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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Skills Sets
N Description No Description
o
1 Communication Skills 9 Auditing and Controls
2 Human Resource Principles 10 Testing
3 Training and Development 11 Vendor Control
4 Quality Management 12 Standards
5 Quality Assurance 13 Disaster Recovery and Security
6 Quality Control 14 Management Techniques
7 Quantitative Methods 15 Change Management
8 Reviews 16 Principles of Information System

Set Skill Name Important Points


TQM Building Blocks • Establishing TQM is performing assessment / benchmarking
analyzing the results, establishing vision based on the results
and Planning to meet the vision
• Attribute of effectiveness of IS are
o Products defects
o Process defects
• Cost of quality
• Each of above must be measured
accurately and reliably
• QIP is process of empowering the
workforce to continually solve problem and improve work
processes
TQM Strategy Dimensions • The people / process represents the approach to be employed
• Quality improvement is long term commitment
• The long term plan represents the strategy for evolving and
maturing the infrastructure / process
• TQM Optimizes creative approach to problem solving and
moves the organization from defect correction to defect
prevention
• It involves continuous process improvement
• The responsibility of quality rests with everyone
• Philosophy
• Where we are – (benchmark) current situation analyzed
through data
• Where we want to go – vision, sometimes goals and objective
• How we are going to get there – Plan (Strategic-essential,
tactical-optional)
• Approach
o Benchmark – Search for the best practices that
defines superior performance of a product, services or
support process
o Develop a vision
 Long term commitment

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


 People empowerment
 Disciplined methodology
 Training
o Develop a plan
 Strategic Quality plan
 Tactical Quality Plan
PDCA Cycle (Dr. Edward Plan (P) – Devise a plan
Deming’s Wheel) Do (D) – Execute a plan
Check (C) – Check the result
Action (A) – take necessary action
SEI Process Maturity Model
SEI – CMM Level Description
Initial Until the process is under statistical control
orderly progress in process is not possible. The
first step is to achieve rudimentary predictability
of schedule and costs
Repeatable The organization has achieved stable process
Defined The organization has defined the process so as a
basis for consistent implementation
Managed The organization has initiated comprehensive
process measurement and analysis
Optimized The organization has foundation for continuous
process improvement
Deming’s Quality Principles 1. Create constancy of purpose in the company
2. Learn a new philosophy
3. Require statistical evidence of IT quality
4. Reduction in number of vendors
5. Use statistical methods to find sources of trouble
6. Institute modern aids for on the Job training
7. Improve supervision
8. Drive out fear
9. Break down barriers between department
10. Eliminate numerical goals, slogans, pictures, posters
11. Look carefully at work standards
12. Institute massive training program for employees
13. Institute a vigorous program for retaining people in new skills
14. Create a structure in the top management that will push
every day on the above 13 points
QAI Recommended Quality 1. Meet customer true requirement
Practices 2. Produce products and services on time at lower possible cost
3. Create enthusiasm and cooperation between management and
staff for quality
4. Make work fun
5. Eliminate products inspection and testing by building
processes that produce defect free products
6. IT policies, standards and procedures must be developed,

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


continually updated and followed
7. Quality must be defined quantitatively
8. The goal of IT management and staff must be to produce
defect free products and services
9. Nonconformance must be detected as early as possible and
measured
10. IT management must accept the responsibility for
nonconformance
11. Customer ‘s view of quality is the correct view of quality
12. Your customers problem should be your problem
13. Quality work must be rewarded
14. The topics of standards and nonconformance should be
discussed at every management meeting
15. Every should be involved in quality improvement program
16. The primary aim of supervision is to make subordinate
successful
17. Worker should establish their own standards and procedures
18. Close cooperation with vendor should exists to ensure a
steady supply of right defect free products
Cost of quality The cost of quality is money spent above and beyond expected
production cost
Categories of COQ
Prevention – Cost required to prevent errors and to the jobs
right the first time
Appraisal – Cost of review of completed products against
requirement. Includes cost of inspection, testing and review
Failure – all cost associated with defective products
Category Activity
Cost of Rework
Failure - Loss
to end Cancellation
user Other
Rework
Cost of Maintenance
failure – Loss/Cancel
to IS Org. To Backlog
Lost opportunities
Inspect
Cost of
Review
appraisal
Test
Education and training
Standards and Procedures
Cost of
Problem identification definition
Prevention
Quality Process
Productivity tools and techniques
1 Constructive Criticism • The ability to criticize successfully is an acquired skill

