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Controller Basics


A reference guide for

understanding the basics
of temperature controllers.

Danaher Industrial Controls Group –

Process Automation, Measurement & Sensing
© 2005 Danaher Industrial Controls Group

The copyrights in this document are owned by Danaher Industrial Controls Group. All rights reserved.
Unauthorized reproduction of this handbook or the software in the controllers or recorders may result
in imprisonment of up to one year and fines of up to $10,000 (17 U.S.C. 506). Copyright violators may
be subject to civil liability.

Dynapar™, Eagle-Signal™, Hengstler™, Harowe™, LFE™, NorthStar™, Partlow™, PMA™, Rustrak™,

­Veeder-Root™, and West™ are registered trademarks of Danaher Industrial Controls. All other trade-
marks or brand names are trademarks and property of their respective owners. All rights reserved.
Controller Basics
Why do we need temperature controllers?
Temperature controllers are needed in any situation requiring a given tempera-
ture be kept stable. This can be in a situation where an object is required to
be heated, cooled or both and to remain at the target temperature (setpoint),
regardless of the changing environment around it.

There are two fundamental types of temperature control; open loop and
closed loop control. Open loop is the most basic form and applies continuous
heating/cooling with no regard for the actual temperature output. It is analo-
gous to the internal heating system in a car. On a cold day, you may need to turn
the heat on to full to warm the car to 75°. However, during warmer weather, the
same setting would leave the inside of the car much warmer than the desired 75°.

Input Controller Amp Output

Figure 1 Open loop control block diagram

Closed loop control is far more sophisticated than open loop. In a closed
loop application, the output temperature is constantly measured and adjusted
to maintain a constant output at the desired temperature. Closed loop control
is always conscious of the output signal and will feed this back into the control
process. Closed loop control is analogous to a car with internal climate control.
If you set the car temperature to 75°, the climate control will automatically adjust
the heating (during cold days) or cooling (during warm days) as required to
maintain the target temperature of 75°.

Setpoint Error
Controller Amp Output


Figure 2 Closed loop control block diagram

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

A temperature controller is a device used to hold a desired temperature at a
specified value.

The simplest example of a temperature controller is a common thermostat

found in homes. For instance, a hot water heater uses a thermostat to control the
temperature of the water and maintain it at a certain commanded temperature.
Temperature controllers are also used in ovens. When a temperature is set for
an oven, a controller monitors the actual temperature inside of the oven. If it
falls below the set temperature, it sends a signal to activate the heater to raise
the temperature back to the setpoint. Thermostats are also used in refrigerators.
So if the temperature gets too high, a controller initiates an action to bring the
temperature down.

Common Controller Applications

Temperature controllers in industry work much the same way they do in com-
mon household applications. A basic temperature controller provides control of
industrial or laboratory heating and cooling processes. In a typical application,
sensors measure the actual temperature. This sensed temperature is constantly
compared to a user setpoint. When the actual temperature deviates from the
setpoint, the controller generates an output signal to activate other temperature
regulating devices such as heating elements or refrigeration components to bring
the temperature back to the setpoint.

Common Uses in Industry

Temperature controllers are used in a wide variety of industries to manage
manufacturing processes or operations. Some common uses for temperature
controllers in industry include plastic extrusion and injection molding machines,
thermo-forming machines, packaging machines, food processing, food storage,
and blood banks. The following is a brief overview of some common temperature
control applications in industry:

Heat Treat/Oven
Temperature controllers are used in ovens and in heat-treating applications
within furnaces, ceramic kilns, boilers, and heat exchangers.

Controller Basics
In the packaging world, machinery equipped with seal bars, glue applicators, hot
melt functions, shrink wrap tunnels or label applicators must operate at desig-
nated temperatures and process time lengths. Temperature controllers precisely
regulate these operations to ensure a high quality product output.

Temperature control in the plastics industry is common on portable chill-
ers, hoppers and dryers and molding and extruding equipment. In extruding
equipment, temperature controllers are used to precisely monitor and control
temperatures at different critical points in the production of plastic.

