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Consumer patronage behavior

Consumer behavior or buyer behavior is defined as the
behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing,
using, evaluation and disposing of products and services that they
expect will satisfy their needs.

Consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make

decisions to spend their available resources (time, money, effort)
on consumption-related items. That includes what they buy, why
they buy it, when they buy it , when they buy, where they buy it
from, how often they buy it, how often they use it, how they
evaluate it after they purchase and the impact of such
evaluations on future purchases, and how they dispose of it.

As individuals we all differ in many ways-in likes, dislikes,

attitude, cultural background, income level, etc. Despite such
differences, there is a common factor among all of us, i.e., above
all, we are all consumers. We buy, use, or consume regularly
food, clothing, shelter, transportation, education, equipment,

Luxuries, services, and even ideas. As consumers, we all play an

important role in the overall health of the economy. The buying
decisions we make affect the demand for basic raw materials, for
transportation, for production, for banking, etc. They also affect
the employment of workers and the deployment of resources, the
success of some industries and the failure of others.

There is a need to study the consumer behavior for an effective
strategy formulation in the retailing. For this we need to have
awareness on consumer and their behavior models.

Categories of consumers:-

The term, ‘consumer behavior’, deals with two different

categories of consumers the house hold consumer (personal
consumer) and the organizational consumer (business or
industrial consumer).

The household buyer buys goods and services for his or her
own personal use, for the use of the household, or as a gift for a
friend or relative. Here, the products are bought for final use of
individuals, who are referred to as end users or final consumers.
All such final consumers combine to make up the consumer

Market. The organizational buyer includes profit and non-perfect

companies, government agencies, and institutions (schools,
colleges, hospitals, hotels), all of which buy products, equipment
and services to run their organizations, or for further production.
End-use consumption is perhaps the most pervasive of all types of
buyer behavior as it involves every individual human being.

Need to understand consumer behavior
Need arousal
Need arousal, or recognition of a need, represents a disparity
between the consumers current situation and some desired goal
(e.g., need for a more economical means of transportation, desire
for stylish clothing). Such disparity produces a motivation to act.
Need recognition shapes the benefits customer seeks in brand
and brand attitudes. Desired benefits and brand attitudes
determine the customer’s psychological set; that is, the mind
setoff the consumer towards various brand prior to seeking and
processing information. Need arousal, as outlined, is a function of
various internal and external input variables.

Input variables
The various input variable that effect need arousal are

(1) the consumer‘s past experiences,

(2) Consumer characteristics,

(3) Consumer motives,

(4) Environmental influences (face to face groups, culture, social

class and they buying situations), and

(5) Marketing stimuli (seeing advertising, noticing the product on

the shelf, hearing about the product sales people).

Consumer characteristics
The benefits consumer seeks and their brand attitudes are
partially conditioned by their characteristics their demographics,
lifestyles, and personality’s .income may affect the type of car
purchased compact, standard, or luxury. Age, marital status, and
number of children may affect the class of car, sports car, sedan,
or station wagon. Lifestyle may affect the choice of make. A
socially oriented.

They see substantial financial and performance risks in buying. As

a result, they are highly involved in the purchase decision.

Consumer motives
Motives are general drives that direct a consumer’s behavior
toward attaining his or her needs. The greater the disparity
between a consumer’s current situation and desired goals, the
greater the motivational drive to act to satisfy consumer needs.

The motivational drive directly affects the specific benefit criteria

consumers use to evaluate brands.

Environmental influences
Consumers purchase and use many products in a social setting.
The purchase of a car is frequently a family decision, and each
member of the family influences decision. Neighbors and business
associates may also be important sources of information and

Past marketing stimuli

Past information about brand characteristics and price will also
affect consumer’s needs. Consumers obtain such information
from advertising, in store stimuli, sales representatives, and the


A hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow developed a motivation theory based on a
hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, consumers are
motivated to act by first satisfying the lowest level of needs have
been satisfied, the individual then become activated. Once these
needs have satisfied, the individual then attempts to satisfy the
next higher level, and so on. Thus, the unfulfilled needs level to
action. Maslow defined five level needs, from lowest to highest:

1. Physiological (food, water, shelter, sex).

2. Safety (protection, security, stability ).

3. Social (affection, friendship, acceptance).

4. Ego (prestige, success, self esteem).

5. Self actualization (self fulfillment).

Marketers can appeal to a range of needs within Maslow’s

five levels. For example, they can appeal to the following.

• Physiological needs through sexual appeals, as in ads for

personal grooming products

• Safety needs, as emphasized in messages advertising a

safer cars or promoting a safer environment.

• Social needs, by showing group acceptance as a result of

wearing certain types of clothing or using a brand of soap or

• Ego needs, by liking product to success in business or in
sports activities.

• Self-actualization needs, by showing self-fulfillment though

travel, education, or cultural pursuits.



Once consumers evaluate brands, they intend to purchase those

achieving the highest level of expected satisfaction. Purchasing
in complex decision making is not likely to be immediate.


The consumer decision-making model shows that a decision

might be made to delay purchase or not to buy.


Once the product is purchased, the consumer evaluates its

performance in the process of consumption.

• Purchasing versus consuming: It is important to

distinguish between purchase and consumption for there
reasons. First, the product may be purchased by one reason
and consumed by another. The consumer, not the
purchaser, determines product satisfaction. Second, the
purchase depends on consumer expectations of the degree
to which brands are likely to satisfy needs. Consumption
determines whether these expectations are confirmed.
Third, a consumer’s post purchase evaluation determines

whether the brand is likely to be repurchased. It is unlikely
that any brand can service over time without some degree of
loyalty. The consumer’s dissatisfaction will lead to no
further purchases, negative word of month communication
about the brand, and lost sales.

• Satisfaction versus dissatisfaction: Satisfaction occurs

when consumer’s expectations are met or exceeded and the
purchase decision is reinforced. Such reinforcement is
represented as feedback from post purchase evaluating.
Satisfaction reinforces positive attitudes, towards the brand,
leading to a greater likelihood that the consumer will
repurchase the same brand. Dissatisfaction results when
consumer expectations are not met. Such disconfirmation
of expectations is likely to lead to negative brand attitudes
and lessens the likelihood that the consumer will buy the
same brand again.


In the preceding example, out consumer selected the brand first

and then the store. It is possible that a consumer might make a
computer division in the store.

Under what circumstances is store choice most likely to influence

brand choice.

• When store loyalty is high. Consumers loyal to a

particular department store are more likely to shop there
first for desired items.

• When brand loyalty is low: Consumers with no strong

loyalties to a particular brand are more likely to select the
store first and make a brand decision within the store.

• When brand information is inadequate: Consumers

who have little brand experience or information are more

likely to rely on sales personnel for assistance. Brand
chalice is, therefore, more likely to be made in the store.

The success of areas retail format depends upon the

customer loyalty. To enhance the loyalty as a retailer we
have to make more emphasis on understanding the
customer needs and their behavior. My project is basically
emphasis on analyzing the consumer behavior and factor
inflecting the buying process in an appeal store.

1.2 Objectives of the study:

Primary objective:
• To study the patronage behavior of consumers towards
apparel stores.

• To understand the determinants features of consumer

behavior in apparel retailing.


Secondary objective:

• To study the characteristics influencing the buying


• Familiarize with buying decisions process.

• To study the personal, psychological things the buying


1.3 Need for the study:

Customers play a vital role in the increase of sales and in getting profits to
the company. As competition in retailing industry is growing up day by day, every
company needs to concentrate on each and every aspect of its activities. Customers

should be satisfied with Merchandise, quality, place where it is located, ambience,
services etc., so every company needs to know the perception of its customers over
its retail outlet and try to reach expectations of the customers in every aspect so
that the defects are minimized.

1.4 Limitation of the study:

The research has been confined to know the consumer
patronage behavior several aspects which may be important
from the other point of view of the study.

 The study covers only few consumers i.e. the sample
size is 150 only.

 The study is limited to Hyderabad (begumpet) shoppers


 The questionnaire is constructed by considering the

major aspects only.

