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The questions were framed to cover most of the topics (not all) in the JNTUK curriculum subject
microprocessors and interfacing. Most of the questions appeared in old examination papers also. The marked
questions are frequently asked.
1. a) Draw the architectural diagram and explain the function of each block in detail.
b) What are the different r egisters in 8085 microprocessor? Discuss their function.
2. a) What are the addressing modes of 8085 microprocessor?
b) Explain the flag register of 8085.
3. a) Explain various interrupt of 8085 microprocessor and their functionality.
b) How is 8086 different from 8085?
4. Explain the architectural diagram of 8086. Explain the function of each block.
5. a) List the register set of 8086 microprocessor and explain the function of each one of them.
b) Draw and explain the flag register of 8086.
6. Explain in detail the various addressing modes of 8086 microprocessor with examples.
7. a) Explain the instruction format of MOV instruction.
b) Explain the instruction template of ADD instruction.
c) Explain the instruction template of IN and OUT instructions.
8. Explain different data transfer instructions of 8086 microprocessor.
9. Explain different arithmetic instructions of 8086.
10. Explain different bit manipulation instructions of 8086.
11. Explain various string instructions of 8086.
12. Explain various execution transfer instructions of 8086.
13. Explain various processor control instructions of 8086.
14. a) What are assembler directives? Why are they required?
b) Explain briefly various assembler directives of 8086.
15. a) Discuss briefly about prefetch queue of 8086. Explain when queue fail to speed up the ex ecution.
b) Explain briefly the concept of memory segmentation.
c) Discuss about multiplexing in 8086.
16. a) Explain the generation of physical address in BIU of 8086.
b) Register content of 8086 is given below
CS: 5000H, DS: 8000H, SS: 9000H, ES: 7000H, SI: 1000H, DI: 2000H, BP: 0008H
SP: 0002H, AX: 0000H, BX: 5200H, CX: 8000H, DX: 2800H
Calculate the effective and physical address of the following instructions.
a) MOV AX,[BP+BX-24D] b) ADD AX,ES:[SI]
g) ADD DX,[DI+8D] h) MUL AX,[SI+2D]
i) IMUL AX, [BP+BX-8D] j) SBB AL, ES:[SI+5D]
k) PUSH AX l) AND AH, [SI+42D]
m) CMPSB n) CMP DX, [SI]
o) XOR DH, [DI+8D] p) DIV AX, [SI+2]
17. a) Explain the importance of procedure in assembly programming of 8086.
b) Explain briefly about PUBLIC and EXTERN directives.
18. a) Explain the assembly program development process with a neat flow chart.
b) Explain the function of MACRO assembler directive.

1. a) How does a near CALL and RET instruction works.
b) Write a near procedure that cubes the content of CX register. The procedure may not affect any register
except CX r egister.
2. Write an algorithm assembly program to sort the numbers in an array in descending order using bubble sort
3. Write a recursive routine to evaluate the following polynomial
Y = A0 +A1 X1 +A2 X2 +A3 X3 +....+ANXN. The coefficients A0 , A1 , A2 ....AN are to be successive words in
memory and all parameter addresses are to be passed via the stack.
4. Give the instruction sequence that compares the first 10 bytes beginning at STRG1 with the first 10 bytes
beginning at STRG2 and branches to MATCH if they are equal, otherwise continue in sequence.
5. Write a assembly language program that will examine a string of 100 characters and replace digital digit by a
%. The character string starts at STR.
6. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to count number of positive and negative numbers from an array of 8 -bit integers.
b) Write an ALP in 8086 to exchange a block of N bytes between source and destination.
7. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to find the maximum number in an array of 10 numbers.
b) Write a recursive program to find the sum of first N integers.
8. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to find add two 16-bit BCD numbers.
b) Write an ALP to divide a 32-bit number with 16-bit number.
9. a) Write a sequence that will convert the integer in binary to four ASCII coded hexadecimal digit and put the
result in ASCII-STG.
b) Write a delay loop for the delay of 500 msec on an 8086 with 8Mhz clock.
10. a) Using loop instruction write a sequence to add two 16 digit 10’s complement packed BCD number. Repeat
for unpacked BCD numbers.
b) Explain with illustration conversion of an ASCII coded decimal number into its binary equivalent.
11. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to add two ten byte numbers available in array1 and array2 and store result in
b) Write an ALP in 8086 to find the average of two numbers.
12. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to find the LCM of two 16-bit unsigned numbers.
b) Write an ALP in 8086 to multiply a 16-bit unsigned number by an 8-bit unsigned number.
13. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to add 5 bytes of data in an array by making use of procedure.
b) Write an ALP in 8086 to count the number of 0’s in a 16-bit binary string.
