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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


EG 701 ME Mechanical Engineering Design

Instructor : SS Adig
a.

Introduction What is Mechanical Engineering Design?

Design is act that deals with conversion of ideas into reality and, as in
other forms of
human activity, aims at fulfilling human needs. Design means to pull to
gether some thing
new or arrange existing things in a new way to satisfy a recognized ne
ed of society.
Design is the product of planning and work. We can say it is to “ fashio
n after a plan” and “ dream comes true”.

Engineering
is the proper methods of utilization of the resources and laws of natur
e to
benefit humanity. That is the act of conversing raw material to useful
product.

Engineering Design is the action as design in engineering way.


Most engineering
designs involve a multitude of considerations, and it is challenge to
the engineer to
recognize all of them in proper proportion. They may include :
1.1. “Traditional” consideration
For body of the component > strength deflection weight size and
shape. For surface of the component > wear lubrication corrosion -
frictional forces friction heat generated.
2.2. Cost
3.3. Modern consideration > safety ecology quality of life
4.4. Miscellaneous consideration > reliability maintain ability aes
thetics.

Mechanical Engineering Design involves the knowledge of streng


th of materials,
properties of materials, metallurgy, production techniques, theory of
machines, applied
mechanics… etc. The fundamental principles of these subjects have t
o be applied in
evolving a design. The areas on dealing with this type of design are wi
th conception
design, development, refinement, and application of machines and m
echanical apparatus
of all kinds. The basic concern is with the creative and intelligent appli
cation of solid
mechanics and related sciences to “real life” situations, not confined t
o component level
but extending to system level and further to social and community le
vel.

Industrial design is a branch of engineering design. Besides all


requirements in
engineering design industrial design is closely linked with industri
al activity and
production. The design is for satisfactory function of the product,
economic
manufacturing with lowest possible cost to assure a profit on its sale. T
he aim of design is
for “design for production”. While designing for production suggestions
from user,
management, production and tool engineers, which is followed during t
he design state,
will result in a sound design for a product and in its convenient and eco
nomical
production. The complete product design, including all details, must be
carefully studied,
while still in drawing stage, to determine whether both function and pr
oductionability
are satisfied. Whatever changes are necessary in the design, must be
made before a
product is in production, since, changes made afterwards will prove to
be very costly.
Again, when a new product is planned, the designer has to bear in min
d the available
resources of the plant and the possible impact of the firm having to ac
quire, modify or
substitute existing machines and equipment or buy various component
s from other
suppliers. It is therefore obvious that product development and design
is at the core of the
development and growth of the production center and its departments
in industrial environment.
Engineer’s role in society, required skill and additional
qualities favor him as design engineer.

Engineer’s job description and position, in general, is consider


ed to lay in
between Scientists and Technician as well as Crafts men in technical
field. Where as
Scientists role is to create, invent, discover and prove and Technicia
ns role is to detail,
interpret, direct application, control, test and install and Crafts men
role is to produce,
fabricate, operate, maintain Engineers have to design, lay out, conc
eive, develop, estimate and apply in their job area.

Engineer’s success depends upon the skill they acquired either for des
ign or estimate and apply.
Engineer’s skill includes in the following areas:
1.1. Inventiveness 2. Engineering analysis 3. Engineering
science 4. Interdisciplinary ability 5. Mathematical skill 6.
Decision making
2.7. Manufacturing process 8.Communication skill

Unlike yesterday engineers of today can avail more exposure to resour


ces, collects information, interact with people and assess easily the-
stateoftheart. Due to the fast and
ever growing in technology the views and approaches of engineer’s of t
omorrow will be
different from engineer’s of yesterday. Comparison between engineer’s
of yesterday and of tomorrow is summarized below.

Engineer’s of yesterday of tomorrow

1.1. analytical innovative, creative


2.2. limited information global information
3.3. slow technology growth technology explosion
4.4. job market dependent self employed
5.5. hardware dependent software dependent
6.6. local competition global competition
7.7. emphasis on teaching emphasis on learning
8.8. brick and mortar click and browse
9.9. job security job uncertainty

Qualities required in a Designer


It is not sufficient for a designer to have high intellectual power alone
but he must have
an inventive and intuitive mind, and the following characterbased and
personal capabilities and qualities:
1.1. Imaginative power. A good designer must have high imaginative
power to
visualize bodies, static forces and stresses, dynamic phenomena, hydr
aulic forces
and flow conditions, electrical and thermal phenomena. As new design
s are made
by combination of the basic structural elements and exploitation of the
scientific discoveries, a designer must have the capacity to integrate.
2.2. logical thinking.
3.3. Good memory
4.4. Conscientiousness
5.5. Inventive talent and good judgment
6.6. Ability to concentrate
7.7. Sense of responsibility and selfconfidence.
8.8. Integrity
9.9. Harmonious and balanced temperament
10.10. Ability to speak and write skillfully
11.11. Simulation skill, and skill in experimentation and measurement.
12.12. Environmental Consciousness
13.13. Aesthetic sense and ergonomies.
14.14. Reporting design
15.15. Skill in optimization.

Analysis and Creativity : Some rules for design

Creativity in design involves synthesis of new and old ideas to produ


ce a new
concept.
According to Alger and Hayes, creativity in the solution of a probl
em is measured by

1.1. The extent to which the choice is successful in solving the proble
m;
2.2. the extent to which the choice made is unusual with respect to th
ose solution

choices that might most commonly be realized.