Controllers are used in the healthcare industry to increase the accuracy of tem-
perature control. Common equipment using temperature controllers includes
laboratory and test equipment, autoclaves, incubators,
refrigeration equipment, and crystallization growing
chambers and test chambers where specimens must be
kept or tests must be run within specific temperature

Food & Beverage

Common food processing applications involving tem-
perature controllers include brewing, blending, sterilization, and cooking and
baking ovens. Controllers regulate temperature and/or process time to ensure
optimum performance.

Parts of a Temperature Controller

All controllers have several common parts. For starters, controllers have inputs.
The inputs are used to measure a variable in the process being controlled. In the
case of a temperature controller, the measured variable is temperature.

Temperature controllers can have several types of inputs. The type of input
sensor and signal needed may vary depending on the type of controlled pro-
cess. Typical input sensors include thermocouples and resistive thermal devices

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

(RTD’s), and linear inputs such as mV and mA. Typical standardized thermo-
couple types include J, K, T, R, S, B and L types among others.

Controllers can also be set to accept an RTD as a temperature sensing input.

A typical RTD would be a 100Ω platinum sensor.

Alternatively, controllers can be set to accept voltage or current signals in the

millivolt, volt, or milliamp range from other types of sensors such as pressure,
level, or flow sensors. Typical input voltage signals include 0 to 5VDC, 1 to 5VDC,
0 to 10VDC and 2 to 10VDC. Controllers may also be set up to accept millivolt
signals from sensors that include 0 to 50mVDC and 10 to 50mVDC. Controllers
can also accept milliamp signals such as 0 to 20mA or 4 to 20mA.

A controller will typically incorporate a feature to detect when an input sensor

is faulty or absent. This is known as a sensor break detect. Undetected, this fault
condition could cause significant damage to the equipment being controlled.
This feature enables the controller to stop the process immediately if a sensor
break condition is detected.

In addition to inputs, every controller also has an output. Each output can be
used to do several things including control a process (such as turning on a heat-
ing or cooling source), initiate an alarm, or to retransmit the process value to a
programmable logic controller (PLC) or recorder.

Typical outputs provided with temperature controllers include relay outputs,

solid state relay (SSR) drivers, triac, and linear analog outputs.

A relay output is usually a single-pole double-throw (SPDT) relay with a DC

voltage coil. The controller energizes the relay coil, providing isolation for the
contacts. This lets the contacts control an external voltage source to power the
coil of a much larger heating contactor. It’s important to note that the current
rating of the relay contacts is usually less than 2A. The contacts can control a
heating contactor with a rating of 10–20A used by the heater bands or heating

Another type of output is an SSR driver. SSR driver outputs are logic outputs
that turn a solid-state relay on or off. Most solid-state relays require 3 to 32VDC
to turn on. A typical SSR driver turn-on signal of 10V can drive three solid-state

Controller Basics
A triac provides the relay function without any moving parts. It is a solid-
state device that controls currents up to 1A. Triac outputs may allow some small
amount of bleed current, usually less than 50mA. This bleed current doesn’t
affect heating contactor circuits, but it may be a problem if the output is used to
connect to another solid-state circuit such as a PLC input. If this is a concern, a
standard relay contact would be a better choice. It provides absolute zero current
when the output is de-energized and the contacts are open.

Analog outputs are provided on some controllers which put out a 0–10V signal
or a 4–20mA signal. These signals are calibrated so that the signal changes as a
percentage of the output. For example, if a controller is sending a 0% signal, the
analog output will be 0V or 4mA. When the controller is sending a 50% signal,
the output will be 5V or 12mA. When the controller is sending a 100% signal, the
output will be 10V or 20mA.

Other Parameters
Temperature controllers have several other parameters, one of which is a set-
point. Basically, a setpoint is a target value set by an operator which the controller
aims at keeping steady. For instance, a setpoint temperature of 30° C means that
a controller will aim to keep the temperature at this value.

