JOURNAL OK THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.

Art. I.?Bactrian Coins and Indian
F.R.S.

Bates.

By E. Thomas,

Esq.,

A

Greek

to the complicated reference on the earlier Bactrian coins monograms stamped some of their less involved to me an explanation of suggested ago, that letter dates, which the Bactrian

short

time

a casual

combinations by the test of simple Greek was followed by the curious discovery were in the habit of recognizing kings curtailed dates

and employing to the optional for of the figure omission custom hundreds, which seems to have been the immemorial in many parts of India. for this con chief authority My clusion was derived from a chance passage in Albiruni,1

whose

has since been statement, however, independently the interpretation of an inscription of the supported by ninth a.d. from Kashmir,2 illustrates the which century provincial use of a cycle of one hundred years, and has now

1 in India in 1031 a.d., tells us, " Lo vulgairc, duns l'lnde, Albin'mi, writing l'un apres 1*autre. On appclle tela comptc par sieclcs, et Its sieclcs kc placent lc Samvatsuru du cent. Quand un cent est ccotile, on lc laisse ct Ton en com mence >un autre. On appelle cela Loka-k&lu, e'est-a-dire comput du peuple." ?Reiuaud's Translation, Paris, 1845, p. 145. Fragments Arabes, 2 This second inscription ends with the words Saka Kuhigotavdoh 720?that " to a.d. 804, which is therefore the $aka Ktla years elapsed 72G," equivalent is, dato of the temple. This date also corresponds with tho year 80 of the local is the Loka-kdla or of Kashmfr eyile, which cycle of 2,700 years, counted by centuries named after Die twenty-seven or lunar mansions. The nakshatras, 100 years, and as each century begins in therefore, never goes beyond reckoning, the 25th year of the Christian the 80th year of the local cycle is century, to the 4th year of the Christian A. Cunningham, equivalent century.?General Archfcological Report, 1875, vol. v. p. 181. vol. ix.?[new series.] 1

2

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. obtained by Dr. era and the cor of "the hundreds that conservative

confirmed by information been definitively as to the origin of the Kashmiri Biihlerl roboration of the practice of the omission in stating dates" still prevailing in

kingdom.2 to interpret the mint Since Bayer's premature attempt as 108,3 Numismatists i-p,on a pieco of Eucratides, monogram have not lost sight of the possible discrimination of dates as to the preferential so abundant on the mint-marks opposed surfaces been functions.4
1 " Dr. Biihler has found out tho key to tho Kashmirean era: it begins in tho are said to have gone 25, or 307C n.c, when the Saptarshis year of the Knliyug to heaven. The Kashmir often omit the hundreds in stating dates. Thus pcoplo tho year 24 (Kashmir era) in which Kalhana wrote his and which lt&jatarangini, with ?aka stands for A,221."?A Nov. 1070, corresponded 20, 1875, tlieuamm, p. 675. 2 Since this was General Cunningham's letter of tho 30th March, written, 1870, has appeared in the Athenecum (April 2i)th, 1876), from tho text of which seem to establish I extract the following These the fact that the passages. omission of the liuudrcds was a common and well-understood rule so optional " The in which the figures occur passage early as about the age of Asoka. runs as follows in tho Snhasarilm text:? iyam cha savane vivntheiia dutcsa 252. satavivuthati pannalati The corresponding passage in the Rtipnath text is somewhat different :?

of these

adverse

issues, though to the possibility

the general impression has of their fulfilling any such

ahale sava vivasetavaya afci vyathena s&vano katesu 52 satavivasata. of the Baivat text is lost. My reason for corresponding portion looking upon these figures as expressing a date is that they aro preceded in the Uftpnath text by the word katesu, which I take to bo tho equivulcnt of the Sanskrit krunte$hu = {*o many years) 'having elapsed.'" I do not stop to follow General Cunuingham's arguments with regard to the value of the figures which he interprets as 262. The sign for 60, in its horizontal form, has hitherto been received us 80, but that the same symbol came, sooner or is sullic.ioiitly shown by 60, when placed perpendicularly, later, to represent of our Journal. Prof. Kggeling's I should, how Plate, p. 52, in Vol. VIII. to tho rendering of tho unit as 2, which, to judgo ever, take great exception by m tho same number of the Athnueum, Mr. Baylcy's Gen. Cunningham letter, had at first rightly concurred in reading as 6. and Dr. Biihler 3 Hint, St. Petersburg, lieg. Grtccorum Baetn'ani, 1738, p. 92: "Numus Eucratidis, quern postea copiosius explicabo, annum 108. habet, sine dubio cpochao annus ex nostris rationibus a.v.c. 606. Scptembri mcuso iniit. Bactrianae, qui nunio victoriae ejus Indicac celebrantur, Igituv cum hoc in quibus ut Justinus Sec also pp. 38, 66, 134. Indiam w polestatem redtgit." ait, * II. II. Ariana General A. Cunningham, Wilson, pp. 235, 238. Antiqua, vol. viii. o.s. p. 176; and vol. viii. N.8. 1868, p. 183 ; Numismatic Chronicle, vol. ix. n.s. 1869, p. 230. The

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. In

3

" 1858 I published, in my edition of Prinsep's Assays on Indian Antiquities," a notice of the detached letters OT as on a coin of Eucratides occurring (No. 3, p. 184, vol. ii.), as found on the money of Heliocles and nr (No. 1, p. 182), which letters, in their simple form, would severally represent the .figures 73 and 83; but the difficulty obtruded itself that these numbers were too low to afford any satisfactory eluci dation of the question involved in their application as dynastic
dates.

the later acquisitions of Bactrian coins in the Among British Museum is a piece of Heliocles the full tri bearing or literal date, after the manner of the Syrian mints, of PilP 183, which, when tested by the Seleucidan era (i.e. 311?183), the convenient date of n.c. 128, reign under us to use the coincident abbreviated figures, under authorizing era? the samo terms, as OF =73 for 173 of the Seleucidan n.c. 138 for Eucratides, and the repeated Iir = 83 for 183 a date which is further Seleucidan=n.c. 128, for Heliocles,1 tho appearance of the cxccjitionally combined supported by = B.C. 130 on his other open monogram JA1 {HA), or 81 for 181 brings his
pieces.

Tho last fully-dated piece, in the Bactrian series, is the unique example of the money of Plato (bearing the figured letter date PMZ=z 147 of the Seleucidoo, or b.c. 165). We have two on the coins of Apollodotus; doubtful dates B=60 and UE=65, but if these letters were intended for dates, they will scarcely the Seleucidan scheme. Menander dates his coins in regnal years. I can trace extant examples from 1 to 8. But this practice by no means necessitates the disuse of the era in ordinary reckonings, still less its abandon Seleucidan ment in State documents where more formal precision was
1 General of the date nr = 83 as found on the Cunningham was cognizant he associated with the year n.c. coins ot Heliocles, which the 164, under that he had detected the true initial date of the Bactrian era, which assumption " as he hud settled to his own satisfaction, in n.c. 24G."?Num. Chron. beginning n.r. vol. viii. 1808, p. 200; ns. vol. ix. 18G9, pp. 35, 230. See also Mr. Vaux's note, N.C. 1876, vol. xv. p. 3.

fit-in with

4 required. scription

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. is a rough Subjoined of the coin of Plato.1 Silver. Size 1*2. facsimile and technical de

WL

258 grains.