14. a) Write an assembly language program in 8086 for the addition of a series of 8 -bit numbers.
b) Write an assembly language program to display the message “JNTU KAKINADA ” on the CRT screen of
15. a) Write an ALP in 8086 to move a string of data words from offset 2000h to offset 3000h and the length of
the string in 0Fh.
b) Develop a macro called ADD32 that add 32 bit content of DX, CX to 32bit content of BX, AX.
16. a) Write a program to check whether the given string is a palindrome or not.
b) Develop a assembly language program to multiply two BCD numbers of two digits each.
17. a) Develop a PUBLIC procedure to conver t 4-digit hex to BCD and return the value.
b) Develop a near procedure to find the GCD of two numbers of 2 digit hex. Use this procedure to find GCD of
three numbers.
18. Develop an assembly language program in 8086 that read a key from the keyboard and convert to uppercase
before displaying it. The program n eeds to terminate on 'ctrl+c' key combination.
19. a) Write a recursive program to find the factorial of a given number.
b) Write a convert a given packed BCD number into its ASCII equivalent.

1. Draw the functional pin diagram of 8086 microprocessor and explain the pins.
2. Explain the architecture of 8086 in minimum and maximum mode with their relevant pins.
3. With neat circuit and timing diagram explain the minimum mode operation of 8086.
4. With neat circuit and timing diagram explain the maximum mode operation of 8086.
5. Explain briefly the functioning of EPROM, SRAM with their cell structure.
6. Explain how EPROM is interfaced to 8086. Give the relevant interface diagram and signals for interfacing of
7. Explain how SRAM is interfaced to 8086. Give the releva nt interface diagram and signals for interfacing of
8. Explain the difference between Static RAM and Dynamic RAM.
9. In an SDK-86 kit 64KB SRAM and 32KB EPROM is provided on system and provision for expansion of another
64KB SRAM is given. The on system SR AM address map is from 00000H to 0FFFFH and that of EPROM is from
F8000H to FFFFFH. The expansion slot address map is from 80000H to 8FFFFH. The size of SRAM chip is 32KB.
EPROM chip size is 16KB. Give the complete memory interface and also the address map for individual chips.
10. Draw a block diagram to interface two 16K X 8 SRAM (62128) to the 16 -bit data bus of 8086 based system.
Design the address decoder for the address range from 00000H - 07FFFH for both the SRAMs.
11. It is necessary to interface 512KB SRAM and 128KB EPROM to an 8086 based system. The size of SRAM and
EPROM chips is 64KB. Address of SRAM starts from 00000H and that of EPROM is from E0000H. Design the
entire memory interface? Give the address map of individual chip.
12. Design a memory interface in an 8088 based system with 64KB SRAM and 16KB EPROM. The SRAM starts at
00000H address and EPROM ends at FFFFFH. All the memory chips are of size 16KB. Use 74LS138 decoder.
13. Explain the need of DMA. Briefly explain the DMA transfer method.
14. With a neat block diagram explain the working of 8257 DMA controller.
15. Explain the interfacing of 8257 with 8086 using a circuit diagram.
16. With a neat block diagram explain the working of 8237 DMA controller.
17. Explain the interfacing of 8237 with 8086 using a circuit diagra m.
18. Interface DMA controller 8257 with 8086 so that the channel 0 DMA address register has an I/O address 80H
and the mode set register has an address 88H. Initialize the 8257 with normal priority, TC stop and non -
extended write. autoload is not required. The transfer is to take place using channel 0.write an ALP to move
2KB of data from a peripheral device to memory address 2000:5000H with the above initialization.

1. With a neat block diagram explain the architecture and features of 8255.
2. Explain in detail the various modes of 8255.
3. Explain the function of mode set control word and BSR control word of 8255.
4. Explain the input and output status words of 8255 in mode1.show the interfacing of 8255 with 8086 in
5. Explain the operation of 8255 in mode2 with example. Draw the circuit for interfacing 8255 with 8086 in
6. Interface an 8255 with 8086 to work as an I/O port. Initialize port A as output port, port B as input port and
port C as output port. Port A address should be 0740H.Write a program to sense switch positions SW0 –SW7
connected at port B. The sensed pattern is to be displayed in port A, to which 8 LEDs are connected, which
the port C lower displays number of on switches out of the total eight switches.
7. Explain the functioning of scanning, debounce, decoding of a key on 4*4 keyboard.
8. Interface a 4*4 keyboard with 8086 using 8255 and write an ALP for detecting a key closure and return the
key code in AL. The debouncing period for a key in 10ms. Use software key bouncing technique.
9. Explain the interfacing of a stepper motor with 8086 using the ports of 8255?
10. Write an algorithm for driving a stepper motor. Assume that the desired direction stored in BL and the
number of steps is stored in CL. Write a delay routine for 1 millisecond after ea ch step movement.
