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UNIT IV–Questions from university question papers [Semester pattern -till Winter 2009]

Steam Nozzles: Adiabatic Expansion in Nozzles, Maximum Discharge Critical Pressure Ratio and effects of Friction, Calculation of
Throat and Exit Areas, Super saturation Flow, and Wilson Line.
Steam Turbines Principals of Working of Steam Turbines, Classification of Steam Turbines, Comparison of Impulse and Reaction
Turbines, Compounding of Steam Turbines .
Nozzle Theory Questions
1 What is the metastable expansion of steam in nozzle? Explain with the help of H-S diagram [Winter 2010]
2 What are the effect of supersaturation on discharge and heat drop of Nozzle [Winter 2009]
3 What is the steady flow energy equation of nozzle? Explain its use in calculating the steam velocity at exit?
[Winter 2009]
4 What is the effect of friction in nozzle? [Summer 2009]
5 Explain the principle of working of impulse turbine with neat sketch [Summer 2009]
6 What is steam nozzle? Why it is convergent divergent? What assumptions are adopted in analyzing flow
through nozzle? [Winter 2008]
7 Explain the terms related to convergent divergent nozzle (1) Shock (2) Overexpansion (3) Under expansion.
[Winter 2008,Summer 2006]
8 Explain the significance of critical pressure ratio. [Winter 2007,Summer 2007]
9 Why the divergent portion of nozzle is necessary? [Winter 2007]
10 Explain supersaturated flow through nozzle? [Winter 2005]
11 What is super saturated flow explain with the help of H-S diagram. [Summer 2005]
12 Explain with help of H-S diagram the effect of friction on the flow through steam nozzle. [Winter 2003]
13 Short notes: (1) Saturated flow through nozzle (2) Super saturation and Wilson line
Steam Turbine Theory Questions
1 Explain the principle of working of reaction turbine with neat sketch? [Winter 2010]
2 What is governing of steam turbine? What are the types of governing? Explain any one of them with neat sketch
[Summer 2010]
3 Explain the compounding of steam turbine with neat sketch? [Winter 2009]
4 What are the different losses in steam turbine? [Winter 2010, Winter 2009, Summer 2008]
5 Describe the advantages of steam turbine over steam engine [Summer 2008]
6 Explain with a neat sketch single stage impulse turbine .also explain the pressure and velocity variation in axial
direction. [Summer 2008]
7 What is pressure compounding of steam turbine? [Winter 2009]
8 What is the principle of operation of steam turbine compare the impulse and reaction turbine with respect to (1)
Pressure (2) Blades (3) Entry of steam (4) Power (5) Efficiency (6) Space [Summer 2007]
9 What is compounding of steam turbine? Explain velocity compounding with neat sketch?
[Winter 2006,Summer 2005]
10 What type of compounding is used for Curtis Turbine? Explain {Hint : Curtis = Combine Velocity and Pressure
compounding}and {Rataue = Pressure compounding,} [Summer 2006]
11 Why there is a need of multistage turbine? [Summer 2006]
12 What are the various internal and external losses in turbine? [Summer 2006]
13 Why compounding of steam turbine is necessary? Explain velocity compounding. [Winter 2005]
14 Short notes: (1) Governing of steam turbine (2) Losses in steam turbine (3) Compounding of steam turbine (4)
Wilson line (4) Throttle governing in steam turbine (5) Steam engine (6) Parson turbine (7) Reheating and
regeneration of steam turbine (8) State point locus and reheat factor for Multistage turbine.