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


• The use of effective criticism is a tool in improving
subordinates performances
• Do it privately – criticism should be given on a one-on-one
basis
• Have facts
• Be prepared to help the worker improve his/her performance
• Be specifics on expectation
• Process of giving criticism
• State the positive first
• Indicate the deficiencies in terms of products and services
produced by individual
• Get agreement that there is a problem
• Ask the sub-ordinate for advice on how to improve their
performance
• Provide suggestion
• Make a specific “contract” regarding what will happen after
the session
• Avoid making threats
1 Listening • Listening is most frequently used form of communication
• Steps of listening
• Hearing the speaker (informal, Verbal, Vocal, Body, Graphics
channels)
• Attending to the speaker
• Understanding the speaker
• Be an active listener
• Understand the situation between yourself and speaker
• Feedback is very important to the listening process
• Maintain eye contact with the speaker for 80 % of the time
Type of listening Explanation
Critical Analyze what the speaker says
Appreciative Helps understanding the real world
situation
Therapeutic Empathize and put yourself in their
situation
Discriminative Watch nonverbal expression very
closely
Comprehensive Fact gathering
2 Marketing through • Most information received by people is through visual
personal image intelligence
• The difference between a good technician and good manager
is frequently image
• Six basic attributes of executive image (James R Baehler)
o Purposeful
o Competent
o Analytical
o Decisive

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


o Confidence
o Appearance
2 Conformity Behavior • Individual people tend to conform to perceived group
standard
• The key elements are
• Identification of group
• Desired group standards
• How to deal with non conformity
2 Resolving Conflicts • Quality promotes turning problem into opportunities
• Make your customers problem your problem
• Get on your customers wavelength
• Get the facts
o Ask probing questions
o Take details notes
o Obtain feeling and attitudes
o Listen carefully to what is being said
• Establish and initiate an action program
o Admit the error if you are responsible for error
o Negotiate a satisfactory resolution with your
customer
o State the solution to your customer and get
agreement
o Take action
• Follow up with your customer
3 Developing Awareness • Awareness training should create the awareness and action of
Training Course defined topics
• Prepare awareness training
o Select awareness topic
o Identify topic’s customers
o Define awareness training objective
o Define customer’s benefits
• Develop administrative training program
o Identify awareness training attendees
o Invite attendees
o Arrange training room
o Arrange training equipments
o Arrange audio visual equipments
o Assign responsibility for training
o Solicit the highest ranking person possible to
introduce the topic
o Develop seating arrangements
o Limit training to not more than 2 hrs
o Arrange for handouts with identified key points
o Prepare training awareness agenda
• Conduct Awareness training
o Attendee’s needs

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


o Awareness topic/product
o Identify objections to product problems
o Overcome objections
o Recommend course of action
4 Controlling Organization • Organizational climate is the worker’s attitude towards their
climate organization.
• Periodically evaluate the organizational climate
• Look at the organization
• Examine the jobs within the organization
• Assess employee’s performance
• Evaluate how the employees feel about supervisor / leader
• Create a dialog between the members of the group
• Rate organizational climate
o Ideal (5)
o Good (4)
o Average (3)
o Below Average (2)
o Poor (1)
• Actions to be taken in case of negative organizational
climate (i.e 3 Points or less)
o Get feedback from the employees within a group
o Change group procedures
o Develop plan for accomplishing of group mission
o Reassign tasks
o Develop new methods
4 Identifying Effective • Not reinventing the wheel
Quality Practices through • Effective Quality assurance involves interaction with other
visits to other Companies companies
• Prohibitive cost and efforts to develop new and innovative
quality approaches
• Continually compare your quality system with other
• Need to periodically interact with other quality professionals
• Visiting other organization
• Identifying discussion area (Target Companies)
o 3 most effective quality practices
o Time frame and steps
• Identifying target company (Constraints of selection are
o Visit the competitor
o Funds available for travel
o Size of the company
o How mature is Quality assurance function
• Scheduling the visit
o Identify yourself and your company
o State the purpose/ objective of the visit
o Stress for mutual benefit would arise from the
visit