Obv. Head of king to the right, with
peculiar of Eucratides. car and horn of

helmet

ornamented with
on the

the
coins

a bull,

so marked

lie v. Apollo driving
Prinsep's Legend. Date BA2IAEH2 at foot, pmz=147

the horses

of the Sun.

Monogram No. 46a,

Essays. Eni*ANOT2 Selucidso nAATnNO_2. n.c.

(or

165).

tho near identity of the My first impression on noticing of Numismatic the standard obverse head with portraits of the date with that and the coincidence Eucratides, as the year of the decease assumed, by our latest authority,2 of that monarch, was that Plato must have succeeded him ; of the dates, above given, but the advanced interpretation out of court, and altogether puts any such assignment a critical of all previous reconstruction necessitates specu succession. lative epochal or serial lists of the Bactrian In the present Chabylians3 instance by Eucratides the adoption of tho helmet of the and Plato may merely imply that

1The woodcut for Mr. Vaux's article ou here given was prepared original vol. xv. p. 1. in the Numismatic this uuiquo coin of Plato, Chronicle, 2 Gen. o.s. 1843,p. 175. 175,and vol.ix. n.s. 1809,p. Cuuningluun, N.C. vol. viii. 3 " The of raw hides, and each bad two had small shields made Chabylians Brazen helmets their heads, aud protected javelins used lor hunting wolves. in brass. above these they wore the cars and horns of an ox fashioned They vii. 76; Rawlinson, vol. iv. had also crests on their helms." ? Herodotus Auab. v. p. 72; Xenophon

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

5

with that tribe, or at some time they both claimed kindred Plato may, in their national contingent?and held command have introduced the device, in the with equal possibility, first instance, as have copied the more abundant obverses of On the other from the coins of Eucratides. similar character of the helmet may indicate an absolute hand, the identity borrowing eccentric The singular and of a ready prepared device. Mint dies has from the of Bactrian combination a dilliculty to modern and a danger inter first constituted

I have for long past looked suspiciously upon the preters. too facile adaptations of otherwise conscientious mint masters, reasons of their own, the available loading them to utilize, for die-devices in stock for purposes foreign to the original intent under which instance, Plato available tho they in the present However, of the single coin of preservation imperfect does not permit of our pronouncing with any executed. were

certainty upon the identity of the features with those of the profile of Eucratides. In addition to the value To revert to our leading subject. of the data quoted above as fixing definitively, though within the epochs of three prominent limits, anticipated fairly use of the system of their conventional Bactrian kings, to the assimilation of abbreviated definitions points, directly, to which the Greeks so readily lent themselves, local customs, in adopting the method Kala, which simplified do now, in the civilized for 187G. era eastwards, and its of the Seleucidan of definition within its own of Indian methods amalgamation of how long this leads further to the consideration mechanism, in Upper its ground exotic era maintained India, and how records of it exerted upon the chronological much influence I have always been under the im succeeding dynasties. was more wide-spread and abiding pression that this influence than my fellow-antiquaries have been ready to admit,1 but The extension
1 Journal Asiatic Royal 1855, p. 565, and Bengal, 1863, p. 388. Asiatique, Vol. XII. p. 41; Journal Asiatic Society, 1872, p. 175 ; Prinsep's Essays, vol. ii. p. 86; Society Journal

of reckoning by the Indian Loka of dates, even as we the expression our Lord, when we write 7G year of

(j I

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

am now prepared to carry my into broader inferences "Kanishka" channels, and to suggest that the Indo-Scythian of kings continued to use the Seleucidan era, even as group retained the minor sub-divisions of the Greek months, they which formed an essential part of its system: and under this to propose that we should treat tho entire circle of dates view " " of the Ilushka, Jushka, and Kanishka family, mentioned in the R&ja Tarangini, which their inscriptions expand from ix. to xeviii., as pertaining to the fourth century of the Seleucidan era, an arrangement which will bring them into concert with our Christian reckoning from 2 b.c. to 87 a.d. A scheme which would, moreover, for their full provide " " of power up to the crucial Saka date of 78-79 possession continuance of a con a.d., and allow for the subsequent of sway outside range of Indian cognizance. There are further considerations siderable breadth conclusion purposes, Parthians that the Kanerki the which limited geographical

culture of the earth.

Scythians the Seleucidan era; they may and other Nomads, to have till conquest made them masters

add weight to the for public adopted, be supposed, like the achieved of civilized but scant sections

In the present instance, these new invaders are seen to have or ignored rejected the Semitic-Bactrian writing employed by horde in parallel concert with the Kadphises the traditional on the to have relied exclusive^ official later records 1 till the language at the members domestication of of the family, led to an exceptional use of the Devanagari Mathura, alphabet, on the ooins of in subordination to the dominant Greek, In no case do we find them recognizing the Vasudeva. monumental Greek Greek, and in their some of Semitic type of character, though the inscriptions quoted

1Prof. Wilson's 35 years ago, and Plates, in his Ariana Antiqua, arranged of the will suflieo to place this con altogether independently present argument, trast before the reader. The Kadphises group extend from figs. 5 to 21 of plate x. The Kanerki All thoso coins are bilingual, Greek and Semitic-Bactrian. series commence with No. but Greek 15, plate xi., having nothing legends, either on the obverse or on the reverse, and follow on continuously through plates xii. xiii. and xiv. down to lig. 11. After that, the Greok characters become more or less chaotic, till we reach No. 19.

BACTRIAN COINS ANI) INDIAN DATES.

7

below will show how largely that alphabet had spread in some portions of their dominion. But beyond this, their or perhaps that of their successors, to Greek, adherence, continues mechanically till its characters merge into utter on the later incoherence All of these indications mintages.1 as far as the Court lead to the inference that, influences were concerned, the tendency to rely upon Greek speech would have it what carried with remained in situ of the manners and customs of their Western instructors.2 or varieties two groups of Indo-Scythian In of the Kanishka The one in the Indian scriptions family. all of which are located at Mathura. proper or Lat alphabet, The published Mathura of this group (exclud inscriptions There ing the two quotations placed within brackets) number 20 in as a rule are all; they merely records of votive offerings on the " of and contain only casual references part pious founders," to the ruling powers. Twelve of these make no mention of any monarch, though the other dedicatory
1 Ariana Antiqua, 2 Tho cirenuiHlaiices pi.

