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H He

Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub

Cr Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md Mo Lr
Topic 1 : The Planet Earth, The Macroscopic World
The atmosphere
- A pure substance is a single substance that has nothing else mixed with it
- A mixture consists of two or more pure substances mixed together
- A compound is made of two or more elements chemically joined together
- A compound can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical methods
- An element cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical
methods
- Ionic compounds are made of metals and non-metals chemically joined together
- Covalent compounds are made of two or more non-metals chemically joined
together
- Macroscopic terms : Element, Compound, Mixture
Microscopic terms : Atom, Molecule, Ion

Ammonia Hydrogen, nitrogen Class cleaner, fertilizer


Calcium carbonate Calcium, carbon, oxygen Antacid
Sodium hydroxide Sodium, hydrogen, oxygen Drain clean
Sugar Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Flavouring
Water Hydrogen, oxygen Cooling, cleaning
Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
1%
Noble gases – 0.9%
Other gases
Carbon dioxide – 0.03 – 0.04%
Water vapour – varying amount
- Fractional distillation : make use of the difference in boiling points
Purification Remove dust, water vapour and carbon dioxide
Liquefaction of air Air(-200oC)  liquid
Fractional distillation of air [Fractionating column] N : -196 oC; O2 : -183 oC
- Physical properties : can be measured without changing the chemical
composition
- Chemical properties : describe its ability to form new substances
The ocean [Solute + solvent = solution]
A saturated solution is a solution that has dissolved all the solute it can, at given oC
Filtration Separating an insoluble solid from a liquid
The mud that remains on the filter paper is called the residue
The sea water that passes through the filter paper and collects in the
beaker is called the filtrate
Evaporation The change of a liquid to a vapour is called evaporation
Increases the concentration of the solution
Crystallization The process of forming crystals
Distillation Condensation : the change of a vapour to a liquid
The process of evaporating a liquid and condensing the vapour
The apparatus which cools the vapour into liquid is called a condenser
The pure water collected in the conical flask is called the distillate
Anti-bumping granules : ensure even boiling
Procedures of a flame test
1 – Clean a platinum wire with concentrated HCl
2 – Dip the wire into the salt powder or solution to be tested
3 – Heat in a non-luminous flame.
Observe the colour of the flame at the tip of the wire
Potassium Purple
Sodium Golden yellow
Calcium Brick-red
Copper Bluish-green
Test for chloride ions – silver nitrate test
Chloride ions in the silver nitrate solution give white precipitates
1 – Add excess dilute nitric acid
2 – Followed by adding silver nitrate solution
Test for water – water turns :
Blue anhydrous cobalt(II) chloride paper pink
White anhydrous copper(II) sulphate crystals into blue crystals
Electrolysis of sea water
Sea water  chlorine gas(+) + hydrogen gas(-) + sodium hydroxide solution
Products from electrolysis Uses
Hydrogen HCl, NH3, rocket fuel
Chlorine HCl, plastic(PVC), bleach
Sodium hydroxide Soaps, detergents, bleach
Rocks and minerals
The individual chemical compounds that make up rocks are called minerals
Rocks from which we obtain metals are called ores

Physical methods : metals exist as free element[e.g. gold, silver]


Heating the ore alone : [mercury] cinnabar
Heating the ore with carbon : blast furnace
Electrolysis of the molten ore : sodium, magnesium, aluminium

Limestone caves[geological feature] : primarily of the mineral calcite[CaCO3]

Calcium carbonate [heat] calcium oxide + carbon dioxide (CaCO3CaO + CO2)


Calcium oxide --- white powder --- quick lime

Calcium oxide + water  calcium hydroxide (CaO + H2OCa(OH)2)


Calcium hydroxide --- slaked lime --- [saturated solution]limewater

Carbon dioxide + calcium hydroxide  calcium carbonate + water


Calcium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water  calcium hydrogencarbonate
(CO2 + Ca(OH)2CaCO3 + H2O)/ (CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2)

Formation of chalk, limestone and marble

Weathering: solid rock broken down into smaller pieces and changed into other
materials
Erosion: the wearing away of surface materials and the movement of products of
wearing from where they formed to a different location

Water +carbon dioxide  carbonic acid


Calcium carbonate + carbonic acid  calcium hydrogencarbonate
Topic 1 : The Microscopic
M World
Atomic structure
Protons, neutrons and electrons are called subatomic particles