The study tries to know the consumer behavior in some aspects

only. But it is not possible to focus on all the aspects.


Research refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a search
on a specific topic. In fact, search is a scientific investigation.

According to Clifford woody research comprises defining and redefining problems,

formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating

data, making deductions and reaching conclusions to determine whether they fit the
formulation hypothesis.

Market Research: it has got vital role in decision making process by making available
that right information at the right time in the right place and to the right person who
involved in decision making. It facilitates decision making by considering the market mix
elements like price, product, place and promotion.

It is broader in scope and examines all aspects of business environment. It asks

questions about competitors, market structure, government regulations, economic
trends, technological advances, and numerous other factors that make up the business
environment. Some times the term refers more particularly to the financial usually carry
out the research and provide the results to investment advisors and potential investors.

The research methodology is considered to be the back bone of

the study. It determines the strength, reliability and accurately of the project.
Methodology shall be considered by the methods used in research for selecting
samples, sample size data collection and various tools of data.

For the purpose of the study, the primary and secondary data are collected. The
primary data is collected through survey research method (i.e. structured questionnaire)
while taking the personal interviews of the consumers, questionnaire is Used. The
survey research method is used for knowing different aspects include consumer
patronize behavior. A detailed questionnaire is prepared for this research and the rating
is given as highly satisfied, satisfied and dissatisfied. And rating as poor, average, good
and excellent.


The sampling process is an integral part of any research design. The various
components of the process re population, sample frame, sampling unit and sample.
There are two approaches to sampling

(1) probability sampling

(2) non probability sampling
The typical probability methods used for sampling are

• Random Sampling
• Systematic sampling
• Stratified random sampling
• Clustered sampling
• Area sampling

The non-probability sampling methods are

• Convenience sampling
• Judgments sampling
• Quota sampling


As the survey was limited to a few customers of shoppers stop in Hyderabad city.
Sampling technique select to conduct the survey is Non-probability sampling and the
method is area sampling method.

Sample Size:

The sample size is 150 customers.


Methodology is the construction of research instrument. Here the instrument is the

structured questionnaire with 18 Questions i.e. survey research method. The instrument
was conducted to elicit the maximum information from the customers regarding, the
opinion & preference.


There are two methods for collecting the data(1) questionnaire Method (2) observation
method ,further classified in to structured and un structured, distinguished and non
distinguised. also the mode of communication for the various data collection options
could range from personal to mail to telephone.

There are two types of data collection sources are available that are primary and
secondary data sources.


 The primary data is obtained by serving a structured questionnaire to the


 The secondary data is obtained from different published documents and reports
which includes

 Company newsletters
 Company website
 Internet
 Various journals and periodicals relating to the topic
 Articles produced in the business magazines.


Chart diagrams are drawn to analyze the data and arrive at concussions. The data
collected, modified and summarized in the form of tables by using of the percentage
method and are further elicited by means of chart diagrams and applied Numerical
rating method for better analysis.





“Retailing is the set of business activities that adds value to the products and services
sold to consumers for their personal or family use”

Retailing consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a
department store or kiosk, or by post, in small or individual lots for direct consumption
by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery.
Purchasers may be individuals or businesses. In commerce, a retailer buys goods or
products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through

a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the end-user. Retail establishments
are often called shops or stores. Retailers are at the end of the supply chain.
Manufacturing marketers see the process of retailing as a necessary part of their
overall distribution strategy.

Retail Industry

Indian retail industry has seen a phenomenal growth in last 5years.organised retailing
has finally emerged from the shadows of unorganized retail and is contributing
significantly to the growth of Indian retail sector. The traditional retail sector is
undergoing a dynamic change as new formats

The retail scenario in India is unique as “Retailing in India is

vastly UNORGANISED. There is no supply chain management perspectiv”.according
to a survey by AT Kearney, an overwhelming proportion of the Rs.400; 000cr retail
market is unorgazed.in fact only 20,000cr segment of the market is organized. So
there is a lot of scope for the growth of retailing with respect to its logistical operations.
Global Interest Grew released a Press note3 in Feb 2006 which permitted up to 51%
of F.D.I on a very selective basis in Single Brand Retail Trade.

Retail industry has brought in phenomenal changes in the whole process of

production, distribution and consumption of consumer goods all over the world. In the
present world most of the developed economies using the retail industry as their vital
growth instrument. At present, among all the industries of U.S.A the retail industry
holds the second place in terms of employment generation. In fact, the strength of the
retail industry lies in its ability to generate large volume of employment. Not only U.S
but also the other developed countries like U.K, Canada, France, and Germany are
experiencing tremendous growth in their retail sectors. This boom in the global retail
industry was in many ways accelerated by the liberalization of retail sector.

Observing this global upward trend of retail industry, now the developing countries like
India are also planning to tap the enormous potential of the retail sector. Wal-Mart, the

World’s largest Retailer has been invited to India. Other popular brands like
Pantaloons, Big Bazaar; Archie’s are rapidly increasing their market share in the retail
sector. According to a survey, within 5 years, the Indian retail industry is expected to
generate 10 to 15 million jobs by direct and indirect effects. This huge employment
generation can be possible because being dependent on the retail sector shares a lot
of forward and backward linkages.

Emergence of a strong retail sector can contribute immensely to the economic

development of any country. With a dominant retail sector, the farmers and other
suppliers can sell their produce directly to the major retail companies and can ensure
stable profit. On the other hand, to ensure steady supply of goods, the retail
companies can inject cash into the production system. This whole process can result
into a more efficient production and distribution system for the economy as a whole.

Indian Retail Industry: Strategies, Trends and Opportunities 2008

Retail is India’s largest industry, accounting for over 10 per cent

of the country’s GDP and around eight per cent of the
employment. Retail industry in India is at the crossroads. It has
emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries
with several players entering the market. But because of the
heavy initial investments required, break even is difficult to

achieve and many of these players have not tasted success so
far. However, the future is promising; the market is growing,
government policies are becoming more favorable and emerging
Technologies are facilitating operations Retailing in India is
gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom
industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered in terms of
format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution
in shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in
sprawling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and huge
complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one
roof. The Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the
growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by
the Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory.
The Indian population is witnessing a significant change in its
demographics. A large young working population with median
age of 24 years, nuclear families in urban areas, along with
increasing working-women population and emerging
opportunities in the services sector are going to be the key
growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India.

Scope of the Retail Sector:

Retail is clearly the sector that is poised to show the highest growth in the next five
years. The sector is set for a revolution, as both the present players and new entrants

are gearing up to explore the market. The present size of the organized retailing sector
is approximately 3% and is expected to grow to 25-30% by the year 2010. There are
about 300 new malls, 1500 supermarkets and 325 departmental stores currently under
construction. Many players are coming up with huge investments, due to which the
present 12 million mom-and-pop shops and kirana stores fear losing their business.
Most predictions say that the sector might reach to US$ 400-600 billion by the year

The scope of the Indian retail market has been seen by many retail giants and that’s
the reason that many new players are entering the India retail industry. The major
Global retail giants such as Wal-Mart, Tesco, Germany's Metro AG and many others
are ready to enter the retail markets. The rising demand of branded products and
increase in purchasing power have used these companies to enter the market

• Even though India has well over 5 million retail outlets of all sizes and styles (or
non-styles), the country sorely lacks anything that can resemble a retailing industry in
the modern sense of the term. This presents international retailing specialists with a
great opportunity.
• Retailing in India is thoroughly unorganized. There is no supply chain management
perspective. According to a survey b y AT Kearney, an overwhelming proportion of the

Rs. 400,000 crore retail market is UNORGANISED. In fact, only a Rs. 20,000 crore
segment of the market is organized.