are

they

with clearly contemporaneous the whole inscriptions. Throughout

are

12, 13, 14, 16, 17. > an: ol so upon the buttle of Karor (or J*^) much importance in tho history of tbis epoch, that I account reproduce Albiruni's " of that event: On emploio ordinaircment los ores de Sri-IIarcha, dc Vikrama do Saka, . . . L'cre et des Gouptas. de Ballaba, de Vikrama ditya, dans les provinces me'ridionales et occidentals . . de ITude. ditya est employee * L'ere dc Saka, nominee par les Indiens est postericurc ii cello de Saka-kala,' ans. de 135 $aka est le nom d'un prince qui a rtfgne sur les Vikramfiditya contrees siluevs entre V Indus et la mer. Sa residence etait placcc an centre de 1 einpiie, la contr6e dans nominee Les Indiens lc font naitrc Aryavartha. dans une elasso autre quo cello dos Sakya; quelques-uns pretomlont qu'il etait Soudru ct oiiginairc de la villc de Mansoura; en a memo il y qui disent qu'il n'ctuit pus do race indienne, et c|u'il tirait son origine des regions occidentals. Les peuples eurent beaucoup u soutfrir de son ce qu'il leur despotismc, jusqu'a viut du secours de l'Oricnt. marcha contrc hu, mit son arnitfe en Vikramaditya dcroutc, et lo tua sur lc tcrritoiro dc Korour, situc entre Moultnn et le chateau de Louny. Cette a cause de la eelebrc, 6po?uo devint joie que les peuples resscntirent de la morfc ao Saka, et on la choisit pour ere clicz les principalemcnt astronomes."?lteinaud's translation. General has attempted to identify the site of Karor with a Ounningham "60 miles S.K. of Multun and 20 miles N.E. of Bahfiwalpilr,'* position " " the " castle of Loni into making Ludhnn, an ancient town situated near the old bed of the 44 miles E.N.E. of Kahror and 70 miles E.S.E. of Sutlej river, Multun."?Ancient Geography of India (Triibner, 1871), p. 241. These assign shaken by the fact that Albiruni ments, are, however, himself seriously invariably theso two sites fur north of Multun, i.e. according to his latitudes anu places Multun is 91??29u 30' N., while Kador, as he writes longitudes, it, is 92??31? N., and Loni (variant Loi) is 32? N.-?Sprenger's Maps, No. 12, etc. bearing

xiv. Nos.

8

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

series of twenty records the dates are confined to numbers below one hundred: they approach and nearly touch the end of a given century, in the 90 and 98; but do not reach or surpass the crucial hundred discarded in the local cycle. The two inscriptions, Nos. 22, 23, from the same locality, of Samvat the Indian month 135 with severally, and Samvat 281, clearly belong to a different age, Panshya, and vary from their associates in dedicatory phraseology, dated, forms General of letters, and many readily Cunningham minor characteristics, discriminated.1 which

Indo-Scythian In f the Indo-Tdli

Insciuttiqns.

Alphabet. Samvat 28.] 33.]2 Huvishka. Devaputua S. 39. Hemanta, Huvishka. Grishma, 9.

Kanishka.

Mahdrdja [Kanishka.

Kanishka. Samvat Samvat Devaputua Rajatikaja

[ITuvishka. -jj IIuvishka. Mahdrdja ? Mahdrdja ^ ^ Vasudeva.

5.47.' I ITuvishka. | Mahdrdja Mahdrdja Rdjdtirdja Vdsudeva. Mahdrdja Mahdrdja Raja

Hemanta, Devaputua Grishma,

S. 48. Vtisu(deva). S. 83. Varsha, S. 44.

Vdsudeva. Shahi, Rdjatirdja, Vdsudeva. Varsha, S. 98.4

Hemanta,

S: 87.

1 Arch. vol. iii. p. 38. 2 These Rep. dates nrc two from Gen. Cunningham's letter to the Athcnaum quoted ns of 20 April, been lately discovered by Mr. Growsc, B.C.S. 3 The 47th 1876, of having the Monastery of Huvishka. year 4 I was at first in their disposed to infer that the uso of the Indian months of the primitive full development indicated a period subsequent to the employment three seasons, but I find from theWestern lately published by Prof. Inscriptions, n While that they were clearly in contemporaneous Bhandarkar, acceptance Hiouen Thsang suggests that the retention of the normal terms was passage in in n measuro typical of Buddhist belief, and so that, in another boiiso, the mouths had a confessed" conventional significance. " uno unneo so compose Suivant la sainre doctrine do Jou-lai (du Tnthngntn). 15 du cinquiemo mois, de trois saisons. le 10 du premier mois, jusqit'au Depuis 15 du e'est la saison chnuao. le 16 du einquiemc mois, jusqu'nu Depuis le 16 do ncuvidmo ncuvieme mois, e'est la saison pluvicuse (Varch&s). Depuis on 15 du premier mois, e'est la saison froide. mois, jusqu'nu Quclqucfois et en quatre snisons, divise le printemps, l'annee snvoir: l*6t6, Pantonine is iuto three seasons 1'hiver."?Hiouen The division Thsnng, vol. ii. p. 63. ?o> - Vedic.?Muir, vol. i. p. 13; Elliot, Glossary, vol. ii. 47. distinctly p. are two summers in the year and two harvests, while the winter "There intervenes between vi. 21; Diod. Sic. I. c. i. them."?Pliny

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. parallel series consecutive or Aryan Bactrian direct alphabet.
Indo-Scytiiian In the Bactrian-Tali Rajadiraja Inscriptions. Alphabet. Kanishka. of Daesius.

9 in less in the

The

are more association, adaptation

scattered, and crop up these are indorsed of the Ancient

Phoenician

liahawalpur.

Maharaja

Devaputra

Samvat ManikyCila Tope. Maharaja

11, on the 28th

Kaneshka,

of the (Greek) month vaea samvardhaka. Gushana of the Gushans"

"Increascr Samvat Wardak Vase. Maharaja 18.

of the dominion

(Kushans).

rajatiraja

lltweshka.

Samvat51,16th

of Artcmisius.!

1 Besides these inscriptions, there is a record of the name of Kanishka as Raja Gandharya, ou "a from Zeda, designated rough block of quartz," near Ohind, now in the Lfihorc Museum. This in verv legend is embodied small Bactrian letters, and is preceded by a single line in large characters,, which = as follows: San 10 reads 1 ( 11) Ashadasa masasa di 20, Udtyana 1. + gu. Isachhu nami.'* I do not quote or adopt this dato, ns the two in definitively mo to be of different to periods, and vary in a marked degree scriptions appear in the forms as well as in tho size of their J.A.S.B. letters.?Lowcnthal, 1863, Gen. Cunningham, Arch. Report, vol. v. p. 57. p. 5; In addition to the abovo Bactrian Pfdi wc have a record from " Inscriptions, in " tho 78th year of tho great Taxila, by tho Satrap Liako Kusuluko," king, on the 5th the Great Moga, of the month Paiucmus " xx. o.s. day (J.R.A.S. J.A.S.B. And an inscription from Takht-i-Bahi of the Indo 1862,ij.40). p. 227; Parthian well known to us from his coius king Gondopiiarcs, (Ariana Antiqua, vol. ii. p. p. 340, Prinsep's with the Essays, 214), aud doubtfully " associated to the following tenor : Maharayasa Gudu Gondofcrus of the Lcgenda Aurea, = . . . Satimae = 100 pharasa Vasha 20+44-2 ( 26) San + 3 ( 103) Vesakhasa masasa divase 4." Arch. vol. v. p. 59.) to complete And (Cunningham, Rep. the scries of regal quotations, I add the heading of the inscription from Pan j tar " of a king of tho Ivushnns: Sam 100+ 20+ 2 (= 122) St avanam masasa di Ra ..." prathame 1, Maha rayasa Gushanasa J.R.A.S. (Professor Dowson, Vol. XX. o.s. p. 223; Arch. vol. v. p. Cuuniugham, 61.) Rep. This is an in the exceptional character of its framework, inscription which, reconstructive The suggests and even necessitates stone upon interpretations. was which it is engrossed fissured and imperfectly prepared for its pur obviously in tho first niNtance; so that, in the name has to poso opening line, GondopluireH' no takon over a broken gap with tho d from space for two letters, which divides the ph. Tho surface of the stone has likewise suffered from abrasion of some kind or other, so that material letters have in certain cases been reduced to mere But enough remains intact to establish the name of the Indo shadowy outlines. Parthian King, and to exhibit a double record of dates, his regnal year giving and tho counterpart in an era the determination of which is of tho highest The vasha or year of the king, expressed in figures alone, possible importance. as 26, is not contested. Tho Jigured date of the leading era presents no difficulty whatever to those who aro conversant with Phaniician or who may notation, hereafter choose to consult tho ancient coins of Aradus. The symbol for hundreds /\ is incontestable. The preliminary stroke i, to the right of the sign, in