The number of protons and electrons in an atom are exactly equal


Atoms have no overall charge /// Atoms are electrically neutral
The identity of an element depends on the atomic number of the element
The properties of an element depend on the atomic number of the element
Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons

Isotopes are different atoms of an element which have the same number of protons
but different number of neutrons
The isotopes of an element have
hav
different masses and physical properties different mass number
same chemical properties same atomic number
chemists use a relative scale to compare the masses of atoms
Relative isotopic mass ≈ mass number of the isotope
The relative atomic mass of an element is the weighted average mass of all the
naturally occurring isotopes of that element on the 12C = 12.00 scale
Electronic arrangement ≡ Electronic configuration
≡ Electronic structure
2(n)2
Atomic Number of electrons Electronic
lectronic
Element st nd rd th
number 1 2 3 4 arrangement
01 Hydrogen 1 1
02 Helium 2 2
03 Lithium 2 1 2, 1
04 Beryllium 2 2 2, 2
05 Boron 2 3 2, 3
06 Carbon 2 4 2, 4
07 Nitrogen 2 5 2, 5
08 Oxygen 2 6 2, 6
09 Fluorine 2 7 2, 7
10 Neon 2 8 2, 8
11 Sodium 2 8 1 2, 8, 1
12 Magnesium 2 8 2 2, 8, 2
13 Aluminium 2 8 3 2, 8, 3
14 Silicon 2 8 4 2, 8, 4
15 Phosphorus 2 8 5 2, 8, 5
16 Sulphur 2 8 6 2, 8, 6
17 Chlorine 2 8 7 2, 8, 7
18 Argon 2 8 8 2, 8, 8
19 Potassium 2 8 8 1 2, 8, 8, 1
20 Calcium 2 8 8 2 2, 8, 8, 2

Transition elements (metals)


Periodic table
1. In periodic table, all the elements are arranged with increasing atomic number
2. Across a period in the periodic table, the elements change from metals through
metalloids to non-metals
3. Same number of outermost shell electrons = similar chemical properties
There is usually a gradual change in the properties of elements as we move down
Relatively low melting and boiling points
Soft and can be cut with a knife
Lithium, sodium and potassium float on water
Group I elements
Reactive metals, must be store in paraffin oil
alkali metals
React vigorously with water  H[g] + alkaline solution
React with non-metals  salts
Reactivity increases down the group
Relatively low melting and boiling points
Low densities
Group II elements
Reactive metals, readily with 2HCl  H[g]
Alkaline earth metals
React with non-metals  salts
Reactivity increases down the group
All poisonous and smelly
Group VII elements All non-metals
halogens React with metals  salts
Reactivity decreases down the group
All colourless gases at room temperature and pressure
Group 0 elements
All have very low melting and boiling points
noble gases
All very unreactive
Octet/ duplet
Chemical bonds
- When non-metals combine to form a covalent compound, their atoms combine
to form molecules. Force: covalent bond
- When a metal and a non-metal combine to form an ionic compound,
Force: ionic bond
- Most elements except noble gases react to form compounds because
their atoms are relatively unstable
- Noble gases are unreactive because they have either a completely-filled
outermost shell or eight electrons in their outermost shells
- Atoms can obtain the stable electronic arrangements of atoms of noble gases by
gaining or losing electrons
- A simple ion forms when an atom either loses or gains one or more electrons
- Atoms of metals tends to lose one or more electrons to form positive ions
(cations)
- Atoms of non-metals tends to gain one or more electrons to form negative ions
(anions)
- Ionic bond is the electrostatic attractive force between oppositely charged ions