Another parameter is an alarm value. This is used to indicate when a process

has reached some given condition. There are several variations on types of
alarms. For instance, a high alarm may indicate that a temperature has gotten
hotter than some set value. Likewise, a low alarm indicates the temperature has
dropped below some set value.

For example, in a temperature control system, a high fixed alarm prevents a

heat source from damaging equipment by de-energizing the source if the tem-
perature exceeds some setpoint value. A low fixed alarm, on the other hand, may
be set if a low temperature could damage equipment by freezing.

The controller can also test for a broken output device, such as an open heat-
ing element, by checking the amount of output signal and comparing it to the
amount of detected change in the input signal. For example, if the output signal
is 100% and the input sensor does not detect any change in temperature after a
certain time period, the controller will determine that the loop is broken. This
feature is known as Loop Alarm.

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

Inactive Active Inactive

PROCESS Alarm Value

Alarm Hysteresis Value

Process Variable

Process Variable

Alarm Hysteresis Value

PROCESS Alarm Value

Inactive Active Inactive

Alarm Value (from Setpoint)

Alarm Hysteresis Value
Process Variable


Alarm Hysteresis Value

Alarm Value (from Setpoint)

Inactive Active Inactive Active Inactive

Inactive Active Inactive

Alarm Hysteresis Value

Process Variable Setpoint

Process Variable

Alarm Hysteresis Value

DEVIATION Alarm Value (from Setpoint)

Alarm Inactive Alarm Active Alarm Inactive

Figure 3 Controller alarm comparison

Another type of alarm is a deviation alarm. This is set at some plus-or-minus

value from the setpoint. The deviation alarm monitors the process setpoint.
The operator is notified when the process begins to vary some preprogrammed
amount from the setpoint. A variation on the deviation alarm is the band alarm.
This alarm will activate either within or outside a designated temperature band.
Typically, the alarm points are half above and half below the controller setpoint.

Controller Basics
For example, if the setpoint is 150° and the deviation alarms are set at ±10°,
the alarms would be activated when the temperature reached 160° at the high
end or 140° at the low end. If the setpoint is changed to 170°, the high alarm
would activate at 180° and the low alarm at 160°.

Another common set of controller parameters are PID parameters. PID,

which stands for proportional, integral, derivative, is an advanced control func-
tion that uses feedback from the controlled process to determine how best to
control that process. For additional information on this advanced subject, see the
white paper “Principles of PID Control.”

How it Works
All controllers, from the basic to the most complex, work pretty much the same
way. Controllers control, or hold, some variable or parameter at a set value. There
are two variables required by the controller; actual input signal and desired set-
point value. The input signal is also known as the process value. The input to the
controller is sampled many times per second, depending on the controller.

This input, or process, value is then compared with the setpoint value. If the
actual value doesn’t match the setpoint, the controller generates an output signal
change based on the difference between the setpoint and the process value and
whether or not the process value is approaching the setpoint or deviating farther
from the setpoint. This output signal then initiates some type of response to
correct the actual value so that it matches the setpoint. Usually, the control algo-
rithm updates the output power value which is then applied to the output.

The control action taken depends on the type of controller. For instance, if
the controller is an ON/OFF control, the controller decides if the output needs
to be turned on, turned off, or left in its present state.

ON/OFF control is one of the simplest types of control to implement. It works

by setting up a hysteresis band. For instance, a temperature controller may be set
to control the temperature inside of a room. If the setpoint is 68° and the actual
temperature falls to 67°, an error signal would show a –1° difference. The control-
ler would then send a signal to increase the applied heat to raise the temperature
back to the setpoint of 68°. Once the temperature reaches 68, the heater shuts
off. For a temperature between 68° and 67°, the controller takes no action and
the heater remains off. However, once the temperature reaches 67°, the heater
will again kick in.

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

Unlike ON/OFF control, PID control determines the exact output value
required to maintain the desired temperature. The output power can range from
0 to 100%. When an analog output type is used, the output drive is proportional
to the output power value. However, if the output is a binary output type such as
a relay, SSR driver, or triac, then the output must be time proportioned to obtain
an analog representation.

