitely massive wall at 5 m/s. Find the block?
change in momentum and the force of the wall on the ball if ∆t = Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
0.1 s. 85. How much energy is required to spin up a sphere to speed?
Conservation of momentum – Inelastic collisions The sphere has a radius of 25 cm, a mass of 3 kg, an initial speed
70. A 10 g bullet hits and embeds itself in a 2 kg block of wood of 300 RPM, and a final speed of 600 RPM.
which is initially at rest. What was the bullet’s speed before the 86. A 2 m long, 30 kg rod is standing on end and falls over.
collision if the combination is moving 3 m/s after the collision? What is the speed of the top end of the rod when it hits the
71. When a 200 lb halfback collides with a 220 lb linebacker, ground?
both stop abruptly. In time-trials, the halfback can run 40 yards in Angular Momentum
5 seconds. If the collision occurs when both are moving at full Definition: Angular Momentum: L = Iω
speed, how long would it take for the linebacker to run the 40 Cons. Law: Σ L = constant
yards? 87. A 1 kg, 15 cm radius turntable is freely turning at 33 1/3
Conservation of momentum – Elastic collisions RPM. Onto this I drop a 15 cm, 200 g record that is not rotating
72. Two billiard balls collide head on. If one was at rest initially initially. What is the final angular speed of the combination?
and the other was moving at 2 m/s, what are their speeds after the 88. A 100 lb skater is moving at 10 mph when he grabs a 12 ft
collision? long rope which is attached to a pole. The rope causes the skater
73. A 16 lb bowling ball is at rest when it is struck by a 120 mph, to move in smaller and smaller circles as the rope wraps around
2 oz golf ball. What is the velocity of each after the collision? the pole. What is the skater’s speed when 4 ft of rope are left?
2-D Collisions – Perfectly Inelastic 89. A 30 kg child is initially standing 1 m from the center of a
74. A 1000 kg car moving North at 30 m/s collides with a 2000 Merry-Go-Round that has a mass of 100 kg and a radius of 2 m.
kg car moving East at 20 m/s. If they stick together, what is the If the child and the Merry-Go-Round both start from rest, what is
velocity of the lump immediately after the collision? the angular speed of the Merry-Go-Round with respect to the
75. When a 10 kg stationary bomb explodes into three pieces. ground when the child walks at 1 m/s clockwise (c.w.) with
One 2 kg piece flies West at 50 m/s and a 3 kg piece flies North at respect to the Merry-Go-Round?
70 m/s. What is the velocity of the final 5 kg piece? 90. A 10 g, 300 m/s bullet strikes and sticks to the edge of a 1.98
2-D Collisions – Elastic kg, 20 cm radius cylinder which is initially motionless. What is
76. Two billiard balls collide. Initially one is moving at 5 m/s, the angular speed of the combination just after the collision?
the other is at rest. After the collision the first ball has changed Assume the cylinder rotates about its axis of symmetry.
course by 36.87°. Find the velocities of both balls after the Rolling Motion
collision. Friction does no work (no slippage)

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91. ** A sphere, a hoop, and a disk race down an inclined ramp. 111. The gravitational force between two bodies is 10–8 N when
Which will reach the bottom first? they are separated by 20 cm. If their combined mass is 5 kg, what
Static Equilibrium are their individual masses?
Conditions: ΣF = 0, and Στ = 0 112. Determine the mass of the Earth.
Forces and Torque 113. A spacecraft orbits about a planet. The period of its orbit is
92. Two men are carrying a 5 m long, 20 kg wood beam by its 12 hr and the radius is 5 × 107m. What is the mass of the planet?
ends. A 5 kg lunchbox sits 1 m from one of the ends. What is Gravitational Field
each man’s load? 114. Calculate the Earth’s field strength at 0 m, 103 m and 106 m
93. A 20 kg sign hangs from a 4.0 kg, 1.5 m long horizontal height.
beam. A cable runs from the outer end of the beam back to a Potential Energy: negative, integrated in from infinity
point on the wall 2 m above the support point. The sign is 0.5 m 115. Calculate U for a 1 kg, a 2 kg and a 3 kg mass which are
from the wall and is 1 m long. What is the tension in the cable? located at the corners of a 3-4-5 triangle respectively.
94. A 10 kg sphere rests in a 60° vertical wedge. Find the forces 116. What is the Earth’s escape velocity?
on the sphere. Assume no friction. 117. If 2 equal masses start from rest an infinite distance apart,
95. The boom of a crane is 30 m long and has a mass of 200 kg. what is their speed at the instant when they collide? (m = 10 kg, r
When a 500 kg load is lifted by the boom the boom makes an = 20 cm)
angle of 53.13° with the horizon. What is the tension in the 118. What is the speed and period of a satellite 200 km above the
support cable if it is attached from the center of the boom and is Earth?
horizontal? 119. How much energy is required to move a satellite from
96. A 100 kg painter wishes to climb as far up a ladder as is 2Re  4Re, if its mass is 105 kg?
possible before the ladder starts to slip. The 25 kg ladder is 10 m Fluid Mechanics
long and makes a 53.13° angle with the horizon. The wall is Density (define)
smooth and the floor has µs = 0.2. How far up the ladder can he 120. What is the density of the Earth?
climb? Pressure (definition)
97. What is the magnitude of the horizontal force that must be 121. A piece of paper (8 1/2 × 11) is lying on a horizontal
applied to the handle of a 100 kg, 50 cm radius lawn roller in tabletop. What is the force of air pressure acting on the top of the
order to push it up onto a 10 cm tall curb? Compare with the paper?
weight. Derive: P = P0 + ρgh
S.H.M. 122. How much pressure exists at a depth of 10000 m in the
Terminology: T, f, ω, A, x, v, a, φ ocean?