Thus, a creative solution must be an original solution to the problem. C
reativity is
measured by the imagination and effectiveness of the design.
To stimulate creative thought, the following rules are suggested for the
designer and
analyst. The first six rules are particularly applicable for the analyst, alt
hough he or she may become involved with all ten rules.
1.1. Apply ingenuity to utilize desired physical properties and to
control undesired
ones. Ingenuity in design should be applied to utilize and control the
physical properties that are desired and to minimize those that are not
desired.
Examples are: Flexibility is desired in the valve springs but not in the v
alve
camshaft. Friction is desired at the clutch face but not in the clutch bea
rings.
2.2. Recognize functional loads and
their significance. Functional loads are those
which are inherent to the function performed by the machine or its co
mponents.
When several types of loading occur, their worst possible combination
during a
cycle of operation should be determined for its effect on performance a
nd reliability.
Examples are : Centrifugal forces with cranks. Gyroscopic forces with hi
gh speed
turbine discs. Fatigue loading conditions with rotating shafts.
3.3. Anticipate unintentional
loads. Unintentional loading conditions are those not
inherent to the functions of the machine.
Examples are : Eccentric forces in a bolt due to offcenter contact under
the head.
Rigid coupling of two shafts not in alignment. Excessive vibration at op
erating speeds. General handling and shipping forces.
4.4. Devise more favorable loading
conditions. A good design provides more
favorable conditions for the functional and unintentional loads.
Examples are : A crank shaft is balanced by counter weights and by th
e
arrangements of several throws. The even number of friction planes in
a plate
clutch avoids thrust loads external to the clutch while engaged. The hel
ix angles
of two helical gears on the same shaft may be engaged to give zero ne
t end thrust.
5.5. Provide for favorable stress distribution and stiffness with
minimum weight.
On components subjected to fluctuating stresses, particular attention
must be
given to a reduction in stress concentration, and to an increase of stren
gth at
fillets, threads, holes, and interference fits. Stress reduction can be ma
de by modifications in shape, and strengthening may be done by pre-
stressing treatments such as surface rolling and shallow hardening.
Examples are : Hollow shafts and tubing, and box, flanged, and ribbed
sections
give favorable stress distributions, together with stiffness and minimu
m weight.
6.6. Use basic equations to proportion and optimize dimensions : The
fundamental equations of mechanics and the other sciences are the ac
cepted bases
for calculations. They are sometimes rearranged in special forms to fac
ilitate the
determination or optimization of dimensions, such as the beam and sur
face stress
equations for determining gear tooth size. Factors may be added to a f
undamental
equation for conditions not analytically determinable. In siruations whe
re data are
incomplete, equations of the sciences may be used as proportioning gu
ides to extend a satisfactory design to new capacities.
Examples are : On thin steel tubes, an allowance for corrosion added to
the thickness based on pressure.
7.7. Choose materials for a combination of
properties. Materials should be chosen
for a combination of properties, not only for strengths, hardness, and w
eight but
also for impact, corrosion, low and high temperatures, cost, weldability
, ..etc.
8.8. Select carefully between stock and integral
components A previously
developed component is frequently selected by a designer and his or h
er company
from the stocks of parts manufacture, if the component meets the perf
ormance
and reliability requirements and is adaptable without additional develo
pment cost to a particular machine being designed.
Example is : gears to be forged in clusters or integral with a shaft.
9.9. Modify a functional design to fit the manufacturing process and
reduce
cost. Modified shapes may be needed to produce sound castings, forgi
ngs, or weldments free of voids and cracks.
Example is : A hollow box section might be specified for a weldment or
a T or ribbed section would be specified for a casting.
10.10. Provide for accurate location and noninterference of parts in
assembly. A
good design provides for the correct locating of parts and for easy asse
mbly and repair.
11.
Example is : Shoulders and pilot surfaces give accurate l
ocation without measurement during assembly.

Recognition of need

Identifying need is the first step and integral part for the design
process. Need is the desire to achieve something. The ultimate goal for
engineers in engineering design is to fulfill the need of human beings
in the form of a new or modified version of the product. A consumer of
a product is likely to recognize a need when he is faced with a problem
or dissatisfied with the existing situation.
The problem may be of two types :
(a) Actual state type of problem – A product may not be performing
properly or dissatisfactions with the product for its cost, shape, weight,
power consumption … etc. Example: The mixer does not grind properly
– question of reliability and performance. The cast and the power
consumption of the refrigerator X is very high.
(b) Desired state type of problem – The requirement of some thing
new. Some thing more sophisticated than before. Bored with the same
item, some thing new for a change Example : Regular telephone
connection in the house is sufficient but wanted to have mobile phone
for more convenience. Bored with using the same
motor bike since six years, wanted to go for Maruti car.
12.
Though customers are the main source to say what is needed for the
society distributors, salesperson, service men in the field, Research
personnel in R & D can also contribute substantially in design process.

The definition of a problem

The definition of a problem is a “ Formal Problem Statement” which


should express as specifically as possible what the design is intended
to accomplish. It should include objectives and goals, definitions of any
special technical terms, the constraints placed on the design, and the
criteria that will be used to evaluate the design. To prepare the formal
problem statement the following five step method can be followed.
1.1. Gather raw data from the customers.
2.2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customers needs.
3.3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary and, if
necessary, tertiary needs.
4.4. Establish the relative importance of the needs.
5.5. Reflect on the result and the process.
13.
1.1. Gather raw data from customers : (a) by interviews :by meeting
personally or through questionnaire . (b) by market research (c) by
observing the product in actual use (c) by taking suggestions from lead
users. ( Lead users are those who actually and seriously often use the
product and are innovative who could struggle with the inadequacies
of existing product and again they have already invented
solutions to meet their needs.)
2.2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs :
14.
(a) Express the need in terms of what the product has to do, not in
terms of how it might do it ? Example : Customer statement – I need
to drive screws fast, faster than by hand. Interpreted need – The Screw
driver drives screws faster than by hand ( for
probable solution : use electric power, pneumatic drive, .. ?)
(b) Express the need as specifically as the raw data – not to exaggerat
e or curtail.
(c) Use positive, not negative phrasing : write as ‘the power driven
screw driver is protected from accidental shorting’ but not as ‘ The
power driven screw driver is covered by plastic box.
(d) Express the need as an attribute of the product.
(e) Avoid the words MUST or SHOULD.
15.
3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy
(a) Write each need statement
(b) Eliminate redundant statements
(c) Group to the similarity of the needs
(d) Label them according to the group
(e) Create subgroup
(f) Review and edit the organized needs statements
4. Establish the relative importance of the needs A sense of the
relative importance of the various needs is essential to making
hierarchy correctly. The importance of feature on scale of 1 to 5 can be
indicated. As an example, the relative importance of the needs for the
design of a power driven screwdriver can be established as :
1.1. The screwdriver maintains power for several hours of heavy use.
2.2. The SD can drive screws into hard wood.
3.3. The SD speed can be controlled by the user while turning a screw
.
4.4. The SD has a pleasant sound when in use.
2. 5. Reflect on the results and the process. Ensure that the product is
focused on customer needs and that no critical customer
16.
need is forgotten. Assignment : Choose a product that continually
annoys you. Identify the needs the
developers of this product missed.
Why do you think
these needs were
not
met ? Do you

think the d
evelopers deliber
ately ignored the
se needs ?

Relations between functional requirements

A product designed for proper functioning is essential aspect. The


design must meet the
required specifications. Each element in the product is to function
properly as required
and in coordination with other element.
A product can be thought of in both Functional and Physical terms. The
functional
elements of a product are the individual operations and
transformations that contribute to
the overall performance of the product. (Example : For a printer in
computer set up is to
store paper and communicate with host computer) The physical
elements of a product are
the parts, components and subassemblies that ultimately implement
the product’s
functions. The physical elements become more defined as
development progresses. Some
physical elements are dictated by the product concept, and others
become defined during
the detail design phase.
Safety, Reliability, Ecology, Maintainability, Availability, Repairability
are important
considerations in design.
Safety :
There are many conditional safety standards for products. They include
to judge if they
are

(a) as safe as they can possibly be (b) safe according to the industry
wise standards (c) safe if used in manner and situations specified in
the instructions (d) safe for a child who may behave impulsively.

Reliability :
Reliability may be defined as “ the probability of a device performing
its purpose
adequately for the period of times intended under the operating
conditions encountered”.
The various aspects of building reliability into the design process from
the conceptual
stage to product operational stage is illustrated below.

Theoret
ical base analysis
Materials &
Scheduled
inspection
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Process
specifications

an
d maintenance
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Customer

Preliminary

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Design Testing Quality control Repair &
replacement
criteri
a
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00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
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043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
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00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000
Experience base.

Elements of integrating reliability into design proces


s.

Maintainability
Maintainability is concerned with the ease, economy, and safety of
performing maintenance functions to minimize maintenance time and
maximize the time that the system is in productive service. Availability
is the probability that a system or piece of equipment will operate
satisfactorily when called upon. Repair ability refers to the ease
with which a failed part may be repaired and put back into service.