Nozzle Problems
1 Steam at a pressure of 10 bar and dryness fraction of 0.98 is discharges through convergent divergent nozzle to
a back pressure a 0.1 bar. The mass flow rate is 10 kg/kW h. If power developed is 200 kW. Determine (1)
Pressure at throat (2) Number of nozzle required if throat section is rectangular 5 mm x 10 mm.(3) the cross
section at exit if the 10% enthalpy loss is in divergent part only. [Winter 2010]
2 A steam nozzle supplied a steam at 15 bar and 350 0 C. and discharges at 1 bar. The divergent portion of nozzle
is 80 mm long and throat diameter is 6 mm. Determine the cone angle of divergent portion. Assume 12% of
total enthalpy is lost in friction in divergent portion. Also determine the velocity and condition of steam at
throat. [Summer 2010]
3 Steam at a pressure of 11 bar and dryness fraction of 0.98 is discharges through convergent divergent nozzle to
a back pressure a 0.1 bar. The mass flow rate is 12 kg/kW h. If power developed is 280 kW. Determine (1)
Pressure at throat (2) Number of nozzle required if throat section is rectangular 5 mm x 10 mm. The 10%
enthalpy loss is in divergent part only. [Winter 2009,Winter 2007]

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4 A convergent-divergent nozzle is required to discharge he steam at a rate of 2 kg/sec. The nozzle is supplied a
steam with a pressure at 7 bar and temp 180 0 C. The back pressure is 1 bar. The frictional resistance between
throat and exit is 63 kJ/kg. Taking approach velocity 75 m/s and throat pressure is 4 bar. Estimate (1) The
suitable area for the throat exit (2) Overall efficiency of nozzle based on enthalpy drop between the actual inlet
pressure and temperature and exit pressure.{Hint : C1=75 m/s ,η nozzle = (H1-H3-63)/( H1- H3) ,p2 is given so need not to
calculate by maximum discharge condition} [Summer 2009]
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5 A convergent-divergent nozzle is supplied a steam at 10 bar and 270 C.The divergent portion is 3.2 cm long and
throat diameter is 6 mm .Find the semi cone angle of divergent portion so that steam may leave the nozzle at 1.2
bar. Loss in the nozzle is 15% in divergent portion only. [Winter 2008,Winter 2005]
6 A convergent divergent nozzle receives steam at 7 bar 2000C, expanded isentropically to 3 bar. Neglecting the
inlet velocity , calculate the exit area of nozzle for mass flow rate 0.1 kg/sec.(1) when the flow is in equilibrium
(2) when flow is super saturated if n=1.3.Also calculate degree of under cooling and degree of
supersaturation.{Hint: Ans.(1) By Mollier chart and Ans (2) By super saturation consideration} [Winter 2008]
7 In an installation 5.2 kg/s of 30 bar and 3500C is supplied to group of six nozzle in a wheel maintain pressure 4
bar. (1) Determine the dimension of nozzle at exit if the nozzle is rectangular with aspect ratio 3:1.The
expansion is considered to be metastable (2) Degree of under cooling and supersaturation (3) Loss of heat drop
(4) Ratio of mass flow rate in metastable and equilibrium condition. [Summer 2008]
8 An impulse turbine develops a power of 1000 kW with a steam consumption is 7.6 kg/kW hr. The nozzle is C-D
.The pressure and temperature of steam entering in the nozzle is 18 bar and 3000C.The 10% enthalpy drop is in
divergent portion only. The diameter of each nozzle at exit is 10 mm and exit pressure is 0.2 bar .Determine (1)
Number of nozzle (2) Throat diameter (3) Length of divergent part if angle of divergent portion is 120.
{Hint :- 120 is full cone angle} [Summer 2007]
9 Prove that exit of the nozzle the velocity is {(2n/n-1) P1 V1[1-(P2/P1)(n-1/n)}1/2. [Winter 2006]
10 A convergent-divergent nozzle is supplied a steam at 7 bar and 2700C.The divergent portion is 50mm long and
throat diameter is 5 mm .Find the cone angle of divergent portion so that steam may leave the nozzle at 1 bar.
Loss in the nozzle is 10% in divergent portion only. [Winter 2006]
11 A dry saturated steam at 2.8 bar expanded in nozzle to 1.7 bar. Neglecting the inlet velocity, the throat area is 3
cm2.Calculate the exit velocity and mass flow. (1) When flow is in equilibrium (2) When flow is super saturated
if n=1.3.{Hint: Ans.(1) By Mollier chart P2 by maximum discharge condition and H1,H2,H3 & Ans (2) By super saturation consideration
take P1 and P2 is 1.7 bar} [Summer 2006]
0
12 In an installation 5 kg/s of steam at 30 bar and 300 C is supplied with a group of six nozzle while in turbine
chamber pressure is 7.5 bar. Determine the dimension of rectangular nozzle with aspect ratio of 3:1.The
expansion is to be taken as metastable .Determine the degree of under cooling and supersaturation.
[Summer 2005]
13 Steam at a pressure of 11.8 bar and at 2200C is discharges through convergent divergent nozzle to a back
pressure a 1.18 bar. The mass flow rate is 16.45 kg/kW h. If power developed is 184 kW. Determine (1)
Number of nozzle required if throat diameter is 7 mm. (2) Exit diameter and velocity. The 8% enthalpy loss is in
divergent part only. [Winter 2004]
14 A dry saturated steam at 7 bar expanded in nozzle to 1.8 bar. The flow rate is 5 kg/sec. The 12% enthalpy loss is
in divergent part only. Determine the cross sectional area at throat and exit. Take n=1.135. [Summer 2004]
15 The C-D nozzle is supplied a steam at a pressure and temperature 15 bar and 3500C.The 12% enthalpy drop is in
divergent portion only. The exit pressure is 1 bar .the divergent portion is 80 mm long with throat diameter 6
mm. Determine (1) Velocity and temperature of steam at throat (2) Cone angle of divergent part. [Winter 2003]
16 In an installation 5 kg/min of steam at 10 bar and 2000C is supplied discharge pressure is 0.1 bar. The expansion
is to be taken as metastable. Determine the area of nozzle at exit. Also determine the degree of under cooling
and supersaturation. [Summer 2003]