• As much as 96 per cent of the 5 million-plus outlets are smaller than 500 square
feet in area. This means that India per capita retailing space is about 2 square feet
(compared to 16 square feet in the United States). India's per capita retailing space is
thus the lowest in the world (source: KSA Technopak (I) Pvt Ltd, the India operation of
the US-based Kurt Salmon Associates).
• Just over 8 per cent of India's population is engaged in retailing (compared to 20
per cent in the United States). There is no data on this sector's contribution to the

• Given the size, and the geographical, cultural and socio-economic diversity of India,
there is no role model for Indian suppliers and retailers to adapt or expand in the
Indian context.
• The first challenge facing the organized retail industry in India is: competition from
the unorganized sector. Traditional retailing has established in India for some
centuries. It is a low cost structure, mostly owner-operated, has negligible real estate
and labor costs and little or no taxes to pay. Consumer familiarity that runs from
generation to generation is one big advantage for the traditional retailing sector.
• In contrast, players in the organized sector have big expenses to meet, and yet
have to keep prices low enough to be able to compete with the traditional sector. High
costs for the organized sector arises from: higher labor costs, social security to
employees, high quality real estate, much bigger premises, comfort facilities such as
air-conditioning, back-up power supply, taxes etc. Organized retailing also has to cope
with the middle class psychology that the bigger and brighter sales outlet is, the more
expensive it will be.

• The above should not be seen as a gloomy foreboding from global retail operators.
International retail majors such as Benetton, Dairy Farm and Levis have already
entered the market. Lifestyles in India are changing and the concept of "value for
money" is picking up.
• India's first true shopping mall – complete with food courts, recreation facilities and
large car parking space – was inaugurated as lately as in 1999 in Mumbai. (This mall
is called "Crossroads").
• Local companies and local-foreign joint ventures are expected to more
advantageously position than the purely foreign ones in the fledgling organized India's
retailing industry.
• These drawbacks present opportunity to international and/or professionally
managed Indian corporations to pioneer a modern retailing industry in India and
benefit from it.

• The prospects are very encouraging. The first steps towards sophisticated retailing
are being taken, and "Crossroads" is the best example of this awakening. More such
malls have been planned in the other big cities of India.
• An FDI Confidence Index survey done by AT Kearney, retail industry is one of the
most attractive sectors for FDI (foreign direct investment) in India and foreign retail
chains would make an impact circa 2003.


 Government policy challenges

 Supply chain challenges
 Business issues and challenges

Government Policy Challenges

 Limitations due to land and property laws

 Limitations due to stringent labor laws
 Other regulators disadvantages
1. The historical reservation of manufacturing
2. Lack of FDI
3. Tax imbalances

Supply Chain Challenges

 Extensive distribution network

 Managing channel conflicts
 Other issues


Business Issues and Challenges

 Lack of industry status

 Absence of a single nodal agency
 Operational hurdles
 Lack of established lending norms

Gaps in Retail Sector

 Small scale also brings with it the problem of problem of productivity

 Fragmentation of the supply base
 Revenue consideration
 Lack of basic and secondary infrastructure
 Lack of good software supporting infrastructure
 Non availability of quality real estate at prime locations
 Non availability of skilled manpower
 Differences between urban-rural consumers
 Differentiation and reach
 Growth in non-metros

Economies of Trade

 Low margins to the organized players

 Emerging manufacturer supplier relationship to decrease cost
 Use of IT to decrease cost in the long run

Estimates and Predictions

 The industry is estimated to be more than US$ 400 billion by a study of
 The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) estimates the retail market in India to
increase to US$608.9 billion in 2009 from US$394 billion in2005.
 A KPMG report says that the organized retail would grow at a higher rate than
GDP in the next five years.
 The retail sector would generate employment for more than 2.5 million people
by the year 2010, says an analysis by MaFoi Management Consultants Ltd.

Benefits of FDI in Retail Sector

 Higher competition would lead to higher quality in products and services.

 Better lifestyle as better products would be introduced.
 Exports would increase due to greater sourcing of major players.
 Investment in whole supply chain would increase.
 Technology would be upgraded in terms of logistics, production, and distribution
 The markets of the sector would flourish and develop.
 Employment would increase and skills & manpower will develop.
 A strong retailing sector would promote tourism.
 Economies of scale would help lower consumer prices and increase the
purchasing power of the consumer.
 In the long term it will be beneficial in the up-gradation of agriculture and small
scale & medium scale industries.

Indian Retail Industry is ranked among the ten largest retail markets in the world. The
attitudinal shift of the Indian consumer in terms of “Choice Preference”, “Value for
Money” and the emergence of organized retail formats has transformed the face of
Retailing in India.

The Indian retail industry though predominantly fragmented through the owner -run "
Mom and Pop outlets" has been witnessing the emergence of a few medium sized
Indian Retail chains, namely Pantaloon Retail, RPG Retail, Shoppers Stop, Westside
(Tata Group) and Lifestyle International.

Small format outlets

Supermarket (Food Bazaar)
Pantaloon (Shoppe)
Hypermarket (Big Bazaar) Mall
Retail Department Store

Hypermarket (Spencer’s)
Supermarket (Food
RPG Retail Specialty Store (Health and

Department Store
Piramal's Discount Store (TruMart)
(Pyramid Megastore)

Department Store
K Raheja (shopper's stop) Supermarket (TBA)
Group Specialty Store Hypermarket (TBA)

Department Store
Tata/ Trent Hypermarket (Star India Bazaar)

Landmark Department Store

Hypermarket (TBA)
Group (Lifestyle)

Discount Store (Subhiksha, Margin Free, Apna Bazaar),

Supermarket (Nilgiri's), Specialty Electronics


Retailing Scene in India

Retailing has been growing at a fast pace in India. Of late, Indian

retiling is also gaining sophistication, almost at par with international

Nest in line are the consumer co-operatives and co-operative

supermarkets. This was followed by supermarkets, department stores,
shopping malls, hypermarkets and retail chains. Kamadhenu Supermarkets
in Chennai Supply co and margin Free Supermarkets in Kerala, Niligiri’s
Fabmall, food world shoppers’ Stop, Forum, Crossroads BIG BAZAAR and
pantaloon are examples. Global retail player, Marks & Spencer, has opened
its stores in India. With likely relaxation of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Wal-Mart and Tesco are expected to set up shops in the county shortly.
Close in heels of these developments is the growth of Highway Retailing.

The attraction of this new location has already induced many retailers sting
up shop on Indian highways, mostly in conjunction with petrol outlets. In
addition to soft drinks, fast food, toys and the like, these outlets often have
motels, restaurants, amusement facilities, and even cyber cafes for web
browsing, which remain open round the clock.

According to a Crisis study, the Indian organized retail market, which is

currently worth about Rs.35,000 crore will grow threefold by 2010, and will
be worth Rs.1,09,500 crore. Increasing mobility among the middle and upper
classes, coupled with greater urbanization is fuelling the demand for branded
products. In addition, increasing disposable incomes and changing lifestyles
in rural areas are contributing to the growth of organized retail in rural India.

The guidelines would, however, ensure that the food and grocery
segment of Indian retailing would not face competition from foreign capital
because this sector in India tended to be multi-stock keeper units (SKU) and



Shoppers Stop is a family store catering to lifestyle needs,
delivering experience and selling value for money and

Shoppers stop it, the pioneer of organized retailing in India,
welcomes your to the wonderful world of retailing.

The dynamics of retailing are very challenging, especially

departmental retailing. They deal with large number Stock
keeping Units and cater to a very large segment of customers
spanning various profiles.

 Delight the customer every moment and at every interaction

he\she has with shopper’s stop.
 Create an environment for the employee where in
performance is recognized and rewarded continuously
 Ensure that every store in the chain is profitable and the
company delivers best returns to its share holders


The foundation of Shoppers' Stop was laid on October 27, 1991 by the K.
Raheja Corp. group of companies. Being amongst India's biggest hospitality and
real estate players, the Group crossed yet another milestone with its lifestyle
venture - Shoppers' Stop.

From its inception, Shoppers' Stop has progressed from being a single brand
shop to becoming a Fashion & Lifestyle store for the family. Today, Shoppers'
Stop is a household name, known for its superior quality products, services and
above all, for providing a complete shopping experience.
With an immense amount of expertise and credibility, Shoppers’ Stop has
become the highest benchmark for the Indian retail industry. In fact, the company’s
continuing expansion plans aim to help Shoppers’ Stop meet the challenges of the
retail industry in an even better manner than it does today.





