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Module 4.

3 Micro-
Micro-Hydro

4.3.1 Designing
Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO)

Workshop on Renewable Energies


November 14-25, 2005
Nadi, Republic of the Fiji Islands

Contents
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

¾ Design (Civil Structure)


9 Weir, Intake, Settling basin, Headrace, Forebay, Penstock,
Powerhouse

¾ Head Loss Calculation


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¾ Design (Electrical and Mechanical Equipment)


9 Inlet valve, Water turbine, Turbine governor, Power
transmission facility, Generator, Control panels, Switchgear

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Civil Structure: Weir
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Types of Weir
¾ Concrete gravity dam
¾ Floating concrete dam
¾ Earth dam
¾ Rockfill dam
¾ Wet masonry dam
¾ Gabion dam
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¾ Concrete reinforced gabion dam


¾ Brushwood dam
¾ Wooden dam
¾ Wooden-frame dam with gravel

Characteristic of Weir
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Type Concrete gravity dam Floating concrete dam Earth dam


Entire body is composed Entire body is composed Main material is earth.
of concrete. of concrete. Riprap and core wall
Outline
Longer dam epron
cut-off
Foundation Bedrock Gravel From earth to bedrock
Not governed by gradient, Not governed by gradient, Gentle flow and easy to
River condition discharge or level of discharge or level of deal with flooding
sediment load sediment load
Intake efficiency High High High
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Concrete gravity dam Floating concrete dam Earth dam

Cut-off

Longer epron

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Characteristic of Weir
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Type Rock fill dam Wet masonry dam Gabion dam


Main material is gravel. Gravel is filled with mortal Gravel is wrapped by
Outline
Core wall etc. metal net.
Foundation From earth to bedrock From earth to bedrock From earth to bedrock
In case that earth dam Not governed by gradient, In case that rock fill dam
River condition could be washed away by discharge or level of could be washed away by
normal river flow. sediment load. normal river flow.
Intake efficiency Low High Low
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Rock fill dam Wet masonry dam Gabion dam

Characteristic of Weir
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Concrete reinforced Bush wood dam Wooden frame with gravel


Type
gabion dam dam
Surface of gabion dam is Main material is local Wooden frame is filled
Outline
reinforced with concrete. bush wood. with gravel.
Foundation From earth to bedrock From earth to bedrock From earth to bedrock
In case that metal net Gentle river flow In case that rock fill dam
River condition could be damaged by could be washed away by
strong river flow. normal river flow.
Intake efficiency High Fair Low
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Concrete reinforced gabion dam Bush wood dam Wooden frame with gravel dam

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Concerns to be addressed in Weir Designing
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
¾ Location of weir site
9 Perpendicular to river direction
9 Topographical & geological conditions
9 Easy access

¾ Structural Stability
9 Fall resistance, Sliding resistance & Soil bearing capacity against resultant
external force (weir own weight, water pressure, sedimentation weight, earth
quake & up lift)
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¾ Sedimentation
9 Easy flushing
9 Existing landslide, debris, erosion, drift woods etc.

¾ Influence on head acquisition


9 Relationship between construction cost & usable head

¾ Backwater effect
9 Influence on upstream area during flooding

Civil Structure: Intake


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Type of Intake
¾ Side intake
9 Typical intake
9 Perpendicular to river direction
¾ Tyrolean intake
9 Along the weir Side Intake
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9 Simple structure
9 Affected by sedimentation
during flooding
9 More maintenance required

Tyrolean Intake
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Civil Structure: Settling Basin
1-Nov-05 (12:01) Function
9 All the suspended materials that could
adversary affect turbine should be removed.
Dam

Intake Spillway
Specification to be decided Stoplog Flushing gate

9 Minimum diameter of suspended materials


(depend on turbine specification; 0.5–
B
1.0mm) b Headrace

9 Marginal settling speed (about 0.1m/s)


9 Flow velocity in settling basin (about 0.3m/s) 1.0
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2.0
Conduit section
9 Length & wide Widening section
Settling section
Bsp