A time proportioned system uses a cycle time to proportion the output value.
If the cycle time is set to 8 seconds, a system calling for 50% power will have the
output on for 4 seconds and off for 4 seconds. As long as the power value doesn’t
change, the time values wouldn’t change. Over time, the power is averaged to the
50% commanded value, half on and half off. If the output power needed to be
25%, then for the same 8 second cycle time, the output would be on for 2 seconds
and off for 6 seconds.

Off = 4s On = 4s
100% 100%

= Net Output = 50%

0% 0%

Cycle time = 8s Cycle time = 8s

Figure 4 Output time proportioning example

All things being equal, a shorter cycle time is desirable because the control-
ler can more quickly react and change the state of the output for given changes
on the process. Due to the mechanics of a relay, a shorter cycle time can shorten
the life of a relay, and is not recommend to be less than 8 seconds. For solid state
switching devices like an SSR driver or triac, faster switching times are better.
Longer switching times, no matter what output type, allow for more oscillation in
the process value. The general rule is that, ONLY if the process will allow it, when
a relay output is used, a longer cycle time is desired.

Additional Features
Controllers can also have a number of additional optional features. One of these
is communication capability. A communication link lets the controller communi-
cate with a PLC or a computer. This allows data exchange between the controller

Controller Basics
and the host. An example of typical data exchange would be the host computer
or PLC reading the process value.

A second option is a remote setpoint. This feature allows a remote device,

such as a PLC or computer, to change the controller setpoint. However, unlike
the communication capability mentioned above, the remote setpoint input uses
a linear analog input signal that is proportional to the setpoint value. This gives
an operator added flexibility by being able to change the setpoint from a remote
location. A typical signal might be 4–20mA or 0–10VDC.

Another common feature supplied with controllers is the ability to configure

them using special software on a PC connected via a communications link. This
allows quick and easy configuration of the controller and also the option to save
configurations for future use.

Another common feature is a digital input. The digital input can work togeth-
er with a remote setpoint to select the local or remote setpoint for the controller.
It can also be used to select between setpoint 1 and setpoint 2 as programmed in
the controller. Digital inputs can also remotely reset a limit device if it has gone
into the limit condition.

Other optional features include a transmitter power supply used to power a

4–20mA sensor. This power supply is used to supply 24VDC power at a maximum
of 40mA.

In some applications, a dual-color display can also be a desirable feature, mak-

ing it easy to identify different controller states. Some products also have displays
that can change from red to green or vice versa depending on preprogrammed
conditions, such as indicating an alarm condition. In this case, no alarm might
be shown by a green display, but if an alarm is present the display would turn red.

Types of Controllers
Temperature controllers come in many different styles with a vast array of
features and capabilities. There are also plenty of ways to categorize controllers
according to their functional capabilities. In general, temperature controllers
are either single loop or multi-loop. Single loop controllers have one input and
one or more outputs to control a thermal system. On the other hand, multi-loop
controllers have multiple inputs and outputs, and are capable of controlling
several loops in a process. More control loops permit controlling more process
system functions.

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

Reliable single loop controllers range from basic devices that require single
manual setpoint changes to sophisticated profilers that can automatically execute
up to eight setpoint changes over a given time period.

The simplest, most basic controller type is the analog
controller. Analog controllers are low cost, simple control-
lers that are versatile enough for rugged, reliable process
control in harsh industrial environments including those
with significant electrical noise. Controller display is typi-
cally a knob dial.

Basic analog controllers are used mostly in non-critical or unsophisticated

thermal systems to provide simple ON-OFF temperature control for direct or
reverse acting applications. Basic controllers accept thermocouple or RTD inputs
and offer optional percent power control mode for systems without temperature
sensors. Their basic drawback is a lack of readable display and lack of sophistica-
tion for more challenging control tasks. Plus, the absence of any communication
ability limits their use to simple applications such as ON/OFF switching of heat-
ing elements or cooling devices.