Equation: x(t) = cos (ωt + φ), relationship between ω, k, and m U-tubes, Barometers
Hooke’s Law 123. To what maximum height can a column of alcohol (0.806
98. Calculate the maximum acceleration if k = 1000 N/m, and m g/cc) be raised at sea level by a vacuum pump?
= 2.5 kg for a mass oscillating +/– 3 cm on a horizontal spring. 124. A test tube is filled with two fluids which do not mix. The
99. If a 100 N force stretches a spring 8 cm, find the period of upper fluid is 30 cm deep and has ρ = 3.7 g/cc. The lower fluid is
oscillation when a 2 kg mass is attached to the spring. 50 cm deep and has ρ = 8.5 g/cc. What is the pressure at the
100. Find the minimum period of oscillation if a penny is to sit on bottom?
top of an oscillating surface with an amplitude of 20 cm. 125. A U-tube is partially filled with water and then kerosene (ρ
Energy = 0.82 g/cc) is poured on top of the water on one side of the tube
101. Find Kmax if k = 500 N/m, m = 0.5 kg and A = 20 cm. until the difference in height between water levels on the two
102. Find the displacement x when K = 3 U in terms of A. sides is 10 cm. How thick is the layer of kerosene?
Phase Constants 126. How much force is required to lift an 1600 kg car if r1 =
103. Find φ when x = 1/3 A, and v is to the right. 0.75 cm (at pump) and r2 = 15 cm (at car)? (Assume both are at
104. Find φ when x = –3/4 A, and v is to the left. same height.)
Simple Pendulum (small angle) Archimedes’s Principle, Buoyant Force
105. What is the period of a 2 m long pendulum, and what would Buoyant Force: B = ρf Vobj g
it be on the surface of the moon? 127. What is the buoyant force acting on an object when it is
106. Calculate the length of a simple pendulum with T = 2 s. submerged in water? (m = 3.6 kg, V = 3 liters)
Physical Pendulum 128. A 45 kg child sits on a foam raft which just barely keeps her
107. ** Show that the real pendulum formula reduces to the out of the water. The raft is 1×1×0.05 m3. What is ρ for
simple one. Styrofoam?
108. A disk with radius 0.5 m pivots about a point half way from Flows – laminar vs. turbulent
its center to its edge. What is its period of motion? Ideal Fluids – non-viscous, incompressible, no turbulence, steady
Gravitation Equation: Av = Q = constant flow rate (conservation of mass)
Newton: how he found his famous formula for gravity using the Bernoulli’s Equation
Moon 129. A 3/4 inch diameter hose can fill a 10 gal bucket in 80 s.
Kepler: derive T2 ~ a3 What is the speed of the water after a 1/4 in nozzle has been
G = 6.67 × 10–11 N m2/kg2 screwed on?
109. Calculate the gravitational force between two 1 kg masses 130. A water tank has a hole in its side. The hole is 10 m below
separated by 1 m. the surface of the tank and 2 l of water leak out each minute.
110. Two stars (masses M and 4M respectively) are separated by What is the diameter of the hole?
a distance D. Where should a third mass be placed such that the 131. An airplane wing is just able to lift a 10,000 kg plane. If the
net gravitational force acting on it would be zero? airspeed over the top of the wing is 60 m/s and under the bottom
4
of the wing is 40 m/s, what is the area of the wing? ρair = 1.29 Adiabatic change
kg/m3. 149. 2 moles of a monatomic gas initially at 20°C and 1 atm. are
132. A vacuum pump is used to empty out a flooded basement. compressed adiabatically to 1/4 their initial volume. Find the
The pump intake is located 4 m below the outflow nozzle. The final volume, temperature and pressure.
intake diameter is 20 cm and the output is 10 cm. What is the Equipartition of Energy
intake pressure in atmospheres if 1 cubic meter is pumped out 150. What is the internal energy of 1 mole of a diatomic gas at
each minute? 27° C? What is the internal energy of air at 27° C? (Air is
Temperature composed of 98% N2 and O2 gas and 2% polyatomic gases. cv =
Temperature Scales: Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin 20.99)
Thermal Expansion: ∆L = L0 α∆T , ∆V = V0β∆T , and β = 3α Heat Engines, The Second Law and Efficiency
133. A 100 m by 100 m plot of land is accurately laid out using a 151. Calculate the efficiency and net work of the following
steel tape on a day when the temperature is 15°C. If you re- rectangular cycle: P1 = P2 = 4 atm, P3 = P4 = 1 atm, V1 = V4 =
measure the same plot using the same tape on a 104°F day, how 20l, and V2 = V3 = 40l. There are two moles of a monatomic gas.
much error is caused by the high temperature? Carnot Cycle
134. The hole in an aluminum washer is 1 cm in diameter when 152. Calculate the efficiency of a Carnot engine operating
the temperature is 20°C. At what temperature will the diameter between 27° and 127° C.
be 1.0012 cm? 153. A Carnot engine has a power output of 200 kW. If it
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT , or PV = Nk BT , where kB = R/NA operates between 300 K and 600 K, how much energy is absorbed
each hour and how much heat energy is lost each hour?
135. How many molecules are there in 30 l of gas at 1 atm. and Second Law of Thermodynamics (Perfect Heat Engine)
100°C? Entropy and the 2nd Law
136. A tank of gas is heated from 40°C to 300°C. What is the 154. What is the change in entropy when one mole of Aluminum
final pressure if its initial pressure was 2 atm.? is melted? One mole of Zinc?
137. Calculate the volume of 1 mole of an ideal gas at STP. 155. What is the change in entropy when one mole of diatomic
Heat – First Law of Thermodynamics gas is heated isochorically from 300 K to 400K?