Physical realizability of product design. A design should be convertible


into material goods and services, means it must be physically
realizable. The technique for determining the physical realizability is
termed design tree approach. In this approach, the success of a design
concept ( say, D in the figure bellow) depends on the success of its
subproblems ( Q1 & Q2 ). Now, let D11,
D12 …. Represent alternative solutions of Q1 and
D21, D22 … represent alternative solutions of Q2 and so on., then

The probability equations are:


P (D) = P(Q1) x P(Q2)
P (Q1) = P(D11 or D12) = P(D11) + P(D12) – P(D11)P(D12)
P (Q2) = P(D21 or D22) = P(D21) + P(D22) – P(D21)P(D22)
The probability values of D11, D12, D21, D22 should be estimated
from practical
considerations.

Design Concept D
Q1Q2 Q3

D11 D12 D21 D22 D23 D31 D32

D111 D112
Design Tree Concept

Economic worthiness :The design, ultimately, must have a utility to the


consumer which equals or exceeds the sum of the total costs of
making it available to him. For example, a bulb with luminous intensity
3 and life 4 on a 10point scale has a lower
utility than a bulb with luminous intensity 2.5 and life 5.

Optimality :The choice of a design concept must be optimal amongst


the available alternatives; the selection of the chosen design must be
optimal among all design proposals. Optimal design, in theory, strives
to achieve the best of optimization under constraints for mechanical
strength, minimum weight and minimum cost are usually
taken as criteria for optimization. Communication :A design is a
description of an object and prescription for its production; it will exist
to the extent it is expressed in the available modes of communication.
The best way to communicate a design is through drawings, which is
the universal language of designer. Three dimensional renderings or
cutaway views help explain the design to the sponsor or user of the
design. The present day impact of computer aided modeling and
drafting has resulted in very effective communication
between the designer and the sponsor.
MATERIAL SELECTION

While selecting materials for manufacturing, in the initial evaluation of


material alternatives, many can be rejected on the basis of absolute
product parameters such as strength requirement achievable by the
mechanical properties of the selected materials ( σ u, σ y, σ en, wear…
etc.), conductivity by thermal properties, density, melting point and
other required properties. These selection criteria are directly related
to product specifications. Besides product specifications materials also
meet performance specifications. Performance specifications delineate
the basic functional requirements of the product and set out the basic
parameters from which the design can be developed. They are based
on the need the product is intended to satisfy and an evaluation of the
likely risk and consequences of failure. Performance specification requi
rements are :
(a) Function – This is based on the through understanding of the
product application, the functions the product must perform in terms of
mechanical, physical, electrical and thermal properties of the material.
(b) Appearance – The material makes a major contribution to the
aesthetics of product. Compact, nicely shaped, attractive color
products jump ahead in the market.
(c) Reliability – Reliability is gaining greater importance as a
criterion for material selection due to increasing consumer demand for
trouble free products.
(d) Service life – Larger the length of service life over which the
material
maintains its desirable characteristics is important consideration.
(e) Environment – Environment effect, harmful, is to be minimum to
which the material is exposed during the product life.
(f) Compatibility – When more than one type of material is used in a
product or assembly, material work harmoniously with each other.
(g) Producibility –The selection of material in relation to the ease of
producibility of an item is an important consideration.
(h) Cost – Because cost is so important in selecting materials, it is
logical to consider cost at the out set of the materials selection
process. A detailed cost comparison is not possible at the concept of
formulation stage, but it is often possible to set a target cost and
eliminate the materials that
obviously are too expensive. (example: silver wire for transmission line
)

INFORMATION FLOW BETWEEN THE ACTIVITIES IN THE DESIGN


PROCESS

Primitive need
ffd8ffe000104a4649460001020100c800c80000ffe20c584943435f505
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58595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000
49454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000
000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000116
3707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c777470740
00001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a0000021800
0000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a000002400000001464
6d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887675656400
00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
1393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900
00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000
Feasibili
ty study Phase I

Prelimina
ry Design
ffd8ffe000104a4649460001020100c800c80000ffe20c584943435f505
24f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474220
58595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000
49454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000
000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000116
3707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c777470740
00001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a0000021800
0000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a000002400000001464
6d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887675656400
00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
1393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900
00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000

Preliminary design Phase II

Detailed design Phase III

ffd8ffe000104a4649460001020100c800c80000ffe20c584943435f505
24f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474220
58595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000
49454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000
000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000116
3707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c777470740
00001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a0000021800
0000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a000002400000001464
6d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887675656400
00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
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00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000

Phase related to production

ffd8ffe000104a4649460001020100c800c80000ffe
20c584943435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c
696e6f021000006d6e74725247422058595a2007ce
00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000
00049454320735247420000000000000000000000
000000f6d6000100000000d32d4850202000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00001163707274000001500000003364657363000
001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7
07400000204000000147258595a00000218000000
146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024
000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464
000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676
696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f80000
00146d6561730000040c000000247465636800000
4300000000c725452430000043c0000080c6754524
30000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7
465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292
031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b617264
20436f6d70616e7900006465736300000000000000
12735247422049454336313936362d322e3100000
00000000000000000127352474220494543363139
36362d322e3100000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000
Phase IV Consumption cycle Planning for distributi
on Phase V

Planning for consumption


Phase VI

Planning for retirement Phase VII

ffd8ffe000104a4649460001020100c800c80000ffe20c584943435f505
24f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474220
58595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000
49454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000
000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000116
3707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c777470740
00001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a0000021800
0000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a000002400000001464
6d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887675656400
00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
1393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900
00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000

The Morphology of Design

I. Feasibility study – The purpose is to achieve a set of useful


solutions to the design problem. Three quarries to be
answered (i) has this work been previously done (ii) has so
much experience that further study is not needed
(iii) omit feasibility study. The steps to be followed in this
study are (1) need assessment (2) explore the design problem
and to identify its elements such as parameters, constraints,
and major design criteria. (3) seek number of feasible
solutions to
the problem (4) the potentially useful solutions are sorted out
from the feasible set on the basis of physical realizability,
economic worthwhileness, and
financial feasibility. Computer aided modeling is very useful.
II. Preliminary design. The purpose is to establish which of the
preferred alternatives is the best design concept. Finite
element methods are used these days to carry out design
analysis of components. Photo elastic studies are also
of great help in accurate stress analysis. Project
type studies are under taken to know as to how the solution
will be feasible in future. Socioeconomic conditions,
consumer’s taste, availability of raw material, state of
technology advancement need to be considered to future.
III. Detailed design. Final decision for a particular design concept
must be made. Master layout is developed. Detailed design or
specification of components is carried forward. As the paper
design progresses, experimental design is
initiated. Experimental models are constructed and tested.
IV. Planning for production processes. The following areas are
covered and detailed in this planning process.
1.1. Process planning for every part, sub assembly and final assembl
y
2.2. Design of tools and fixtures.
3.3. Planning, specifying or designing new production facilities.
4.4. Planning the quality control system.
5.5. Planning for production personnel – job specification, standard
times, labor cost estimation…etc.
6.6. Planning for production control – work schedule, inventory
control, cost
for labor, material and services to integrate with the accounting syste
m.
7.7. Planning the information flow system.
8.8. Financial planning.
V. Planning for distribution. The purpose of this phase is to plan an
effective and flexible system of distribution of the designed goods. For
this purpose to fulfill the following areas works are undertaken.
(a) Designing the packaging of the product. Safety, convenience of
handling, space, transportation …etc. is to be considered.
(b) Planning for ware housing systems – location and facilities for
ware house.
(c) Planning for the promotional activities.
(d) Designing the product for conditions arising in distribution.