10 ~15 cm

hsp+15cm
Stoplog
Intake

hi h0
hs

ic=1/20~1/30
Sediment Pit
Flushing gate
Lc Lw Ls
bi L

Civil structure: Headrace


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Function
9 Conveys water from intake to forebay

Specification to be decided
9 Structure type (Open channel)
9 Longitudinal slope (1/50 – 1/500)
9 Cross section (flow capacity)
9 Material to be used

Flow capacity calculation


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Qd=A×R2/3×SL1/2 /n
where,
Qd: Flow capacity (design discharge: m3/s )
A: Cross-sectional area
R: R = A/P
P: Length of wet sides
P
A
SL: Longitudinal slope
n: Coefficient of roughness

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5
Characteristic of Headrace
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Simple earth Lined channel Wet masonry Concrete channel
Type
channel (Rock & stone) channel
9 Easy construction 9 Easy construction 9 Local material 9 Great flexibility of
9 Inexpensive 9 Local material 9 Scouring resistance cross section
Advantage 9 Easy repair 9 Scouring resistance 9 Applicable to design
9 Easy repair permeable ground
9 Easy construction
9 Risk of scouring & 9 Not applicable to 9 Relatively expensive 9 Not applicable to
collapse high permeable 9 More man power small diameter
9 Not applicable to ground 9 Long construction
Disadvantage high permeable period
ground
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9 Difficult to remove
sedimentation

n = 0.030 n = 0.025 n = 0.020 n = 0.015

Simple earth Lined channel Wet masonry


channel (Rock and stone) Concrete channel
channel
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Characteristic of Headrace
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Type Wood fenced channel Box culvert channel Hume pipe channel
9 Inexpensive 9 Easy construction 9 Easy construction
9 Flexible to minor ground 9 Short construction period 9 Short construction period
Advantage deformation 9 Applicable to small diameter 9 High resistance to external
9 Flexible to cross section pressure
figure 9 Applicable to small diameter
9 Not applicable to big 9 Heavy weight 9 Heavy weight
Disadvantage diameter 9 High transportation cost 9 High transportation cost
9 Easy to decay
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n = 0.015 n = 0.015 n = 0.015

Wooded-fenced channel Box culvert channel Closed pipe (Hume pipe, steel pipe)

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Civil Structure: Forebay
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Function
9 Regulates discharge fluctuation Screen
difference between penstock &
headrace due to load fluctuation.
9 Final settling basin
Spillway

Specification to be decided
9 Water storage capacity
9 Layout & dimension of each facility
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Headrace

Attached Structure Spillway


9 Spillway Penstock
9 Screen Headrace
9 Regulating gate
9 Sluice gate
Screen

Headrace Penstock

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Civil Structure: Penstock


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Function
9 Convey water under pressure from
forebay to turbine

Specification to be decided
9 Route (Slope, geological conditions
etc)
9 Material to be used
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9 Diameter
- Construction cost
- Electricity generation decrease due
to loss at penstock
- Durability (Life time, O&M cost)
9 Thickness
- Water pressure, own weight, water
weight, other external force (earth
quake etc.)

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Powerhouse
1-Nov-05 (12:01) Powerhouse
z Function:
Provides shelter for the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine,
generator, control panels, etc.)

z The size of the powerhouse and the layout:


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Determined taking into account convenience during installation,


operation and maintenance.

z Foundation:
Classified into two:
•For Impulse turbine
-Pelton turbine, Turgo turbine or cross-flow turbine, etc.
•For Reaction turbine
-Francis turbine or propeller turbine, etc.
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Foundation for Impulse Turbine


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

a. Foundation for Impulse Turbine

The figures shows the foundation for the cross flow turbine. There
is a space between center level of the runner and the tailwater level

A
1 .1 × Q d 2 1/ 3
hc ={ 9 .8 × b2
}
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30~ 50cm F lo o d W a ter L e vel(M a xim um )

hc

H L3

Space 30~ 50cm


(see R e f.5 -3 )