 “We will not take what is not ours”
 “The obligations to dissent”
 “We will have an environment for
 “we will have an environment
conducive to openness”
 “We will have an environment for
 “We will have a willingness to
apologize and forgive”
 “We will respect our customers
 “we will create an environment of
 “we will be fair”
 “ we will be socially responsible”

India – 2000 & Beyond…

Expanding its operations to Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Delhi, Chennai,

Mumbai (Andrei, Bandra, Chembur, Kandivli, Mulund), Pune, Gurgaon and
Kolkata, Shoppers’ Stop is today recognized as India’s premier shopping
destination. With a customer entry of about 50,000 customers a day, a national
presence with over 6,00,000 square feet of retail space and stocking over 250
brands of garments and accessories, Shoppers’ Stop has clearly become a one stop
shop for all customers.

Milestones of shopper’s stop:

1991 Launched first Shoppers’ Stop store selling men’s wear

at Andheri (Mumbai)
1992 Ladies apparel section added
Children and non - apparel accessories sections added

Disney carnival organized, with official Disney

characters (Mickey, Minnie, Donald and Goofy)
participating, In House Retail Management Trainee
Program started

1994 First Citizens Loyalty program launched

1995 Second store opened (Bangalore)

1996 Festival of Britain celebrated in association with the
Commercial Department of the British Consulate
1997 Shopper’s Stop as a body corporate was incorporated
on June 16.
Festival of Indian tradition and culture, ‘Parikrama’,
launched Co-branded credit card launched for FCC
members in partnership with HSBC.
1998 Third store opened (Hyderabad), the then largest with
72,287 sq. ft of retail area SSL co-opted as India’s only
member to the Intercontinental Group of Department
Stores (IDGS)
1999 Implemented JDA Retail ERP (a global leader in retail
ERP packages)
Fourth and fifth stores launched (Jaipur & Delhi)

2000 Sixth & Seventh stores opened (Chennai & Chembur,

Mumbai) Placed equity with external investors to raise
Rs 600 mn

Acquired Crossword, one of India’s leading book
retailing chain, from India Book House in partnership
with ICICI Trusteeship Services Limited (A/c ICICI
Emerging Sectors Fund)
2001 Implemented Warehousing Module of JDA, Auto
Replenishment and Auto Purchase Order system and
business to business connectivity
Eight and Ninth store launched (Pune & Bandra,
Profit Linked Reward System (PLRS) introduced for all

2002 Tenth store opened (Kandivali, Mumbai)

2003 Received various industry awards from CMAI (including
Best Retailer of the Year) and from Nasscom (Best IT
Practice in Retail Category)

Signed Austin Reed license for men’s outerwear for

India exclusively.
Three stores launched taking the total number of stores
to 13 (Mulund, Mumbai, Gurgaon and Kolkata)
2004 Fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth stores launched in
February 2004 (Malad, Mumbai), June 2004 (Salt Lake
City, Kolkatta) and October
2005 2004 (Bangeratta Bangalore) respectively taking total
retail area to 752,848 sqft.

Received Superbrand status for 2003 and 2004
Received Images Retail award for the “Most favored
retail destination of the year” – September, 2004.
Received the “Organization with Innovative HR
Practices” award at the HR Excellence Awards
organized by mid - Day, Big Break & Darks – November
2004. Received Top retailer 2004 India Bronze award
given by Retail Asia-Pacific Top 500 awards.
2006 Seventeenth store launched in April 2005 at Nucleus
Mall, Pune.
Eighteenth and Nineteenth stores launched in May
2005 at Dynamic Mall, Juhu Mumbai and at Bangalore.
The Company makes an Initial Public Offer of 69,
46,033 Equity Shares of Rs.10 each at a premium of
Rs.228 per share aggregating to Rs. 1653.16 million.
The issue received overwhelming response with a
subscription of more than 17 times.
Twentieth Store launched at ‘Shipra Mall’, Ghaziabad, in
June 2005.
The Company acquired balance 49% of the Equity
Share Capital of Crossword Bookstores Limited from
ICICI Emerging Sectors Fund, making Crossword its
Wholly Owned Subsidiary Company.



Shoppers stop is the only retailer from India to
become a member of the prestigious “INTERCONTINENTAL GROUP
experienced retailers from all over the world.

Mr. B.S. Nagesh won the “Annual award for excellence as

top CEO for 2001. At the Institute of Marketing Management.

Mr.B.S.Nagesh was also nominated for ERNST & YOUNG “Entrepreneur

of the year 2000 Award”.
Shoppers’ Stop swept a majority of awards at the CMAI awards 2001-02. The
awards won includes:-

SHOPPERS’S Stop was awarded the “It is user award for best IT practice in
retail category for the year2003-2004.
Shopper’s Stop won the “Best retail Chain of the year award” and
Mr.B.S.Nagesh won the “Best retail Professional of the year” award at the 4th
annual image fashion awards 2004


Make your house into a beautiful home designed by you!

Home Stop positioning: A complete home solution store which offers designs and style, quality and

Why Home Stop?

A home is a reflection of the home maker's individuality. It is a place you look forward to relax, unwind
and be yourself. It is a place, which is a true reflection of your inner self and a style statement. So it is
worth a while to transform your house into a beautiful space – Home.

It might have been years now that you would have thought of refreshing the look
and feel of your house, making your surroundings look as contemporary as you are. It sure takes a lot of
time and energy to browse the market for that perfect piece of furniture, décor, fittings that will make
your house look a class apart. Well, here is quick solution to the tedious art of home making – Home Stop
for your kind of home.

Shoppers Stop Ltd. with its ear-to-the-ground approach first defines consumer expectations and then
meets them. Home stop is a step in this direction


Home >> Brands >> Crossword

"There is more treasure in books than in all the pirates' loot on

Treasure Island...and best of all; you can enjoy these riches
every day of your life."-Walt Disney

In India, shopping for books has always been thought of as a

book-lover's hobby. The traditional bookstores, with their
dreary, dusty and browser-unfriendly atmosphere, have
discouraged all but the serious book-buyers.

Crossword, positioned as a lifestyle

bookstore, has been able to change
this by designing large, spacious,
well laid out stores, with bright
cheerful interiors that encourage people
to stay and browse.

Products and Services

Crossword offers the widest

range of books for the young and old alike, along with

magazines, CD-ROMs, music, stationery and toys. With
its large children's section and its focus on making the store
a friendly, safe, fun-filled place, Crossword attracts many
families who normally don't think of visiting bookstores.

Services like Dial-a-book, Fax-a-book and Email-a-book

enable customers to shop from their homes; and when they
come to the store, the unobtrusively helpful staffs assist
them in finding the right book, the right CD or the right gift
for the right occasion. Facilities like the Crossword Gift
Vouchers, the friendly 'Return, Exchange & Refunds' policy,
the Cafes within the stores and the unique store experience
make it easy and enjoyable for customers to shop at

Over 1,00,000 loyal customers are rewarded through

the Crossword Book Rewards Program with points,
discounts, promotional offers and more. 'EWords', a
monthly e-newsletter with reviews of new books, news
about in store events and bestseller lists, is currently mailed
to these Members.

Mother care is the leading specialist retailer for

the mother-to-be & the parents of young
Children, offering the widest range of clothing,
hardware & toys for the Pre-School child, in the
UK & internationally.

Mother care’s overseas franchise business currently

operates through over 300 stores in 40 countries,
primarily in Europe, the Middle East & the Far East.
India was the 38th Franchisee signed up in August

The mother care brand translates effectively into many

markets & the International team continues to
strengthen existing relationships & build new

partnerships with franchisees around the world.

Mother care India

Mother care in India is now managed under the ambit

of Shopper's Stop Specialty retail. Shoppers’ Stop
Specialty aims at bringing some of the best brands
internationally to meet the lifestyle aspirations of the
fast emerging Indian Consumer.


Our mission is to meet the needs & aspirations of

parents for their children, amongst our target
customers, across India.


Mother care is an International brand with an

unmatched array of products for mothers-to-be,
infants & small kids, in a one stop shop environment,
offering the best products in terms of safety, quality &
international look & feel.