VI. Planning for consumption. A diffused phase concerned with


consumers needs and utilities. The purpose of this phase is to
incorporate in design adequate service features and to provide a
rational basis for product improvement and
redesign. Design for consumption must consider the following fac
tors.
1. 1. Design for maintenance.
2. 2. Design for reliability.
3. 3. Design for safety.
4. Design for convenience in use ( taking into account human factor
s)
1.5. Design for aesthetic features.
2.6. Design for operational economy.
3.7. Design for adequate duration of services.
4.8. Obtain service data that can provide a basis for product
improvement, and for next generation designs, and for the design of
different but related products.

VII. Planning for Retirement. What determines as to when an


economic commodity in use has reached an age at which it
should be retired ? It is a hallmark of our times that goods in use
are retired more frequently because of technical obsolescence
than for physical deterioration. Ideally, the system should be
designed so that it wears out physically as it becomes technically
obsolete ; then no extra cost would be incurred for providing for
a longer than
useful life. Planer should consider the following aspects :
1.1. Designing to reduce the rate of obsolescence by taking into
account the anticipated effects of technical developments.
2.2. Designing physical life to match anticipated service life.
3.3. Designing for several levels of use so that when service life
of higher level of use is terminated the product will be adaptable for
further use with a less demanding level
4.4. Designing the product so that reusable materials and long lived
components can be recovered. Modularity in design can be
contemplated, instead of integrated designs.
5.5. Examining and testing of service terminated products in the
laboratory to obtain useful design information.

Interface between related activities for complete design

For complete design the following activities are considered essential :


Design Activities

Planning : 1. Consider product platform and architecture.


2. Assess new technologies.

Concept development : 1. Investigate feasibility of product concepts.


1. 2. Develop industrial design concepts.
2. 3. Build and test experimental prototypes.

System level design : 1. Generate alternative product architectures


1.2. Define major subsystems and interfaces.
2.3. Refine industrial design.

Detail Design : 1. Define part geometry.


1. 2. Choose materials.
2. 3. Assign tolerances.
3. 4. Complete industrial design control documentation.

Testing and refinement : 1. Reliability testing.


1.2. Life testing.
2.3. Performance testing
3.4. Obtain regularity approvals.

5.
Implement design changes. Production Ramp-
up : Evaluate early production out put.

Materials selection
Design development and materials selection
→ Examples can be cited how design and
materials changed year by year in (a) for writing from feather to bamb
oo holder metal

nib and holder ink pen –ball pen – capsule pen – filler (b) for furniture
from wooden to
bamboo – plastic – metal – wrought iron … etc.
Materials are selected (a) for a new product / new design or (b) redesig
n of the existing
product to reduce cost, increase reliability, improve performance … etc
.
Material selection should be based on – material properties and materi
al processing (part
performance and part manufacturing)
Material properties
→ Physical, chemical, thermal, electrical, acoustical, optical,
mechanical.

Physical – composition, structure, homogeneity, specific weight..etc.


Mechanical – E, Y, endurance limits, hardness, resilience, toughness, yi
eld strength,
fatigue strength, high temperature resistance…etc, which are establish
ed by tests and
used in machine design. Effects of alloying elements in ferrous and no
nferrous materials.
Material processing → Technological knowledge that related to manufa
cturing –
fusibility, forgeability, malleability, bending to shape, machine-
ability….etc.
Materials of construction can be classified in two groups – 1. metallic m
aterials 2. non
metallic materials. Metallic materials can be further split into ferrous a
nd nonferrous
materials. Nonmetallic material include plastics, rubber, leather, carbo
n, wood,
glass….etc.

Selection of materials in mechanical design – A systema


tic approach
In mechanical engineering design practice, selection of materials is con
sidered to be more
of an art than a science. Conventional practices and individual experie
nces determine the
type of the material to be used in the application. Since material techn
ology is advancing
fast at times this practice is uneconomical. Secondly, conventional pra
ctices overlook
objectives of the product for which the material/materials are being sel
ected. A
systematic approach called ‘methodology systems design’ can be very
well adopted for purposes of economical selection of materials.
Selection can be carried out by following these steps →
1.1. Analysis of the material requirement. 2. Screening the candidate
materials (3)
Selection of candidate materials (4) Development of design data.
Objectives in terms of material requirements are : 1. Initial cost 2. Pro
cessing cost

2. 3. Maintenance cost 4. Efficiency 5. Mass Production. 6. Accurac


y 7. Aesthetics

3.8. Noise 9. Safety 10. Functional Requirements for Reliable Perfor


mance. 11.
Weight
12.Weight 13. Delivery time 13. Life.
Objectives in terms of influencing factors : These influencing factors ar
e imposed due
to

4.
1. Limitations of resources – availability of materials, manufacturing pr
ocess available,
available modes of transportation and others. (2) Restriction imposed
by the product
user maximum permissible cost, maximum permissible noise level, ma
ximum
acceptable weight, minimum acceptable life, desired quantity, desired
delivery date,
inhibitions for aesthetics, maintenance level acceptable and others. (3
) Certain
environmental conditionsrestriction on utilization of indigenous life, en
vironmental
condition for service life, restriction on scrap utilization, standardizatio
n requirement,
social, economical and political factors and others.

Selection of commercial standard materials


Recurring needs for the same materials have led industry and govern
ment to develop
commercial standards for these materials. a commercial standard is
nothing more than a
complete quality description of the item standardized.
All nuts, bolts, pipes and electric items that are made to standard speci
fications can be
expected to fit all standard applications, regardless of who manufactur
ed the items.
Commercial standards are applicable to raw materials, fabricated mate
rials, individual
parts and components, and subassemblies.
Specification requirements for procuring materials

1.1. Engineering and marketing requirements for functional character


istics, chemical properties, dimensions…. Etc.
2.2. Manufacturing requirements for workability of materials.
3.3. Inspection’s requirements to test materials for compliance with t
he
specifications.

4.4. Store’s needs to receive, store, and issue the materials economic
ally.
5.5. Production control’s requirement to schedule the material econo
mically
6.6. Purchaser’s ability to procure material without difficulty and with
adequate competition from reliable source of supply.
7.7. Production control’s and purchaser’s ability to substitute material
s when such action becomes necessary.
8.8. The total firm’s requirements of suitable quality at the lowest ove
rall cost.
9.9. The total firm’s requirements to use commercial and industrial st
andard material
whenever possible, and to establish company standards in all other cas
es where nonstandard material is used repetitively.

Simplification
Simplification means reducing the number of standard items a firm use
s in its product
design. Through simplification, in an American company, the number o
f standard greases
used was reduced from twenty six (at the beginning) to six (after analy
sis). Value Analysis
The techniques of value analysis represent a potentially powerful set of
tools which can
be used by management in controlling material costs. The fundamental
objective of all
value analysis activities is the procurement (or manufacture) of materi
als representing the
“best buy” in terms of the function to be performed.
Two general conceptual tools appear basic to the operation of a value
analysis program :
1.1. Design analysis of the required material.
2.2. Cost analysis of the required material.