Heat: Temperature vs. Total Thermal Energy 156. What is the change in entropy when two moles of water
First Law vapor follow this cycle: 1  2 = Adiabatic, 2  3 = Isobaric, 3
Constants: Specific Heat, Latent Heat  1 = Isochoric; P1 = 9 atm, P2 = 1 atm and V1 = 20 l?
138. Calculate the final temperature when 50 g of water at 0°C is Wave Motion
added to 100 g at 100°C. Terms: f, ω, λ, A, y, k, T, v
139. What is the equilibrium temperature when 100 g of 100°C Types: transverse, longitudinal
water is added to a 50 g aluminum container that is at 0°C? Traveling waves (harmonic): y(x, t) = A sin (kx – ωt)
140. Calculate the final temperature when 20 g of ice at 0°C is 157. Find the wave speed if the f is 60 Hz and λ is 2 m.
added to 100 g of water at 100°C. 158. Find the wave function if the frequency is 600 Hz, the wave
141. Calculate the final temperature when 30 g of steam at 110°C speed is 40 m/s and the wave is traveling in the negative x
is added to 100 g of ice at –40°C. ci = 2.09 J/g, cs = 2.01 J/g. direction. The amplitude is 4 cm.
Heat Transfer 159. Given y = 2 sin (10x – 30t), what are f, ω, λ, A, k, T, and v?
142. How much heat is lost through a 1 m2, 0.5 cm thick glass
window in one day if the temperature inside is 25°C and outside is Derive wave speed on a string: vphase = F
µ
0°C?
160. A 3 m long string has a mass of 20 g. What is the tension in
Four Processes – Isochoric, Isobaric, Isothermal, Adiabatic
the string if waves on the string have a wave speed of 150 m/s?
Work done
161. A string with a density of 10 g/m is attached to two walls
143. ** Calculate the work done by a gas during an isobaric
such that the distance between the walls is 4/5 the length of the
change, an isochoric change, and an isothermal change.
string. If a mass of 10 kg is hung from the middle of the string
Cycles – Work done & heat exchanged on a P-V diagram.
and pulls the string taut, what is the wave speed as a function of
144. ** Calculate work done and heat exchanged for each of the
the hanging mass?
four common cycles.
Superposition (General, In Phase, Out of Phase)
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Reflection & Transmission at boundaries
Derive Pressure
Fast to slow media, 180° phase change on reflection
Temperature: K = 1/2 mv2 = 3/2 kBT
Slow to fast media, 0° phase change on reflection
Heat Capacity:Derive relationship between cp and cv.
No phase change for transmitted waves
145. During a storm, 600 hailstones strike a 1 m2 window in 1
min. If the collisions are elastic and the hail strikes at a 60° angle, d2y d2y
Linear Wave Equation: 2
= c2 2
what is the pressure exerted on the window? Mave = 20 g, and v = dt dx
16 m/s. Sound Waves
146. Find the RMS speed of a hydrogen nucleus at 20 million °C. Derive: Speed of sound in solids
147. Calculate heat added when the temperature of 3 moles of 162. Find the wave speed in steel (B = 2×1011 N/m2, ρ = 7860
monatomic gas initially at STP is doubled at constant volume. kg/m3.
148. Calculate heat added when the temperature of 3 moles of 163. A hammer strikes the end of a steel rail. A person at the
monatomic gas initially at STP is doubled at constant pressure. other end of the rail hears the sound through the rail first and then
1 second later hears it through the air (vs = 340 m/s). How long is
the rail?
Derive: Relationship between amplitude and pressure of wave

5
164. If the ear can just barely hear a sound whose pressure 178. Each atom in a one mole piece of copper has lost one
amplitude is 2.9×10–5 N/m2, what is the displacement amplitude electron. If the removed charges are placed 3 m from the copper,
for a 1000 Hz sound at the threshold of hearing? what is the electrical force acting on the copper?
Intensity: decibels (dB) 179. A 20 µC charge is located 40 cm to the left of a −65 µC
β = 10 log10 (I/Io), where for humans, Io ~ 10–12 W/m2 charge. Find the point in space where a 1 µC charge could be
165. By what factor does the intensity of a sound wave change if placed such that there would be no net force acting on it.
you double the distance between the receiver and the point 180. There are three 1.0 µC charges located at the corners of a
source? right triangle whose sides are 12cm, 16 cm, and 20 cm in length.
166. You are 100 m from a point source and β = 100 dB. How What is the force acting on the charge located at the smallest
far from the source would you have to be for β = 50 dB? angle?
 v ± vo  181. A 4.0 µC charge is located 20 cm to the left of a −8.0 µC
Doppler Effect: f ' =   f , where v is the speed of sound
 v ∓ vs  charge. Calculate the E field strength at the midpoint between
them.
167. A 1000 Hz train whistle is moving at 30 m/s toward then 182. ** Find E on the perpendicular bisector of a dipole at a
away from a stationary observer. What are the observed distance x from the midpoint between the charges.
frequencies? 183. A 100 µC charge is suspended in a horizontal electric field.
168. A 1000 Hz train whistle is stationary and the observer is Find E if the charge has a mass of 1 g and the support string
moving away at 30 m/s. What is the observed frequency? makes a 20° angle with the vertical.
169. A 1000 Hz train whistle is stationary, the observer is moving Electric Fields : Continuous Charge Distribution:
away at 30 m/s, and there is a 40 m/s wind blowing from the
dq
observer toward the train. What is the observed frequency? E = ∫ dEx ˆi + ∫ dE y ˆj , and dE = k 2
170. A 1000 Hz train whistle is stationary, reflects off a moving r
vehicle headed towards the train at 34 m/s, and is heard by the 184. ** Calculate E a distance a from an infinitely long non-
train conductor. What is the shifted frequency? conducting straight line of charge whose density is λ.