10 The

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

above collection of names and dates covers, in the sense, a period of from An. 9 to An. 98, or eighty-nine The names, as I interpret them, apply to two years in all. out of the triple brotherhood mentioned individuals, only, After the reigns of (1) in the Raja Tarangini. enumerating latter and (3) Damodhara, Professor Wilson's Asoka, (2) Jaloka, :? that chronicle continues of translation " was succeeded by three princes who divided Damodhara the country, and severally founded capital cities named after These princes were called Hushka, themselves. Jushka, and . . . are or Tatar extraction. of Turushka Kanishka,1 They but may possibly be all that are pre considered synchronous, served of some series of Tatar princes who, it is very likely, at various periods, established themselves in Kashmir."2 I

in India an ad of hundreds] the simple number tho "Western system, marks these Under the value of the normal symbol. ditional duplicates prolongation the figured as 103. Beforo terms the adoptive Bactrian ligurcs are positive or is to be found, in letters, the word satimae "in one hundred" there date " that the It is possible all concur. of which in the reading hundredth," been met use of the figure for 100, which has not previously exceptional in writing in the body of and repetition led to its definition with, may bave about should feci no hesitation in order that future interpreters the inscription, There was not the same necessity for repeating the value of the exotic symbol. to tho meanest the 3, the three lingers of which must always have been obvious and free currency of tho about tho existence I have no dilliculty capacity. are era per se in its own proper time, which some arelucologists Vikrnniiiditya But I am unable to concur in tho to regard as of later adaptation. inclined or to admit, if such should prove the correct interpreta reading of Samvatsara, a preferential association involved or necessitated tion, that the word Samvatsara Vol. IV. the Yikramfidityn with era, any more than the Samvatsara (J.R.A.S., or the abbreviated Sun or ??w, which is p. 500) and Samvatsara ye (ibid. p. 222), and to frequent on Indo-Pnrthian so constant in these Bactrian Pali Inscriptions, coins (Prinsep's Essays, vol. ii. p. 206, Coins of Azas, Nos. 1, 2, 0, 7, 12; Azilisns, Nos. 1, etc. ; Gondophares, p. 216, No. A. " 1 Abulfazl vol. ii. p. 171; Calcutta Gladwin's brothers." Translation, says

Text, p. 574. jo^lj

all the in identifying that he has succeeded considers General Cunningham tho limits of tho valley of aro placed within tho sites of which three capitals, ?.<?., Kashmir, " is ten miles south of Sirinagar, hod. Kumpur, Kanishla-pura (Kanikhpur) known as Kampur Sarai. " Ushkar of Albirdni of Iliuen Thsang?the the Uu-sc-kia-lo llushka-pura, ? now two miles south-cast of Bavahmula. of Uskara, in the surviving village " is identified by the Brahmans with Zukru or Zukur, a consider Jushka-pura four miles north of the capital, the Schecroh of Troyer and "Wilson." able village of India (London, ?Ancient 1871), p. 90. Geography 2 Prof. of Kashmfr," on the Hindu "An Essay II. H. Wilson, History des ltois du Kachmir vol. xv. p. 23; anil Troyer's Histoire Asiatic Researches, See also Hioucn-Thsaug vol. i. p. 19. (Paris, 1858), vol. ii. 1840-62), (Paris, pp. 42, 106, etc.

aJjj i&fij*\j>

*"*j* CJj^-CSj*)-C&Ab.

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. assume Vdsu Deva

11

(Krishna's title) to have been the titular of Kanishka,1 while Dcvaputra was common to designation both brothers, and the Shdhi* was perhaps optional, or de voted to the senior in the or head of the brotherhood3 joint more extensive tribal community of the Kanerki. The Mathura the inscriptions, as we have seen, distinguish of the year by the old triple seasons of Grishma, subdivisions while the Bactrian Pali inscriptions Varsha, and Hemanta, define the months by their Macedonian ordinarily designa the question thus arises as to whether this latter tions;4
of Vasu Deva struck in his Eastern Tre'sor de Numis dominions. Gold. PI. lxxx., figs. 10,11. matiqne. incense into the Obverse.?Scythian figure, standing to the front, casting To the right, a trident with altar. : to typical small Mithraic flowing peimons the left, a standard with streamers. around the main device, in obscure Greek, the vague reproduction Legend, of the conventional titles of FAO NANO PAO KOPANO. Below the left arm ^ ">-=Vasu, su > ' in the exact style of character found in 1 Coin

his Mathura Inscriptions. Reverse.?The Indian Goddess Parvati seated on an open chair or imitation of a Greek throne, in her right hand the classic extending regal fillet; Mithraic to the left. monogram = " half APAOXPO, Legend, Ard-Ugra Siva," i.e. Pdrvati. Those who wish to examine nearly exact counterparts of these types in English consult the coins engraved in publications may plate xiv., Ariana Antiqua, figs. . latter seems to have an 10, 20. The imperfect rendering of the cf va on the obverse, with TT su (farmed like pu) on the reverse. [For corresponding sec also Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. v. pi. 36, and Prinsep's Essays, pi. 4. types General Cunningham, Numismatic vol. vi. o.s. pi. 1. fig. u Chronicle, 2.] The is not curved, but formed of the Jf *, by a mere elongation of the downstroke which in itself constitutes the vowel. The omission of the consecutive Deva on the coins is of no more import than the parallel rejection of the Gupta, where tho king's name is written downwards, Chinese in the confined space fashion, below the arm. See also General Cunningham's remarks on Vasudeva, J.R.A.S. Vol. V. Gen. Cunningham to amend Prof. Wilson's tenta proposes pp. 103,195. tive reading of Baraono on the two gold coins, Ariana Antiqua, pi. xiv. figs. 14,18 The engraving of No. 14 378), into PAO NANO PAO BAZOAHO KOPANO. (p. an initial B in the name, and the AZ and O are certainly suggests sufficiently \Vo have only to angularize clear. the succeeding O into A to the complete identification. TIicpo coins have a reverse of Siva and the Hull.--Arch. Rep. vol. iii. p. 42. Dr. Kern does not seem to have been aware of these identifica tions when he proposed, in 1873 (Revue Critique, 1874, to associate the p. 291), Mathurd Vasudeva the Indo-Sassanian with com figured Pehlvi in Prinsep, vii. fig. 6. Journ. Roy. Asiatic Soc. Vol. XII. pi. pi. 3; Ariana Antiqua, xvii. fig. 9. pi. 2 The full Dcvnputra Shah an Shahi occurs in the Samudra Gupta inscription on tho Allnhfibftd Lfit. It may possibly refer to some of the extra Iudian suc cessors of these Indo-Scythiaus. 3 translates le long rcgne de ces rois," Troyer 171, "Pendant paragraph vol. i. p. 19. 4 " The Macedonian which were adopted by the months, Syro-Macedonian

?