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


o Get approval for the visit
o Set date, time and agenda for the visit
• Conducting the visit
o Introduction
o State the objective of the visit
o Visit the facility of the company and describe
your facility
o Discuss each item on agenda during the visit
o Exchange written documentation
o Agree on the use of information
o Present memorabilia
o Put new practices to use
4 Understanding and using • Supply each process exactly with required items, in exactly
just in time (JIT) required quantity and exactly required time
technique • Large amounts of production flexibility
(Taiichi Ohno) • Ultra short lead time
• Single minute exchange of dies (SMED)
• The implementation of JIT is driven by the goal of inventory
reduction
• System development and maintenance tasks become driven
when the user of an internal or external product or services
need it
• System and programmers would not be given information and
documents to store until they need them
• Internal information processes would be designed so that the
individuals can move from job to job with minimal delay
4 Malcolm Baldrige National • The award promotes
Quality Award Program • Awareness of quality as an increasingly important element in
competitiveness
• Understanding of the requirement for quality excellence
• Sharing information on successful quality strategy
• The award is based on TQM model
• To be successful, quality improvement programs must be
management lead and customer oriented
• Examination Categories
Category Description
Leadership How senior executives create and sustain a
clear and visible quality system
Information and The scope, Validity, use and management of
analysis data and information that underlines the
company total quality system
Strategic quality The companies planning process for
planning retaining or achieving quality leadership and
how the company integrates quality
improvement planning into overall business
planning

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


Human resource The effectiveness of the company’s efforts
utilization to develop and utilize the full potential of
the work force for quality and to maintain
an environment conductive to full
participation.
Quality Systematic approaches used by company
assurance of for total quality control of goods and
products and services based on process design and
services control
Quality Results Quality levels and quality improvement
based upon objective measure derived from
analysis
Customer Overall customer service system,
satisfaction responsiveness and its ability to meet
requirement and expectation

Scoring Dimensions in an examination items


Dimension Description
Approach Refers to the methods the company uses to
achieve the purpose addressed
Deployment Refers to the extent to which the
approaches are applied to the relevant
areas and activities addressed and implied
Results Refers to outcome and effects in achieving
the purpose addressed and implied

4 The concepts of corporate


vision / Goals / Principles / Process Definition
Values Vision Upper management sets vision and defines the
mission
Goals Middle/ Operational management set goals and
objective that support mission and establish
process to achieve the goals / objective
Principles How business must be conducted
• General – established by senior Management
• Specific – established by operational
management
Values Building Blocks, Established by senior
management
5 Differentiating Quality • Quality means meeting requirement, customers needs
Control and Quality • Quality means defect free products (Fit to use)
Assurance • Quality is attribute of a product
• Services are form of products
• Management is responsible for quality
• Producer must be involved in quality control
• Quality is a journey not a destination

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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• The objective of quality is continuous improvement
Quality Control Quality Assurance
Product quality is Activity, which establishes and
compared with applicable evaluates the processes, which
standards and action taken produce the products.
when non conformance is
detected
Verifies specific Process are established and
attributes of the products continuously improved to
produce products that meets
specification and are fit to use
Specific products and Sets measurement program to
services evaluate process
Focuses on inspection, Identifies weakness in the
Testing and removal of process and improves them
the defects
Responsibility of worker Responsibility of Management
Concerned with specific Sometimes called as quality
products control over quality control
5 Differentiating Auditing • Generally accepted criteria
from Quality Assurance o Codes of ethics
o Statement of responsibility (different)
o Program of continuing education
o CBOK (different)
o Certification Program
Auditing Quality Assurance
Is an independent appraisal Implementing the quality policy
activities through developing and
improving process
Whether activities are
performed in accordance
with policies and procedures
Performed in an effective,
economical and efficient
manner
Whether an activity meets
the business objectives
Find and report problems Find and implement solutions
for the problem
6 Using a Quality Control • Most important quality control tool is Checklist
Checklist • Factual – whether document naming convention is complied
with
• Investigative – meeting the intent of a standard or
compliance
• Quality Control checklist

