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RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA

LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

TO BE
• Significa “ser ” o “estar
estar””.

LENGUA INGLESA • Es un verbo auxiliar.

• Hace la negació
negaci ón a ñadiendo “not
not””

• Hace la interrogació
interrogación por inversió
inversió n.

• Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y


Pedro Civera Coloma 2004 tambié
también con: who, where, how,
how, etc.

PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO


TO BE I am/I'm. I was. I will/ shall be.
Yo soy o yo estoy. Yo era o yo estaba. Yo seré o yo estaré.

You are/you're. You were. You will be.


•Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y
también con: who, where, how, etc. He is/he's. He was. He will be.

She is/she's She was. She will be.

It is/it's. It was. It will be.


I’m Peter. Peter’s That’s Who’s We are/we're. We were. We will/ shall be.
here. Manoli. that girl?
You are/you're. You were. You will be.

They are/they're. They were. They will be.

PRESENTE, PASADO Y FUTURO CONTRACCIONES

PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO


Are not aren’t. Was not ‘ll.
wasn’t Will not won’t .
AM WAS WILL BE Is not isn’t.
Were not Shall not
IS WERE weren’t shan’t.
ARE

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 1


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS
USOS
Formar los tiempos I am writing with a
Para preguntar la edad. How old are you?
continuos. computer.
I am forty.
I was swimming
Indicar la profesión. I am a teacher.
yesterday.

La ideología. He is a socialist. I will be walking on


the beach.

El credo religioso. He is a catholic.


La formación de la voz The book was written
pasiva. by Emilio.

USOS USOS
Para medidas. I am six feet tall. Indica tallas. I am size 8.

How big is the town? Con adjetivos. I am happy and you are
right.
It is quite big. Where (¿Dónde?) Where’s the boy?
What (¿Qué?)
I am six feet tall. Who (¿Quién?) When’s your birthday?
Why, (¿Por qué?)
Con ciertas expresiones. I am right.

Contrae con demostrativos That’s right.


y adverbios.

PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO


TO HAVE I have/l've. I had. I will have.
To tengo. Yo tuve o yo ten ía. Yo tendré.
•Se traduce por tener.
You have/you've. You had . You will have.
•Puede ir acompañado de la partícula “got”. He has/he's. He had . He will have.
She has/she's. She had. She will have.
•No se produce alteraci ón del significado si It has/it's. It had. It will have.
aparece o no, pero cuando aparece el verbo puede
We have/we've. We had. We will have.
ir contraido.
You have/you've. You had . You will have.
•Tampoco se usa en las respuestas breves. They have/they've. They had. They will have.
Have + not contrae Had + not contrae
en haven’t. en hadn’t.
Has + not contrae
en hasn’t.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 2


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS USOS
Indicar posesión. I have a white car. Obligación. I have to go to Alicante
tomorrow.
I have got a white car.
Puede indicar otro tipo de I have breakfast at Combinado con better You had better buy a
actividades. 7:45. indica consejo. new pair of shoes.
La contracción es You’d
Ingestión de alimentos
tanto sólidos como better.
líquidos.
Otros. I have a bath and my La construcción causativo I’m going to have my
wife has a shower. have, se utiliza cuando hair cut.
Construcción de tiempos I have been in New alguien hace algún servicio
perfectos. York. para nosotros.

CONTRACCIONES
PRESENTE, PASADO Y FUTURO
PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO
HAVE HAD WILL HAVE PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO

HAS Have not Had not Wil have not


Haven’t Hadn’t Won’t have
I have I had I will have Has not
Hasn’t
He has He had She will have

PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO


TO DO I do.
Yo hago.
I did.
Yo hice.
I will do.
Yo haré.
You do. You did . You will do.
Significa “hacer”. He does. He did. He will do.
She does. She did. She will do.
Es un verbo auxiliar.
It does. It did. It will do.
Hace la negación añadiendo “not” We do. We did. We will do.
You do. You did . You will do.
Interviene en la formación de las formas They do. They did. They will do.
interrogativas y negativas del presente y
Do not contrae en Did not contrae en Will not do contrae
pasado simple don’t. didn’t. en won’t do.
Does not contrae en
doesn’t.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 3


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PRESENTE PASADO USOS


Negativas. He doesn’t eat meat. I didn’t go to the
I don’t want to go to cinema. Otros usos idiomáticos. I did the shopping in
the cinema. Carrefour.

I do the washing up
every night.
Interrogativas. Do you love her? Did you go to
Does he speak England?
I never do the cleaning.
Valenciano?
¿Habla valenciano?
Sometimes I do the
cooking.
Uso enfático. He does love He did say what
running. he wanted to say.

USOS LOS PRONOMBRES Y


Con la expresión “Yo -I like María Callas.
ADJETIVOS
también”.
-So do I. Es necesario usarlos para evitar ambigüedad.

Go to London, no sabríamos quién va, podría


Con la expresión “Yo I don’t smoke. ser yo, tú, nosotros,etc.
tampoco”.
Neither do I. En castellano no pasa lo mismo.

Vamos a Alicante, las desinencias verbales


nos sacan de dudas. Está claro que somos
nosotros.

PRONOMBRES PRONOMBRES ADJETIVOS PRONOMBRES PRONOMBRES


PERSONALES
SUJETO
PERSONALES
COMPLEMENTO
POSESIVOS POSESIVOS REFLEXIVOS PRONOMBRES SUJETO Y
I . Yo . Me. A mí, me. My. Mi. Mine. El mío. Myself. Me.
COMPLEMENTO
You . Tú. You. A ti, te. Your. Tu. Yours. El tuyo . Yourself. Te.
He. Él. Him. A él, le. His. Su de él. His. El suyo. Himself. Se.
(de él). SUJETO COMPLEMENTO
She. Ella. Her. A ella, le. Her. Su de Hers. El suyo. Herself. Se.
ella. (de ella).
Ella es alta. Dale esto a ella.
It. Ello. It. A ello, le. It. Su de ello. Its. El suyo. Itself. Se.
(de ello).

We. Nosotros o Us. A nosotros, a Our. Nuestro, Ours. El Ourselves .


You are a teacher. This is for you.
nosostras. nosotras, nos. nuestra. nuestro. Nos.

You . Vosotros You. A vosotros, Your. Yours. El Yourselves .


o vosotras. a vosotras, os. Vuestro, vuestro. Os.
vuestra.
They. Ellos o Them . A ellos, a Their. Su de Theirs. El suyo . Themselves .
ellas. ellas, les. ellos, su de Se.
ellas.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 4


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PRONOMBRES PERSONALES COMPLEMENTOS


I” siempre se escribe con mayúscula. No utilizan preposición delante del objeto
indirecto, pero sí, si sigue al Objeto Directo.
“You” se puede traducir por Tú, Vd, vosotros,
vosotras y Vds.“You” e “it” tienen la misma forma She gave me a kiss.
como sujetos que como complementos.

You are young. I love you. She gave a kiss to me.

PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS
DIFERENCIA ENTRE ADJETIVO
Y PRONOMBRE
Acciones que recaen He washes himself
sobre el mismo sujeto. every morning.
ADJETIVO PRONOMBRE

Enfatizan. He himself can go.


acompaña al nombre lo substituye.