12

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

use of the Seleucidan does not imply a continued practice the names in association with which of these months era, must first have reached India P1 and which must have been out of place in any indigenous scheme of reckon altogether this system, the years 9-98 of the fourth Tested by ing. era (b.c. as I of the Seleucidan century produce, 311-12) return of the singularly have elsewhere suitable remarked, b.c 2 to a.d. 87. And a similar process applied to the third era (b.c 248)2 of the newly-discovered Parthian century this last method would represent B.C. 39 and a.d. 50. But seems to have secured a mere local and of computation to of its extension currency, and the probabilities exceptional and endur India are as zero compared with the wide-spread 3 of the themselves Seleucida), which the Parthians ing date with the old continued to use on their coinage in conjunction
woro cities, and generally by the Greek cities of Asia, after tho time of Alexander, of the Roman calendar of Crrsar (by inserting lunar till the reformation 07+23 = 90 cities of Asia, which the Greek After that reformation days in this year). the Julian to the Roman Empire, gradually had then become subject adopted Romans But in computing followed the year. by the solar Julian although tliey in the season of 365d. 6h. instead of the lunar, yet they made no alteration year = 0et. or in tho order of tho months." at which their vear began Nov.), (AIO2 vol. iii. pp. 202, 347. Fast.'llell. ?Clinton, 1 Some will bo seen to have attached to the uso of tho contrasted importance : " Dans terms for national months in olden time, as wo find Lctronue observing les de doubles ou triples dates que nous offrent tons les exemplcs inscriptions en Grece, cehu dont le mois le est toujours qui est euonce redigees premier fait usage la nation a laquellc appartient eclui qui parle."?Letronne, Inscriptions 263. de l'Egypte (Paris, 1852), p. 2 From the 1875, p. 380. Discoveries, oy George Smith, London, Assyrian that the tablets were dated according time of the Parthian it conquest appears to the Parthian There has always been a doubt ns to the date of this style. as the classical authorities of the Parthian monarchy, revolt, and consequently have left no evidence as to the exact date of the rise of tho Parthian 1, power. two of them contained tablets from Babylon; however, obtained three Parthian oue of which, the required double dates, evidence, being found perfect, supplied as it was dated according to the Seleucidan era, and according also to the Parthian to tho 208th tho 14 lth year of tho Parthians era, year of tho being equal ii.o. 218. era to havo commenced This thus making tho Parthian Selcucid.T, " .... is called tho 208th 23rd day 144th year, which Month dato is written: year, Arsaces, King of kings." etc., 260 n.c, Fasti Ilomnni, vol. ii. p. Clinton, following Justin and Euscbius, 261 or 252 n.c; vol. iii. p. 311; Moses Chorcncnsis, 243, and Fasti Ucllonici, Suidas, 246 n.c 3 " . . . son of Antiochus the king, surnamed Epiphnnes, Antiochus, I. i. 10 in tho 137th year of the kingdom of the Greeks."?Maccabees 'reigned " of the Scleucida*."? ?ii. lu the 143rd year of tho kingdom 70, ct. seq. " . . in tho 145th year on tho 25th It came to pass Josephus, Ant. xii. 3. us called Chaslcu, and by the Macedonians of that month which is by Apelhus,

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

13

in their bearing Macedonian months,1 whose importance the leading era I have enlarged upon in the parallel upon under review. instance immediately So that, as Indo-Scythic at present advised, I hold to a preference for the Seleucidan a in so satisfactory test, which places the Indo-Scythians to their predecessors both relatively and successors. position I have at the same time no reserve in acknowledging the the leading question; difficulties but if many surrounding we can but get a second "pied a fixed t\ terre," date-point, Chandra to the epoch of the great testimony we may the doubts and difficulties check Gupta, both before and after any many generations surrounding established date that we may chance to elicit from the pre sent and more mature inquiries. after classical The tation comparative immediately . estimates available of compu by the three methods stand roughly as follows:? n.c. 2 to a.d. 87. 41. 177. the

[1st Sept., 312 B.C.] . . . . [57 n.c.2] Vikram&ditya . . Saka 78 a.d.3] [14th March,

Seleucidan

n.c. 48 to a.d. a.d. 88 to a.d.

methods

leave of the general of Indian taking subject of defining to point out how much dates, I wish the conventional of the hundreds practice of the suppression must have impaired the ordinary of record and continuity
" in the 153rd Olympiad, 4. etc."?xii. Seleucus rcgnum cognominatus Nicator Indiam usque, Al) initio imperii ipsius totius(|ue Eraki, ct Chorasawc, ea nempe qua Alcxandri una, qua; audit, tempora computant Syri et Hebnci."?Bur-IIebneus, Pococke, p. 63. " were obliged, Tho Jews still style it the JRra because they of Contracts, when subject to the Syro-Macedonian to express it in all their contracts princes, and civil writings."?Cough's 3. Sciendum, p. " The Syriac text of the inscription at Singanfti is dated in 1093d year of the " Greeks La Chine, 43 ; Yule, Marco Polo, vol. ii. Kircher, (a.d. 782).?A. p. of Greece, vol. it. pp. 74-79. p. 22; see also Mure's History 1 The dates coins under Seleucus IV., begin to appear on the SynvMacedonian Tresor de Numismatique, $AP= 136; Mionnet, vol. v. p. 30, PAZ = 137. Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII. also date their coins in the Seleucidan era. See Mionnet, vol. v. 87. pp. 80, commence a.s. n2 = 280 (n.c. The rarthian coin dates with 31), APTE, and continue to a.s. 639, Ties, de Num. Rois Grecs, pp. 143-147; Artcmisius, of the Parthian* Lindsay, Coinage (Cork, 1852), pp. 175-179. 2Luni-solar 8 Solar or Sidereal year. year. Prinsep, Useful Tables, pp. 153-7 Babelis, orditur

liefore

14

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

affected the resulting value of many of the fragmentary data have been preserved to our time. that or The existence of such a system of disregarding blotting in for ages?must out of centuries?persevered led to endless uncertainties among subsequent inquirers, whose errors and misunderstandings to the normal imperfections ally superadded authorities. the illustrative wherever naturally have home or foreign were occasion of their leading

in of this kind may bo detected Something and Albiruni, works both of Hiuen Thsang

in the gross. the quotation refers to hundreds them of events adapting from the improbabilities Apart in hundreds, it is clear that, whero selves to even numbers bo looked hundreds alone are given, the date itself must or less vague and upon as more conjectural, elicited, in short, out of uncertain of correction and undefined from minor totals; numbers, and alike incapable such a test must now be

open number of 400 oft-quoted applied to Hiuen Thsang's as marking the interval between Buddha and Kanishka.1 dates So also one of Albiruni's worked-out less-consistently to parallel objection, such, for instance, as the even which his era of constitutes "400 before Vikramaditya," " to confess may and which he is frank enough Sri Harsha/' to the other Sri Harsha of 664 after pertain perchance His clear 400 of a.d.). (or 57+664=607-8 Vikramaditya a the era of Yezdegird is, however, a veritable conjuncture, is liable singular
1 " Dans