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


o Determine the objective of Quality Control
checklist
o Quality control means complete compliance to
standards
o Understand the content and intent of Quality
Control questions
o Rehearse the use of the checklist
o Worker gain proficiency through practice and
experience
o Conduct the investigation necessary to answer
quality control questions
o Answer and document quality control questions
o Use quality control Results
• The purpose of quality control is to surface defects
7 Present value of money This principle enable to translate future dollars into current
dollars
7 Identifying significant • The Pareto chart identifies the significant few from trivial
problems by using a Pareto many
Chart (Dr. Juran) • Organized ranking of causes of problem by type of cause
• 20% of the causes account for 80% of the frequency
• Steps involved
o Identify the problem Area
o Identify and name causes of the problem
o Document the occurrence of the causes of the
problem
o Rank the causes by frequency
7 Pareto Analysis • Is designed to rank items by frequency
• Steps for preparing Pareto analysis
o Name the events that will be analyzed
o Count the name incidences
o Rank the count by frequency (Using Bar Chart)
o Validate reasonableness of the Pareto analysis
7 Principles of function • Function points are work product measures
Points • Function points provide an objective measure of application
“SIZE” that can be used to compare different kinds of
systems
• Measurement process
• Quantifying the amount of information processing function
o External Input Type
o External output Type
o Internal logical File type
o External Interface File Type
o External Inquiry Type
• Quantifying System Characteristics
o Data communication
o Distributed functions

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


o Performance
o Heavily used configuration
o Transaction rate
o On-line data entry
o End user efficiency
o On-line update
o Complex processing
o Reusability
o Installation ease
o Operation ease
o Multiple sites
o Facilitate change
• Determining the degree of influence
1. Unadjusted function point is produced
a. The number of functions in of the 5 categories is
multiplied by predefined weighing factor
b. The weighted figure from each category is added
to produced an unadjusted function point
2. An unadjusted factor is produced from system
characteristics
a. The degree of influence rating (0-5) for 14
characteristics are added
b. The total is multiplied with .01
c. The above result is added to .65
3. The actual function pt metric is calculated
a. The result of step 1 is multiplied by step 2
7 Counting function points • Only function points that actually changes application data is
emphasizing function type counted as an external input type
• Sometimes processes and data have more than one function
• Count on-line error message output as one external output
type
7 Principles of Internal • ISLA is an ongoing negotiation and improvement process
Service – Level Agreement whose purpose is to satisfy customer needs in an efficient,
effective and economical manner
• The objective is to create working partnership between a
service provider and customer to that service
7 Making Judgmental • Quality assurance analysts must answer managements
Estimation Sample question regarding the extensiveness of the problem
• The frequency of severity of events can be estimated using
o Judgmental sampling
o Statistical sampling
• Steps
o Identify population and population characteristics
to be estimated
o Select a judgment sample
o Challenge the validity of the sample