Superposition & Standing Waves 185. ** Calculate E on the perpendicular bisector of a line
y1 = A sin(kx − ωt ), y2 = A sin(kx − ωt + φ) segment with density λ and length L at a distance a from the
Derive: segment.
y1 = A sin(kx − ωt ), y2 = A sin(kx + ωt )
186. ** Calculate E on the axis of a ring at a distance x from the
Standing Waves: Use boundary conditions to find nodes: center. The ring’s charge density is λ and its radius is a.
y = A sin(kx) cos(ωt ) , then L = n λ/2 187. ** Calculate E on the axis of a disk at a distance x from the
Harmonics & Overtones center. The disk’s charge density is σ and its radius is a.
171. A string is fixed at both ends, has a linear density of 1 g/m, 188. ** Calculate E a distance r from the center of a thin
and a length of 2 m. What tension is needed for a second spherical shell of radius a and surface charge density σ (r > a).
harmonic of 480 Hz? Field Lines:
172. A string vibrates with 5 equal antinodes when driven at 600 • Lines originate on positive charges and terminate on negative
Hz. What frequency will support 3 antinodes? charges.
Standing Waves in a Tube • Field strength is proportional to the density of the lines.
173. What is the fundamental frequency of a 20 m long pipe that • Lines cannot cross.
is open at both ends? 189. Calculate the time an electron takes to cross from one plate
174. An open pipe has a second overtone at a frequency of 1200 of a capacitor to the other. Let E = 500 N/C, and d = 1 mm.
Hz. What is the length of the pipe? Gauss’ Law
175. A 16 cm long tube, closed at one end, is filled with an
qin
unknown gas. If the tube has a fundamental frequency of 760 Hz, Flux: Φ = ∫  E ⋅ dA , and Φ = ε 0
what is the speed of sound in the gas?
Beats 190. A 10 µC point charge is located at one of the corners of a
176. Two strings have a length of 1 m and a fundamental cube. If the cube is 10 cm on a side, what is the flux through each
frequency of 440 Hz. If the tension in one is reduced by 5%, what face of the cube?
is the beat frequency between the two? 191. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from a point
charge q.
Electric Fields : Discrete charge distribution: 192. **Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from a
Charge: Two kinds (+,−), quantized, e = 1.602 × 10–19 Coulombs conducting spherical shell with surface charge density σ.
Insulators vs. Conductors 193. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from an
kq q infinite wire with a linear charge density λ.
Coulomb’s Law: F = 12 2 , k = 8.99 × 109 Nm2/C2, 194. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from the
r
center of a non-conducting solid sphere with uniform charge
ε0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2 / Nm2
density ρ.
F 195. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from a
E=
q0 nonconducting infinite sheet of thickness t and uniform charge
177. An electron and a positron are on the average 5.0 × 10–11 m density σ.
apart. Find the ratio of the electrical to gravitational force on 196. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from a
them. conducting infinite sheet with a uniform charge density σ.
197. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from the
center of a coaxial cable whose inner conductor has a radius a and
6
whose outer conductor has a radius b. The inner conductor has a 216. ** Determine the capacitance of three capacitors in series.
charge density of σ and the outer conductor has a charge density 217. A 2 µF and an 8 µF capacitor are in parallel. They are then
of −σ. in series with a 5 µF and a 2 µF capacitor. What is the charge on
198. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E at a distance r from the the 8 µF capacitor if there is 100 V on the 5 µF capacitor?
center of a non-conducting sphere of radius a which lies within a 218. What is the total energy stored in two identical capacitors if
hollow conducting spherical shell of inner radius b and outer one of them is charged by a battery then disconnected, and the
radius c. There is a charge −q on the inner sphere and a charge of other is uncharged? How much remains after you connect them in
+Q on the hollow shell. parallel? A = 2 m2, d = 1 mm, and Q = 2.4 µC.
199. ** Use Gauss’ law to calculate E inside and outside a For the next 4 problems, assume A = 1 m2, d = 2 mm, Q = 3 µC,
parallel plate capacitor. The plates have an area of A, charge Q and κ = 2.
and are separated by a distance d. 219. ** Calculate the capacitance of a capacitor filled with a
200. Given three infinite nonconducting sheets of charge dielectric.
separated by 10 cm each, with charge densities of σ1, σ2, and σ3. 220. ** How much energy is stored in a capacitor before and
Find the electric field everywhere. Replace sheet 2 with a neutral after it is filled with the dielectric. First assume that Q0 is
conductor and recalculate. constant, then redo the problem keeping that V0 is constant.
Electric Potential 221. Find the energy density in a dielectric-filled capacitor.
dW = dF ⋅ ds; dW = q0 E ⋅ ds; dU = −dW 222. ** Calculate the capacitance of a capacitor half-filled with
b dielectric.
∆U = U b −U a = −q0 ∫ E ⋅ ds ; V = U 223. Find the plate area of a 1 F parallel plate capacitor if the
a
q
b dielectric is mica (κ = 5) and the plate separation is 0.01 mm.