To be India’s number 1 retailer of mother’s to be &

baby products in our target segment.

Joint Ventures:

In July, 2007, we executed a series of agreements for launching a new format

of retailing through shelf-edge point of sale material, indicating that the product
lines are available in the Catalogue and internet retailing. Under the
agreements, our subsidiary, Gateway Multichannel Retail (India) Limited which
is a 51:49 joint venture between Shopper's Stop Limited 8 Hyper city Retail
(India) Ltd., is to operate the stores with services from Home Retail Group
(India) Limited a wholly owned company of Home Retail Group plc. The
agreements also provide for the use of the trademarks of Argos and Hyper city
by Gateway Multichannel Retail (India) Limited.


* First Citizens: Our First citizen members have been a driving force behind the
growth of the Company. Your company had over 10,13,000 First Citizen
members as on 31st March, 2008. Your company believes that it's First Citizens
will continue to drive it's growth by increased average expenditure in our stores
which will be aided by targeted promotional activities.


* Geographical reach: Your company continues to increase its Pan-India

footprint. The Company has plans to increase the number of departmental
stores to 41 in the next 3 years. In addition the company will also continue to
expand its various other formats.

* Hyper city - An entry into mixed retail: Your Company has entered the
hypermarket segment, which is a high growth segment by acquiring a 19%
stake in hyper city. We believe that the scope for hypermarkets in India is
immense. The store run by hyper city has shown very impressive performance
in the year gone by.


* Format diversification: Your Company, in it's constant endeavor to capture

wallet share, has diversified into multiple formats viz. Home Stop which retails
hard and soft furnishings, Crossword for books, music and stationery, airport
retailing by tying up with The Naance Group AG of Switzerland, and F&B
formats comprising Brio and Desi Cafe, and Arcelia, which retails high end non
apparel arid accessories for ladies.

* Preferred partner for foreign players: Your Company believes that by virtue of
it's presence across all lifestyle categories in the departmental format, it's
strong brand value and it's presence in the books and music segment, it is best
placed to bring in international brands into the country, there by enriching the
product bouquet for it's customers and in turn increasing opportunities to
product diversification and profit enhancement.


* Threat of new entrants: With India becoming an attractive retail market and
the gradual increase in foreign participation in the sector, your Company
expects many new entrants thus sharpening competition.

* Competitive rivalry in the industry: There is intense rivalry among leading

national retailers for new locations and quality real estate.

The Apparel contribution to total sales of the company was 58.6% in 2007-08
as compared to 58.9% in 2006-07. There has been growth in Non-Apparel
segment which has resulted in Non-Apparel sales percentage growing. This is
primarily due to customer buying life style products.

This category includes Cosmetics, Personal Accessories, Jewellery, Leather
goods, Home Wares, Electronics, Books and Music. These lifestyle products have
high aspiration value, and as the consuming class increases, there will be a big

surge in the demand for this category. The Non-Apparel contribution to total
sales of the Company was 41.40% in 2007-08.



3.0 Theoretical frame work:

What is retailing?

Retailing definition:

“Retailing encompasses the business activities involved in selling gods and

services to consumers for their personal, family or household use.”

Retailing definition:

“Retailing is the set of business activities that adds values to the products and
services sold to the consumers for their personal or family use.”

Retailing definition:

“Retailing is the business of buying goods in large quantities from a manufacturers

or a wholesaler and selling these products to consumers for fulfilling their personal
and family needs.”

According to these definitions retailing involves three aspects

→ Sale of product at store

→ Sale of services
→ Sale of products at nonstore (online sales, Telemarketing)

Retailing involves selling products and services to consumers for

their personal or family use. Department stores, like Burdines
and stores, like Amazon.com, are also retailers.

Many Macy's, discount stores like Wal-Mart and K-Mart, and

specialty stores like The Gap, Zales Jewelers and Toys 'R' Us, are
all examples of retail stores. Service providers, like dentists,
hotels and hair salons, and on-line businesses, like Home Depot,
are both wholesalers and retailers because they sell to consumers
and building contractors. Other businesses, like The Limited, are
both manufactures and retailers. Regardless of other functions

these businesses perform, they are still retailers when they
interact with the final user of the product or service.




Why is Retailing Important?

As the final link between consumers and manufacturers, retailers

are a vital part of the business world. Retailers add value to
products by making it easier for manufactures to sell and
consumers to buy. It would be very costly and time consuming
for you to locate, contact and make a purchase from the
manufacturer every time you wanted to buy a candy bar, a
sweater or a bar of soap. Similarly, it would be very costly for the
manufactures of these products to locate and distribute them to

consumers individually. By bringing multitudes of manufacturers
and consumers together at a single point, retailers make it

Retailers also provide services that make it less risky and more fun to buy
products. They have salespeople on hand who can answer questions, may offer
credit, and display products so that consumers know what is available and can see
it before buying. In addition, retailers may provide many extra services, from
personal shopping to gift wrapping to delivery, that increase the value of products
and services to consumers.

According to the National Retail Federation, 1 in 5 American

workers are employed in the retail industry. The Department of
Labor estimates that since 700,000 new jobs have been created
in the retail sector. That's 13% of all new jobs in the United
States. At present, more jobs are provided in retailing than the
entire U.S. manufacturing sector.

The Future of Retailing

Advances in technology, like the Internet, have helped make
retailing an even more challenging and exciting field in recent
years. The nature of the business and the way retailing is done
are currently undergoing fundamental changes. However,
retailing in some form will always be necessary. For example,
even though the Internet is beginning to make it possible for
manufacturers to sell directly to consumers, the very vastness of

cyberspace will still make it very difficult for a consumer to
purchase every product he or she uses directly. On-line retailers,
like Amazon.com, bring together assortments of products for
consumers to buy in the same way that bricks-and-mortar
retailers do.

In addition, traditional retailers with physical stores will

continue to be necessary. Of course, retailers who offer personal
services, like hair styling, will need to have face-to-face
interaction with the consumer. But even with products,
consumers often want to see, touch and try them before they
buy. Or, they may want products immediately and won't want to
wait for them to be shipped. Also, and perhaps most importantly,
in many cases the experience of visiting the retailer is an
important part of the purchase. Everything that the retailer can
do to make the shopping experience pleasurable and fun can help
ensure that customers come back.

Who is Retailer?

A retailer is a person who specializes in selling

certain types of goods and/or services to consumers for their
personal use. There are many kinds of retail stores including
grocery stores, department stores, specialty stores, convenience
stores, chemist stores and fast food outlets, among others.
Retailing is the business of buying goods in large quantities from
a manufacturer or a wholesaler and then selling these products
and services to consumers for fulfilling their personal or family
needs. A retailer is, in fact, the final link in the distribution
channel connecting the manufacturer with the consumer.

Types of Retail Formats

The following kinds of retail formats are found in India:

• Mom-and-pop stores: These are generally family-owned

businesses catering to small sections of society. They are
small, individually run and handled retail outlets.
• Category killers: Small specialty stores have expanded to
offer a range of categories. They have widened their vision
in terms of the number of categories. They are called
category killers as they specialize in their fields, such as
electronics (Best Buy) and sporting goods (Sport Authority).

Department stores: These are the general merchandise

retailers offering various kinds of quality products and services.

These do not offer full service category products and some carry
a selective product line. K Raheja's Shoppers Stop is a good
example of department stores. Other examples are Lifestyle and
Westside. These stores have further categories, such as home
and décor, clothing, groceries, toys, etc.

• Malls: These are the largest form of retail formats. They

provide an ideal shopping experience by providing a mix of
all kinds of products and services, food and entertainment
under one roof. Examples are Sahara Mall, TDI Mall in Delhi.

• Specialty Stores: The retail chains, which deal in specific

categories and provide deep assortment in them are

specialty stores. Examples are RPG's Music World, Mumbai's
bookstore Crossword, etc.

