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CONCLUSION-PREMISES-

2011
ARGUMENT

PREPARED BY RIAZ
AHEMAD
ahemadriaz@gmail.co
m
COMMON CONCLUSION
SIGNAL (SITA)

THEREFORE THUS
SUGGEST SO
AS A RESULT ACCORDINGLY
INDICATE IT FOLLOWS THAT
CONSEQUENTLY HENCE

CONCLUSION
IT IS SIGNALED BY STRONG TONE, OFTEN MARKED BY WORDS LIKE
SHOULD/proposed

IT IS SIGNALED BY STRONG TONE,


PREMISE
OFTEN MARKED BY WORDS LIKE

BECAUSE DUE TO
SINCE GIVEN THAT
ASS
UMP
TION

PREMISE
S

CONCLUSION
MOSTLY LAST
PART OOF

ASSUMPTION= UNSTATED PART OF THE ARGUMENT(hidden)

ASSUMPTION+ PREMISES=
CONCLUSION
Level each point in the list as either
PREMISES(P) OR CONCLUSION(C)
THE CONCLUSION:-

1) INTERNAL CONCLUSION

2) EXTERNAL CONCLUSION

PAST PAST PRESENT


SIMPLE PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE
ACTIVE HAS/HAVE/HAD IS/AM/ARE/WILL WILL/SHALL/WOULD/C
(PASSIVE) BE/SHALL OULD/SHOULD
BE/COUDLDBE/SHOUL /OUGHT TO/
D BE/WOULD BE
to talk Talked talking Talk
to hire Hired hiring Hire
to do Did Done doing Do
to say Said saying Say
to eat Ate Eaten eating Eat
to write Wrote Written writing Write
To beat Beat Beaten beating Beat
to sing Sang Sung singing Sing
to see Saw Seen seeing See

VAN:-VERB,ADJECTIVE,NOUN
VERB(ACTION WORD):-

HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB

SUBJECT(HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB) PREDICATE


HE DID MAKE IT POSSIBLE,

HE IS DOING

ADJECTIVE(CHARACTERISTIC)

HELPING VERB+ADJECTIVE
I AM OPTIMISTIC, SHE IS BEAUTIFUL.
HELPING VERB+ADJECTIVE+MAIN VERB
I WILL CERTAINLY INFORM YOU
OR
SUBJECT+(HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB) PREDICATE +ADJECTIVE.

I WILL INFORM YOU POSITIVELY OR PERFECTLY.

NOUN:-NAMING WORD

HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB+NOUN

PRESIDENT ADMINISTERED OATH TO MINISTERS.


SHE DID COMMIT MISTAKES.

ADMINISTERED-MAIN VERB

OATH-NOUN

ACTIVE VOICE:- I ATE MANGO (SUBJECT VERT OBJECT)


PASSIVE:- THE MANGO WAS EATEN BY ME. (OBJECT VERT SUBJECT)

ALWAYS ACTIVE VOICE:- QUESTION ARE IN ACTIVE VOICE, WHO DID


COMPLETE TASK?
ALWAYS PASSIVE VOICE:-IT’S ANSWER, THE TASK WAS COMPLETED BY ME.

IF I HAD money, THEN I WOULD HAVE GONE for higher studies Abroad.
IF+ PAST TENSE, THEN+WOULD+VERB

A
Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle
WILL/SHALL/WOULD/COULD/SHOULD HAS/HAVE/HAD
/OUGHT TO/