∆V = Va −Vb = −∫ E ⋅ ds Current and Resistance
a
Terminology: Battery, Current
dV I = nqvd A(Current in terms of drift speed)
Ex = − (Electric field from a potential)
dx j = σ E (Current Density in terms of conductivity)
201. ** Calculate the potential U(r) from a point charge Q. I = V / R (Ohm’s Law)
202. How much energy is required to move four point charges (1 R = ρ L / A (Resistance in terms of resistivity)
µC, 3 µC, −5 µC, and −7 µC) arranged clockwise around the P = I 2R (Power)
corners of a square 1 cm on a side? 224. ** A 1 mm diameter gold wire carries a 1 A current. What
203. ** Calculate the potential a distance x along the axis up is the electron drift speed? (density of gold is 19300 kg/m3)
from the center of a disk of radius a and charge Q. 225. If the current density for a wire is 0.5 mA/cm2, and its radius
204. A washer has an inner radius a and an outer radius b. The is 1 mm, how much time elapses until NA electrons pass through?
surface charge density is σ = α/r3 and the total charge on the 226. Find R if V = 120 V, and I = 6 A.
washer is Q. What is the potential at the center in terms of a, b, 227. A wire has r = 1 mm, I = 2 A, and E = 200 V/m. What is σ?
and Q? 228. Calculate R for a cylinder of carbon (r = 1 mm, l = 10 cm).
205. A line segment of length L lies on the positive x-axis with 229. Calculate the resistance of a truncated cone of copper (r1 = 5
one end at the origin. Its charge density is given by λ = αx. mm, r2 = 1 mm, l = 5 cm).
Calculate the electric potential at the point P = (0, b). 230. Calculate the resistance as a function of length for a hollow
206. ** Calculate the potential at a distance r from the center of a circular cylinder of tungsten, where current enters at the inner
thin spherical shell with charge density σ and radius a. surface and exits at the outer (ri = 6 cm, ro = 7 cm).
207. ** Calculate the potential at a distance r from the center of a 231. What is the maximum current allowed for a 50 Ω, 2 W
solid sphere with uniform charge density and a total charge Q. resistor?
208. Calculate the potential at a distance r from the center of a 232. An immersion heater raises the temperature of 1 l of water
solid sphere with a non-uniform charge density ρ(r) = αr3/2. from 20° to 100° in 3 minutes at 120 V. How much does it cost to
209. ** Calculate the total electric potential energy of a solid do this at 14¢ / kW-hr?
sphere with charge density ρ and radius a. D-C Circuits
210. What is the electric potential on the surfaces of three nested Kirchoff’s Laws:Voltages around a loop
shells, with radii a, b, and c, and charges QA, QB, and QC? Current at a junction
211. A conducting sphere has a 10 cm radius and a surface Series and parallel resistors
t
potential of 1000 V. What is the charge Q on it? −
i = i0 e RC (Charging and discharging an RC circuit)
212. ** What is the ratio of the surface charge densities of two
conducting spheres (radii R1 and R2) connected by a very long 233. Draw a simple circuit with a 6 V battery and a 12 Ω resistor.
wire? What is the current I? Now add a 6 Ω resistor in series and
Capacitors recalculate I. What is I through each resistor? Now add a 6 Ω
Equations: C = q/V, dW = V dq, V = q / C, U = q2 / 2C, resistor in parallel to the original 12 Ω resistor, and again
V = V0 /κ recalculate I. What fun!
Terminology: Capacitance, Dielectric constant 234. ** Calculate currents in a multiple battery, multiple loop
213. ** Determine the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor of circuit (to be made up in class).
area A and separation d. 235. How many time constants τ0 = RC must elapse for a
214. ** Determine the capacitance of a coaxial cable whose inner capacitor to charge from zero to 90% of its maximum charge?
conductor has radius a and whose outer has radius b. 236. A 5 µF capacitor is charged by a 12 V battery through a 30
215. ** Determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting kΩ resistor. What is the charge on the capacitor after 2τ0?
spheres. The radius of the inner sphere is a and the outer is b.
7
237. A capacitor is connected to a 400 Ω resistor and a 100 V 254. ** Using Ampere’s Law, calculate the strength of the
battery. In 12 seconds the current is 200 mA. What is the magnetic field surrounding an infinitely long straight wire with a
capacitance? current I.
238. A 9 µF capacitor is discharged through a 470 kΩ resistor. 255. ** Calculate the strength of the magnetic field inside a
How much time has elapsed when P(t) = 1/4 Pmax? toroidal solenoid.
239. What is the rate at which energy is dissipated by a 2 MΩ 256. ** Calculate the strength of the magnetic field inside a
resistor 3 seconds after it is connected to a 3 µF capacitor which solenoid.
had an initial 12 V charge? 257. ** Calculate the magnetic flux through a rectangular loop,
240. If a “leaky” 4 µF capacitor loses 1/2 its charge in 10 length a and width b, at a distance c from a wire carrying a current
seconds, what is the effective resistance of the dielectric material I parallel to a.
in it? 258. Calculate B at t = 0 at a radius r inside a charging parallel
Magnetic Fields plate capacitor C in series with a resistor R and a battery V0.
Force on a Moving Charge: F = qv × B Faraday’s Law
Induction
Force on a Current Carrier: F = IL × B

mv EMF = − B
Circular Motion – Cyclotron Radius: r = dt
qB
Lenz’s Law: Right Hand Rule !!!
241. What is the force of a 10 T field on a 1 MeV proton? dΦ
242. What is the current in a 10 g piece of copper wire in a 5 T Faraday’s Law: ∫ E ⋅ dl = − B
field if it is levitated? The wire is 1 m long. dt
243. ** Calculate the force on a circular section of wire that has a Maxwell’s Wonderful Equations:
current and is in the presence of a magnetic field that lies in the 259. ** Find the current induced in a circular loop inside a
same plane as the loop. solenoid if the solenoid current increases uniformly from I = 0 to
244. ** Calculate the maximum torque on a rectangular loop Imax in a time tf.
(lengths 2a and b), when the loop has a current I and is in a 260. How long does it take a B field to increase from 1 gauss to 5
magnetic field B. gauss if a 10 V emf is induced in a 10 cm radius loop?