Mi casa es grande. La mía también. Pueden ir precedidos I went to Madrid by


de by, en cuyo caso myself.
My house is big. Mine is also big. significan “yo solo”,
“tú solo..”

ADJETIVOS Y PRONOMBRES
PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS
DEMOSTRATIVOS
Each other. “El uno al They love each other.
otro” SINGULAR PLURAL

One Another. “A todos ” They gave presents


one another. THlS este, esta, esto. THESE estos, estas.

One. She is the prettiest


one. THAT ese, esa, eso, aquel, THOSE esos, esas,
aquella, aquello. aquellos, aquellas.
I was the second one
in the race.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 5


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

CONCORDANCIA USOS

This man is my teacher of English. Se usan cuando This is Peter.


hablamos por teléfono.

That woman is my wife.


En ciertas expresiones. That’s right.

These books are interesting.


En presentaciones This is Mary, my friend
Those girls are from Italy .

HABER IMPERSONAL. HABER IMPERSONAL.


THERE IS THERE IS
AFIRMATIVA INTERROGATIVA NEGATIVA CONDICIONAL
PRESENTE PASADO FUTURO

There is a car. Is there a car? There is not a


car. There is. There was. There There would
will be. be.

There was a Was there a There was not


There are. There
boy. boy? a boy.
were.

There's.

EJEMPLOS SOME, ANY Y NO


• There is someone waiting for you. Some. I have some magazines
Afirmativas. Se traduce por from the library.
algo, algún, algo de.
• There are four biscuits on the plate.
interrogativas y se espera Do you want some
respuesta afirmativa. chocolates?
• Is there anything I can do for you?
Any. Have you any good
Interrogativas y negativas. book to lend me?
Se traduce por “nada”, I haven’t any money.
“ningún”, “algún”.
No. Afirmativa pero el I have no money.
sentido es negativo.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 6


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

COMPUESTOS
EJEMPLOS
Something. Anything. Nothing. Everything.
Algo. Algo, nada. Nada. Todo.
I have some magazines from the library.
Somebody. Anybody. Nobody. Everybody.
Alguien. Alguien, Nadie. Todos. Do you want some chocolates?
nadie.
Somewhere . Anywhere. Nowhere. Everywhere . Have you any good book to lend me?
Algún lugar. Alguna parte, Ninguna Todas partes.
ninguna parte. I haven’t any money.
parte.
Someone. Anyone. No one. Everyone. I have no money.
Alguien. Alguien, Nadie. Cada uno.
nadie.

OTROS INDEFINIDOS OTROS INDEFINIDOS


All. All my friends came to
Hace referencia a más de my party. Every. Every day I go running.
Cada.
dos.
Both. Both are 14. Neither. Neither of them are
Se refiere a dos. Ni. happy.
Each. Each and every day I
Cada. sleep siesta. Neither…nor I neither like coffee nor
Ni..ni. tea.
Either. Either you stay here or
O. come with us. None. None wanted coffee.
Ninguno de los dos.

PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS


INTERROGATIVAS INTERROGATIVAS
Who. Who came yesterday?
¿Quién? Se usa Which. Which is your favourite
con personas. ¿Qué o Cuál? singer?
Whom. Whom did you speak to?
¿A quién? Se usa The man with whom you
compañado por spoke is Pepe. What What do you think of him?
preposiciones. ¿Qué? Se usa
cuando no hay
Whose Whose car is this Ford Fiesta?
antecedentes.
¿De quién? Se usa
en la forma
posesiva.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 7


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS


INTERROGATIVAS INTERROGATIVAS
How. How is your mother? How fast. How fast can you type?
¿Cómo? ¿A qué velocidad?
How many . How many books do you read a How often. How often do you play
¿Cúantos? year? ¿Con qué football?
How much. How much is that CD? frecuencia?
¿Cuánto? Why. Why was he late?
How long. How long will it take to go to ¿Por qué?
¿Cuánto tiempo ? Madrid by plane?
How far. How far is Elche from Santa
¿A qué distancia? Pola?

PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS
INTERROGATIVAS CONTABLES E INCONTABLES
When. When did you go there? •Los nombres se pueden clasificar en contables e
¿Cuándo? incontables.

•Contables son aquéllos que podemos contar con


Where. Where do you live? la ayuda de un numeral. Tienen forma de plural y
¿Dónde? pueden llevar el art ículo a/an o the, some, few
etc.

What kind. What kind of music do you One book. Two pencils. Three boys. Four cars.
¿Qué clase? like?

CONTABLES E INCONTABLES NOMBRES INCONTABLES


Butter. Help. News . Tea.
Mantequilla. Ayuda. Noticias. Té
•I bought a paper. Give me some paper to write. Chocolate. Homework. Paper. Time.
Chocolate. Deberes. Papel. Tiempo.
•She has a new iron. This is made of iron. Coffee. Hope. Physics. Toothpaste
Café. Esperanza. Física. Pasta de
•Give me a glass. This is Bohemian glass. dientes.
Cream. Hunger. Rubbish. Trouble.
•I drink coffee. Give me two coffees.
Crema . Hambre. Basura. Problema.
Dirt. Ice. Sand. Water.
Suciedad. Hielo. Arena. Agua.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 8


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

MUCH, MANY, FEW, LITTLE,


NOMBRES INCONTABLES A LOT OF
Flour. Mathemati Sky. Weather. Many. I have many friends.
Harina. cs. Cielo . Tiempo Muchos o muchas.
Matemáticas. atmosférico. Few. She has read few
Food. Milk. Soap. Work. Pocos o pocas. books.
Comida. Leche. Jabón. Trabajo. A few.
Fun. Money. Wine. Silver. Unos pocos o unas I have a few good
Diversión. Dinero. Vino. Plata. pocas. friends.
Furniture. Music. Sugar. Advice. So Many. We have so many
Mobiliario. Música. Azúcar. Consejo. Tantos. books .

CONTABLES INCONTABLES
So Few. He is alone, he has Much. I don’t drink much
Tan pocos. so few friends. Mucho. coke.

Too Many. Too many cooks Little. He eats little fruit.


Demasiados. spoil the broth. Poco.
A little With a little milk
Too Few. There were too few Un poco. please.
Demasiado pocos. to start the party.
So Little. He drinks so little
Tan poco. water.

INCONTABLES
CONTABLES E INCONTABLES
Too Much. They eat too much A lot of. We have a lot of books.
Demasiado. “más de meat. Mucho, muchos.
lo necesario ”. We drink a lot of water.
Lots of. Lots of people came
Too Little. They have too Montones de. Mucho, yesterday.
Demasiado poco. little money. Mucha.
Plenty of. There are plenty of
So Much. They spend so Mucho, muchos. good books in the
Tanto. much money. Tiene el matiz de “de library.
sobra”.
I don’t have to hurry,
I’ve got plenty of time.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 9


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PARTITIVOS PARTITIVOS
A bar of. A bar of chocolate. A piece of. A piece of paper.
Una barra de. Un trozo de, una porción
A bottle of. A bottle of wine. de.
Una botella de.
A can of. A can of coke. A tin of. A tin of tuna.
Una lata de bebida. Una lata de.
A cup of. A cup of coffe.
A packet of. A packet of crisps.
Una taza de.
Una bolsa de.