arise Arose Arisen


awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken
B
backslide Backslid backslidden / backslid
be was, were Been
bear Bore born / borne
beat Beat beaten / beat
become Became Become
begin Began Begun
bend Bent Bent
bet bet / betted [?] bet / betted [?]
bid (farewell) bid / bade Bidden
bid (offer amount) Bid Bid
bind Bound Bound
bite Bit Bitten
bleed Bled Bled
blow Blew Blown
break Broke Broken
breed Bred Bred
bring Brought Brought
broadcast broadcast / broadcast /
broadcasted broadcasted
browbeat browbeat browbeaten /
browbeat
build built Built
burn burned / burnt [?] burned / burnt [?]
burst burst Burst
bust busted / bust busted / bust
buy bought Bought
C
cast cast Cast
catch caught Caught
choose chose Chosen
cling clung Clung
clothe clothed / clad [?] clothed / clad [?]
come came Come
cost cost Cost
creep crept Crept
crossbreed crossbred Crossbred
cut cut Cut
D
daydream daydreamed / daydreamed /
daydreamt [?] daydreamt [?]
deal dealt Dealt
dig dug Dug
disprove disproved disproved / disproven
dive (jump head-first) dove / dived Dived
dive (scuba diving) dived / dove Dived
do did Done
draw drew Drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt dreamed / dreamt [?]
[?]
drink drank Drunk
drive drove Driven
dwell dwelt / dwelled [?] dwelt / dwelled [?]
E
eat ate Eaten
F
fall fell Fallen
feed fed Fed
feel felt Felt
fight fought Fought
find found Found
fit (tailor, change size) fitted / fit [?] fitted / fit [?]
fit (be right size) fit / fitted [?] fit / fitted [?]
flee fled Fled
fling flung Flung
fly flew Flown
forbid forbade Forbidden
forecast forecast Forecast
forego (also forgo) forewent Foregone
foresee foresaw Foreseen
foretell foretold Foretold
forget forgot forgotten / forgot [?]
forgive forgave Forgiven
forsake forsook Forsaken
freeze froze Frozen
frostbite frostbit Frostbitten
G
get got gotten / got [?]
give gave Given
go went Gone
grind ground Ground
grow grew Grown
H
hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed
handwrite handwrote Handwritten
hang hung Hung
have had Had
hear heard Heard
hew hewed hewn / hewed
hide hid Hidden
hit hit Hit
hold held Held
hurt hurt Hurt
I
inbreed inbred Inbred
inlay inlaid Inlaid
input input / inputted input / inputted
interbreed interbred Interbred
interweave interwove / interwoven /
interweaved interweaved
interwind interwound Interwound
J
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built
K
keep kept Kept
kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
know knew Known
L
lay laid Laid
lead led Led
lean leaned / leant [?] leaned / leant [?]
leap leaped / leapt [?] leaped / leapt [?]
learn learned / learnt [?] learned / learnt [?]
leave left Left
lend lent Lent
let let Let
lie lay Lain
lie (not tell truth) REGULAR lied Lied
light lit / lighted lit / lighted
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost Lost
M
make made Made
mean meant Meant
meet met Met
miscast miscast Miscast
misdeal misdealt Misdealt
misdo misdid Misdone
mishear misheard Misheard
mislay mislaid Mislaid
mislead misled Misled
mislearn mislearned / Misle
mislearnt [?]

Participles in Modern English


English verbs have two participles:

1. called variously the present, active, imperfect, or progressive participle, it is identical


in form to the gerund; the term present participle is sometimes used to include the
gerund. The term gerund-participle is also used.
2. called variously the past, passive, or perfect participle, it is usually identical to the
verb's preterite (past tense) form, though in irregular verbs the two usually differ.

Examples of participle formation include:

Past Past Present Regular/


Verb Simple Participle Participle Irregular
to talk talked talking
regular
to hire hired hiring
to do did done doing
to say said saying
to eat ate eaten eating
to write wrote written writing irregular
to beat beat beaten beating
to sing sang sung singing
to see saw seen seeing

The present participle in English is in the active voice and is used for:

• forming the progressive aspect: Jim was sleeping.


• modifying a noun as an adjective: Let sleeping dogs lie.
• modifying a verb or sentence in clauses: Broadly speaking, the project was
successful.

The present participle in English has the same form as the gerund, but the gerund acts as a
noun rather than a verb or a modifier. The word sleeping in Your job description does not
include sleeping is a gerund and not a present participle.

The past participle may be used in both active and passive voices:

• forming the perfect: The chicken has eaten.