245. The top of a current carrying loop is hinged to the ceiling 261. A circular loop’s radius is changing at 1 cm/s. What is the
and a weight is suspended from the bottom of the loop. The loop induced emf if it is in a 1 T field? r0 = 10 cm.
has no mass, 20 coils with a radius of 15 cm and a 5 amp current, 262. Four 100 Ω resistors are connected to form a square loop
and it rests in a 1 T vertical magnetic field. The mass of the that is 5 cm on a side. At what rate is energy being dissipated if t
hanging weight is 3 kg. What angle does the plane of the loop = 5 s and B(t) = 2e-t/3 T?
make with the vertical? 263. A rod moves along two rails in a direction that is
246. A 1 keV electron moves in a 0.5 m radius circle. Find the perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. A resistor connects the
strength of the magnetic field and the frequency of oscillation. two rails and completes the circuit. Find the current in the resistor
247. If a proton, a deuterium nucleus, and a helium nucleus enter if B = 2 T, l = 20 cm, v = 5 m/s, and R = 4700 Ω.
a 1.0 T field at 10,000 m/s, what is each one’s cyclotron radius? 264. A horizontal rod falls at a constant speed in a horizontal B
248. What is the maximum electron energy in a cyclotron which field with the ends touching vertical rails. Find the speed of the
is 1 m in radius and has a 3 G field? How about for a proton? rod and the emf between the ends of the rod. Let m = 3 g, l = 20
249. A 1000 N/C electric field and a 2 G magnetic field cause a cm, B = 3 T, and R = 5 Ω.
helium nucleus to move in a straight line. What is the particle’s 265. Calculate the E field in a ring of radius r caused by a
speed? changing B field with B(t) = B0 sin(ωt).
Sources of Magnetic Fields 266. Calculate the generator emf for a loop rotating in a 2 Gauss
µ I ds ×rˆ field, A = 0.02 m2, N = 40 turns, and ω = 2000 rpm.
Biot-Savart Law: dB = 0 Inductance
4π r 2
di
µ II NΦB = Li, emf = −L
Force on Parallel Conductors: F = 0 1 2 l dt
2πa
V − Rt
RL Circuits: I = (1− e L ) (charging)
Ampere’s Law: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I
0 R
V −Rt L
Magnetic Flux: Φ = ∫ B ⋅ dA
B I= e (discharging)
R
dΦ E B2
Displacement Current: id = ε 0 U B = 12 Li 2 , and uB =
dt 2µ 0
250. ** Calculate the strength of a magnetic field surrounding an
1
infinitely long straight wire which is carrying a current I. Q(t ) = Qm cos(ωt + δ), where ω =
251. ** Calculate the strength of the magnetic field at a distance LC
a from the end of a straight wire segment of length L carrying a 267. ** Calculate the inductance per unit length of a solenoid.
current I. 268. ** Calculate the inductance of a toroid whose cross-section
252. ** Calculate the strength of the magnetic field at the center is a rectangle. The inner radius is a, the outer b, and the height h.
of a circular loop. 269. ** Calculate the inductance of a coaxial cable.
253. Calculate the force between two parallel 1.0 m long wires if 270. A 10 Ω resistor and a 300 mH inductor have been connected
they are carrying 1 A in opposite directions and are 1 cm apart. in series to a 12 V battery for a long time. Calculate I through and

8
V across the resistor 90 ms after a short was placed across the 286. Calculate Em and Bm at 2 m from a 100 W light bulb.
battery. 287. Calculate Em at 10 km from a 140kW transmitter that
271. In an RL circuit, how many time constants must elapse for broadcasts isotropically.
the current to rise to 75% of its maximum value? 288. A 100 Ω resistor is connected to a 200 V battery. What is
272. Calculate the energy stored in the B field of a 1000 turn the magnitude and direction of E and B at the resistor’s surface?
solenoid that is 20 cm long, 4 cm across, with a 2 amp current. Assume the resistor has a 1 mm radius and a 1 cm length.
273. ** Calculate the energy density in a solenoid. 289. Determine the magnetic field energy density and the
274. Calculate the energy stored in the inductor of an RL circuit, Poynting vector 50 cm from an infinitely long straight wire
with L = 40 mH, R = 5 Ω, V = 50 V, and t = 12 ms after carrying 200 A.
connecting it all. 290. Calculate the electric field energy density 20 cm from a 60
275. Calculate the rate at which energy is being added to an W bulb.
inductor in an RL circuit, with L = 100 mH, R = 5 Ω, V = 75 V, 291. A 5 g, 1 cm2 coin is perfectly reflecting. It is levitated by a
and t = 0.01 s. laser beam spread to 1 cm2. What is the power of the beam?
276. Calculate the period of a tank circuit if L = 30 mH and C = 292. A black piece of cardboard is 10 cm by 10 cm and rests 20
12 µF. m from a 1000 W light bulb. What radiation force acts on it?
Alternating Current Circuits 293. A laser is used to accelerate a 10,000 kg space ship at 9.8
Generator Voltage:V = Vm sin(ωt) m/s2. What is the laser power required if it fires out the back of
Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors and A.C. = Reactance & the ship?
Impedance 294. A mirror reflects 90% of the sunlight that strikes it and
Phasor Diagrams & Imaginary Numbers absorbs the rest. If the intensity of the light is 640 W/m2 and the
mirror is 30 cm by 40 cm, what force is exerted on it?