• Discount stores: These are the stores or factory outlets

that provide discount on the MRP items. They focus on mass
selling and reaching economies of scale or selling the stock
left after the season is over.
• Hypermarkets/ Supermarkets: These are generally large
self-service outlets, offering a variety of categories with deep
assortments. These stores contribute 30% of all food and
grocery organized retail sales. Example: Big Bazaar.
• Convenience stores: They are comparatively smaller
stores located near residential areas. They are open for an
extended period of the day and have a limited variety of
stock and convenience products. Prices are slightly higher
due to the convenience given to the customers.
• E-retailers: These are retailers that provide online facility of
buying and selling products and services via Internet. They
provide a picture and description of the product. A lot of
such retailers are booming in the industry, as this method
provides convenience and a wide variety for customer. But it
does not provide a feel of the product and is sometimes not
authentic. Examples are Amazon.com, Ebay.com, etc.


Consumer behavior is influenced by cultural, social, personal and

psychological characteristics. The marketing people will not be
able to control these factors.

1. Cultural 2.Social 3. Personal 4. Psychological

Culture Reference Age and life Motivation

Groups Cycle stage

Subculture Family Occupation Perception

Social class Roles and Economic Learning beliefs

status situation And attitudes
Personality and


Culture: cultural factors like the buyer’s culture, subculture, and

social class exert the broadest and deepest influence on
consumer behavior. Culture is the most fundamental determinant
of a person’s wants and behavior. As a person grows up in
society, he learns a basic set of values, perceptions, preferences,
and behavior through a process of socialization involving the
family and other key institutions.

Subculture: the main culture includes smaller groups of

subcultures within its fold that provide more specific identification
and socialization for its members. Subcultures like nationality
groups, religious groups, racial groups, communities, and
geographical areas have distinct characteristic lifestyles.

Social classes: social classes are homogeneous social
stratifications in society whose members share similar values,
interests, and behaviors. Upper class, middle class, lower middle
class, and lower class are such social classes. Social class is
determined by occupation, income, education, etc. Consumers
within a social class may have similar buyer behavior, and
product and brand preferences.


Social factors like the consumer’s reference groups, family, social

roles and status also influence buyer behavior

Reference groups: reference groups influence buyer behavior

very strongly. Membership groups can be primary groups which
have direct influence like family, friends, neighbors, and co-
workers. Secondary groups can be religious organizations and
trade unions.

Family: members of the buyer’s family can exercise a strong

influence on the buyer’s behavior. The family consists of one’s
parents, spouse and children. Marketing people are interested in
the roles and influence of the husband, wife and children on
buying decisions. Decision-makers, in case of some goods and
services, will be husband-oriented, wife-dominant, and equal.

Role and status: a buyer may belong to May groups at the same
time, like family, clubs, associations, or organizations, His position
in each group will be specified by his role and status. Such roles
and status will also influence some of his buying decisions.


Buyer behavior is also influenced by the buyer’s personal

characteristics, notably his or her age and life-cycle stage,
occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, personality, and

Age and life-cycle stage: the needs, wants and demand for goods
and services change in the buyer’s lifetime. Buyer’s tastes in
food, clothes, furniture and recreation are all related, and likely to
change. Family life cycle consists of stages like young singles,
newly married, married with children (full nest), elderly couple
living alone, or single parent’s consumption is shaped by the
stage in which the buyer is presently.

Occupation: buyer’s consumption pattern is also influenced by

his occupation. A factory worker may buy work clothes, work
shoes, lunch boxes, etc., while a company executive may buy
expensive suits, watches, travel accessories, tickets for air travel,
luxury car, etc.

Economic circumstances: economic circumstances of the buyer

will affect his product choice. This consists of his spendable
income, saving and assets, borrowing power and attitude toward
spending and savings.

Lifestyle: life style is an individual’s way or pattern of living,

which is reflected in his activities, interests and opinions.
Consumers with the same cultural, sub-cultural, occupational and
social class background could have varying lifestyles. This is a
factor that has to be thoroughly studied by marketing people.

Personality and self-concept: personality is the person’s

distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively
consistent and enduring responses to his or her own environment.
It is described in terms of such traits like self-confidence,

dominance, autonomy, sociability, defensiveness, and


Motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes also

influence buyer behavior. These are psychological factors.

Motivation: buyer’s needs are normally biogenic or physiological,

and psychogenic or psychological. When they are aroused to a
sufficient level of intensity they become motives, urging the
buyer to seek satisfaction. Abraham Maslow explained the driving
force of people’s needs as consisting of a need hierarchy. This
included physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem
needs and self-actualization needs.

Perception: once motivate, how the motivated buyer acts is

influenced by his or her perception of the situation. That is how
the buyer receives, selects, organizes and interprets information.
Buyers can emerge with different perception of the same stimulus
object because of three perceptual processes: selective exposure,
selective distortion, and selective retention.

Learning: buyers learn through their actions. Learning involves

changes in the buyer’s behavior as a result of his experience. The
buyers’ learning is produced through the interplay of drives,
stimuli, cues, responses, and reinforcement.

Beliefs and attitudes: people’s beliefs and attitudes also influence

their buyer behavior. Beliefs may be founded on knowledge,
opinion or faith. It is a descriptive thought that the buyer has
about something. Beliefs are important from the marketer’s point
of view because product and brand images are based on beliefs
and, therefore, affect buyer’s behavior.

Attitudes reveal the judgments, feelings, and tendencies of
the buyer towards an object or an idea. Attitudes exhibit the
buyer’s frame of mind of liking or disliking things, and of moving
toward or away from them.

Maslow hierarchy of needs

Stages in buying decision process:
The stage-model of the buying process shows the consumer as passing
through five stages. They are:

1. NEED RECOGNITION: The buying decision process starts with the

buyer’s recognition of a problem or need. The need can be triggered
by internal or external stimuli. The marketer needs to identify the
circumstances that trigger the particular need or interest in

2. INFORMATION SEARCH: In many cases, an aroused consumer searches

for information about the product. Consumer information sources are
personal sources (family, friends, and neighbors), commercial sources
(advertising, sales persons, dealers, display, etc), public sources (mass
media), and experimental sources (handling, examining and using the

3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES: Next, the consumer evaluates the

alternatives. Here, the concepts involved are product attributes weight
age for important attributes, brand image, utility function and
evaluation procedure.

4. PURCHASE DECISION: After the brand choice, the consumer forms a
purchase intention followed by the purchase decision, vendor decision,
quantity decision, timing decision and payment method decision.

POST-PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR: After purchasing the product, the

consumers will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. If the
product falls short of the buyer’s expectation, the buyer will be disappointed
and dissatisfied. If it meets expectations, the buyer will be satisfied. If it
exceeds expectations, the buyer will be delighted.


The purchase situation affects many consumer decisions.

Three factors are particularly important in affecting marketing
strategy based on the purchasing situation:

In-store Situations:

In-store stimuli such as product availability, shelf position,

pricing promotions, displays, and ease of shopping are important
in influencing consumer purchasing decisions, especially for
unplanned purchases.

• Price promotions. Fifty-six percent of respondents bought

more unplanned items because of these in – store stimuli.

• Free samples. Thirty-five percent of respondents bought

more unplanned items because of free samples.

• Displays. Twenty-seven percent of respondents bought

more unplanned items because of displays.

Gift-Giving situations:

Purchasing a gift is likely to be more involving for consumers

than purchasing a product for themselves. As Belk notes, when
consumers give gifts, they are giving not only the physical
product but also a symbolic message with it. They want to ensure

that they are sending the right message in terms of the type of

Unanticipated Purchase Situations:

Unanticipated purchase situations, such as an unexpected

price change, bumping into friends who might influence choice,
and being short of time.

Market stimuli:



Product Economic

Price Technological

Place Political

Promotion Cultural

Buyer Buyer

Characteristics Decision process


Product choice Brand choice

Dealer choice Purchase timing




1) Customer purchasing share based on Gender:

S.No Gender No. of Percentage

1) Male 60 40%
2) Female 90 60%
Total = 150 100%


Inference: In the taken total 150 no. of customer 60 were Male

and 90 were Female. i.e., 40% of shoppers are male and 60% of
shoppers are Female.