• forming the passive voice: The chicken was eaten.
• modifying a noun, with active sense: our fallen comrades
• modifying a noun, with passive sense: the attached files
• modifying a verb or sentence, with passive sense: Seen from this perspective, the
problem presents no easy solution.

As noun-modifiers, participles usually precede the noun (like adjectives), but in many cases
they can or must follow it:

• The visiting dignitaries devoured the baked apples.


• Please bring all the documents required.
• The difficulties encountered were nearly insurmountable.

Verb forms
Verbs in English can take the various forms listed in (1)-(5).

Name Description Examples

(1) Bare Default form in present tense sentences. They play together.
I see.

Also appears in various nonfinite I want to play.


contexts, such as in to infinitive clauses, They need to see you.

after modals, They may play.


We will see.

and in connection with do support. They don't play lacrosse.


Do you see?

(2) -s Special form used in the present tense Lukas runs for miles.
to mark agreement with a third person The cat enjoys treats.
singular subject.

(3) -ing As present participle, combines with The cat is playing with the
auxiliary be to express various yarn.
aspectual nuances I was seeing her until a week
ago.

Also occurs on its own as the gerund. Playing with landmines is


dangerous.
We always enjoy seeing you.

(4) -ed (past Expresses past tense. The cat played with the yarn.
tense) We saw a deer.

(5) -en (past Combines with auxiliary be to form Baseball is played all over the
participle) passive forms. world.
She was last seen off
Mozambique.

Combines with auxiliary have to form They have never played


perfect forms. lacrosse.
I have seen it many times.

For all verbs, the -ing form is predictable from the bare form, being derived from it by the
affixation of -ing (play-ing, see-ing, hav-ing, be-ing). The -s form is similarly predictable for
most verbs, with major (be, is) or minor (have, has) exceptions.

The past tense and past participle forms are predictable from the bare form in some cases,
but not in others. With regular verbs, the past tense and past participle forms are
homonyms and are formed by affixing -ed to the bare form. Why bother distinguishing
between the two forms? That is, why not just post a single past form?

The reason is that the past tense and the past participle are distinct for irregular verbs
such as go, see, sing, or write (past tense went, saw, sang, wrote versus past participle gone,
seen, sung, written).
A verb's bare form, past tense, and past participle (in other words, exactly the forms that
aren't predictable in general) are known as its principal parts.

Finiteness of verbs

The verb forms just discussed are classified into two categories: finite and nonfinite. The
basic difference between the two categories in English is that finite verbs can function on
their own as the core of an independent sentence, whereas nonfinite verbs cannot. Rather,
nonfinite verbs must ordinarily combine with a modal, an auxiliary verb, or the infinitival
particle to.

A verb's -s form and past tense form are always finite, and the two participles (the -ing and
-en forms) are always nonfinite.

(6) a. Finite verb: ok She gives both of them a back rub.

b. ok She gave both of them a back rub.

(7) a. Nonfinite verb: ok She is giving both of them a back rub.

b. ok She has given both of them a back rub.

To complicate matters a bit, a verb's bare form can be either finite or nonfinite. Bare
forms that express the present tense are finite; otherwise, they are nonfinite. Examples are
given in (8) and (9).

(8) Finite verb: ok We give both of them a back rub.

(9) a. Nonfinite verb: ok We will give both of them a back rub.

b. ok We promised to give both of them a back rub.

VAN:-VERB,ADJECTIVE,NOUN
VERB(ACTION WORD):-

HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB

SUBJECT(HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB) PREDICATE

HE DID MAKE IT POSSIBLE,


HE IS DOING

ADJECTIVE(CHARACTERISTIC)

HELPING VERB+ADJECTIVE
I AM OPTIMISTIC, SHE IS BEAUTIFUL.

NOUN:-NAMING WORD

HELPING VERB+MAIN VERB+NOUN

PRESIDENT ADMINISTERED OATH TO MINISTERS.


SHE DID COMMIT MISTAKES.

ADMINISTERED-MAIN VERB

OATH-NOUN

COLLECTION BY :=

RIAZ AHEMAD, BPHARM, MBA