A
(atmosphere pressure) A fterb a y T ailrac e c anne l O utle t

S ection A -A
bo
b o : d ep end s o n Q d and H e

20cm 2 0 cm
b

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8
Foundation for Reaction Turbine
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
b. Foundation for Reaction Turbine
The below figures show the foundation for the Francis turbine. The
outlet level of the draft tube is under the level of tailwater

A
d3
ThisHs:head is also
depens on characteristic effectively utilized
of turbine

2
1.1×Qd 1/ 3
hc={ 9.8× b2
}
Hs
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30 ~ 50cm Flood Water Level(Maximum)

20cm
hc
Filled with water 1.15 × d3

In the draft tube 2× d3


H L3
(see Ref.5-
1.5×d3 3)
A

Section A-A

1.5×d3

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Effective Head
1-Nov-05 (12:01)

„Effective Head (Net head) :


= The total head actually acting on the turbine
= Gross head – Head loss

He = Hg – (HL1 + HL2 + HL3)


where, He: Effective head
Hg: Gross head
HL1: Loss from intake to forebay
HL2: Loss at penstock
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HL3: Loss at tailrace and draft tube


Intake Headrace

HL1
Settling Basin
Forebay HL2
Penstock
H Hg
Powerhouse He

HL3
Tailrace

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9
Calculation of Head Loss
1-Nov-05 (12:01) The head loss at the penstock (HL2) can be calculated by
the following equations.

HL2 = hf + he + hv + ho
where,
hf: Frictional loss at penstock
he: Inlet loss
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hv: Valve loss


ho: Other losses (Bend losses, loss on changes in cross-
sectional area and others)

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<Reference > Head Loss at Penstock


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

(1) Frictional loss


Frictional loss (hf) is the biggest of the losses at penstock.

hf = f ×(Lp/Dp ) ×Vp2/2g

where, hf: Frictional loss at penstock (m)


f : Coefficient on the diameter of penstock pipe (Dp).
f = 124.5×n2/Dp1/3
Lp: Length of penstock (m)
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Vp: Velocity at penstock (m/s)


Vp = Q/Ap
g: Acceleration due to gravity (9.8m/sec2)
Dp: Diameter of penstock pipe (m)
n : Coefficient of roughness
(steel pipe: n = 0.012, plastic pipe: n = 0.011)
Q: Design discharge (m3/s)
Ap: Cross sectional area of penstock pipe (m2)
Ap = 3.14×Dp2/4.0

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10
<Reference > Head Loss at Penstock
1-Nov-05 (12:01) (2) Inlet Loss
hi = fe × Vp2/2g

where, hi: Inlet loss (m)


fe: Coefficient on the form at the inlet
Usually fe = 0.5 in micro-hydro schemes.

(3) Valve Loss


hv = fv × Vp2 /2g
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where, hv: Valve loss (m)


fv: Coefficient on the type of valve,
fv = 0.1 (butterfly valve)

(4) Others
Bend loss and loss due to changes in cross-sectional area are considered
other losses. However, these losses can be neglected in micro-hydro
schemes. Usually, the person planning the micro-hydro scheme must take
account of following margins as other losses.

ho = 5 to 10%× (hf + he +hv)


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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Equipment and Functions


1. Inlet valve:
Controls the supply of water from the penstock to the turbine
2. Water turbine:
Converts the water energy into rotating power
3. Generator:
Generates the electricity by the driving force from the turbine
4. Driving facility:
Transmits the rotation power of the turbine to the generator
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5. Control facility of turbine and generator:


Controls the speed, output of the unit.
6. Switchgear / transformer :
Controls the electric power and increases the voltage of transmission
lines, if required
7. Control panels:
Controls and protects the above facilities for safe operation.

Note: Items 5, 6 & 7 above may sometimes be combined in one panel.