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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o Extrapolate the sample to the entire population
8 Making System Proposal • The proposal presentation meeting gives the customer the
Presentation chance to ask questions about areas of concern to them
• The oral system proposal should be integrated part of the
System Development Methodologies
• The activity of making system proposal is a project
management activity as well as marketing opportunity
• Parts of presentation
• Preparing a system proposal
o Problems to be solved
o System proposal solution constraints
o The proposed solution
o Impact on people
o Impact on other system
o Impact on costs
o How to improve the projects
• Making a system proposal
o Start and finish your discussion on time
o Make the contents of your discussions serve your
customer’s needs
o Think in broad concepts as apposed to specific
concepts
o Use the term which are understood by audience
o Give examples to support all points you cover
o Issue handouts to summarize your briefing
• Closing a system proposal
o Get approval to proceed in accordance with the
proposal
o Be prepared for the close at any time during the
presentation
o Remember many sales have been lost because of
too much of information.
9 Financial Application • Internal Control – The plan of the organization in methods
Control Standards and procedures adopted by management to ensure that
resource use is consistent with laws, regulation and policies
• The responsibility of internal control rests with the
management
• What needs to be controlled
• Standards are
o Documentation
 An agency’s internal control objectives,
techniques and accountability systems
 All pertinent aspects of transactions and
other significant events of an agency
o Recording of transactions and events
 The entire process or life cycle of a

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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transaction or event and includes the initiation and
authorization
 All aspects of the transaction while in
process
 Final classification in summary records
o Execution of transactions and events
 Management decisions to exchange,
transfer, use or commit resources for specifics
purposes under specific condition
o Separation of duties
 To reduce the risks of error, waste, or
wrongful acts
 To reduce the risks of going undetected
o Supervision
 Clearly communicate the duties and
responsibilities
 Systematically reviewing each member’s
work to the extend necessary
 Approving work at critical points to ensure
that work flows as intended
o Access to and accountability for resources
 Keep them locked in a safe
 Assigning each document in sequential
number
 Assigning custodial accountability to
responsible individual
9 How to Design a Control • Control is very important part of quality
• Risk is the probability that some undesirable event may occur
• Control is reducing the probability of risk

Process Definition
Preventive Attempts to stop an undesirable event for
occurring
Detective Identify undesirable event once its occurs
Corrective Attempts to remedy an unfavorable event once it
has occurred
• Risk has attributes like
o Impact
o Magnitude
• Ways of reducing Risks
o Reduce the frequency of the error occurrence
o Controlling the opportunity of the error
occurrence
• Controls are categorized as
o Identify the risks
o Determine whether probability or loss is the

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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largest
o For selected characteristics determine which of
type of risks control appear most effective
o Select a control which will accomplish that
objective
10 Unit testing for the • The goal of testing is to reveal errors not removed during
individual programmer debugging
• Planning is key to successful testing
o Organize test team
o Define test objective
o Define functions to tested
o Define types of test
o Develop function/test matrix
o Define test conditions/expected results
o Select test tools
o Define administrative test requirements
• Test tools (Manual / Automated) which improve the
effectiveness of test methods are
o Capture /Playback
o Checklists
o Code comparison
o Static code analyzer
o Instrumentation
o Modeling
o Test data generator
o Test scenarios
• The tests are executed and the test results and compared
with actual results. The consideration should be given to
o Splitting test into cases
o Finding/ creating test data to meet conditions
o Sequencing test (Scripting)
o Incident management
• Test case design methods
o Boundary value analysis
o Equivalence partitioning
o Error guessing
o Multiple condition testing
• Independent analysis is strongly advocated
• Divide the conquer is the rule for testing
• The amount of testing is dependent on the cost of an error
• Verification must take place throughout the development
process
• Testing is the technique to minimize errors

Process Definition
Validation Determination of the correctness of the final

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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program or software produced from a
development project with respect to the user
needs and requirements
Certification Acceptance of software by an authorized agent
Verification Demonstration of consistency, completeness
and correctness of the software at each stage
and between each stage of the development
cycle
Testing Examination of behavior of the program on
sample data
Proof of Use of techniques of logic to infer than an
Correctness assertion assumed true at program entry
Program The process of correcting syntactic an logical
debugging errors detected during coding
Test data A subset of the domain used in testing
processing
Unit Testing Testing of source code by an individual for
defects
Integration Combine testing of various modules
Testing
Regression Testing during maintenance
testing
UAT Testing the product by the end user