These controllers provide safety limit control over process temperature. They
have no ability to control temperature on their own. Put simply, limit control-
lers are independent safety devices to be used alongside an existing control
loop. They are capable of accepting thermocouple, RTD, or process inputs with
limits set for high or low temperature just like a regular controller. Limit control
is latching and part of redundant control circuitry to positively shut a thermal
system down in case of an over-limit condition. The latching limit output must
be reset by an operator; it will not reset by itself once the limit condition does not
exist. A typical example would be a safety shut off for a furnace. If the furnace ex-
ceeds some set temperature, the limit device would shut the system down. This is
to prevent damage to the furnace and possibly any product that may be damaged
by excessive temperatures.

General Purpose Temperature Controllers

General-purpose temperature controllers are used to control most typical
processes in industry. Typically, they come in a range of DIN sizes, have multiple

Controller Basics
outputs, and programmable output functions. These
controllers can also perform PID control for excel-
lent general control situations. They are traditionally
placed in the front panel with the display for easy
operator accessibility.

Most modern digital temperature controllers can

automatically calculate PID parameters for optimum
thermal system performance using their built in auto-tuning algorithms. These
controllers have a pre-tune function to initially calculate the PID parameters for
a process, and a continuous tune function to constantly refine the PID param-
eters. This allows for quick setup, saving time and reducing waste.

Valve Motor Drive

A special type of general-purpose controller is the valve
­motor drive (VMD) controller. These controllers are
specifically designed to control valve motors used in
manufacturing applications such as gas burner control on
a production line. Special tuning algorithms give accurate
control and fast output reaction without the need for slide-
wire feedback or excessive knowledge of three-term PID
tuning algorithms. VMD controllers control the position of
the valve, somewhere between 0% to 100% open, depend-
ing on the energy needs of the process at any given time.

Profiling controllers, also called ramp-soak controllers, allow operators to pro-
gram a number of setpoints and the time to sit at each setpoint. Programming
a setpoint change is called ramp and the time to stay at each setpoint is called
soak or dwell. One ramp or one soak is considered to be one segment. A profiler
offers the ability to enter a number of segments to allow complex temperature
profiles. The profiles can be referred to as recipes by the operator. Most profilers
allow storage of multiple recipes for later use. Smaller profilers may allow for four
recipes with sixteen segments each with more advanced profilers allowing for
more recipes and segments.

Profile controllers are able to execute ramp-and-soak profiles such as tem-

perature changes over time, along with hold and soak/cycle duration, all the
while being unattended by an operator.

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

Typical applications for profile controllers include heat treating, annealing,

environmental chambers, and complex process furnaces.

Besides single-loop controllers which can
control only one process loop, multi-loop
controllers can control more than one
loop, meaning they can accept more than
one input variable.

Generally speaking, a multi-loop

controller can be thought of as a device
with many individual temperature controllers inside a single chassis. These are
typically mounted behind the panel as opposed to in front of the panel as with
general-purpose single loop controllers. Programming any one of the loops is
similar to programming a panel-mounted temperature controller. However,
multi-loop systems tend not to have the traditional, physical user interface (no
display or switches), instead using a dedicated communications link.

Multi-loop controllers need to be configured by a specialized software pro-

gram on a PC that can download the configuration to the controller using the
dedicated communications interface.

Information can be retrieved via a communications interface. Common com-

munications interfaces that are supported include DeviceNet, Profibus, MOD-
BUS/RTU, CanOPEN, Ethernet/IP, and MODBUS/TCP.

Multi-loop controllers provide a compact modular system that can operate

either within a stand-alone system or in a PLC environment. As a replacement for
temperature controls in PLCs, they provide fast PID control and off-load much
of the math intensive work from the PLC processor, allowing for faster PLC scan
rates. As a replacement for multiple DIN controllers, they provide a single point
of software access to all control loops. The cost of installation is reduced by elimi-
nating much wiring, panel cutouts, and saving panel space.