Some polyatomic ions


Hydroxide Nitrate Carbonate Sulphate Ammonium
- - 2- 2-
OH NO3 CO3 SO4 NH4+
Names of some common positive ions [-ion]
With 1 positive charge With 2 positive charges With 3 positive charges
+ 2+
Li Lithium Mg Magnesium Al3+ Aluminium
+ 2+ 3+
Na Sodium Ca Calcium Fe Iron(lll)
+ 2+ 3+
K Potassium Zn Zinc Cr Chromium(lll)
+ 2+
Ag Silver Ba Barium
H+ Hydrogen Hg2+ Mercury
+ 2+
NH4 Ammonium Fe Iron(ll)
+ 2+
Cu Copper(l) Cu Copper(ll)
+ 2+
Hg Mercury(l) Pb Lead(ll)
2+
Co Cobalt(ll)
2+
Ni Nickel(ll)
2+
Mn Manganese(ll)
2+
Sn Tin(ll)
Names of some common negatives ions [-ion]
With 1 negative charge With 2 negative charges With 3 negative charges
- 2-
F Fluoride O Oxide N3- Nitride
- 2- 3-
I Iodide S Sulphide P Phosphite
H- Hydride SO32- Sulphite PO43- phosphate
- 2-
Br Bromide SO4 Sulphate
- 2-
Cl Chloride CrO4 Chromate
- 2-
CN Cyanide Cr2O7 Dichromate
- 2-
OH Hydroxide CO3 Carbonate
- 2-
NO2 Nitrite SiO3 Silicate
- 2-
NO3 Nitrate S2O3 Thiosulphate
-
ClO3 Chlorate
-
ClO Hypochlorite
-
HSO3 H-sulphite
-
HSO4 H-sulphate
-
HCO3 H-carbonate
-
MnO4 Permanganate
Colours of some ions in aqueous solutions
Ion Chemical formula Colour
2+
Iron(ll) Fe Pale green
3+
Iron(lll) Fe Yellow
2+
Copper(ll) Cu Blue or green
-
Permanganate MnO4 Purple
2-
Dichromate Cr2O7 Orange
3+
Chromium(lll) Cr Green
2+
Nickel(ll) Ni Green
2+
Manganese(ll) Mn Very pale pink
Chromate CrO42- Yellow
2+
Cobalt(ll) Co Pink
- Atoms of non-metal elements can join together to form groups called molecules

- A covalent bond is the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the


shared electrons and the two positively charged nuclei of the bonded atoms

 Hydrogen forms diatomic molecules. H2


 Since atoms of noble gases are stable, they do not form bonds and thus,
noble gases are made of monatomic molecules

- N can combine with F in more than one way,


way So we have to indicate the number
of F atoms in the formula.
NF3 nitrogen
n trifluoride N2F4 dinitrogen tetrafluoride
- If a metal can form more than one kinds of ions,
ions the charge on the ion should be
specified
- A dative covalent bond (or coordinate bond)) is a bond formed between two
atoms where both electrons of the shared pair are contributed by the same atom
- The electrons lost are free to move throughout the structure and are shared by
all atoms in the structure
- These free electrons are described as a ‘sea’ of electrons
- Metallic bond = attraction between +ve ions and delocalized electrons
- Relative molecular mass = formula mass = sum of relative atomic mass
Structure,
tructure, bonding and properties
- The structure of a substance is the way in which its particles are arranged
- The properties of a substance depend on its structure, which in turn depends on
its bonding
Giant ionic structure --- High m.p. /[ball-and-stick model]
Good conductor of electricity in molten state(熔融態)
state( 水溶液態)
or aqueous state(水溶液態
but not in solid state
Strong ionic bonds between oppositely charged ions hold the
ions together

simplest whole
number ratio of ions
present

The chemical formula of a substance made up of molecules is also called its


molecular formula.
The molecular formula of a substance gives the actual number of atoms of each
element in each molecule of the substance.
All ionic compounds are solids High
igh melting points and boiling points
Water: soluble Non-aqueous
aqueous solvents: insoluble
Conduct electricity when molten or in aqueous solution
Hardness strong ionic bonds between oppositely charged ions
Melt/Boil pt strong attractive forces between the ions
Solubility Many ionic compounds are soluble in polar solvent (e.g.water) but
insoluble in non-aqueous / non-polar solvents
[E]Conductivity molten state or aqueous solution
極性分子)
極性分子
polar molecules(極性分子
In a water molecule, the oxygen atom has a greater attraction for the bond pairs than
the hydrogen atoms.
Electrons are NOT equally shared
charge(δ−) on the oxygen atom and a partial
This produces a partial negative charge(δ
δ+) on the hydrogen atom
positive charge (δ

δ = ∆ = delta
aqueous solvents (e.g.CCl4) usually contain non-polar molecules.
Non-aqueous
Non-polar
polar molecules attract ions less strongly than polar molecules. Thus,
Non-polar
polar molecules are not strong enough to remove ions from the giant ionic
structure.
Therefore sodium chloride is insoluble in non-aqueous
non solvents.