and unforced

combination

of independent

epochs,2

il y aura un roi qui les quatro cents ans qui suivront mon Nirvana, s'illustrera dans lc moiido sous lc nom de Kia-ni-sc-kia (Kanishka).''?Memoires la 4000 anneo npres sur les Contr6cs occidentals (Paris, 1867), i. p. 106. "Dans but the lo Nirvdna" (p. 172^. This 400 is the sum given in tho Lalita Vistula, s Intr. have 300. Foc-koue authorities Ki, chapter xxv., ami Burnouf Mongol " un " trois cent nns," p. 670, Hist. Bud., vol. i. p. 668, pen plus de quatro cent confines himself to ans npres C^nkya, au temps de Kanichka." Hiuen Thsang " Dans anneo npres le Nirv&nu in other places. la ccntiemo obscure hundreds " lo 11111160 La six centieme de Jou-la'i, A?oka, roi de Magadha," p. 170. " npres Nfigfir Nirvftna," p. 179. NngCirjuna is e<pially dated 400 years after Buddha. of Buddha." supposed to have flourished 400 years after the death juna is generally See also ?As. Res. vol. xx. pp. 400,613. Csoma do Koros, Analysis of tho Gyut. vol. i. and J.A.S.B. and Burnouf, As. Res. vol. ix. p. 83; xv. p. 447, p. 115; in his Tibetan version of the Lahta Vistara, vol. vii. p. 143. M. Foucaux, speaks of uote. as flourishing " cent ans apres lc mort de N&g&rjuna C^akyaMouui, " p. 392, 8 cette here rejoices, that Albiruni loc. cit. pp. 137,139. Rcinaud, cpoque par un nombre rond et u'est embarrassee ui de dizaines ni d'unites," s'exprime seems to show how rarely, in his large experience, such a phenomenon which had been met with.

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

lo

marked by the date of the death of Mahmud approximately in an era that had not yet been superseded in of Ghazni,1 the East by the Muhammadan Hijrah. of the unique I conclude this paper with a reproduction on more mature ex coin of the Saka King Ileraus, which, on the has been found to throw unexpected amination, light chief seat of Saka-Scythian power,2 and to supply incidentally an value date, which may prove of considerable approximate in elucidating the contemporaneous of the border history lands of India. I have recently had occasion the probable to investigate of its reverse device with age of this piece by a comparison the leading types of the Imperial with Parthian mintages, which it has much in common, and the deduction I arrived at, from the purely Numismatic aspect of the evidence, was

1 The ora of Yezdegird commenced 032 a i>. The 16th June, date on tomb is 23rd Rabi' tho second, a.h. 421 (30th April, a.d. 1030). Mahmfid's '* was Albiniiii with the identities of Vikramaditya and naturally perplexed and unablo to reconcile of the acta attributed the similarity alike to Salivahana, ono and the other. He concludes the in note 2, p. 7, in the quoted passage terms :?" D'un autre eoto, rocut le titre de Sri (grand) following Vikramaditya, a cause clo l'honiieur qu'il s*6tait aequis. s'est ecoultf Du rente, rintcrvnlle cjui outre fere dc et la mort dc Saka, prouvc que le vainqueur n'etait Vikramaditya un autre mais pas lc celebro Vikramaditya, prince du niemc nom."?Reinaud, p. 142. " the individualities of his 8 "Wilford, in like manner, whilo " discussing Major or 9 admitted that the two periods of Vikramaditya and Yikramadityas," arc intimately Salivahana and the accounts we have of these two connected, are much contradictions and personages confused, extraordinary teeming with a absurdities to surprising degree."?As. Res., vol. ix. p. 117; see also vol. x. p. U3. A to notice by Dr. Biihler throws new light upon this passage lately brought data of much importance iu for, in addition to supplying question, chronological to the interval of 470 years which is said to have elapsed between the regard and the first Vikramaditya of great Jaina Mahuvira (the 24th Tirthankara) n.c it teaches us that thero were Saka kings in sway in India 57, holding n.c 61-57, which confirms the epoch of the family of Ileraus, and indirectly how both Vikramadityas, at intervals of 136 years, came to lmve Saka explains enemies to encounter, and consequently honours. equal claims to titular Sakdri " 1. Palaka, was anointed the lord of Avnnti, in that night in which the Arhat and Tirthankara Mahuvira entered Nirvana. 2. 60 are (the years of 108 those of the Mauryas, King Palaka, but 155 are (the years) of the Nandas; and 30 those of Pusamitta 3. 60 (vears) ruled Balamitra and (Pushy ami tra). 40 Nabhovahana. 13 years likewise Bhunumitra, (lasted) tho rule of Garda 4 are (the the Prakrit Gathas of Meru bhiila, and years) of ?aka."?From tunga, etc. " These verses, which arc quoted a very large number of Jaina commen in taries and chronological of which is not clear, give the works, but the origin between the eras of Vira and Vikrama, and form the basis of the adjustment earlier Jaina chronology."?Dr. Indian Antiquary, vol. ii. p. 303. Biihler,

16

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. the imitative adoption of certain details of such rulers, and supposing and contemporaneous, immediate

that, recognizing the main devices

of the suzerain

"mark the age of Heraus."1 accords with the date of Isidore of epoch singularly ' we like Cliarax,2 from whose text of the Stathmi Parthici' seat of the Saka*Scythians, wise gather that tho recognized then feudatories of the Parthian Empire, was located in the This valley of the Helmund,3 and was known by the optional
1 Records of the Gupta Dynasty (Triibner, 1876), p. 37. " It is in regard to the typical details, however, that the contrast between the of Mauas and Ileraiis is most apparent. Matins has no coins with his own mst among the iufinite variety of his mint devices, nor has Azns, who imitates so Iiieces of his emblems. Butj in the Goudopharcs group, we meet many again with busts and uucovered in which heads, the hair being simply bound by a fillet, of the head-dress Pakores, with his But follows suit. arrangement bushy curls, the crucial typical test is furnished by the small figure of victory crowning the on the reverse, which horseman is so special a characteristic of tho.Parthian die illusi ration. " or Wc have frequent examples of Angels regal types of victory extending in the Bactrian fillets series, but these figures constitute as a rule the niniu device of the reverse, and are not subordinated into a corner, as in the Parthian The first of the fillet iu direct connexion with the king's system. appearance Orodes (n.c. head in the scries, occurs on the coins of Arsaces XIV., Imperial of the Parthians, 64-37), where the crown is borne by an eagle (Lindsay, History Ttesor de Kumismatiquc, Cork, 1862, pi. iii. fig. 2, pp. 146-170; pi. Ixviii. on the reverses of the this duly is already confided fig. 17); but copper coinage v. fig. 2, p. 181). Arsaces XV., to the winged figure of Victory (Lindsay, pi. the eagles for a time, but progresses IV. (37 n.c-4 Phrahates a.d.), continues iii. fig. 60; v. fig. 4, pp. 148,170 ; Tresor dcNumismatique, into single (Ibid., pi. pi. Ixviii. fig. 18; pi. lxix. fi^. 6), and finally into double figures of Victory as eager to crown him (Jbid., pi. iii. figs. 61-63), indicating his successes against and the anucxatioii of the kiugdom of Media (Liudsay, p. 46 ; Rawliusou, Antony The S'ixth Monarchy, p. 182). " so that, if we are to arc discontinued, Henceforth these winged adjuncts coin amid Imperial Arsacidau models, we seek for the prototype of the Ileraiis are closely limited'in point of antiquity, though the possibly deferred adoption " may2 be less susceptible of proof The period of Isidore of Charax has been the subject of much controversy. contents himself with saying, "lie The writer of the notice in Smith's Dictionary flic special seems to have lived under Ihe early Roman Emperors." 0. Miiller, sums up his critical examination for all Creek geographical questions, authority " Proliant of the evidence to the point: scriptoreni nostrum August! temporibus Grec. Min. vol. i. p. Ixxxv. debere fuisse proximuui."?Geog. 3 17. 'EvTivBtv 01 KO'? 'Eefla w6\h Tldpiv ical Kopbic ir6\is. Zapayytavi), ox0 IS. 'Evt v$(v -SaKoaTOf^ Sajc&i' ~2.kvBu>v,tj Kai UapairaKrjpi), ox?^voi &Y' "sZvBa, Ka\ M\v n6\ts ko\ Tla\aK t/T\ n6\is Ha) Ziyah iroAu* tvBa fiaalAda Bap5a ir6\n nal TrXrjaiov *AAc(c(^peia ir6\is ^aKwv (ko! irhrialov 'AA {aJ/5p<firoAis iroMs)' " ed. C. Miiller, Stuthmi Paris, Kwfiai Se ??. Isidore of Charax, Parthici," x. the The text goes on to enumerate lxxxv. aud xciii., map No. pj). 253, : "Axp? rovrov and concludes to Alcxandropolis wTp6noAis stages up *Apox?<r/as, I annex for the sake of iffrlv y r&v UapBuv imKpdrcia. comparison Ptolemy's esti is roughly after the century and a half which list of the cities of Drangia, seem mated as the interval between the two geographers. Sigal aud Sakastaue