EL GENERO GENERO
•Un gran número de nombres carecen de é l, por
eso tenemos la misma palabra para masculino y
MASCULINOS FEMENINOS NEUTROS
femenino.
Father. Mother. Flower.
Teacher. Doctor. Student. Lawyer. Padre. Madre. Flor.
Profesor. Médico. Estudiante Abogado. Brother. Sister. Cat.
. Hermano. Hermana. Gato.
Artist. Reader. Musician. Driver. Boy. Daughter. Door.
Artista. Lector. Músico. Conductor. Chico. Hija. Puerta.

MASCULINO Y FEMENINO
MASCULINO Y FEMENINO
A male doctor. A woman doctor. Bull. Cow.
Un doctor. Una doctora. Toro. Vaca.
Actor. Actress. Cock. Hen.
Actor. Actriz. Gallo. Gallina.
Bachelor. Spinster. Duke. Duchess.
Soltero. Soltera. Duque. Duquesa.
Boy. Girl.
Chico. Chica. Emperor. Empress.
Emperador. Emperatriz.
Brother. Sister.
Hermano. Hermana. Father. Mother.
Padre. Madre.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 10


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

MASCULINO Y FEMENINO MASCULINO Y FEMENINO


God. Goddess. Lord. Lady.
Dios. Diosa. Señor. Señora.
Horse. Mare. Man. Woman.
Caballo. Yegua. Hombre. Mujer.
Host. Hostess. Nephew. Niece.
Anfitrión. Anfitriona. Sobrino. Sobrina.
Husband. Wife .
Poet. Poetess.
Esposo. Esposa. Poeta. Poetisa.
Lion. Lioness. Prince. Princess.
León. Leona.
Príncipe. Princesa.

MASCULINO Y FEMENINO EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES


Son. Daughter.
REGLA GENERAL. AÑ
A ÑADIR “-S”
Hijo. Hija.
Steward. Stewardess. SINGULAR PLURAL
Auxiliar de vuelo. Azafata. Car. Cars.
Tailor. Dressmaker.
Sastre. Modista. Book. Books.
Uncle. Aunt.
Tío. Tía.
Pen. Pens.
Waiter. Waitress.
Camarero. Camarera.
Widower. Widow.
Viudo. Viuda.

EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES


EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES
AÑADEN “-“-ES” ACABADOS EN
AÑADEN “-“-ES” ACABADOS EN
X, SS, CH, SH, Z, O
X, SS, CH, SH, Z, O
Kiss. Kisses.
SINGULAR PLURAL

Potato Potatoes. Pouch. Pouches.

Brush. Brushes. Church Churches

Box. Boxes. Bush. Bushes

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 11


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

ACABADAS EN “-o” de origen ACABADOS EN “-y” precedida


extranjero, añ
añaden “-s“. de vocal

Kilo. Kilos. Toy Toys.


Kimono Kimonos.
Boy. Boys.
Piano. Pianos.
Monkey Monkeys
Tomato. Tomatoes

ACABADOS EN “-y” precedida CAMBIAN “-f” o “-fe


fe””,
de consonante. POR “-ves
ves””.
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL

Lady Ladies
Wolf. Wolves. Thief. Thieves. Sheaf. Sheaves
Lobo. Ladrón. Gavilla. .
City Cities Loaf. Loaves. Leaf. Leaves. Half. Halves.
Barra de Hoja. Mitad.
pan.
Wife. Wives. Shelf. Shelves. Self. Selves.
Esposa. Estanterí Uno
a. mismo.
Life. Lives. Knife. Knives. Calf. Calves.
Vida. Cuchillo. Ternero.

RESTO DE PALABRAS EN “-f” o


“-fe” AÑADEN “-s“. PLURALES IRREGULARES
Man. Men. Woman. Women
Safe. Safes. Chief. Chiefs . Hombre. Mujer.
Caja de Jefe. Foot. Feet. Goose. Geese.
seguridad. Pie. Ganso.
Cliff. Cliffs. Child. Children. Tooth. Teeth.
Acantilado. Niño. Diente.
Ox. Oxen. Mouse. Mice.
Buey Ratón

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 12


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

ANIMALES QUE USAN LA


MISMA FORMA PARA OTRAS PALABRAS QUE USAN LA
SINGULAR Y PLURAL MISMA FORMA PARA SINGULAR Y
Sheep. Deer. Trout.
PLURAL
Oveja. Ciervo. Trucha.
Salmon Carp. Plaice.
Salmón. Carpa. Platija. Aircraft. Spacecraft . Hovercraft .
Mackarel. Partridge Squid. Aeronave. Nave espacial. Aerodeslizador.
Caballa. Perdíz. Calamar.

Cod. Duck.
Bacalao Pato.

PALABRAS QUE SIEMPRE VAN PALABRAS QUE SIEMPRE VAN


EN PLURAL EN SINGULAR
People. Cattle. Police. Folk. Thanks Mathematics. Gymnastics
Gente. Ganado. Policia. Gente. Gracias Matemáticas Gimnasia .
Pyjamas. Glasses Scissors. Binoculars.
Pijama. Gafas. Tijeras. Prismáticos. Politics. Phonetics.
Política. Fonética.
Trousers. Stairs. Jeans. Shorts.
Pantalones Escaleras vaqueros Pantalones
cortos

PUEDEN IR EN SINGULAR Y PENNY PUEDE TENER DOS


PLURAL PLURALES

Our police is very Our team is the


efficient. best.
I have 4 pennies. I paid 50 pence.
The police are Our team are
looking for the wearing the new
thief. T-shirts.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 13


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PALABRAS COMPUESTAS CON -


PALABRAS COMPUESTAS
man o -woman

Maid of honour. Maids of honour. Manservant. Menservants .


Dama de honor
Policeman Policemen
Brother in law. Brothers in law.
Cuñado. Postman Postmen

PRONUNCIACION DE LA FORMACIÓN DE PALABRAS


FORMACIÓ
DESINENCIA DE PLURAL. COMPUESTAS

/s/. Cats. /z/ Windows. /iz/ Houses. Adjetivo + Handful. Puñado.


nombre.
Cuando los Cuando los Cuando los
Nombre + Toothpaste. Pasta de
nombres acaban nombres acaban nombres acaban
nombre. dientes.
en consonante en consonante en s, z, x, ch, ss,
sorda.. p, t, k, f sonora o vocal. ... Ing + nombre. Washingmachine . Lavadora.
b, d, g, v, m, n,
l, r, w, j Pronombre + Shegoat. Cabra.
nombre.

FORMACIÓN DE PALABRAS
FORMACIÓ
FUNCIONES DEL NOMBRE
COMPUESTAS
Sujeto. María is a teacher.
Verbo + Breakfast. Desayuno.
nombre. Predicado. María is a sociable
woman.
Preposición + Overwork. Exceso de
nombre. trabajo.
Complemento Directo. I saw a woman there.