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11
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
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1. Inlet Valve

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Design for E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

2. Water Turbine
Types:
z Impulse turbines: Rotates the runner by the impulse of water jets
by converting the pressure head into the velocity head through
nozzles.
z Reaction turbines: Rotates the runner by the pressure head.
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Type Head
High Medium Low
Impulse Pelton Crossflow Crossflow
Turgo Turgo

Reaction Fransis Propeller


Pump-as-Turbine Kaplan

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12
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01) Pelton Turbine
¾Acting water jet emitted from the nozzle to the bucket of runner
¾Good characteristics for discharge change
- Discharge: Small (0.2 – 3 m3/s)
- Head: High head (75 – 400m)
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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Pelton Turbine
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13
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
„Cross-Flow Turbine
¾Arc shape runner blades are welded on the both side of iron plate discs
¾Easy manufacturing and simple structure
- Discharge: Small (0.1 – 10 m3/s)
- Head: Low, middle head (2 – 200 m)
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Water
Cross-
Cross-Flow W/T
Guide Vane
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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Cross-Flow Turbine
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14
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Francis Turbine
¾Wide ranging utilization from various head and output
¾Simple structure
- Discharge: Various (0.4 – 20 m3/s)
- Head: Low to high (15 – 300 m)
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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Francis Turbine
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15
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Reverse Pump Turbine (Pump as Turbine)
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31

Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Tubular Turbine
¾Tubular type(Cylinder type) propeller turbine
¾Package type is remarked recently
- Discharge: Various (1.5 – 40 m3/s)
- Head: low head (3 – 20m)

Timing Belt Generator


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Draft Tube

Guide Vane Propeller Runner


(Wicket Gate)
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Pico Hydro
Tubular Turbine

Design of E/M Equipment


Design of E/M Equipment

34
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17
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Flow chart of designing hydro turbine
Power plant H,Q Range of Ns
Turbine type
(m-kW)
Number of units Pelton 8 – 25
Francis 50 – 350
Turbine type selection by
Diagonal flow 100 – 350
the selection chart
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Propeller 200 – 900


Ns limit Tubular More than 500

N limit calculation from the Specific speed:


Ns limit
P1/2
Ns[m-kW] = N ×
H5/4
N (min-1)

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

Selection of turbine type i.e.: H = 25m, Q = 0.45m3/s


(82ft) 3(15.88ft /s)
→ Cross Flow
1000
(3,280)
or Horizontal Francis
(m, ft)
Horizontal Pelton
Vertical Francis
100
Effective Head

(328)
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10
Cross Flow
(32.8)
Horizontal Francis

(3.28)
1 Horizontal Propeller
0.01
(0.3529) 0.1
(3.529) 1
(35.29) 10
(352.9) 100
(3,529)
3 3
Water Discharge (m /s, ft /s)

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18
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01) 3. Generator
z Synchronous:
„ Independent exciter rotor, applicable for both isolated and existing
power networks
z Asynchronous (induction):
„ No exciter rotor is usually applicable in networks with other power
sources. In isolated networks, it must be connected to capacitors to
generate electricity.
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Generator output: Pg (kVA) = (9.8 x H x Q x η)/pf

Where
Pg: Capacity (kVA)
H : Net head (m)
Q: Rated discharge (m3/s)
η: Combined efficiency of turbine & generator etc (%)
pf: Power factor ( %)

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

3. Generator
„ Speed and Number of Generator Poles
- The rated rotational speed is specified according to the frequency
(50 or 60 Hz) of the power network and the number of poles by
the following formula:

For synchronous generators:


P (nos.) = 120 x f/N0 N0 (min-1) = 120 x f/P
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where, P : Number of poles


f : Frequency (Hz)
N0 : Rated rotational speed (min-1)

For induction generators:


N (min-1) = (1-S) x N0
where, N : Actual speed of induction generator (min-
1)
S : Slip (normally S= -0.02)
N0 : Rated rotational speed (min-1)
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19
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
„ Standard rated speeds and number of poles for synchronous
generators
No. of poles 50 Hz 60 Hz
4 1500 1800
6 1000 1200
8 750 900
10 600 720
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12 500 600
14 429 514
16 375 450
18 333 400
20 300 360
24 250 300