to have been adoption n.c. 37 to a.d. 4 would the dates

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. names of Sakaslani or Paraitakene with a capital city

17 en

modern

the Sigal may perhaps be identified with of a district of that site of Schooha, the metropolis its walls, and its wells, name, which, in virtue of its position, the cities of Seistan.1 still claims pre-eminence among And to complete the data, I now find on the surface of the
1. TlpotpSaala. 2. *PoD5o. from tho local map. aliko to have disappeared 8. 4>opu(dva. A. 'ApitcdSa. 5. "Aera. 6. s,ap$idpn. 7. Noorava. 3. y\vva. ? lib. vi. cap. 19; Hudson, 9. Biyls. 11. 'Apdva. Ptolemv, 10. 'Apidairn. vol. iii. p. 44; Journ. R.A.S. Vol. X. p. 21, anil Vol. XV. pp. 97, 150, 20G; "Sakka." Tho old term of Darius' Persian "Saka," Inscription, Scythic and Arabian writers. lC-> is preserved in all tho intelligent Persian Majmal

titled Sigal. The ancient

Al Tawarikh, P- 69;

Journ. Asiatique, +?i\ 10^5

1839 &{?

.\s^mS^

^ICj P- 51? And

;

Hamza

Isfahani

jLl

fc,ie Armenians

adhere

?jl?~> to the

Sakasdan. ? Moses pp. 301, 364;

of Khorene,

French vol.

St.-Martin,

L'Armeuie,

vol. ii. p. 143; Whiston, edition, ii. p. 18. " l?_.._.?_-?_ Les villus

et Jlosl, ou Ton voit k*3 Ilissoum, princip'tilcs sont: Zalek, Kcrkouyah, Zaranj, do l'ccurie de itoustam, mines le Heros."?B. dc Movnard, La Perse, p. 303. Other references to the geography of this locality will Co found in Pliny vi. 21 ; Oriental Geography, J.A.S. p. 205; Anderson's Western Ousehy's Afghanistan, 1840, p. 586; Leech (S*kwa), J.A.S.B., 'Asie Bengal, 1844, p. 117; Khanikolf, Ceutralc,' Paris, 1861, p. 162 (S<!konhe); Ferrier's Travels, p. '130; Malcolm's vol. i. p. 67; rottingcr's Burnout's Persin, Bclooehistuu, pp. 407-9; Ya<,na, p. xcix. x " This fortress is the strongest and most important in Seist&n, because, being at 5 parasangs from the lake, water is to be obtained \n\a only in wells which been dug within its encein'c. The intermediate aud surrounding country being an arid parched waste, devoid not only of water, but of else, the everything besiegers could not subsist themselves, and would, even if provisioned, incutahly . . . I have called it the of thirst. dio It contains about 1200 houses. capital of Scisttm, but it is impossible to say how long it may enjoy that title."?Caravan of J. P. Ferrier, edited by II. D. Seymour, Esq., Journeys 1857, p. 419. Murray, " On the 1st February, tlie more modern 1872, made a 30 mile march to Sekulia, . .; capital of ScisUm finally we found Sekuha itself amid utter desolation."?SirF. From 11.Geog. Soc. 1873,p. 70. See also Sir II. Rawlinson's J. Goldsmid. elaborate " notes on Scist&n, p. 282," Si-koheh 1may add [three hills], in the same volume. in support of this reading of the name of the capital, that it very nearly reproduces the synonym of the obscure Greek 2tyd\, in the counterpart Pehlvi ja^ja = _?-*-> 8f gar or gal, which stands equally for " three hills." Tabari tells us that a lc sens do in the old language, "gncr vol. i. p. 5), montagne" (Zotenberg, and Ilatnza Isfahfini equally recognizes the ger as " colles etmontcs" (p. 37). Tho interchange of the rs and la did not disturb the Iranian mind more any than tho indeterminate use of gs and ks. Seo Journ. R.A.S. Vol. XII. pp. need not carry on these 205, 268, and Vol. XIII. p. 377. Wo comparisons more further, bat those who wish to traco identities consult may completely Pictet, vol. i. p. 122, and follow out tho Sanskrit girt, Slave gora, etc. Siuce the ollicial report upon body of this note was set up in type, Sir F. Goldsmid's "Eastern Persia" has been published, aud supplies the following additional VOL. IX.?fxEW SERIES.] 2

18

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES.

original coin, after the final a in saka, the Greek monogram or pro the ancient province, [p, which apparent^ represents vincial capital, of Drangia.1

Hera

us,

Saka

King.

Silver. Obv. "Bust of a king,
llev.

British

Museum.

Unique. border of reels

right, diademed and draped;
and beads. HIAOT TTIANNOTNT02 2AKA KOIIANOT.

(Tvpavvovvros

'Hpaou _2ctKa Koipdvou.)

A king, right, on horseback;

behind, Nike,

crowning him.2"

. . . which derives Us The town, details as to the characteristics of Sikoha:?-" name from three clay or mud bills in its midst, is built in an irregular circular The southernmost hills. of these form around the base of the two principal hills is surmounted by tbe ark or citadel, an ancient structure known as the . . . citadel of Mir Kuchak Kbfm. this, and connected with it, is tho Adjoining stands tho present. Governor's second hill, called the Bitq-i-Fnlnksar/on winch house; and about 160 yards to tbo west is tho third hill, not so high as tho other . . . The thus completely hills command the two principal two, undefended. town lying at their base, and are connected with ono another by a covered way." " an extra-mural water supply, as water is always Sekuha is quite independent of a few feet below the surfaco anywhero inside tho walls, obtainable hy digging E. Smith, vol. i. arc twenty-five which feet in height, strongly built.'*?Major p. 258. 1 The aro curious. We have the normal stages of this Monogram progressive Coins of tbe Parthians, pi. xi. No. 7. pi. i. No*. 12; Lindsay, /j.?-Mionnet. in Prinsep's entered varieties R,, ^ Next we have the Bactrian , and I\, c. No. 63 ; Num. Cbron. vol. xix. o.s. Nos. 48, 62, and vol. viii. Essays, pi. xi. n\s. pi. vii. Nos. varieties, Nos. 156, 71, 72, and 76; and likewise Mionnet's 118. 299 : Ariana Autiqua, pi. xxii. No. 2 I am indebted to Mr. P. Gardner for this woodcut. I retaiu his description iu the Numismatic of the coin as it appeared 1874, vol. xiv. n.s. Chronicle, the worn outline of It will be seen that Mr. Gardner failed to detect p. 161. the Monogram.