Multi-loop controllers provide some additional features not available on

traditional panel mounted controllers. For instance, multi-loop controllers have
higher loop density for a given space. Some multi-loop temperature control sys-
tems can have up to 32 loops of control in a DIN rail mounted package not much

Controller Basics
longer than 8˝. They also reduce wiring by having a common connection point
for power supply and communications interfaces.

Multi-loop temperature controllers also have enhanced security features, one

of which is the absence of buttons where anyone can change critical settings. By
having complete control over the information being read from or written to the
controller, the machine builder can limit the information that any given operator
can read or change, preventing undesirable conditions from occurring, such as
setting a setpoint too high to a range that may damage product or the machine.

In addition, controller modules can be hot-swapped. This lets a controller

module be changed out without having to power down the system. Modules can
also auto-configure after a hot swap.

Other Temperature Controller Characteristics

Supply Voltage
There are typically two supply voltage options when it comes to temperature
controllers: low voltage (24VAC/DC) and high voltage (110-230VAC).

Controllers come in several standard sizes that are referred to by DIN numbers
such as 1/4 DIN, 1/8 DIN, 1/16 DIN and 1/32 DIN. DIN is an acronym for the
roughly translated “Deutsche Institut fur Normung,” a German standards and
measurements organization. For our purposes, DIN simply indicates that a device
complies with a generally accepted standard for panel dimensions.

1/4 DIN 1/8 DIN 1/16 DIN

+0.5 –0.0
92mm (45mm
+0.5 –0.0
for 45mm
indicator) +0.5 –0.0

92mm 45mm 45mm

+0.5 –0.0 +0.5 –0.0 +0.5 –0.0
(92mm for indicator)
Figure 5 DIN size comparison

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

DIN Size 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32

Size in mm 92 × 92 92 × 45 45 × 45 49 × 25
Size in inches 3.62 × 3.62 3.62 × 1.77 1.77 × 1.77 1.93 × .98
Figure 6 DIN size table

The smallest size is the 1/32 DIN, which is 24mm × 48mm, with a correspond-
ing panel cutout of 22.5mm × 45mm. The next size up is the 1/16 DIN which
measures 48mm × 48mm with a panel cutout size of 45mm × 45mm. The 1/8
DIN is 48mm × 96mm with a 45mm × 92mm panel cutout. Lastly, the largest size
is the ¼ DIN measuring 96mm × 96mm with a 92mm × 92mm panel cutout.

It is important to note that the DIN standards do not determine how deep
a controller may be behind a panel. The standards only allow for front panel
dimensions and panel cut-out dimensions.

Agency Approvals
It is desirable for a temperature controller to have some sort of agency approval
to ensure that the controller meets a minimum set of safety standards. The type
of approval depends on the country in which the controller will be used. The
most common approval, UL and cUL registration, applies to all controllers used
in the U.S. and Canada. Usually, there is one certification required for each

For controllers that are used in European Union countries, CE approval is


A third type of approval is FM. This applies only to limit devices and for con-
trollers in the U.S. and Canada.

Front Panel Enclosure Rating

An important controller characteristic is the front panel enclosure rating. These
ratings can be in the form of an IP rating or a NEMA rating. IP (Ingress Protec-
tion) ratings apply to all controllers and are usually IP65 or higher. This means
that from the front panel only, the controller is completely protected from dust
and against low pressure jets of water from all directions with only limited ingress
permitted. IP ratings are used in the U.S., Canada, and Europe.

A controller’s NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) rating

is parallel to the IP rating. Most controllers have a NEMA 4 or 4X rating, which

Controller Basics
means they can be used in applications requiring water washdown only (not oils
or solvents). The ‘X’ in a NEMA 4X rating means that the front panel won’t cor-
rode. NEMA ratings are used primarily in the U.S. and Canada.

How to Specify Temperature Controllers

Now that you’ve covered the basics of temperature controllers, you can check out
Danaher’s other handbook on how to specify them. This handbook will help you
properly select a controller for your specific application. Visit www.partlow.com
and www.westinstruments.com for more information.