277. In a purely resistive AC circuit, what is the lowest generator Geometric Optics (Rays)
frequency if I(t) = 3/4 Imax after 3 ms? Reflection & Refraction
278. If Im = 20 A, Vm = 120 V, and f = 60 Hz in a purely Waves vs. Rays
inductive AC circuit, what is the inductive reactance χ? What is Index of refraction: n = c/v
L? Snell’s Law: n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2
279. If Im = 10 A, Vm = 1000 V, and f = 1000 Hz in a purely Prisms – Red refracted the most, Blue the least
capacitive AC circuit, what is the capacitive reactance χ? What is Total Internal Reflection
C? Critical Angle: θc = sin–1 (n1/n2), only when n1 < n2
280. In a purely capacitive AC circuit, Vm = 24 V, C = 8 µF, and f
= 60 Hz. What is Im? 295. Two mirrors form a 100° angle. If a beam strikes the first
281. Calculate the impedance χ of an RLC circuit when R = 500 mirror at an incident angle of 60°, what is the angle between the
Ω, C = 20 µF, L = 200 mH, and f = 1000 Hz. incoming and outgoing beams after it reflects off the second
282. What is the phase angle of an RLC circuit when R = 500 Ω, mirror?
C = 20 µF, L = 200 mH, and f = 1000 Hz? 296. ** A rotating mirror turns through an angle θ. Through
283. Calculate the average power for an RLC circuit with V = what angle does the beam rotate?
120V, R = 500 Ω, C = 20 µF, L = 200 mH, and f = 1000 Hz. 297. A ray travels from air to fused quartz. If the refracted ray
284. ** What is the average power drawn at resonance? makes an angle of 37°, what was the incident angle?
285. A transformer has Np = 400 turns and Ns = 2000 turns. If IP 298. A ray strikes a piece of glass (n = 1.5) at an angle of 40°.
= 20 A and VP = 100 V, what are I and V on the other? What is the angle between the reflected and the refracted beams?
A generator produces 100 A at 440 V and sends it through a 50 Ω 299. A ray strikes the boundary between air and diamond (n =
transmission line. Calculate the power generated, and the power 2.42). What is the incident angle if the angle between the
lost due to the resistance. Instead it is stepped up to 44000 V. reflected ray and the refracted ray is exactly 90°?
Recalculate the power lost at the new voltage. 300. A white beam strikes the boundary between air and glass (nr
Electromagnetic Waves = 1.615 and nb = 1.650) at an angle of 53°. What is the angle of
Spectrum the beam dispersion inside the glass?
Derive c using Maxwell’s Equations 301. What is the critical angle for the boundary between water
Derive Wave Equation using Maxwell’s Equations and glass? (nw = 1.33 and ng = 1.60)
Q 302. A ray enters the upper surface of a glass cube at an incident
∫ E ⋅ dA = ε0 angle of 30° and totally internally reflects when it strikes the side
wall. What is the index of refraction of the glass?
∫ B ⋅ d A = 0 Optics Continued
dΦ B Real and Virtual Images
∫ E ⋅ ds = −
dt
Planar and Spherical Mirrors, Convex and Concave
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams, and Magnification
dΦ E
∫ B ⋅ ds =µ 0 I + ε 0µ 0 dt 1 1 1 d
+ = , and m = − i , where di = image and do = object.
di d o f do
1
Poynting Vector: S ≡ E× B
µ0 303. Find the image location, type, and magnification for a
Energy Density of EM waves: I = Save = cuave concave mirror with f = 50 cm, and do = 75 cm.
Radiation Pressure: P = S/C (100% absorption), and P = 2S/C 304. Find the image location, type, and magnification for a
(100% reflection) concave mirror with f = 50 cm, and do = 25 cm.
9
305. Find the image location, type, and magnification for a 322. At what distance can car headlights just be resolved? The
convex mirror with f = –30 cm, and do = 40 cm. headlights are 1 m apart and the wavelength is 600 nm, and the
306. Find the image location, type, and magnification for a diameter of the pupil is 3 mm.
convex mirror with f = –30 cm, and do = 20 cm. 323. Using the Palomar telescope, what is the smallest crater that
307. If a real image is 4 times bigger than the object and is can be resolved on the moon with 400 nm light?
located 50 cm in front of a concave mirror, what is the radius of 324. A diffraction grating has 15000 lines / cm. If λ1 = 700 nm,
curvature? at what angle is the first order maximum found? And for λ2 = 400
308. A smooth block of ice rests on the floor. If the block is 40 nm?
cm thick, how far below the top surface does the bottom surface 325. A helium neon laser’s light (λ = 632.8 nm) passes through a
appear to be? nice = 1.309 diffraction grating. The first order occurs at an angle of 20°.
309. Find the image location, type, and magnification for a What is the grating spacing in lines per cm?
convex lens with f = 25 cm, and do = 50 cm, then for f = 50 cm, 326. What is the minimum number of lines per cm needed to
and do = 25 cm. resolve λ1 = 656.3 nm and λ2 = 656.48 nm spectral lines in the
310. Find the image location, type, and magnification for a second order?
concave lens with f = –50 cm, and do = 50 cm. 327. Two Polaroid sheets have their axes rotated 20° with respect
311. Two convex lenses are 30 cm apart. The lens on the left has to one another. What percentage of light gets through?
f1 = 25 cm, and one on the right has f2 = 40 cm. Find the image 328. What percentage of light gets through three Polaroid sheets
location, type, and magnification if do = 50 cm from the first lens. at 45°?