11. Explain the interfacing of a 7-segment display with the 8086 using 8255.
12. Explain the DAC interface to 8086 using neat diagram.
13. Explain the ADC interface to 8086 using neat diagram.
14. Interface ADC 0808 with 8086 using 8255 ports. Use port A of 8255 for transferring digital data output of ADC
to the CPU and port C for control signals. Assume that an analog input is present at I/P2 of the ADC and a
clock input of suitable frequency in available for ADC. Draw the schematic and write required ALP.
15. Interface DAC AD7532 with an 8086 CPU resuming at 8MHz and write an assembly language program to
generate a saw tooth waveform of period 1ms with Vmax 5V.
16. Write an ALP in 8086 to generate a symmetrical square waveform with 1KHz frequency? Give the nec es sary
circuit setup with a DAC?
17. Explain the architecture and functioning of keyboard display interface 8279 using a block diagram.
1. What is interrupt service routine? Explain briefly the interrupt structure of 8086 using interrupt vector table.
2. Explain the software and hardware interrupts of 8086. Explain the interrupt sequence in 8086
3. Explain the stack with its importance in single and nested interrupt in 8086. How can I enable 8086 to
operate in single or nested interrupt?
4. Explain the INTEL predefined interrupts of 8086.
5. Explain briefly the various DOS and BIOS interrupts.
6. Explain the architecture of programmable interrupt controller 8259 using a block diagram.
7. Explain why interrupt priorities are needed and how 8259 provide interrupt priority.
8. Explain the (ICW’s) initialization command words and (OCW’s) operational command words of 8259.
9. Explain various modes of 8259.
10. Explain the importance of cascade operation of 8259. How master and slave 8259 work differently in cascade
system of PIC. Give the modes defined for cascade system in 8259.
11. Give the interface circuit between 8259 and 8086 microprocessor.
12. Write an initialization sequence for an 8259 in an 8086 based system, with an even address of 0A0H that will
i. Request to the edge trigger ed mode
ii. IR0 request to an interrupt type 30
iii. SP/EN to output a disable signal to the data bus transceivers.
iv. The ISR bits to be cleared automatically at the end of second INTA pulse.
v. The IMR to be cleared.
vi. The highest priority i nterrupt will be IR6.
1. Explain the synchronous and asynchronous serial data transfer schemes with examples.
2. Explain the working of USART 8251 with a neat architectural block diagram.
3. With a neat circuit diagram explain the interfacing of 8251 with 8086 microprocessor.
4. Explain briefly mode word, command word, status word of USART 8251.
5. Design a hardware interfacing circuit for interfacing 8251 with 8086. Set the 8251A in asynchronous mode as
a transmitter and receiver with even parity enabled, 2 stop bits, 8-bit character length, fr equency 160 KHz
and baud rate 10K. Write an ALP to transmit 100 bytes of data string starting at location 2000:5000H.
6. Write an 8086 instruction sequence for receiving 50 characters using 8251 and store them in memory at
location 2080H.
7. Explain the RS232C serial communication standard and its specifications.
8. Explain the conversion between RS232C and TTL standard.
1. Explain the salient features of 80286.
2. Explain the real and protected mode segmentation in 80286.
3. Explain the protected virtual address mode in 80286.
4. What are descriptors? Explain local and global descriptor table and their importance in protection in 80286.
5. Explain the conversion of linear address to physical address in 80286.
6. Explain the salient features of 80386.
7. Explain the paging and segmentation of virtual memory in 80386.
8. Explain the real and protected mode operation in 80386.
9. What are the salient features of Pentium?
10. What is difference between CISC and RISC processor? Explain the Architecture of any RISC processor.
1. What is a microcontroller? What are the differences between microcontroller and microprocessor?
2. Explain with a block diagram the architecture and functioning of 8051 microcontroller.
3. Explain the memory and register structure of 8051 micr ocontroller.
4. Explain the addressing modes of 8051.
5. What are the special function registers of 8051, explain them briefly.
6. Explain the various timer modes in 8051. What is the importance of SFR’S TCO N and TMOD in timer
7. Explain in detail the serial port communication in 8051 with SCON, SBUF special function registers.
8. Explain the interrupt structure of 8051 microcontroller.
9. Explain the internal and external program memory as well as data memory of 8051 with the diagram showing
their capacities.
10. Draw the diagram to Interface Program memory of 16K x 8 EPROM to 8051and give its memory map. The
address of memory map should start from 0000H.
11. Interface Data memory of 16K x 8 SRAM to 8051 and give memory map. The Starting address of SRAM should
be 0000H.
12. Discuss in detail about parallel I/O ports in 8051 microcontroller. Also explain how these ports are accessible
for specific applications.