The value analysis check list :a) Can the item be eliminated? b)
If the item is not standard, can a standard item be used? c)
If it is a standard item, does it completely fit the application or
is it a
misfit? d)
Does the item have greater capacity than required? e)
Can the weight be reduced? f)
Is there a similar item in inventory that could be substituted?
g) Are closer tolerances specified than are necessary? h)
Is unnecessary machining performed on the item? i)
Are unnecessary fine finishes specified?
j)
Is “commercial quality” specified? (commer
cial quality is usually most economical) k)
Can you make the item more cheaply in ou
r plant?
If we are making it now, can we buy for less? Examples:
1.Belt guard Original Belt guard Modified belt guard

2. Bolts Machining or forging then threading


1.2. An insulator costing Rs. 320/ was originally porcelain leaded extr
a heavy. Now
moulded from polyester and glass, it is lighter and virtually indestructib
le.
2.3. compare Indian table fan and Chainese table fan.

Factors influencing make or buy decisions.


Design considerations which favor making t
he part :
1.1. Cost considerations (less expensive to make the part).
2.2. Desire to integrate plant operations.
3.3. Productive use of excess plant capacity to help absorb fixed over
head.
4.4. Need to exert direct control over production and/or quality.
5.5. Design secrecy required.
6.6. Unreliable suppliers.

7. Desire to maintain a stable workforce (in periods of declining sales).


Design considerations which favor buying the part :
1.1. Supplier’s research and specialized knowhow.
2.2. Cost considerations (less expensive to buy the part).
3.3. Small volume requirements.
4.4. Limited production facilities.
5.5. Desire to maintain a multiplesource policy (for rising sales).
6. Indirect managerial control considerations.
Cost considerations which favor making the part :
1.1. Delivered raw material costs.
2.2. Direct labor costs.
3.3. Incremental factory overhead.
4.4. Incremental managerial costs.
5.5. Incremental purchasing costs
6.6. Incremental inventory carrying costs
7. Incremental costs of capital.
Cost considerations which favor buying the part :
1.1. Purchase price of the part.
2.2. Transportation costs.
3.3. Receiving and inspection costs.

Classification of Manufacturing Processes


Business and industries can be classified in several ways. Oneway of cl
assification is as
shown in the figure. The service industries consist of enterprises, such
as banking,
education, insurance, and communication, that provide important servi
ces to modern
society but do not create wealth by converting raw materials. The prod
ucing industries
acquire raw materials (minerals, natural products, or petroleum) and pr
ocess them,
through the use of energy, machinery, and brainpower, into products t
hat serve the needs
of society. The distribution industries, such as merchandising and trans
portation, make
those products available to the general public. A characteristic of mode
rn industrialized
society is that an increasingly smaller percentage of the population pro
duces the wealth that makes our affluent society possible.

Business and industry

Service industry producing industry Distribution


industry

Merchandising
and
Banking, education, insur
transportation.
ance,
Communication … etc.

Construction Manuf
acturing

Classification of manufacturing processes

More conventional manufacturing is divided into :


1.1. Process engineering – concerned with to developing of a stepby-
step sequencing
of production, arrange each component in logical sequence.
2.2. Tool Engineering – concerned with design of tools, jigs, fixtures a
nd gages to
produce the parts, jigs hold the parts and fixtures guide the tool during
processing.
3.3. Standards – concerned with work standards & time values associ
ated with each
manufacturing operation, tool standards and materials standards.
4.4. Plant engineering – concerned with providing the plant facilities (
utilities, spaces,
transportation, storage.. etc ) needed to carry out the manufacturing p
rocess.
5.5. Administration and control Concerned with production planning,
scheduling
and supervising to assure that materials, tools, machines and people a
re available
at the right time and in the qualities needed to produce the part.

MANUFACTURING METHODS We can classify the great number of


processes used in manufacture into the following eight categories :
1.1. Solidification (Casting) processes : Molten metal, plastic, or glass
is cast into a mould and solidified into shape.
2.2. Deformation processes :A material, usually metal, is plastically
deformed hot or cold to give it improved properties and change its
shape. Examples are forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing.
3.3. Material removal or cutting (machining) processes :Material is
removed from a work piece with a sharp tool by a variety of methods
such as drilling, turning, milling …etc.
4.4. Polymer processing :The special properties of polymers have
brought about the
development of processes such as injection molding and thermoformin
g.
5.5. Particulate processing ( Powder metallurgy) :This rapidly
developing area includes the consolidation of particles
of metal, ceramics, or polymers by pressing
and sintering, hot compression, or plastic deformation.
6.6. Joining process :Welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding,
riveting,
bolting and adhesive bonding are processes adopted for joining parts.
7.7. Heat treatment and surface treatment :To improve the
mechanical properties, to clean surface, for surface hardening thermal
heat treatment processes is
undertaken. They include anneling, carburizing, nitriding..etc.
8.8. Surface treatment:To protect surface against oxidization,
corrosion, environmental effects material surfaces are sprayed
or hot dipped, electroplated or painted.
9.9. Assembly processes : In this, usually the final step in manufacturi
ng a number of
parts are brought together and combined into a subassembly or finishe
d part.

Classification of processes used in manufacturing :


1.1. Solidification (casting) processes Molten metal, plastic, or glass c
ast into a mold and solidified into a shape.
2.2. Deformation process – forging, rolling, extrusion, wire drawing, s
heet metal forming – by hot or cold process.
3.3. Material removal or cutting ( machining ) processes – milling, gri
nding, shaving, polishing and lapping.
4.4. Polymer processing – Polymers have brought about the develop
ment of processes, such as injection molding and thermoforming
5.5. Particulate processing – “Powder Metallurgy” consolidates of part
icles of metal,
ceramics, or polymers by pressing and sintering, hot compaction, or pl
astic deformation.
6.6. Joining processing – welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bondin
g, riveting, bolting, and adhesive bonding.
7.7. Heat treatment and surface treatment – Carburizing and nitriding
or hotdip coating, electroplating, and painting.
8.8. Assembly processes – Manual assembly, mechanical aided manu
al assembly, automatic assembly, robot application…. Etc.

Students, by this time, have already studied above processes in d


etail in their course
material and are advised again to revise by self.

Factors that influence the selection of a manufacturing processes :

(a) cost of manufacture (b) Quantity of pieces required (c) material (d)
geometric shape (e) surface finish (f) tolerances (g) Tooling,
jigs and fixtures
(h) gages (i) available equipment (j) delivery date.

Selecting the best manufacturing process


Different manufacturing processes vary in their limitations on producin
g complex shapes and parts with minimum dimensions.
Select the best manufacturing process of a simple shaft with a central
hub that might later have gear teeth machined in it.
How many ways ? (a) machined from solid bar (b) Insert sleeve (c) u
pset or cold
formed (d) cast – depends upon strength and the material.

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

1.1. Group Technology (GT)


2.2. Numerical Control Machines
3.3. Computerization
4.4. CAD/CAM
5.5. Robotics
6.6. Automation
7.7. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)

GT is the realization that many problems are similar and by grouping t


hem, a single
solution can be found to a set of problems, thus saving time and effort.
This is a
technique in which similar or related components are grouped together
to take advantage of their similarities in the production process.