Complemento Indirecto. This present is for that


Preposición + Income. Ingresos. woman.
verbo.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 14


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

SUFIJOS DE NOMBRES SUFIJOS DE NOMBRES


-er. -er. -ee. -tion. -ance. -hood. -ment.
Profesiones Cosas. Personas Nombres Nombre. Nombre. Nombre.
Verbos. Abundance Childhood Shipment.
Baker. Opener Employee. Pollution.
-ist. -ism. -ness. -tion. -ity.
Nombre. Nombre.
Profesiones Ideologías. Nombre. Education Ability.

Violinist. Comunism. Hapiness.

SUFIJOS DE ADJETIVOS O SUFIJOS DE ADJETIVOS O


ADVERBIOS. ADVERBIOS.
-ed. -en. -ant. -ive.
-al. -ic. -ive.
Excited Wooden. Irrelevant. Comprehe
Practical Historic. Exclusive nsive.

-ful. -less. -ous. -worthy -like. -ible.

Faithful. Hopeless. Industrious


Trustworthy. Childlike. Sensible.

PREFIJOS NEGATIVOS PREFIJOS NEGATIVOS


Dis- Il- Im- In- Anti- Over- Pre- Semi-
Dishonest. Illegal. Impolite. Invisible .
Antibiotic. Overdose Predictabl Semiprofe
e. ssional.
Ir- Non- Un-
Super- Post- Under

Irregular. Non- Unthinkabl


smoker. e Supernatu Postpone. Undermine
ral.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 15


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

GENITIVO SAJÓ
SAJÓN USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓ
SAJÓN
Apóstrofo y una “s “es la Peter’s bike.
regla general.
•Es una construcción especial que se utiliza para Acabados en s, s ólo “ ’ ”. Pits’ car.
indicar posesión. La estructura del genitivo sajón es:
Poseedor + ‘s + cosa poseída. Plurales irregulares no A men’s club.
terminados en “s” o “-es”
•Normalmente la utilizamos con personas y rara vez siguen la regla general.
con objetos. Más de un sujeto. My brother and sister’s
friends.

USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓ


SAJÓN USOS DEL GENITIVO SAJÓ
SAJÓN
Algunas expresiones. A day’s break. Tiendas, hospitales e He goes to his
iglesias. friend’s.
Today’s paper.
He got married in
The car’s engine. Sant Louis’.

Casas y tiendas. I went to my sister’s I was at the dentist’s.

She was at the Los plurales regulares A girls’ school.


baker’s. acabados en “s” sólo
añaden el apóstrofo.

EL ART ÍCULO INDETERMINADO ARTÍCULO INDETERMINADO


A AN
Su traducción es “un”, “una”. Tiene dos formas “a” y A house. An apple.
“an”. Una casa. Una manzana.
A car. An hour.
“A ” se emplea con palabras que comienzan por sonido
Un coche. Una hora.
consonántico.
A university. A n honest person.
“A n” va con las que comienzan por sonido vocálico. Una universidad. Una persona honrada.
A uniform. An honor.
Las palabras que comienzan por “h” muda como Un uniforme. Un honor.
honest, llevan “an”. A union. An umbrella.
Un sindicato . Un paraguas.
Las palabras que comienzan por semiconsonantes A European. A n MP.
como “university” llevan “a”. Un europeo. Un miembro del Parlamento.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 16


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS DEL ARTÍ


ARTÍCULO EL ARTÍ
ARTÍCULO
INDETERMINADO INDETERMINADO
Con números y expresiones A hundred. Con profesiones, I am a lawyer and he is
de cantidad. religiones, e ideas a nurse.
políticas. He is a Catholic and I
Para indicar el precio de las It is 10 euros a kilo.. am a Jew.
cosas.
Cuando es la primera vez The woman had a nice He was a socialist and
que hablamos de un house near the beach. now he is a
objeto. conservative.
Cuando la referencia no I want a book but I Con enfermedades. Last week I had a
está clara. don’t want an English terrible cold.
book.

EL ART ÍCULO DETERMINADO


USOS
THE
Ríos. The Nile.
•Es parte invariable de la oración.
Mares. The Black Sea.
•El, la los y las.

•Tiene dos pronunciaciones según vaya


precediendo a vocales o consonantes. Montañas. The Alps.

Islas. The Canary Islands.


The girl. The girls. The car. The cars.

Desiertos. The Sahara.

USOS DEL ARTICULO USOS DEL ARTICULO


DETERMINADO DETERMINADO
Países en plural. The Netherlands.
Junto a un adjetivo hace The blind.
Cosas únicas. The Universe. referencia a un
colectivo, a un tipo de The rich.
The Sun. personas.
The poor.
The Moon.
The British.
The Earth.

Con instrumentos I play the piano. Con los superlativos. Water is in my opinion
musicales. the best drink.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 17


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS DEL ARTICULO USOS DEL ARTICULO


DETERMINADO DETERMINADO
También con algunas He was in the navy. Con fechas se lee pero 30th November is my
expresiones. no se escribe. birthday.
The police.
Bed, class, court, In hospital.
I went to the Post college, church,
Office. hospital, market, In the hospital.
prison, university,
I went to the cinema town.
last Sunday.
Junto a las palabras The United Kingdom.
Republic , State,
Kingdom. The Arab Republic .

USOS DEL ARTICULO


NO SE USA
DETERMINADO
Con cosas únicas. The moon isn’t red.
Con días de la semana. I play tennis on
Con contables en The orange is an Monday.
singular hace referencia excellent fruit.
a la totalidad. Meses. In July I go to San Juan
Con los adjetivos pasa The rich also cry. beach.
lo mismo.
The blind. Estaciones y fiestas. Easter is a great
holiday.
Con apellidos. The Barrymore. Idiomas. Italian is very romantic.

NO SE USA NO SE USA
Colores. Red is my favourite Cuando nos referimos al Wine is good for you.
colour. sentido general de algo.
The wine from Pinoso is
Deportes, actividades y Swimming is good for the best.
juegos. you. Partes del cuerpo. Wash your hair.

Comidas. Lunch, breakfast and Canales hechos por el Suez canal.


supper are the meals of hombre.
the day. Con las palabras “bed ”, He is in bed.
“school”, “hospital”,
Expresiones. At night. “prison”, college”,
“university”.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 18


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER,


NO SE USA
EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO.
Both. Both Peter and Sarah like
Con las comidas. I have lunch at home. Ambos. confetti.

Both….and. I like both the film and the


Con “ver la tele ”. I never watch TV. Tanto como. book.

Con personas. Doctor Ferreira no The Both of them. Both of them are happy
doctor Ferreira. Ellos dos.
Neither. Ninguno. Neither of them came to my
Ni. party.

BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER,


EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO. EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO.
Either....or. Either you come with me or go with
Most. Most of them are from Canada.
O…..o. him.
La mayoría,
la mayor
Neither....n I like neither coffee nor tea. parte.
or. Ni….ni.
Each. Each student must buy a dictionary.
All. All the students were happy after the Cada uno.
Todos. Más exam.
de dos. Every. Every citizen paid the taxes.
Todos y
None. None of my friends wanted to buy cada uno
Ninguno. my car.
No. Nada. I have no money now.
Más de dos

USOS
LOS ADJETIVOS.
Detrás de los verbos She is nice.
Modificar al sustantivo y normalmente le preceden. copulativos: be , look,
sound, taste, appear,
A red car. seem, get, feel, stay,
fall, etc.
Algunos siempre llevan I am interested in
Al ser en inglés parte invariable preposición. politics.