Test Level Recommended Party


Unit Testing Programmer who wrote the code
Integration Project team analyst who deisgned the system
Testing
System Independent test team or project team
Testing
11 Installing Data Processing • Event - Transition from one task to another
Tool • Tool usage will be initiated only in response to an expressed
management goal for software development or for the entire
computing function
• Activities associated with introduction of tools
o Identify the goal to be met by the tools
o Approving the detailed tool acquisition plan
o Approving the procurement plan
o Determine after some time period of tool use
whether the goals have been met
• Software management is assigned responsibility for
o Identifying the tool objective
o Approving the acquisition plan
o Defining selection criteria
o Making final selection of the tool or the source
• Software engineer is responsible for

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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o Identifying candidate tool
o Applying selection criteria
o Preparing rank list of tools or sources
• Difficulties of introducing tools
o Tool does not meet the recognized needs of the
organization
o Difficult to use
o Requires excessive computer resources
o Lacks adequate documentation
• Tool acquisition which do not obtain the concurrence of all
affected operational elements frequently do not achieve
their objective
• Procurement type
o Formal
 Acquisition Plan
 Technical Requirement Document
 User Review of requirements
 RFP generation
 Solicitation of proposals
 Technical Evaluation
 Source selection
o Informal
 Acquisition Plan
 Selection criteria
 Identify candidate tool
 User Review of candidates
 Score candidates
 Select tool
• Event sequence
o Goals
o Tools Objectives
o Procure tool
o Evaluation Plan
o Tool smithing Plan
o Training Plan
o Receive tool
o Acceptance testing
o Orientation
o Modifications
o Training
o Evaluation Report
o Goals meet
11 Installing Computer Aided • The objective is to automate the process of developing
Software Engineering information system
technology • System Development Methodology - Engineering approaches
to system development

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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• Four part of every work bench are
Criteria Description
Exit Criteria Quality attributes need to be defined for
each products
Work The procedures that will be performed by the
group / Individual in order to create the
desired output products from input products
Standards The rules / measures by which the finished
output products will be measured. Measures
against which management can assure that its
policies have been complied with
Exit Criteria The process that measures the attributes of
the output products against the standards for
those products
• The cost of rework is the cost associated with the failure to
do the job right the first time
• Steps in installation of CASE Technology
o Standardize the environment
o It requires establishing the workbench.
o The process used in system development must be
defined in terms of standards and procedures
o Automate an individual component of the process
o Integrate various tools
12 Documentation Policy and • Documentation problems
Planning • Lack of documentation
• Incomplete documentation
• Inaccurate documentation
o Causes of problems
o Low priority assigned to documentation
o Lack of resources
o Lack of planning
o Failure to specify
o Personal attitudes
• Solutions to problems
o There must be management and staff commitment
to documentation
o Commitment to be backed by management support
in terms of appropriate guidance and positive incentives
for the staff to develop documentation
o Visible evidence of commitment
 Policies must be documented
 Documentation effort needs to be planned
 Organizational climate must be conducive
to documentation work
• Establishing the documentation policy
o S/W documentation does play a vital role during

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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Planning, development and operation of the system
o Policies should support basic elements of
documentation
 Documentation should be managed
 Documentation should be of a specific
quality, up to date and accurate
 Documentation should be prepared for
variety of users
 Documentation efforts should be
integrated
 Supports tools should be specified
 Existing standards should be specified
• Developing the documentation plan
o Planning is necessary ingredient of project
o Documentation plan
o Document type of contents
o Standardized documents formats are essential
for maintenance and QC
o Schedule
o Project Librarian
o Storage of vital documentation
o Document review
o Requirements review
o Design review – system, Preliminary, critical
13 Quantifying Risk • The objective of risk analysis is to help data to help data
processing management to strike an economic balance
between the impact of risks and the cost of protective
measure
• Elements of risk
o Impact
o Frequency (likelihood)
Frequency = times per day / number of days
Loss = impact * frequency
RE - Risk Exposure
14 Information system • Leadership is determining where you need to be and then
leadership practices doing what is necessary to get there
• Leadership is the ability to build the commitment of
employees
• Fundamental Mistakes
o Isolation
o Inability to reward
o Lack of business perspective
• Practices that need to be used for leadership
o Assess the real business needs
o Provide problem-solving vision
o Understand and work with human nature