Methods to develop part families :

(i) Visual inspection


(ii) Production flow analysis
(iii) Parts classification and coding system.

Suggested book for reference ( in my opinion this is a good book for yo


u to study to
know more about advanced technology in manufacturing ) : Mikell P. G
roover :
Automation, Production systems, and computer integrated manufacturi
ng, Prentice hall international, New Delhi.
Function that lead to efficient manufacturing

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43435f50524f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f02100000
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616373704d53465400000000494543207352474200000000
00000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d48502020
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63707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c
77747074000001f000000014626b70740000020400000014
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646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c00000086
76696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146
d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c7
25452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c62
5452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726
9676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d50616
36b61726420436f6d70616e7900006465736300000000000
00012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000
000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e3
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0000000
and and operation and make
train control routines Maintain purchase
s
personal production physical
facilities

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24f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474220
58595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000
49454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000
000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000116
3707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c777470740
00001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a0000021800
0000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a000002400000001464
6d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887675656400
00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
1393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900
00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000
Product

Interaction of Materials, Manufacturing and design. Over


view
of manufacturing in relation to design. Casting, forging, she
et metal forming, machining, welding, assembly, material
properties, type of loading, corrosion and wear resistance w
ith respect to design.
=======================================
=========
Design is to create things after plan. To design is to pull togethe
r some
thing new or arrange existing thing in a way to satisfy a recogni
zed need
of society. Design is the product of planning and work. The desi
gn and production of a product is achieved in three stages.
1.1. Conceptual Stage : The functional requirements of the product are
established and the designer conceives of an idea for a device that will
fulfill the functional requirements.
2.2. Functional Design Stage : The product designer designs the produc
t primarily for function.
3.3. Production Stage ( Production Design Stage ) : This means providi
ng a design that can be manufactured economically.

The product must be produced at the lowest possible cost to assure a p


rofit
on its sale. The responsibility for satisfactory functional or product desi
gn
rests with the “product design or the designing engineer where as low
cost
production ( economically produced design ) is a responsibility of the
“Tool Engineer”. Tool engineer with the knowledge og the product and
its
function and his familiarity with methods and processes, is qualified to
influence product design for most economical production thus assisting
in designing for production.
In modern technology the function of production no longer is a routine
activity. Rather, design, materials selection and processing are intimat
ely related as shown in figure.

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24f46494c4500010100000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474220
58595a2007ce00020009000600310000616373704d53465400000000
49454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000
000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000116
3707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c777470740
00001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a0000021800
0000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a000002400000001464
6d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c4000000887675656400
00034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000
000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725
452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7079726967687420286329203
1393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900
00646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d32
2e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d
322e3100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000

Design : Service Condition, Function, Cost


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000c484c696e6f021000006d6e747252474220
58595a2007ce0002000900060031000061637
3704d53465400000000494543207352474200
00000000000000000000000000f6d600010000
0000d32d48502020000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000001
1637072740000015000000033646573630000
01840000006c77747074000001f00000001462
6b707400000204000000147258595a0000021
8000000146758595a0000022c000000146258
595a0000024000000014646d6e64000002540
0000070646d6464000002c400000088767565
640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000
000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730
000040c000000247465636800000430000000
0c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000
043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c74
65787400000000436f70797269676874202863
292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636
b61726420436f6d70616e79000064657363000
0000000000012735247422049454336313936
362d322e31000000000000000000000012735
247422049454336313936362d322e31000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000

Materials :
Properties, Availabilities, Cost
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00c484c696e6f021000006d6e7
4725247422058595a2007ce00
0200090006003100006163737
04d5346540000000049454320
7352474200000000000000000
00000000000f6d60001000000
00d32d4850202000000000000
0000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000
0000000011637072740000015
0000000336465736300000184
0000006c77747074000001f00
0000014626b70740000020400
0000147258595a00000218000
000146758595a0000022c0000
00146258595a0000024000000
014646d6e6400000254000000
70646d6464000002c40000008
8767565640000034c00000086
76696577000003d4000000246
c756d69000003f8000000146d
6561730000040c00000024746
56368000004300000000c7254
52430000043c0000080c67545
2430000043c0000080c625452
430000043c0000080c7465787
400000000436f707972696768
7420286329203139393820486
5776c6574742d5061636b6172
6420436f6d70616e790000646
5736300000000000000127352
47422049454336313936362d3
22e3100000000000000000000
0012735247422049454336313
936362d322e31000000000000
0000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000Processin
g : Equipment Selection,
Influence on properties, cost.

Under three areas with three types of engineer’s role the complete pro
duct
design is usually carried out. This comes under a plan of management
system to fulfill the goal of the project. In a large design project there
may
be many persons to carry out at different role, where as in a small proj
ect one individual may fill many roles.
Product Design Engineer : The major design responsibility is carried by
the product design engineer or simply design engineer. This individual
must be sure that the needs of the are clearly understood and that
engineering requirements are developed and met by the product.
Manufacturing Engineer : Design engineers generally do not have the
necessary breadth or depth of knowledge about various manufacturing
process to fully support the design of most products. This knowledge is
provided by the manufacturing or industrial designer, who must have a
grasp not only of inhouse manufacturing capabilities but also of what t
he industry as a whole has to offer.

Industrial Designer : Industrial designers are responsible for how a


product looks and how well it interacts with consumers; they are the
stylists who have a background in fine arts and in human factor analy
sis.
They often design the envelope with in which the engineer has to wor
k.
Design for Manufacturability (DFM)
DFM necessitates that product and process designs be developed
simultaneously, rather than sequentially. That means, that all the desig
n constraints, including assembly, material information process, and
material handling requirements, are included as part of the functional
optimization of the design. In this way, the DFM process enables
designers or a design team, to consider all aspects of the product desig
n and manufacturing, at early stage of the design cycle, so that design
iteration and accompanying engineering changes can be made easily a
nd effectively. This has great advantages, because it leads to few on
manufacturing problems.
Selecting the best manufacturing process among deformation processe
s,
material removal processes, polymer processing, particulate processin
g, joining processes, heat treatment and surface treatment processes,
assembly processes…etc. is not an easy task. Rarely can a product be
made by only one method, so that several competitive processes gene
rally
are available. As in all of engineering design, cost is a very important
factor. Therefore the selection of the optimum process can be made on
ly
after the costs of manufacture by the competing processes have been
evaluated. The evaluations should consider not only the cost of process
ing
the material to a finished product but also the material utilization facto
r
and the effect of the processing method on the material properties and
the subsequent performance of the part in service.
Factors that influence the selection of a manufacturing process are :
1.1. Cost of manufacture.
2.2. Tolerances
3.3. Quantity of pieces required
4.4. Tooling, jigs and fixtures
5.5. Material
6.6. Gages
7.7. Geometric shape
8.8. Available equipment
9.9. Surface finish
10.10. Delivery date.

Broadly, the selection of the material determines the processing meth


od. Other factors listed
Above are important in influencing the selection of the manufacturing
process. Factors in selecting a material for production :
1.1. Alloy : grade and composition
2.2. Form of material : bar, wire, shaft, tube, plate, strip…etc.
3.3. Size : dimensions and tolerances.
4.4. Heat treated condition
5.5. Surface finish
6.6. Quality level : control of impurities and inclusions
7.7. Quantity
8.8. Fabricability and / or weldability. Exercise : -
Which is the best method of manufacturing process for a
simple shaft with a

Central hub.