I have a red car. She has a red dress. Los participios pueden He is tired.
hacer las veces de
adjetivos. He is tyring.
My daughter wears red shoes.They have red
skirts.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 19


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

LA COMPARACI
COMPARACIÓÓN CON
EL ADJETIVO
ADJETIVOS
Los que van delante A beautiful song . IGUALDAD
se llaman atributivos.
As... As. I am as tall as you are.
Los que van detrás se She is alive. Tan como.
llaman predicativos En los puntos va el
adjetivo.
So.....as. He is not so intelligent
No tan como. as his brother Mike.

LA COMPARACIÓ
COMPARACIÓN CON
LA COMPARACIÓN
ADJETIVOS
POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO
• Los monosi
monosiííabos y bis í labos a ñaden “-er
er”” en el Tall. Taller. The tallest.
comparativo.

• Los monosí
monos í labos acabados en una consonante Big. Bigger . The biggest.
precedida de una única vocal, duplican la
consonante. Como en fat
fat.. Fatter
Fatter..

• Si acaban en “-y ” se sustituye por “ i ”. Happy. Happier. The happiest

LA COMPARACIÓN EL COMPARATIVO
“-Er”. I am taller now.
POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO

More….than. It is more interesting


Comfortable More The most than the film.
comfortable . comfortable .
Comparativo + and + I am getting fatter and
comparativo. fatter.
Interesting. More The most
interesting. interesting. The + comparativo, the + The richer, the sillier.
comparativo.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 20


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

COMPARATIVO DE
EL SUPERLATIVO
INFERIORIDAD
The .....est The richest people in Less + adj + than . She is less intelligent
Elda. than Rose.
Con adjetivos de una o dos
silabas. The least + adjetivo The least important of
indican inferioridad. all his novels.
Se utiliza in para lugares y
periodos de tiempo.
POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO
The + most + adjetivo The most beautiful girl
Con los de dos o más in town. Busy. Less busy. The least
silabas. busy.

LOS IRREGULARES LOS IRREGULARES

Good. Better. The best. Much / Many . More. The most.


Bueno. Mejor. El mejor Mucho. Más. El más.
Bad. Worse. The worst.
Far. Farther. The farthest.
Malo. Peor. El peor.
Lejos. Más lejos. Lo más lejano.
Little. Less. The least.
Poco. Menos. El menos. Old. Elder. The eldest.
Viejo. Más viejo. El más viejo.

LAS PREPOSICIONES. AT LAS PREPOSICIONES. AT


Puntos We stopped at the zoo.
concretos.
Nombres de He was at a meeting, then
Cafés y We'll eat at MacDonald's, in actividades at the theatre and later at a
restaurantes San Juan Beach. de grupo concert and at a lecture,
afterwards at a match and
Sitios donde I was at school and then at
finally at the cinema.
se estudia o university later on I worked
trabaja. at IBM.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 21


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

LAS PREPOSICIONES. AT EXPRESIONES CON AT


Con el número I lived at 35 Príncipe de Asturias.
At night. At sunrise. At noon. At sunset.
de la calle
Por la Al amanecer Al mediodia Al atardecer
Horas I wake up at six. noche.
At first At At this At last.
Navidad y At Christmas I buy many presents
sight. midnight. moment. Al fín.
Pascua and at Easter I go to the beach.
A primera Al mediodia En este
vista. momento.

Expresiones At present I’m reading a novel.

He died at the age of 81.

EXPRESIONES CON AT LAS PREPOSICIONES. ON


Tocando o We have a house on the river.
cercano a una
At the At the At the top. At work.
línea, Benidorm is on the coast.
bus-stop. office. En la parte En el
En la parada En la oficina. de arriba. trabajo.
Elche is on the road to Murcia.
del autobús.

At the At least. At the Tocando una The keys are on the table.
station. Al menos. bottom. superficie.
En la En la parte
Transportes I saw her on the plane/on the
estación. de abajo.
públicos, train/on the bus.
caballos, motos
y bicicletas.

LAS PREPOSICIONES. ON LAS PREPOSICIONES. ON


Con pisos. I live on the second floor.
Expresiones. The train arrived on time.
He is on a business trip.

Días. I study French on Monday.


The soldier is on duty.
On St. Valentine’s many people
buy diamonds.

Páginas. On page 26 you will find the


exercises.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 22


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN


Cuando algo My friends are in the cuartelillo.
está dentro de The bottles are in the fridge.
Con grandes We spent the summer in the
algo.
islas. Canary islands.

Con países. I live in Spain. Partes del I have a pain in my


cuerpo. stomach.

Con regiones. They are in the Sahara.

LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN


Con coche, I saw him in a new Mercedes.
taxi y Partes del día I read the paper in the morning.
avioneta.
Con algunos In bed.
lugares. Meses. I got married in October.
In hospital.
Años. I met my wife in 1982.

Nombres de I lived in Onesimo Redondo


calles. street. Estaciones. I go to San Juan beach in
summer.

LAS PREPOSICIONES. IN EXPRESIONES CON IN

Siglos. In he l9th century people did not in a hurry. In any case in danger
wear jeans.

in love in order. In other


words

In private

Períodos de Spain was very rich in the Middle


tiempo. Ages.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 23


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

LA COMPARACION DE LOS
ADVERBIOS
ADVERBIOS

Modificando adverbios. He writes quite POSITIVO COMPARATIVO SUPERLATIVO


quickly.
Soon. Sooner. The soonest.
Modificando adjetivos. It is very cheap.

Modificando frases. Perhaps they will Quickly. More quickly. The most
win. quickly.

CLASIFICACIÓ
CLASIFICACIÓN OJO CON ENOUGH
FRECUEN LUGA MODO GRADO TIEMPO
CIA R CON ADJETIVOS CON NOMBRES
Often. Away. Fast. Enough. Yesterday.
He is rich enough He has enough money
Frequently. There. Well. Very. Daily.

Recuerda
Sometim Near. Slowly. Almost Last week.
es. Rich enough money
Always. Here. Hardly Tomorrow.

Never. Rather

ADVERBIOS INTERROGTIVOS YET, STILL, ALREADY, DURING


Y AGO

Yet. I haven't finished


Where. When. How. How far. Al final en the job yet.
interrogativas y
negativas.
Why. Which. How long. How
often Con el pretérito Have you seen her
perfecto, aún, yet?
todavía.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 24


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

STILL ALREADY
Still. My sister is still Already . This car is already
Detrás de to be. working . Va detrás de to be. too old.
Todavía. Va entre Already . He has the tickets
sujeto y verbo en I still love her.
En posición final already.
afirmativas e enfatiza.
interrogativas Do they still live in
Sax? Already . I have already
Va detrás del Se coloca entre el bought the grapes.
sujeto en He still hasn’t paid. auxiliar y el verbo en Have you already
negativas. Da afirmativas bought the books?
énfasis

DURING Y AGO EL IMPERATIVO


AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA
During. During the summer
Indica un per íodo de I go to Santa Pola. Infinitivo sin to. Do not + Inf sin to.
tiempo dentro de otro.
Go home. Don’t drink too
much.
Ago. I went to Elche two Come here.
Se coloca al final de la days ago.
oración.
FORMA ENFÁTICA

Do go home.