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

„ Comparative table of synchronous and induction generators

Parallel-in
Structure Operation
operation
• Excitation • Voltage • Synchronizer
circuit regulation • Less electro-
Synchronous • Relatively large • Reactive power mechanical
generators air gap adjustment impact at parallel-
(Usually lagging in
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power factor)

• No excitation • No voltage • No synchronizer


• High regulation • Inrush current
Induction maintainability • Leading power (Parallel-in around
generators • High rotational factor operation synchronous
speed • Only on-grid speed is
operation preferable.)

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20
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01) 4. Driving Facility (Speed Increaser)
To match the speed of the turbine and generator

– Gearbox type:
The turbine shaft and generator shaft are coupled with gears
with parallel shafts in one box with anti-friction bearings
according to the speed ratio between the turbine and generator.
The life is long but the cost is relatively high. (Efficiency: 95 –
97%, depending on the type)
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– Belt type:
The turbine shaft and generator shaft are coupled with pulleys
or flywheels and belts according to the speed ratio between the
turbine and generator. The cost is relatively low but the life is
short. (Efficiency: 95 – 98%, depending on the type of belt)

In the case of a micro hydro-power plant, a V-belt or flat belt type


coupling is usually adopted to save the cost because the gearbox
type transmitter is very expensive.
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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

5. Control Facility of Turbine and Generator


5.1 Speed Governor:
The speed governor is adopted to keep the turbine speed constant
because the speed fluctuates if there are changes in the load, water
head or flow.

(1) Mechanical/Electrical type:


Controls the turbine speed constantly by regulating the guide vanes /
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needle vanes according to load. There are two types of power


source:
• Pressure-oil type
• Motor type
Ancillary Equipment:
Servomotor, pressure pump and tank, sump tank,
piping or electric motor for gate operating mechanism

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21
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01) (2) Dummy load type: Customers of Electricity
Transformer
Generator output is always
constant at a micro hydro
Upper Dam
power station where a
dummy load governor is
applied to. In order to keep
the frequency constant, the
relationship “generator
output = customers load +
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Spillway
dummy load” is essential. Upper Reservoir
The dummy load is controlled
Power House
by an electronic load
controller (ELC) to meet the Dummy Load Governor

above equation. G-T

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)
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The capacity of dummy load is calculated as follows:

Pd (kW) = Pg (kVA) x pf (decimal) x SF


where,
Pd: Capacity of dummy load (Unity load: kW)
Pg: Rated output of generator (kVA)
pf: Rated power factor of generator
SF: Safety factor according to cooling method (1.2 – 1.4 times
generator output in kW) to avoid over-heating the heater
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22
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01) 5.2 Generator Exciter
In the case of a synchronous generator, an exciter is
necessary for supplying field current to the generator
and keeps the terminal voltage constant even though
the load fluctuates. The type of exciter is classified as
follows:

• DC exciter:
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A DC generator directory coupled with main shaft


supplies field current of the synchronous
generator. The generator terminal voltage is
regulated by adjusting the output voltage of DC
exciter. Maintenance on brushes, commutator is
necessary.

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

• AC exciter:
The excitation circuit
consists of an AC PT
exciter directly AVR
Pulse
Generator
CT
coupled to the main (Speed Detector)
Ex. Tr
generator, a rotary
rectifier and a
separately provided
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automatic voltage Rotating section


regulator with a DC100V
thyristor (AVR). (High AC
G
initial cost but low Ex

maintenance cost)

Brushless exciter

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23
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
• Static excitation:
Direct thyristor
excitation method. PT
Pulse
DC current for the AVR Generator
CT
field coil is supplied (Speed Detector)
through a slip ring Ex. Tr
from a thyristor
with an excitation
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transformer. (Low
Slip ring
initial cost but high
maintenance cost)
G