1. Design for Castings

To design casting that works adequately and economically is th


e
duty of design engineer. The principles that must be observed f
or good casting design are :
1.1. The pattern can be drawn satisfactorily from the sand and a
good casting made only if its sides are tapered away from the
parting line ( most metals and alloys shrink when they solidify)
2.2. Tolerances of + / 1.5 mm for dimensions up to about 300 mm
are standard commercial practice for sand casting. Tolerances
vary with other types of casting and can be referred from Data Book.
3.3. Metal structure is affected by shape of casting section –
solidification of molten metal always proceeds from the mould
face, forming unbalanced crystal grains that penetrate into the
mass, at right angles to the plane of cooling surface. A single
section presents uniform cooling and greatest freedom from
mechanical weakness. When two or more section conjoin,
mechanical weakness is induced at the junction and free
cooling is interrupted, creating a “ hot spot”. A well designed
casting bring the minimum number of sections together and
avoids acute angles.
4.4. Design all sections as nearly uniform in thickness as possible
and proportion dimensions of inner wall correctly.
5.5. Design ribs and brackets for maximum effectiveness. Ribs
have two functions (a) to increase stiffness (b) to reduce
weight – if too shallow in depth or too widely spaced, they are
ineffective.
6.6. Bosses, lugs and pads should not be used unless absolutely
necessary.
2. Design for Forgings

The forging design is to arrive at a shape called “Net Shape” s


o
that negligible machining is needed after forging. The followin
g aspects are considered in the design of forging components.
1.1. If the blanks are to be produced by flat die forging
intersection of two or more cylindrical elements should be
avoided. Intersection of cylindrical and flat surface should
also be avoided.
2.2. Sections should not be so thin as to restrict the flow of
metal. Thin walls in forging reduce die life, since forging
cools rapidly and resistance to metal flow is increased.
3.3. Maximum flash thickness should not be more than 6.4 mm
or less than 0.79 mm on average.
4.4. The blank must be so shaped, tapered, as to allow its easy
removal from the die. Thus, the grooves and recesses in
blanks can be arranged only along the direction of the die
working movement.
5.5. It is desirable to maintain all adjacent sections as uniform
as possible. Rapid changes in section should be avoided.
Laps and cracks are most likely where metal flow changes
because of large differences in the bulk of the section. To
prevent the defects, generous radii must be provided at
those locations.
6.6. For the semifinishing die the depth of the cavity should be
more than the component thickness and for the finishing
die, gutter should be provided for flow of excess material
available from the earlier step.
7.7. The parting line ( the plane of separation between the upper
and lower halves of a closed die ) should usually pass
though the maximum periphery of the forging to spread the
metal laterally than to force it to fill deep, narrow die impressions.

Dies are expensive and usually rule out forgings for small
quantities. The casting would be cheaper for less than about
300 pieces.

3. Design for Sheet Metal Forming

1.1. Since the die cost depend upon the length and the intricacy of
the contour of the blank, simple blank contours should be
used whenever possible. Blanks with sharp corners are
expensive to produce.
2.2. The layout of the blanks on the sheet should be such as to
minimize scrap loss. The usual tolerance on the blanked parts are + / -
0.08 mm.
1. 3. When holes have to be punched (a) diameter of the holes
should not be less than the thickness of the sheet or a
2. minimum of 0.6 mm (b) the minimum distance between
holes or between a hole and the edge of the sheet, should be
at least equal to the sheet thickness.
3.4. It is advisable to make the line of bend perpendicular to the
rolling direction of the sheet.
4.5. Wall thickness must be kept uniform. If not, all transitions
must be streamlines by generous radii at the thickthin junctions.
5.6. For cup shaped metal forming by impact extrusion the
thickness of the bottom near the wall must be 15 % more
than the thickness of the wall itself to prevent shear failure
and the inside bottom should not be wholly flat. To avoid the
possibility of the punch skidding on the billet only 80 % of it,
at the most, can be flat.

4. Design for Machining

1.1. The choice of the machine tool must take into account :(a) the
size and shape of the work piece. (b) the work material (c) the
accuracy and the surface quality required (d) personal experience (e)
the quantity of parts and the sizes of lots required. Usually a number
of machine tools can do the job, but the one that will do the job at the
lowest cost when required is the one to be chosen.
2.2. In designing a part, the sequence by which the part would be
machined must be kept in mind so the design details that make
machining easy are incorporated. Whenever possible the design should
be such that existing tools can be used in production.
3.3. When possible, the radius of the part should be the same as the
radius of the tool. Also when possible, design should permit the use of
the larger tools, which are stronger and can cut at higher speeds.
4.4. The amount of machining should be reduced, as far as possible,
by assigning size tolerances only for fits between mating surfaces; all
other elements should have free dimensions. It is better to design
parts, as far as possible, for standard dimensions as available in stock
market ( factory size ) and / or buy standard parts. ( Make or buy from
earlier chapters ? )
5.5. Convenient and reliable locating surfaces should be provided to s
et up work piece for machining.
6.6. There should be sufficient rigidity of work piece so as to eliminat
e significant deformation in the process of machining.
7.7. Parts should be designed so that several work pieces can be set
up and machined simultaneously.
8.8. “Relief” portion to be provided in the design.

Question : Discuss the importance of providing “relief” for vario


us machine operation.

1.1. When cutting external threads no threading tool can work up to t


he shoulder. So, a groove, called “ thread relief” should be provided..
2.2. Grinding wheels never have sharp corners. Thus when two perpe
ndicular
surfaces are to be grounded at once, a relief cut into the corner clear t
he
radius on the wheel and permits the two surfaces to be grounded squa
re with each other. A flush fit with mating parts would result.
3.3. The first few threads of a tap are also ground off to provide a lea
d for the
tap to enter a drilled hole. The tapped hole is easy to produce, because
it
goes clear through and all the threads will be full depth. For a blind hol
e, a relief should be provided at the bottom.
4.4. Drilled holes should be normal to the surface, top and bottom. A
drill
attempting to start at an angle will be deflected, spoiling accuracy and
possibly breaking the drill.
5.5. Flange hole should not be located very close to a wall otherwise t
he drill
becomes practically embedded in the wall when it brakes through the
flange.
6.6. Dowels should not be pressed into blind holes unless necessary.
They are
harder to insert due to air compressed below them and are much hard
er to
remove. Through holes are preferred to blind once for easy machining.
7.7. Groves, such as oil holes, are easier to machine on outside than i
nside surfaces.
8.8. Save the machining time for redesign.