EL PRESENTE SIMPLE EL PRESENTE SIMPLE


AFIRMATIVA Sujeto + Inf sin to I play tennis.

•Equivale al presente de indicativo. He, she, it añaden (s) He kisses his


o (es) mother.
•Se forma con el sujeto más el infinitivo. NEGATIVA Sujeto + do + not + I don’t like cocido.
Inf sin to.
•La tercera persona del singular, ( he, she, e it) He, She, It usan He doesn’t love
añaden “-s” o “-es”. does. her.
Do + not contrae en We don’t smoke.
•Los verbos que terminan en “-ss”, “-sh”, “-ch”, “-“x, don’t.
“-o“ añaden “-es” en la tercera persona del Does + not contra en He doesn’t cook.
singular doesn’t.
INTERROGATIVA Do + S + Inf sin to. Do you love me?

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 25


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE UOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE


Indicar hábitos o I never go to the
Para contar historias, A waiter asks a
costumbres. university by car. cuentos, chistes, couple.
acontecimientos
Para indicar The sun rises deportivos, etc.
verdades everyday. En el llamado Colombus discovers
universales. presente històrico. America in 1492.
Para planes futuros. The play begins at 8 Horarios. The plane leaves at
and ends at 10.30. 7.00.

Con refranes. Time flies.

USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE BE GOING TO


Cuando se tiene I am going to visit my
Always. Never. Occasionally Often. intención de hacer algo. friend.

Para predecir algo. It’s going to rain.


Frequently. On Sometimes. Every
Sundays day.
Con un futuro She is going to get
Usually. Seldom. In winter. relativamente inmediato. married next Sunday.

USOS DEL PRESENTE


EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
CONTINUO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Am, I am Acciones en proceso. I am paying my flat.
Is, Are + reading.
Verbo + Ing. I am reading a good
Negativa. Sujeto + Am, I am not book.
Is, Are + Not cooking. Acciones planificadas. I'm playing golf
+ Verbo + with my friend
Ing. Eduardo next
Interrogativa Am, Is, Are + Are you Sunday.
. Sujeto + Verbo listening to
+ Ing. me? Quejas sobre acciones They are always
que se repiten. complaining

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 26


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

FORMA –ING FORMA –ING


ACABADOS EN –”E” ACABADOS EN
“-ie”
Have. Having.
Die. Dying.
Come. Coming.

Live. Living. Lie. Lying.

Practise. Practising.

FORMA –ING VERBOS QUE NO SE SUELEN USAR


ACABADOS EN EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS.
“Y”
Believe. Feel. Appear.
Try. Trying.
Consider. Smell. Belong to.
Study. Studying.
Depend. Love. Have.
Play. Playing. Doubt. Fear. Like.
Guess. See. Forget.
Buy. Buying.
Hope. Taste. Owe.

EL PASADO SIMPLE. Regulares LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES


Afirmativa. Sujeto + Inf sin I played Afirmativa. S+ 2 columna de I ate the cake.
to + Ed chess. la lista de verbos I bought a new
Los acabados en irregulares. house.
“-e” solo I loved her.
“-d”. Negativa. S+ Did + Not + I didn’t eat the
Negativa. Sujeto + Did not, I didn’t go Inf . cake.
+ Inf sin to out. Interrogativa. Did + S + Inf. Did you eat the
Did + Not contrae cake?
en din’t.
Interrogativa Did + Sujeto + Did you buy
. Inf sin to. the new CD?

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 27


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EL PASADO CONTINUO USOS DEL PASADO CONTINUO


Afirmativa. Sujeto + Was, I was
Para hablar acerca de I was reading when
Were + Ing. reading
lo que estaba she came.
Time.
sucediendo.
Negativa. Sujeto + Was, I was not
Were + Not + sleeping Cuando dos acciones I was reading a
Ing. estaban ocurriendo al novel while she was
mismo tiempo. watching TV.
Interrogativa Was, Were + Were they
. Sujeto + Ing. playing En descripciones. I was riding a car
chess? and then...

EL PRESENTE PERFECTO EL PRESENTE PERFECTO


Afir. Sujeto + Have, Has I have
+ Participio Pasado. played
• Este tiempo hace referencia a acciones ya tennis.
acabadas
Neg. Sujeto + Have, Has I have not
• Como todos los tiempos perfectos, se forma
not + Participio played
con el verbo to have y el Participio Pasado.
Pasado. chess.

Inter. Have, Has + Sujeto Have you


+ Participio Pasado. played golf?

USOS DEL PRESENTE USOS DEL PRESENTE


PERFECTO PERFECTO
Con just, indica que la I have just seen my
Acciones que ocurrieron I have eaten paella. acción ha ocurrido wife.
en el pasado recientemente.
I have visited Paris. Con ever. (alguna vez) Have you ever been
to Rome?
Acciones que se han He has visited Madrid Con always. I have always liked
repetido en el pasado. many times. the country.
Con already . We have already
finished.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 28


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

FOR Y SINCE FOR Y SINCE


How long. Se utiliza para How long have you
Suelen acompañar a éste tiempo para preguntar por la duración. been wearing glasses?
referirse a acciones que empezaron
en el pasado y que continúan hasta el For. I have lived in Elda for
Se emplea con períodos 40 years.
momento presente.
de tiempo. Desde hace.
Since. She has had the same
Nos remonta a un punto car since 1987.
concreto en el pasado.
Desde o desde que. I have been wearing
glasses since October.

EL PASADO PERFECTO USOS DEL PASADO PERFECTO


Afirmativa. Sujeto + Had I had seen
+ Participio her. Acciones que ocurrieron When I had finished
Pasado. antes que otra. all my work, I went
Negativa. Sujeto + Had I had not to the swimming
not + gone. pool.
Participio
Pasado.
Interrogativa Had + Sujeto Had she
. + Participio been with
Pasado you?

EL FUTURO SlMPLE USOS DEL FUTURO SlMPLE


Afir. Sujeto + Will + Inf I will go with En sugerencias. Shall we go to the
sin to. you. cinema?
Iré contigo. En promesas. I will buy you the
Neg. Sujeto + Will not, + I will not pay car.
Inf sin to. for that.
No pagaré eso.
Inter. Will + Sujeto + Inf Will you Determinaciones. I will go with you.
sin to. marry me?
¿Te casarás Énfasis. I will never do it
conmigo? again.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 29


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USOS DEL FUTURO SlMPLE EL FUTURO CONTINUO


Predicciones. They will win the Afir. Sujeto + Will be + I will be
match. Inf sin to + Ing. driving to
Alicante.
Lógicamente, indica I will buy a Harley
acciones que ocurrirán. next year.
Neg. Sujeto + Will not + I will not be
Con advertencias y If you don’t hurry,
Inf sin to + Ing. eating there.
condiciónes. you’ll be late.
Para expresar deseo o Don’t drink too much Inter. Will + Sujeto + Be + Will you be
rechazo ante algo. or you’ll get drunk.
Inf + Ing. studying in
Ofrecimientos. I'll help you with your Elx ?
exercises.