A solute dissolves in water to give an aqueous solution


A solute dissolves in a non-aqueous
aqueous solvent to give a non-aqueous
aqueous solution
solution.
In solid state, the ions in the compound are held together by strong ionic bonds and
they are not free to move
The ions become mobile in molten state or aqueous solution

Ionic compounds are decomposed by electricity during conduction.


電解質
電解質).
i.e. ionic compounds undergo electrolysis. They are called electrolytes(電解質
Giant Covalent Structure[diamond,
Structure graphite, quartz]
Diamond is a form of carbon

四面體).
tetrahedron(四面體

a network of strong covalent bonds


Very
ery hard

no free electrons
does not conduct electricity
flat, parallel layers
six-membered
membered carbon rings
Strong covalent bonds(within layers)
very high melting point
weak van der Waals’ forces
(between layers)
easy to cleave, softness,
softness lubricating
One outer electron of each carbon atom is ‘free’.
free to move in the direction parallel to the layers the electrons are delocalized
belong to the whole structure a form of carbon

Graphite is the only non-metal


metal that conducts electricity and is used to make many
kinds of electrodes
Quartz is a form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
Si forms four single bonds rather than two double bonds with O
Hardness a network of covalent bonds --- very hard
Melting point strong covalent bonds between the atoms --- high
Solubility [electrically neutral
eutral] insoluble[water], non-aqueous solvents
Electrical conductivity no mobile electrons, all electrons are localized

most non-metals and covalent compounds have simple molecular structures except
diamond, graphite and quartz.

- The atoms within a molecule are strongly bonded together (by covalent bonds -).
- Each molecule is attracted to neighbouring molecules by
weak intermolecular forces only (----).
The structure of iodine (I – I)
Weak van der Waals’ forces hold the molecules together

The structure of dry ice O=C=O


Dry ice consists of separate carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules
Weak intermolecular forces (called van der Waals’ forces) always exist between
molecules
Weak van der Waals’ forces hold the molecules together

Properties of simple molecular substances


Simple molecular solids are soft
Solid substances with simple molecular structures are usually soft
Hardness
because the attractive forces between the molecules are weak
Have low melting points and boiling points
The attractive forces between the molecules are weak, so little
energy is needed to separate the molecules
Melting/boiling of a simple molecular structure involves the
M.P and B.P separation of molecules from one another but not the breaking of
molecules into atoms
Therefore substances with simple molecular structures have low
melting and boiling points
CO2 sublimes(昇華) at –78oC
Water : insoluble Non-aqueous solvents: soluble
usually slightly soluble or insoluble in water
The weak attractive forces between iodine and water molecules are
Solubility
not strong enough to overcome the strong attractive forces between
the water molecules
Non-conductors of electricity, whether as solids, liquids or in aqueous solution
they do not contain mobile electrons or ions
Electrical conductivity Does pure water conduct electricity?
No. Pure water contains neutral molecules
The iodine molecules
cannot mix with the
polar water molecules

Attractive forces
between non
non-polar
molecules are similar.

The stream of water is


not deflected to
either electrodes

Like dissolves like


Intermolecular forces = van der waals’ forces

In general, the larger the molecular size, the greater will be the van der Waals’ forces
between molecules
Molecular size : F2 < Cl2 < Br2 < I2 (down group 7)
Strength of van der Waals’ forces : F2 < Cl2 < Br2 < I2
Melting point : F2(g) < Cl2(g) < Br2(l) < I2(s)
Simple molecular substances may be gases, liquids or solids

giant metallic structure


Density high densities due to the close packing of their atoms
M.P Strong attractive force - high melting points
Electrical and heat good conductors of electricity
conductivity the movement of mobile electrons
Metals are good conductors of heat due to the
movement of mobile electrons in metals
展性)
展性 and
Malleability(展性 The ability to be deformed under compression
延性)
延性
ductility(延性 can be flattened to give a thin sheet by hammering
The ability to be deformed under tension
can be pulled into a long wire
Atoms in metals are packed in layers.
As a metal is struck by a hammer, the atom layers slide
through the ‘sea’ of electrons to new positions.
The metal does not break because the atoms are still
bound together by the ‘sea’ of electrons.
The free electrons can move into new positions to
maintain the structure

Some substances with simple molecular structures are soluble in water and
conduct electricity in aqueous solutions because
they react with water to give mobile ions.
NH3 + H2O → NH4+(aq) + OH−(aq)
HCl + H2O → H3O+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
SO2 + H2O → H+(aq) + HSO3−(aq)