Static excitation

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

6. Switchgears
Single Line Diagram:
The typical single diagram for a 380/220V distribution line

Magnet
Contactor NFB Fuse
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A x3 To Custmer
x3
Lamp
V Indicator
Hz V
x3
Turbine
H
ELC
G (with Hz Relay) Dummy Load
Transmitter Generator
if required

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24
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Switchgear board including ELC

CB(MCCB)

ELC
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NFB

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

7. Control Panels

7.1 Control Methods:

• Supervisory control method is classified into continuous


supervisory, remote continuous control and occasional control.
• The operational control method is classified into manual control,
one-man control and fully automatic control.
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• The output control method is classified into dummy load governor


control for isolated grid, discharge control, water level control and
programmable control.

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Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
7.2 Instrumentation

• Pressure gauge for penstock


• Voltmeter with change-over switch for output voltage
• Voltmeter with change-over switch for output of dummy load
(ballast)
• Ammeter with change-over switch for ampere of generator output
• Frequency meter for rotational speed of generator
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• Hour meter for operating time


• kWh (kW hour) meter and kVh (kVar hour) meter, which are
required to summarize and check total energy generation at the
power plant

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

7.3 Protection of Plant and 380/220V Distribution Line

Considering the same reason for cost saving in instrumentation, the following
minimal protection is required for micro-hydro power plants in rural
electrification.
1. Over-speed of turbine and generator (detected by frequency)
2. Under-voltage
3. Over-voltage
4. Over-current by NFB (No Fuse Breaker) or MCCB (Molded Case Circuit
Breaker) for low-tension circuits.
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When an item 1, 2 or 3 is detected, the protective relay is activated and forces


the main circuit breaker trip. At that time, the unit shall be stopped to check
conditions.

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26
Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01) „ Exercise
There is a potential site with the following conditions:
Net head: 10 m
Discharge: 1 m3/s
Frequency: 50 Hz
Synchronous generator is required.

Q1: Which types of turbine are preferable for the site?


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Q2: How wide of the applicable range of specific speed on


a selected turbine?

Q3: How wide of the rotational speed range will be applicable for
the selected turbine when the turbine efficiency is 0.6?

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

„ Answer
There is a potential site with the following conditions:
Net head: 10 (m)
Discharge: 1 (m3/s)
Frequency: 50 (Hz)
Synchronous generator is required.

Q1: Which types of turbine are preferable for the site?


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A1: Cross Flow, Horizontal Propeller, and Horizontal


Francis
(Please refer to the selection chart.)

Q2: How wide of the applicable range of specific speed on


a selected turbine?
A2: If the horizontal propeller is selected, the range of Ns is
200 – 900 (m-kW).

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Design of E/M Equipment
1-Nov-05 (12:01)
Selection of turbine type

1000
(3,280)
(m, ft)
Horizontal Pelton
Vertical Francis
100
Effective Head

(328)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Cross Flow
10
(32.8)
Horizontal Francis

(3.28)
1 Horizontal Propeller
0.01
(0.3529) 0.1
(3.529) 1
(35.29) 10
(352.9) 100
(3,529)
3 3
Water Discharge (m /s, ft /s)

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Design of E/M Equipment


1-Nov-05 (12:01)

„ Answer
Q3: How wide of the rotational speed range will be applicable for
the selected turbine when the turbine efficiency is 0.6?
A3: The turbine output P is
P = 9.8 ηt Q H = 9.8 × 0.6 × 1 × 10 = 58.8 (kW)
so that the minimum and maximum rotational speeds are
calculated as follows:
Nmin = Nsmin × H5/4 / P1/2
= 200 × 105/4 / 58.81/2
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

= 463 (min-1)
Nmax = 900 × 105/4 / 58.81/2
= 2087 (min-1)
Considering the standard rated speed, the speed range from
500 to 1500 (min-1) is applicable for the direct coupled
generator.
In case that 500 (min-1) is selected as the turbine rated speed
considering turbine characteristics, a speed increaser is
preferable to apply because lower speed generators are costly.
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