2) Customer purchasing share based on Age:

S.No Age of No. of Percentage

Respondents Respondents
1) 20-30 years 40 26.66%
2) 30-40 years 60 40%
3) 40-50 years 30 20%
4) Above 50 20 13.33%
Total 150 100%


Inference: Total 150 no. of customer in that age wise

respondent 20-30yr are 40 people,30-40yr are 60,40-50yr
are 30 and above 50yr are 20.Hence the major factor of age
group is30-40 i.e.40%.

3) Customer purchasing share based on Occupation:

S.No Occupation of No. of Percentage

Respondents Respondents
1) House wife 32 21.3%

2) Business 36 24%
3) Paid employee 74 49.3%
4) None 8 5.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents highly occupation

people are paid employee49.3%, less is none occupation i.e.

4) Customer Purchasing share based on Education:

S.No Education of No. of Percentage

Respondents Respondents
1) SSC/Diploma 7 4.6%
2) Degree 29 19.3%
3) Post 89 59.3%
4) Above PG 25 16.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents highly education people

are post graduation 59%, less is ssc/diploma i.e.5%.

5) Customer purchasing share based on Family size:

S.No Family size of No. of Percentage

Respondents Respondents
1) 1-2 12 8%
2) 2-3 61 40.6%
3) 4-5 52 34.6%
4) More than 5 25 16.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents highly purchase

based on family size is 2-3 i.e.41%, less purchase family size
is 1-2 i.e. 8%.


6) Customer purchasing share based on Distance

travelled to store:

S.No Distance No. of Percentage

travelled by Respondents
1) Less than ½ 15 10%
2) 1/2km to 2km 64 42.6%
3) 2km to 5km 53 35.3%
4) More than 5km 18 12%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents highly shoppers from the

distance wise 1/2km-2km i.e. 43% , less shoppers distance wise
less than 1/2km i.e. 10%.

7) Frequency of purchase of merchandise from Shoppers

Stop by customers:

S.No Frequency of No. of Percentage

purchase by Respondents
1) Once a week 20 13.33%
2) Once in month 35 23.3%
3) Twice in a 78 52%
4) Once in 6 17 11.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents highly frequency of
purchase twice in a month i.e. 52%, less frequency of purchase
once in a six month i.e. 11.3%.

8) Amount of money spend by customers at shoppers


S.No Amount of No. of Percentage

money spend Respondents
1) Less than 2000 23 15.3%
2) 2000-3000 27 18%
3) 3000-5000 65 43.3%
4) More than 35 23.3%
Total = 150 100%


Inference: The above chart represents highly amount of

money spend 3000-5000 i.e. 43%, less amount of money
spend less than 2000 i.e. 15%.


a) Agreeness level of customers towards the quality

of products

S.No Agree ness No. of Percentage

level Respondents
1) Strongly 0 0%
2) Some what 3 2%

3) Neutral 24 16%
4) Some what 45 30%
5) Strongly agree 78 52%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents strongly agree quality of

the products i.e. 52%, strongly disagree quality of the products
i.e. 0%.

b) Agreeness level of customers towards the wider

choice /selection

S.No Agree ness No. of Percentage

level Respondents
1) Strongly 0 0%
2) Some what 4 2.6%
3) Neutral 24 16%
4) Some what 44 29.3%
5) Strongly agree 78 52%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents strongly agree

wider/selection of products i.e. 52%, strongly disagree is 0%.

c) Agreeness level of customer towards availability

of numerous major quality brands

S.No Agree ness No. of Percentage

level Respondents
1) Strongly 0 0%
2) Some what 0 0%
3) Neutral 10 6.6%
4) Some what 42 28%
5) Strongly agree 98 65.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents strongly agree

towards the quality of products i.e. 65%, strongly
disagree i.e. 0%.

d) Agreeness level of customer towards availability

of well known store brands

S.No Agree ness No. of Percentage
level Respondents
1) Strongly 0 0%
2) Some what 10 6.6%
3) Neutral 32 21.3%
4) Some what 38 25.3%
5) Strongly agree 70 46.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents strongly agree

the well known store brands i.e. 47%, strongly disagree
i.e. 0%.

e) Agreeness level towards the value of
merchandise for the money

S.No Agree ness No. of Percentage

level Respondents
1) Strongly 15 10%
2) Some what 18 12%
3) Neutral 72 48%
4) Some what 25 16.6%
5) Strongly agree 17 11.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents some what agree of

merchandise for the money i.e. 48%, strongly disagree i.e.10%


10) Position of shoppers stop in comparison with other

retail stores

S.No Comparison No. of Percentage

with other Respondents
retail stores
1) Excellent 60 40%
2) Good 32 21.3%
3) Average 28 18.6%
4) Poor 30 20%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents comparison with other

retail stores excellent is 40%, average is 19%


11) Rank the competitors as compared to shoppers stop

S.No Interested Shoppers Other store d=(R1-R2)

factor stop Rankings(R2
Rankings(R1 )
1 Brand name 3 2 1 1
2 Quality 2 3 -1 1
3 Service 1 1 0 0
4 Price 4 6 -2 4
5 Convenience 7 7 0 0
6 Fashion/Style 6 4 2 4
7 Merchandise 5 5 0 0

N=7 , =10

r = 1- 6

r= 0.821

Inference: The rank correlation coefficient 0.821 shows that there is a very high
degree of correlation between ranks obtained in shoppers stop and other retail


11) Customer interests for preferring shoppers stop

S.No Interested No. of Percentage

factor Respondents
1) Brand name 78 14.5%
2) Quality 89 16.6%
3) Service 112 20.8%
4) Price 75 13.9%
5) Convenience 40 7.4%
6) Fashion/style 69 12.8%
7) Merchandize 73 13.6%
Total 536 99.6%

customerinterestsfor preferringshoppers

brand name
13.60% 15%
12.80% 17%
7.40% convenience

Inference: The above chart represents preferring shoppers stop

service i.e.21%, convenience i.e.7.4%

12) Type of merchandise preferred in shoppers stop

S.No Type of No. of Percentage

merchandise Respondents
1) Ladies 40 26.6%
2) Kids 20 13.3%
3) Gents 40 26.6%
4) Personal 50 33.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents merchandise preferred in

shoppers stop personal accessories i.e. 33.3% , kids i.e. 13%

13) Combine activities along with shopping


S.No Combine No. of Percentage

activities with Respondents
1) Eating out 35 23.3%
2) Movies 70 46.6%
3) Coffee/tea 30 20%
4) Don’t combine 15 10%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents combine activities with

shopping movies i.e. 47% , don’t combine i.e. 10%

14) a) Important level of customer towards shopping for

S.No important level No. of Percentage

1) Unimportant 20 13.3%
2) Some what un 38 25.3%
3) Neutral 47 31.3%
4) Some what 32 21.3%
5) Extremely 13 8.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents important level shopping

for clothing neutral i.e. 31% , extremely important i.e. 9%

b) Important level of customer towards expensive
shopping for clothing

S.No important level No. of Percentage

1) Unimportant 10 6.6%
2) Some what un 28 18.6%
3) Neutral 60 40%
4) Some what 38 25.3%
5) Extremely 14 9.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents expensive shopping for

clothing neutral i.e. 40% , unimportant i.e. 7%

c) Need based shopping level

S.No important level No. of Percentage

1) Unimportant 10 6.6%
2) Some what un 20 13.3%
3) Neutral 58 38.6%
4) Some what 40 26.6%
5) Extremely 22 14.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents need based shopping

level neutral i.e.39% , unimportant level i.e. 7%

16) a) Use at newspaper ads in deciding clothing

S.No agree level No. of Percentage

1) Never 0 0%
2) Some what 10 6.6%
3) Neutral 34 22.6%
4) Some what 48 32%
5) Always 58 38.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents news paper ads in

deciding purchases some what agree i.e. 39% , never i.e. 0%

b) use store displays in deciding clothing purchases

S.No agree level No. of Percentage

1) Never 0 0%
2) Some what 10 6.6%
3) Neutral 34 22.6%
4) Some what 48 32%
5) Always 58 38.6%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents store displays in deciding

purchases neutral i.e. 40%, never i.e. 8%

c) friends/family advises in deciding clothing purchases

S.No agree level No. of Percentage

1) Never 7 4.6%
2) Some what 18 12%
3) Neutral 42 28%
4) Some what 63 42%
5) Always 20 13.3%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents family/friends advises in

deciding purchases some what agree i.e. 42%, never i.e. 5%

d)Fashion magazines in deciding clothing purchases

S.No agree level No. of Percentage

1) Never 0 0%
2) Some what 18 12%
3) Neutral 38 25.3%
4) Some what 73 48.6%
5) Always 21 14%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents fashion magazines

in deciding purchases some what agree i.e.48.6%, never i.e.


e) Use internet deciding clothing purchases

S.No agree level No. of Percentage

1) Never 0 0%
2) Some what 23 15.3%
3) Neutral 48 32%
4) Some what 28 18.6%
5) Always 51 34%
Total = 150 100%

Inference: The above chart represents use internet in deciding

purchases some what agree i.e. 34%,





Based on the data collected through questionnaire the analysis

was carried out. From the following analysis the following
findings come to right.