About Danaher Industrial Controls Group

Danaher Industrial Controls Group (DICG) offers the world’s broadest line of
monitoring, sensing, and control automation products to satisfy a full range of
industrial factory and process applications. Customers in a wide variety of indus-
tries - from manufacturing to healthcare to government - look to DICG to meet
their factory and environmental control requirements. DICG solutions include
a comprehensive line of controllers, recorders, encoders, resolvers, counters and
timers, as well as printers/cutters, sensors and related accessories.

For over 75 years, PMA has been active in developing
leading-edge digital and electronic process and multi-
function controllers and solutions for measurement
and control. Partlow offers an equally expansive line
of process controllers and circle chart temperature
recorders equipped with diverse state-of-the-art capa-
bilities. West offers the broadest line of versatile and
affordable temperature and process controllers for the
European and Asian marketplace. Compact Hengstler controllers are trusted
for their ease of operation, value and short lead times. All are reputable and rec-
ognized world brands that are part of an expanding family of Danaher process
automation controls available around the globe and locally supported.

No company offers a broader selection of counters, timers, and indicators. Our
Veeder-Root™ brand, the best-known name in counting, offers rugged and
economical mechanical and electric totalizing counters. Veeder-Root also offers

Temperature Controller Basics Handbook

a complete line of proximity switches, sensors and mo-

tion detectors.

Under the Dynapar™ brand, a respected leader in

motion control, we offer a versatile line of rate, speed,
and multifunction indicators, and temperature/mo-
tion controllers featuring sophisticated measurement

DICG industrial encoders and resolvers span applica-
tions from heavy duty/mill-duty to light-duty office
and assembly line applications. From the strengths of
our Dynapar™, Hengstler™ and NorthStar™ brands,
we offer more than 45 types of encoders to provide
speed, linear movement and position measurement in
diverse applications. Our Harowe™ brand resolvers are
the first choice for feedback in adverse operating conditions involving extreme
temperature, high shock and vibration and dirty environments. Rugged, noise
resistant, and brushless, these resolvers are trusted for non-stop performance in
tough conditions.

Reliable Partlow and Rustrak™ brand strip and circle
chart recorders provide rugged, reliable and versatile
control of your process applications. From quality vali-
dation, trend analysis and product safety applications,
DICG recorder products offer an excellent value while
providing the benefit of a paper document record of
process results for traceability.

Timers & Indicators

Our Eagle Signal™ brand, the premier name in tim-
ing, provides indicating and control products that
reflect more than 70 years of electromechanical and
electronic design experience. Ranging from popular
electromechanical to powerful microprocessor-based

Controller Basics
control timers, we offer a full range of panel mount, reset and repeat cycle timers
as well as time delay and general purpose relays.

Want to Learn More?

DICG Solutions Partners are trained to help you find the right factory or
process automation product to improve your current processes, cut costs, and
eliminate human errors. From our broad line of reputable brand temperature
controller, recorder, encoder and counter/timer products, our partners can
provide you with a control solution that is custom-tailored to your specific needs.
For the name of a recommended DICG Solutions Partner, call us toll-free at
+1 800.390.6405 or visit our website at www.DanaherIndustrialControls.com.
With our combined 230-plus years of automation controls experience and our
worldwide network of Solutions Partners, we hope that you will consider DICG a
trusted resource in helping you find the right control solution to fit your needs.

For more information on our complete line of temperature ­controls

and their applications, visit our PMA™, Partlow™ or West™ brand websites at
www.pma-online.de, www.partlow.com or www.westinstruments.com respec-
tively. For details on our comprehensive product and services portfolio, visit our
DICG website at www.DanaherIndustrialControls.com.

Related DICG Links:


Customer Service: +1 800.390.6405
Application Support: +1 800.866.6659
© 2005 Danaher Industrial Controls Group
Controller Basics Handbook
P/N# CBH200 (7/05) 10M