5. Design for Welding

To design a welding system properly, consideration must be given t


o the
selection of materials, the joint design, the selection of welding p
rocess
and the design of the welded joint so it will withstand the applied
stresses.
Material selection for welding involves choosing a material with h
igh weldability. Some general design guidelines for welding are :
a. Welded design should reflect the flexibility and economy inheren
t in the welding process. Do not copy designs based on casting or
forging.
b. In the design of welded joints, try to provide a single line force
pattern. Avoid the use of welded straps, laps, and stiffness except
as required for strength.
c. Use the minimum number of welds.
d. When ever possible, weld together parts of equal thickness.
e. Locate the welds at areas in the design where stresses and / or
deflections are least critical.
f. Carefully consider the sequence with which parts should be weld
ed together and include that information as part of the design drawing.
g. Make sure that the welder or welding machine has unobstructed
access to the joint so that a quality weld can be produced.
Whenever possible, the design should provide for welding in the
flat or horizontal position, not overhead.
h. Thermal contraction of metal, which has been heated by welding
, may cause internal residual stress and distortion. These can be
controlled or reduced by (1) preheating (2) minimum number of
welds (3) smallest size of weld that fulfills requirements (4)
maximum use of intermittent welds.
i. It has been experimentally proved that a weld whose linear
direction is normal to the direction of the applied load is 30 percent str
onger than a weld which is parallel to the direction of
applied load. A product designer should, therefore, make use of
this characteristic when planning the location and distribution of
welds..

6.
Design for Assembly

Design for assembly is a method for evaluating the ease of asse


mbly of a
product. Since virtually all products are assembled out of many
components and assembly takes time , that it costs money, there
is a strong
incentive to make products as easy to assemble as possible.
Design for assembly guide lines are :
1.1. Over all component count must be as minimum as possible. the
part count is evaluated by estimating the minimum number of
components possible and comparing the design being evaluated to
this minimum.
1. 2. Make minimum use of separate fasteners : use captured fa
steners
as far as possible. ( Captured fasteners are those remain loose
ly
attached to a component even when unfastened0. Try to use
as
2. many fasteners of one standard, which helps minimum numbe
r of tools.
2.3. Design the product with a base component for locating other
components. Try to use a single base on, which all the other
components are assembled.

1.4. Avoid the base to be repositioned during assembly : Once the ba


se is
positioned precisely full assemble is carried out on this position only. O
n large products, repositioning may be time consuming and costly.
5. Make the assembly sequence efficient : To carry out assembly (a
) list all
the components and process involved in the assembly process (b) list
the
connections between components and generate a connections diagram
(c)
select a base component (d) recursively add the next component (e)
identify subassemblies.
1.6. Avoid component characteristics that complicate retrieval.
Gaskets, tubing, springs, pins, wiring components are hard
components to retrieve and handle. When possible, make
components as few, as short, and as stiff as possible. Three
component characteristics make retrieval difficult. They are –
tangling, nesting, and flexibility.
2.7. Design components for a specific type of retrieval, handling and

inspection. Examples are :-


the question of how plastic chairs are stacked,
transported and retrieved. Avoid components to be jammed.
1. 8. Design all components for endtoend symmetry : Endtoend
symmetry means that a component can be inserted in the assembly
either end first. Figure shows how the design can be modified for end-
toend symmetry.
2.9. Design all components for symmetry about their axes if insertion.
A designer should try for rotational. Symmetry.
3.10. Design components that are not symmetric about their axes of
insertion to be clearly asymmetric. If design is required to
assemble part in one way only then the component is clearly
asymmetric. The first one of the previous figure is an example.
4.11. Design components to mate through straight line assembly, all
from the same direction. Downward assembly is preferred and in
single direction because gravity aids the assembly process. Slip in
design is preferred than use of fasteners in design. Single motion
assembly is preferred than the three directions assembly as shown
in the figure.
5.12. Make use of chamfers, leads, and compliances to facilitate
insertion and alignment. To make the actual insertion or mating of
a component as easy as possible, each component should guide
itself into place.
6.13. Maximize component accessibility : If one has to disassemble the
entire compute to replace a fuse then it is very poor design.
Assembly can be difficult if components have no clearance for
grasping.
Assembly efficiency is also low if a component must be inserted in
an awkward spot. Keep enough room for tool insertion to mate and
design to see that tool engagement and motion is much easier.

7. Design for Corrosion Resistance

Corrosion failure are minimized by proper materials selection and caref


ul
attention to control of metallurgical structure through heat treatment a
nd
processing, many corrosion related failures can be minimized by prope
r understanding of the inter-
relation of the fundamental causes of corrosion
and design details. Corrosion of metal is driven by the basic
thermodynamic force of a metal to return to oxide or sulfide form, but i
t is
more related to the electrochemistry of the reactions of a metal in an
electrolytic solution. The most common form of corrosion is uniform
attack. It is characterized by a chemical or electrochemical reaction th
at proceed uniformly over the entire exposed surface area. The metal
becomes thinner and eventually fails. Stress corrosion cracking is caus
ed
by the simultaneous action of a tensile stress and a specific corrosive
medium. Only specific combination of alloys and chemical environment
lead to stress corrosion cracking. Design involves selecting an alloy tha
t is
not susceptible to cracking in the service environment or keep the stre
ss level low.

8. Design for the Environment

The other names for this type of design are Green Design,
Environmentally Conscious Design, Life Cycle Design or Design for
Recycleability. Importance of this design process began in the 1970’s. I
n 1990 it has become an important issue in the design community.
When a product’s useful life is over, one of the three things happens to
its components (a) disposed off (b) reused (c) recycled. Disposal is a
common practice. But in recent years components are mostly reused o
r
recycled. Examples are : Cars dismantled and shredded ; papers recyc
led ;
plastic containers recycled. The reasons are (a) economics (b) custo
mer expectations (slogans like environmental friendly to products)
© Government regulation
New technology development made to recycle some materials less
expensive than it is to pay the expense of processing new raw material
s. It
has been realized that the sources of raw materials are limited and tho
se
companies that pollute, generate excessive waste or produce products
that
clearly have adverse effects on the environment, are looked down on b
y the public.
The following guidelines are useful to compare designs and / or develo
p product for its “greenness”.
1.1. Be aware of the environmental effects of the materials used in th
e product. Design engineers must know the environmental details of
those products that have high environmental impact. Example :
Refrigerent, CO from the vehicle.
2.2. Design the product with high seperability : If some of the compon
ents
are to be reused, the designer must consider disassembly, cleaning
,
inspection, sorting, upgrading, renewal and reassembly. Different m
aterials are used for different parts. Products are designed
for ease to disassemble. The following points are considered. -
Make fasteners accessible and easy to release. -
Avoid laminating dissimilar materials. -
Use adhesives sparingly and make them water soluble if possible. -
Route electric wiring for easy removal.
Measure of reparability is the percentage of material that is easily
isolated from other materials.
3. 3. Design components that can not be reused but that can be recyc
led :Include as much recyclable materials in design as possibl
e. In recycling there are five steps : retrieval, separation, identification,
reprocessing and marketing. Design engineers are mostly concerned
with separation and identification.
4. 4. Be aware of the environmental effects of the material not reused
or

recycled.
Currently 18 percent of the solid waste in land fiils is plastic a
nd 14
percent is metal. All of these materials are reusable or recycla
ble. If a
product is not designed for recycled or reused, it should at lea
st be
degradable. The designer should be aware of percentage of d
egradable
material in a product and the time it takes this material to deg
rade.

Question : For products given below identify all parts one by


one for ease of assembly and disassembly, reuse, recycle,
degradable.
(a) A simple toy ( with more than 5 and fewer than 10 parts )
(b) An electric iron
(c) A kitchen mixing machine or food processor
(d) A bicycle.