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

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o Stay in touch with customers/producers
o Set priorities
o Set standards for performance
14 FIRO B (how to establish • FIRO – Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation
group compatibility) • Inclusion is the need to associate with others and the need
W.C. Shultz for togetherness
• Control refers to decision making process between people
• Affection refers to close personal and emotional feeling
between two individual
• Interchange compatibility is based on the mutual expression
of inclusion control and affection
• Originator compatibility is derived from originator-receiver
dimension of interaction
• Reciprocal compatibility reflects the degree to which two
persons reciprocally satisfy each other’s behavior
preferences
14 Controlling Meetings • The art of collaboration is extremely important for the
project to be successful
• An individual must know the difference between the content
and the process of the meeting
1. Plan agenda, note time to be spent on each agenda item
2. The attendees should know their role and responsibility
3. Identify issues, use intervention techniques to handle
difficult people
4. Encourage attendees to contribute fully
5. Repeat and note suggestion
6. Help reach clear agreement on the issues
7. Repeat decision made
8. Set time to implement the decision made
14 Effective use of Taskforce • A task force is defined as a cross functional activity
organized for specific purpose
• Task force are better for decision making then they are for
problem solving
• Task force is a mechanism for focusing attention on high
priority problems and making decision relating to those
problems
• Task force management principles
o The leader should be an expert in leading groups
o Should include individuals from all related areas
o Task force should encompass the best people
available in the organization
o Task force should be organized for single purpose
o The taskforce needs to have clear description of
the problems to be addressed
o The output of the task force should be
recommended course of action

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


• Task force organization principles
o The task force should be limited to three to eight
members
o The task force work should begin as soon as the
need is recognized
o Finish the task force activity as quickly as
possible
o Meet on neutral ground
o Appoint someone for recording all significant
information
o Do not permit discussion of task force business
with outside individual
15 Group Think (Irving Janis) • Group think is that changes group decision from potentially
incorrect solution to the best solution
• Characteristics of group think
o Highly cohesive group
o Collective efforts to rationalize negative
information
o Tendency to ignore ethical and moral
consequences
o Active pressure to change views
• Prevention of group think for faulty decision
o Use outside experts as resources
o Breakup into sub-group for discussion
o Give more time to group to think over the problem
o Refrain group members to give personal opinion
15 Obtaining Staff suggestion • The people involved in suggestion day are
Using suggestion day o Quality assurance manager
Approach o Data processing manager
o Group moderator
o Participants
Responsibility Action
QA Manager Develop one days suggestion proposal
DP Manager Approve suggestion day concept
DP Manager Issue announcement regarding suggestion
day
QA Manager Identify the problem areas for discussion
QA Manager Categorization and Consolidate the individual
identified problem into worksheet
QA Manager Create suggestion day work groups of
approx 8 members each
QA Manager Appoint a moderator for each group
QA Manager Complete suggestion day assignment
worksheet
DP Manager All group members to assemble in a common
area

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Preparation Material for Certified Quality Analyst (CQA)

Set Skill Name Important Points


Responsibility Action
Group Plan the day prior to commencing the
Moderator suggestion day operation
Group Address each problem as a group with
Moderator purpose of developing and documenting
solution
Group Top ranked suggestion for each problem
Moderator should be documented
DP Manager Reconvene the group to their suggestion
Group Report group recommendation
Moderator
QA Manager Review and implement appropriate
suggestion/ recommendation
DP Manager Report to the data processing staff on the
utilization of their recommendation
16 Four type of prototyping • Four operational objective of prototyping are
o User Interface Development (UID) –
Development of the system interface which take inputs
from the end users
o Functional Development (FD) – Actual Processing
is done producing information
o Machine Performance Evaluation (MPE) –
Determination of response time or memory associated
with various design alternatives
o Application Development (AD) – encompasses the
user interface

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