EL FUTURO PERFECTO EL FUTURO PERFECTO


Afir. Sujeto + Will have I will have Afir. Sujeto + Will have + I will have
+ Participio eaten. Participio Pasado. eaten.
Pasado.
Neg. Sujeto + Will have + Not I will not
Neg Sujeto + Will have I will not + Participio Pasado. have eaten.
+ Not + Participio have eaten.
Pasado.
Inter. Will + Sujeto + Will have Will you have
Inter Will + Sujeto + Will Will you + Participio Pasado. eaten?
have + Participio have eaten?
Pasado.

EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO


Afir. Sujeto + Would + I would go Afir. Sujeto + Would + I would have
Inf sin to. with you. Have+ Participio gone with
Pasado. you.
Neg. Sujeto + Would not/ I would not
Neg. Sujeto + Would I would not won't + Have+ have paid
not + Inf sin to. pay that. Participio Pasado. that.
Inter. Would + Sujeto + Would you
Inter. Would + Sujeto + Would you Have+ Participio have
Inf sin to. marry me? Pasado. married her?

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 30


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EL PRESENTE SIMPLE
Afir . Sujeto + Inf. I live in Elda. EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
3ª p. (He, She, It) añade He kisses her.
Afir . S + Be (am, is, are) I am reading.
“-s” o “-es
+ Ing.
Neg. Sujeto + Don’t o I don’t like coffee.
Doesn’t + Inf She doesn’t smoke. Neg. S + Be + Not + Ing. She is not smoking.
Inter. Do o Does + S + Inf? Do you love me? Inter. Am, Is, Are + S + Are you running?
Does he go to school? Ing?
Usos. Acciones habituales. I get up at 7.45.
Verdades universales. Snow is cold. Usos. Acciones en proceso I am readind a book.
Planes futuros. I am playing tennis
Horarios. The match starts at
Acciones en el futuro 6.00. Acciones repetidas. tomorrow.
He is always talking.
sujetas a un horario. The train leaves at 6.00.
Otros. Le suelen acompañar: every day , always, usually, Otros. Le suelen acompañar: at present, nowadays,
often, never, generally , etc. now, at the moment, etc.

EL PASADO SIMPLE
EL PRESENTE PERFECTO Afir . S + Vb. Regular + ed I played.
Afir . S + Have (have o I have played tennis. S + Vb Irr ( I ate.
has) + Participio I have eaten paella. 2ªColumna).
pasado Neg. S + Did + Not I did not play.
Neg. S + Have + Not + I have not washed the (didn’t) + Inf. I did not eat.
Participo pasado. dishes. Inter. Did + S + Inf? Did you play?
I have not seen her. Did you eat?
Inter. Have o Has + S + Have you been there? Usos. Acciones que I went to Barcelona.
Participo pasado? ocurrieron en el I was reading the paper
Usos. Acciones acabadas de I have read the book. pasado. and then it began to
A veces acompaña al rain.
las que no se dice
cuando sucedieron. pasado continuo
Otros. Le suelen acompañar: last year, yesterday , two
Otros. Puede llevar just, for, since, already, yet, etc. days ago etc.

EL PRESENTE PERFECTO
EL PASADO CONTINUO
CONTINUO
Afir. S + Be (Was, Were ) I was writing a
+ Ing. letter. Afir. S + Have o Has + I have been
Been +Ing. learning English
Neg. S + Was, Were + I was not writing a for 20 years.
Not + Ing letter.
Neg. S + Have o Has+ I have not been
Inter. Was, Were + S + Were you writing a not + Been + Ing. sleeping.
Ing? letter? Inter. Have o Has + S + Have you been
Usos. Acciones en proceso I was painting the Been + Ing? reading?
en el pasado. gate. Usos. Acciones pasadas que todavía continúan.
En narraciones. The girls were
Para descripciones. smiling. Otros. For y since le suelen acompañar.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 31


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EL PASADO PERFECTO
EL PASADO PERFECTO
CONTINUO
Afir. S + Had + I had gone .
Afir. S + Had + Been I had been
Participio Pasado.
+ Ing. watching TV.
Neg. S + had + Not + I had not gone .
Neg. S + Had + Not + I had not been
Participio Pasado.
Been + Ing. watching TV.
Inter. Had + S + Had she gone?
Participio Pasado?. Inter. Had + S + Been Had she been
+ Ing?. ironing?
Usos. Acciones que ocurrieron antes que otra
acción pasada. Usos. Acciones que estaban en proceso
antes que otra acción pasada
ocurriera.
Otros. Le suelen acompañar: when, before, by
the time etc.

EL FUTURO SIMPLE
EL FUTURO CONTINUO
Afir. S + Will o Shall + I will go . Afir. S + Wil be + Ing I will be reading
Inf. Valle de Elda.
Neg. S + Will + Not + I will not go. Neg. S + Will + Not + I will not be
Inf. Be + Ing. watching TV.
Inter. Will + S + Inf? Will she come?

Usos. Acciones futuras. Inter. Will + S + Be + Will you be


Predicciones Ing? working?
Usos. Acciones futuras en progreso.
Otros. Le suelen acompañar: tonight,
tomorrow, next year, in a month.

EL FUTURO PERFECTO
EL FUTURO PERFECTO
CONTINUO
Afir. S + Will have + I will have arrived at
Participio Pasado. 7.00. Afir. S + Will have + Been I will have been
Neg. S + Will + Not + I will not have + Ing. working.
Have + Participio finished. Neg. S + Will + Not + Have I will not have
Pasado. + Been + Ing. been working.
Inter. Will + S + Have + Will she have paid? Inter. Will + S + Have + Will you have been
Participio Pasado? Been + Ing. working?

Usos. Acciones acabadas en el futuro. Usos. Acciones que estarán finalizadas en el futuro.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 32


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE
EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO
Afir. S + Would + Inf. I would go to Afir. S + Would + Have + I would have gone
London. Participio Pasado. to London.
Neg. S + Would + Not + I would not go to
Inf. London. Neg. S + Would + Not + I would not have
Inter Would + S + Inf? Would you go to Have + Participio gone to London.
. Lisbon? Pasado.
Usos Deseos en el presente o en el futuro. Inte. Would + S + Have + Would you have
. Participio Pasado? gone to Paris?

Usos. Lamentos sobre acciones pasadas.

ORACIONES COPULATIVAS ORACIONES DISYUNTIVAS


And. He is tall and intelligent.
Y.
Or. You can stay or come with us.
Both…and. They both teach French and
O.
Tanto...como. Italian.
Moreover. It rained a lot, moreover it Either…or. They are either Italian or
Además. snowed. O…o. Greek.
Likewise. I bought a ham; likewise did my
De igual neighbour. Neither…nor. I neither like Wagner nor the
modo. Ni...ni. Rolling Stones.
Besides. I have no money, besides I don’t
Además. want to buy anything else.