 From the analysis it can be inferred that 60% of shoppers

were female, 40% of male customers. So in the shopping
level female customers dominated.

 The analysis reveals that customer purchasing an age wise

30-40 yrs more involved i.e.40%,20-30yrs customers
26%,40-50yrs customers 20% &less involvement is above
50yrs i.e. 14%.

 The analysis leads to determine that occupation wise 49% of

the shoppers were paid employee, house wife are 21%
business people are 24% and none occupation shoppers are
5%. So paid employee are big customer in shoppers stop.

 From the analysis it can be inferred that 43% customers are

spend money for shopping at shoppers stop Rs 3000 to
5000, more than Rs 5000 are 23%, less than Rs 2000 are
15% and Rs 2000 to 3000 are 18% shoppers. So the average
cash memo is Rs 3000-5000.

 From the analysis it is found that 52% shoppers are

purchase merchandise from shoppers stop twice in a
month,11.3% shoppers are purchase merchandise from
shoppers stop once in six months, 13.3% customers
purchase once a week,23.3% customers purchase once in a

 The analysis reveals that most of the shoppers 52% are
strongly agree with the product quality in shoppers stop,
neutral is16%,some what agree level is 30%& 2% customers
are disagree with the product quality.

 We found that 22% shoppers are disagree with the value of

merchandise for the money, neutral is 48%, 27% shoppers
are agree with the value of merchandise for the money. This
state the consumers are getting the value for their money at
shoppers stop.

 From the analysis it is found that 33% shoppers preferred

merchandise in shoppers stop is personal accessories.
Ladies& gents preferring apparel the same ratio i.e. 26.6%,
preferring the kids apparel 13%.

 Comparison with other retail stores position of shoppers stop

40% shoppers agree with excellent, because the reason is
first citizen loyalty program, good quality products and
service. 20% customers given poor rating with others.
Because of the reason high price& less promotional things.

 From the analysis it can be inferred that combine activities

along with the shopping i.e. eating out is 23.3%, movies
46.6%, coffee bars20%& don’t combine customers 10%. So I
found that most of the customers combined along with the

 The analysis made revels that purchasing the merchandise

in this most of the customers go through with the news
paper ads.



→ I suggest maintaining the more varieties in merchandise.

→ We should know the consumers need and wants. So in that

way develop the strategy.

→ And also should increase the more colures, sizes and new
fashion varieties.

→ We have to develop the loyalty programmed and get the

more first citizen card holders.

→ We have to increase the stores much available to the


→ We have developed the promotional tools like discounts and

other special offers.

→ To passing the information wise we develop the advertising

→ Introduce the new varieties is main important. It means

develop the merchandise fashion wise.

→ Most of the customers preferring combine activities along

with their shopping. So I suggest develop the combine
activities and expect the share of valet.

→ Most of the customers are using fashion magazines and

internet. So I suggest that develop the advertising in fashion
magazines and internet.


From the study conducted, the following conclusions are as


The no. of consumers getting in shoppers stop is good

products quality and excellent service. Most of the
consumers are in shoppers stop first citizen card holders.

Most of the shoppers spend money for shopping at shoppers
stop Rs. 3000 – 5000.Mostly in the store consumers will get
all the age wise merchandise. Here most of the consumers
ready to combine along with their shopping. Some of the
consumers not satisfy with the price of merchandise.

Some of the consumers they are purchase merchandise

in shoppers stop especially in the sale period. Consumers
compared shoppers stop with other retail stores they are
given less rating. It means others (competitors) they are
providing extra discounts and special offers. Consumers are
not satisfying the availability of merchandise. Does is means
they wanted fashionable and more variety of the products.
Most of the consumers getting the information through
internet based. Consumers are following the news paper ads
and fashion magazines.



1) Name:_____________

2) Gender: i) male ii) female

3) Age : a) 20-30 years b) 30-40 years

c) 40-50 years d) above 50 years

4) Occupation :

a) House wife

b) Business

c) Paid employee

d) None

5) Education :

a) SSC/Diploma

b) Degree

c) Post-graduation

d) Above PG

6) Family size:

a) 1-2

b) 2-3

c) 4-5

d) More than 5

7) Distance travelled to store:

a) Less than ½ km

b) 1/2km to 2 km

c) 2km to 5km

d) More than 5km


8) How frequently do you purchase merchandise from shoppers stop?

a) Once a week

b) Once in a month

c) Twice in a month

d) Once in 6 months

9) How much money do you spend for shopping at shoppers stop?

a) Less than 2000

b) 2000-3000

c) 3000-5000

d) More than 5000

10) Following are a few statements about merchandise which influence

choice of shoppers stop format.

(1)Strongly disagree,

(2)Some what disagree,


(4)Some what agree,

(5)Strongly agree,

I. Availability of good quality products 1 2 3 4


II. Availability of wider choice/selection 1 2 3 4


III. Availability of numerous major quality

Brands 1 2 3 4 5

IV. Availability of well known store brands 1 2 3 4 5

V. Value of merchandise for the money 1 2 3 4


11) Rank the shoppers stop and the other competitor store according to
the following scale.

High ranking -----to------ low ranking

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Shoppers rankings other store rankings

1. Brad name

2. Quality

3. Service

4. Price

5. Convenience

6. Fashion/Style

7. Merchandise


12) How do you rate Shoppers stop in comparisons with other retail stores?

a) Excellent b)Good c)Average d)Poor

13) Rank the following reasons for preferring Shoppers Stop?

a) Brand name

b) Quality

c) Service

d) Price

e) Convenience

f) Fashion /Style

g) Merchandise

14) What type of merchandise you prefer in Shopper Stop?

a)Ladies b)Kids c)Gents d)Personal accessories

15) What are the activities you combine along with shopping?

a)Eating out b)Movies c)Coffee bars d)Don’t combine


16) What do you consider important when shopping for clothing?

(1=Unimportant, 5=Extremely important)

I. Sometimes I buy the latest styles even

If they don’t really look good on 1 2 3 4 5

II. I often buy clothes at stores that are

Easy to get to, even if the clothes are

More expensive 1 2 3 4 5

III. When shopping for clothes, I usually

Buy only things that I need 1 2 3 4


17) What information sources do you use when deciding clothing


(1=Never and 5=Always)

i. Newspaper ads 1 2 3 4

ii. Store displays 1 2 3 4 5

iii. Friends or family advises 1 2 3 4 5

iv. Fashion magazines 1 2 3 4 5

v. Internet 1 2 3 4 5

18) What would you like to change about this store format?



19) What do you like best about shopping at shoppers stop?





Books referred:

• Retailing management by Levi and Weitz.

• Consumer behavior Biztantra by Henry Assael.

• Marketing management by Dr. Karunakaran.

• The Art of Retailing by A.J. Lamba.

• Research Methodology & Statistical tools by P Narayana


Web sites visited:

• www.shoppersstop.com

• www.google.com

• www.wikipedia.org

• www.indianretailers.com