312. A convex lens f1 = 40 cm and a concave lens f2 = –60 cm are Relativity
50 cm apart. Find everything if do = 100 cm to the left of the first 1
lens. γ= 2
≥ 1 always
Interference 1− v 2
c
Conditions: coherent, monochromatic rays, with superposition
Time Dilation: T = γT0 , where T0 is the “proper” time
Double Slit Interference: d sin θ = mλ for maxima (light spots) Length Contraction: L = L0/γ , where L0 is the “proper” length
Derive Intensity, using sin a + sin b = 2sin 12 (a + b) cos 12 (a − b) ; u '+ v v + vbc
Iav = E2av; and δ/λ = Φ/2π Relative Speeds: u = , or vac = ab
1+ 2 u ' v v v
Thin Film Interference – 180° phase change at a slow  fast 1 + ab 2 bc
c c
boundary where: u' = speed of object as seen by observer 1
313. In a double slit experiment, the slits are illuminated by 650 u = speed of object as seen by observer 2
nm light. If the third bright fringe is 4 cm from the center of the v = speed of observer 1 as seen by observer 2
screen what is the slit separation? The screen is 2 m from the Twin Paradox
slits. Momentum: p = γ m0 v
314. Light with a wavelength of 700 nm passes through two slits
 ∂v ∂γ 
which are separated by 1 mm, then falls on a screen 3 m away. Force : F = m0  γ + v 
 ∂t ∂t 
How far is the first minimum from the central maximum?
315. Light with a wavelength of 600 nm passes through two slits Energy: KE = (γ – 1) E0
which are separated by 10 µm, then falls on a screen 3 m away. Cons. Energy: p2c2 = E2 – E02
How far is the second minimum from the first minimum?
316. A material with n = 1.3 is used to coat a piece of glass with 329. How fast must an object move for γ to equal 2.00?
ng = 1.5. What is the minimum thickness of the coating if 650 nm 330. A bomb is set to explode in one hour Earth time. If it is sent
light will have the least reflection? away from the planet at 0.98 c, how far from the Earth does it
317. A thin layer of oil (n = 1.2) lies on top of water (n = 1.3). explode?
What is the minimum thickness of the oil if green light (500 nm) 331. What is the speed of a meter stick if it appears to be 1 cm
is strongly reflected? long?
318. A thin layer of oil (n = 1.2) lies on top of water (n = 1.3). 332. A spaceship’s life-support system will last for 2 years. The
What is the minimum thickness of the oil if green light (500 nm) plan is to travel to a star which is 10 ly away from Earth. What is
is most strongly transmitted? the minimum speed for the ship if the people may survive a round
Diffraction and Polarization trip while spending 1 year at the star researching it?
Single Slit Diffraction: a sinθ = mλ for minima (dark spots) 333. When two photons move away from each other, what is
Circular Apertures: θmin = 1.22 λ/D their relative speed?
Diffraction Gratings: d = 1/N, where N is the number of 334. An observer sees a spacecraft moving at 0.90 c. The craft
lines/meter turns on its headlights. What is the beam’s speed as seen by the
Polarization: In+1 = In cos2θ through each polarizer, and I1 = 1/2 observer?
I0 335. Two electrons are approaching each other. One’s speed is
319. Microwaves illuminate a single slit whose width is 1 cm. 0.86 c, the other’s is 0.98 c. What is their relative speed?
The screen is 1 m away and the central maximum is 40 cm wide. 336. Twin A stays on Earth while Twin B travels at 0.98 c to a
What is the wavelength of the microwaves? star that is 30 ly away. How old is each when B returns to Earth?
320. How close together are two buildings if radio waves passing Assume that the trip begins when they are 20 years old, and B
between them have a diffraction minimum at 30°? f = 600 kHz. spends 5 years exploring the distant star while there.
321. How many fringes are in the central maximum of a double 337. Object one is moving at 0.6 c when it collides with object
slit interference pattern if a = 0.2 mm and d = 0.5 mm? The two which is at rest. They have a perfectly inelastic collision.
screen is 2 m away and λ = 500 nm.

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What is the speed of the lump after the collision if object two has
three times the mass of object 1?
338. An electron has a head-on collision with a proton moving at
0.98 c and both come to rest. What was the initial speed of the
electron?
339. An electron has a speed of 0.86 c. What radial force is
required to keep it moving in a circle of radius 1.00 m?
340. An electron’s speed increases from 2 × 106 to 2 × 108 m/s.
By what factor does its energy increase?
341. A proton is moving at 0.5 c. At what speed will an electron
have the same total energy.
342. How much energy is required to accelerate a 100 metric ton
spaceship from rest to 0.98 c? (both classically and
relativistically)
343. What does it mean if E0 = 0, but both E and p are non-zero?
344. ** What is the rest mass of a particle that travels at speed c?
345. Two spaceships collide. Each has a rest mass of 20 tons and
is traveling at 0.3 c. By how much does their mass appear to
change?
346. How much energy is released when a neutron decays into a
proton and an electron? If we assume that all the energy goes into
the electron’s kinetic energy, what is the final speed of the
electron? Is momentum conserved?
Quantum Effects
Quantized energy: hf = Kmax + Φ
Photon energy = maximum electron KE + work function
h = 6.63 × 10–34 Js, and hc = 1240 eV·nm
Stopping Potential: V = K/e , where e = 1.602 × 10–19 C
h
Compton Effect: ∆λ = (1− cos θ)
m0 c
347. What is the maximum wavelength photon that will cause
photoelectric electrons (e–) be emitted from a surface whose work
function is 6 eV?
348. If 400 nm light illuminates a surface whose work function is
3 eV, what is the e– maximum kinetic energy?
349. The threshold wavelength for gold is 257.3 nm. What is the
work function in eV? If a gold surface is illuminated by 100 nm
light, what is the stopping potential?
350. At what speeds will an electron have the same momentum as
a 2 eV and a 2 MeV photon?
351. A photon collides with an electron. Calculate the Compton
shift for a 90° scattering angle for both a 400 nm and a 4 nm
photon.
352. A 0.3 nm x-ray collides with an e– with a scattering angle of
60°. What is the kinetic energy of the scattered electron?
353. If the maximum energy given to an electron during
Compton scattering is 100 keV, what is λ of the incident photon?

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