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. Colonel

19

retains a single example of an ex Pearse, R.A., common class of small silver coins displaying the ceptionally obverse head in identical form with the outline in the wood cut. The reverse type discloses an ill-defined, erect figure, to treatment to some of the reverses the left, similar in disjointed in the Antiochus-Kodes class,1 accompanied by two parallel The leading line, giving the title, in obscure Greek. legends but its central is altogether letters range unintelligible;
xdiaiinx or xqiaiikx. The second line gives a nearer ap

proach
letters

to "Moas"
4QiiAHL=/Aou8f/?,

in a possible
iioirpr)?,

initial M,
fioua^, etc.

followed
All these

by the
speci

to other Kodes associations, give outward mens, which was perchance, of debased metal, or the Nickel, signs as of equal value with silver.2 in those days, estimated in addition to in this remarkable coin is not confined The interest of time and place, but ex identifications tho approximate us tends itself to the tenor of the legend, which presents as with of Tvpavvovvros, the unusual titular prefix which, a synonym an of BaatXevovTos, and here employed by to set at rest the dis obvious subordinate, may be held of the latter term, in opposition to the simple puted purport Bao-t\ has such an important bearing upon the which vs, relative of the earlier Bactrian The positions Kings. use of the term BaatXevovro^ of the in the pre examples liminary
1. Agathocles 2. Agathocles nation 3. Agathocles nation

Bactrian
in subordiin subordito Euthydemus in subordito Antiochuh

series
) Obv. I Obv. j Rev. Obv. \ JRev.

are as follows3:?
AIOAOTOT ET0TAHMOT BA2IAETONT02 2HTHP02. ?EOT. ArA0OKAEOT2

nation to Diodotus

AIKAIOT. \ Rev. BA2IAETONT02ArA0OKAEOT2
AIKAIOT. AIKAIOT.

ANTIOXOT NIKATOPOS. HA2IAETONT05 ArA0OKAEOT2

4. Antimnehus Thous in ) ru% A.^A^^^ ^? ,.,?^* 0bv' ^lOAOTOu SHTHPOS. to Din subordination ( ANTIMAXOT BASIAETONTOIS dotus ) lleV:

0EOT.

1Num. Chron. vol. iv. n.s. p. 209, pi. viii. fig. 7. 2 Vol. IV. n.s. of the Gupta Dynasty, p. 38. J.R.A.S., p. 604; Records a M. do Kochno's Bartholomiei, Zeitschrift, 1843, p. 67, pi. iii. fig. 2; Reply to M. Droysen, fur Miinz, Zeitschrift 1846 ; my papers in Prinsep's Essays (1868), vol. i. p. xvi., vol. ii. pp. 178-183; iu the Numismatic ISO*-', Chronicle, vol.'ii. p. 186; nnd Journ. R. A. S., Vol. XX. 1863, p. 126; M. Raoul Rochette, Journal des Savants, Gcschichte des Hellenismus, 1844, p. 117; Droysen, Hamburg,

20 The whole whose names

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES. as to the relative rank of the princes, legends, reduces

question

figure conjointly itself concisely to this contrast, that the sub-king invariably calls himself fJaatXev*; on his own proper coins, but on these the image tributary pieces, where he prefixes exceptional as a superior, himself and superscription he describes of were effective alien Satraps These BaaiXevovTos. kings but clearly bowed to some ac within their own domains, after head of the Bactro-Greek confederation, knowledged or perchance included the gradational import regarded subjects, to the in contradistinction of the supreme Mahdrajadhirdja, in the various stages of regal state implied lesser degrees the manner who of their Indian so especially neighbours, of rdja, mahdrdja, rdj&dhirdja, etc. These binominal pieces " i.e. are rare, and, numismatically occasional," speaking, some public event or political in coined expressly to mark led coincident like our modern medals; facts, which cident, mc long ago to suggest1 that they might have been struck as tribute money or fealty pieces, in limited numbers, nominal at with the annual nazardnd, or presentation to the most powerful chief or general State receptions, high for the time being. of the Grfcco-Bactrian oligarchy a curious feature in these binominal There is coins, which, It is, as far as I am aware of, has not hitherto been noticed. the portrait of the superior that the obverse head, representing from his own seems to have been adopted directly king, form presented in their normal which ordinary mint-dies,2 for submission
Gen. Cunningham, Numismatic Ind. Alt., Chronicle, 1847; 1843; Lassen, vol. viii. n.s. 1868, p. 278, ct seq., ix. 1869, p. 29; Mr. Vaux, Numismatic xv. n.s. p. 16. vol. Chronicle, 1 Journal Chronicle, p. 127; Numismatic Society, Vol. XX. Royal Asiatic n.s. vol. ii. p. 186. -1 have long imagined that I could trace the likeness of Antiochus Thcos on tho xiii. 1; Num. obverse of the early gold coins of Diodotus (Prinsep's Essays, pi. Chrou. vol. ii. n.s. pi. iv. figs. 1- 3). I suppose, however, that in this case tho latter die for the ono face of his precipitate monarch used his suzerain s ready-prepared his with a new reverse device and perhaps hesitating coinage, conjoined bearing " own name, which might have afforded him a loophole of escape on his right to of tho profile, the contrast coin" h< ing challenged. Apart from the similarity of the obverso head, and tho lei ween the high Greek art and perfect execution reverse devico, greatly and superficial coarse design tooling of the imitative luumrs the conclusion of au adaptation, though the motive may have been merely of such high morit. to utilizo the obverses of existing mint appliances

in the above

BACTRIAN COINS AND INDIAN DATES:

21

the profile of the monarch without any surrounding legend, his name and titles being properly reserved for their conven tional position on the reverse surface of his current coins. In the novel application to a place of the head of the suzerain on the obverse of a coin of the device and designations bearing on the reverse, it became necessary his confessed subordinate a specification to add to the established of obverse-device the namo would and titles havo of the remained superior, whose identification otherwise and the public under the new upon the fidelity dependent of the likeness itself. Hence, recognition it likewise became to adaptation, requisite head, engrave on the old die, around the standard Mint the suzerain's superscription in the odd corners and spaces in the field, no provision in the first in been made, having for any legend at all, and no room being left for the stance,

of the words, ordinary circular or perpendicular arrangement such as would have been spaced out under ordinary circum stances. In the majority of the instances we are able to cite, the Greek letters on the adapted obverse vary materially in their forms and outlines from those of the associated legends on the reverse, which still further proves the independent manipulation applied to the obverses to these indications In addition Bactrian of the compound pieces. as bearing the upon the title of Tvpavvovvros is highly on the coins of the reappearance

proper coinage, in its partial suggestive and Chastana, the leading Sah Kings Nahapana connecting to the southward with the Scythic element geographically for a full resume of which I must refer province of Guzerat, to the Archaeological Report of Western India,1

my readers for 1875.

London,

1 Sec also the short 1876, p. 31.

copies of my Essay

on the Records

of

the Gupta

Dynasty,

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