ORACIONES ADVERSATIVAS ORACIONES CAUSALES


But. I like Verdi but I prefer Puccini.
Pero. Because. I became rich because I saved
Not Not only I read Valle de Elda but I Porque. a lot.
only…but also read Vivir en Elda. For. She studies for being a lawyer.
also. Para.
No sólo...sino As. As I had studied French I
también. Como. could travelled alone.
Yet. She is pretty, yet nobody loves
Aunque. her. Since. Since they are adults they can
Puesto que. go.
Although. Although he is rich, he hasn’t Owing to. The recital was cancelled
Aunque. many friends. Ya que, debido a. owing to lack of audience.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 33


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

ORACIONES FINALES ORACIONES CONSECUTIVAS


In order to. In order to be accepted you
Para. have to pay first.
So. He won the pools so he
So as to. They voted so as to elect the Por eso . bought a new house.
Con el fin de. new President. Therefore. He has many friends
Por lo tanto. therefore he is never
In case. I have an insurance in case I alone.
En el caso de need it.
Which is why. He is boring, which is why
que. Por si.
Esa es la razón por la he’s always alone.
For fear. He eats a lot of oranges for que.
Por miedo a. fear of getting a cold.
So…that. I bought a present so that
Para que. you liked it.

ORACIONES COMPARATIVAS ORACIONES DE MODO


As. He is as intelligent as his sister.
Como. As. As a pianist she is the best.
Como.
As…as. He is not as honest as his brother.
Tan como. Like. He eats like a lion.
So…as. He is not so tall as me. Como.
No tan como.

Similarly. Petrel has nice parks, similarly


Del mismo Elda has nice museums.
modo.

ORACIONES CONCESIVAS ORACIONES ADVERSATIVAS


Although. Although I prefer to stay I have to
However. I liked it, however, I didn’t buy it.
Aunque. go now.
Sin embargo.
Though. Though he is ill, he never No matter. No matter if you love her, she
Aunque. complains. No importa. doen’t love you.

Even though. Even though he is rich he never In spite of. In spite of having lived in France
A pesar de . she doesn’t speak French.
Incluso. shows off.

Even if. Even if it rains I will go. Despite. Despite all the efforts he didn’t
Incluso s i. A pesar de. win.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 34


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

ORACIONES DE TIEMPO
ORACIONES CONDICIONALES
When. When you want to visit us, let us
Cuando. know.
If. If you need me, phone me. While. While I was in Italy I ate a lot of
Si. Mientras. pasta.
Unless. Unless you pay you can’t come Before. Before I worked in Elda, I worked
A menos que Antes. in Crevillente.
Since. I have lived here since 1962
Desde.
Whenever. Whenever he comes I visit him .
Cada vez que
Until. Until I found it I was sad.
Hasta.

ORACIONES DE TIEMPO ORACIONES DE TIEMPO


Now. Now I am hungry.
Ahora.
Once. Once I pay the house I will buy a Where. This is the house where we
Una vez. car. Donde. lived until 1996.
No No sooner had they gone than I
sonner…than was asleep.
Apenas. Wherever. Wherever she goes she buys
Finally. Finally I read the book. Dondequiera some clothes.
Finalmente. que.
In short. In short they will be here.
En breve.

ORACIONES DE RELATIVO ORACIONES DE RELATIVO

Personas. Who. This is the man who


came here yesterday. Posesión. Whose. The boy whose bike is
this is Mike.
That. This is the man that
came yesterday. Lugar. Where. This is the school where
I studied.
Cosas. Which. This is the book which I
bought in Martín Fierro. Tiempo. When. This is the day when I
That. The house that I sold. was born.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 35


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

ORACIONES DE RELATIVO LOS VERBOS MODALES


Can, could. May, might. Must.
Personas. Whom. The girl whom I loved. Poder. Poder. Deber.
Why. The reason why I
bought this is you. Would. Dare. Need.
Aux.del condicional. Atreverse Necesitar
What. And this is what he
said.

The thing This is the thing that we Will, shall. Ought to.
that. should do. Auxiliares de futuro Deber.

LOS VERBOS MODALES LOS VERBOS MODALES


•Tienen una única forma para todas las personas en
•Los verbos modales se llaman así al carecer de las presente: I can. He can.
mayoría de las formas verbales.
Van seguidos de Infinitivo sin to.I can ski. He must
•Se usan para hacer suposiciones, sacar study.
conclusiones, hablar de posibilidades y establecer
conjeturas. •Hacen la negación y la interrogación como el verbo to
be. Can you ski?
•No tienen todos los tiempos verbales, por ejemplo,
“must” y “ought to ” sólo tienen presente. Can, may, •No se construyen con to do, to have y to be. Can
dare y need, tienen presente y pasado. she go?

LOS VERBOS MODALES LOS VERBOS MODALES

No tienen imperativo, infinitivo, ni participio de Usan otros verbos para suplir sus carencias
presente ni de pasado. temporales.He was able to go. I had to go
alone.
No forman tiempos continuos ni perfectos.
¿Van seguidos de infinitivo sin to, a excepción de
Tampoco aparecen en formas pasivas. ought to, have to y used to.

She can swim. He must study everyday . I used to go to the disco.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 36


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

CAN CAN
Sólo se usa en el presente, para el resto se utiliza to Expresa conocimiento y I can play the violin.
be able to. capacidad física e I can read.
intelectual.
Se puede traducir por poder o saber.
Posibilidad. I can go with you.
I can swim . I know how to swim. Tambien para dar y Can I go with you?
recibir permiso.
l'll be able to go tonight. Puede indicar You can’t smoke
prohibición en la forma here.
Will he be able to come in time? negativa.
Deducción negativa. They can’t be at
I have been able to finish it in time. home.

CAN COULD
Habilidad. I can swim . Indica habilidad en el I could translate
Ofrecimientos. Can I help you? pasado. Italian at the age of 9.
Solamente se usa para el She can do it alone.
presente de indicativo.
Could se usa para el I could go yesterday.
pasado y el condicional. I could go tomorrow. Peticiones formales. Could I go with you?

Sugerencias. You can come with us.

MAY MIGHT

Posibilidad. It may rain during Expresa una It might snow in


the weekend. posibildad más remota Benidorm but I doubt it.
Permiso. May I come in ? que may.
Prohibiciones. You may not stay
Especulaciones. He might be working in
here.
a new book.
Especulaciones. He may be in Ital
Sugerencias. If I may say so I will
buy it.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 37


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

MUST HAVE TO
Obligaciónes morales. I must visit my Obligación normalmente You have to drive with
friend, he is ill. impuesta. a helmet.
Consejos. You must visit the
museum, it is one of Para indicar costumbres. I have to take an
the best in Spain. aspirin every night.
Deducciónes. He must be out
because nobody
answers the phone. En negativa, indica que You don't have to stay
algo no es necesario. if you have something
Prohibiciones. You must not come
to do.
here again.

SHOULD, OUGHT TO WILL


Auxiliar del futuro simple. I will buy a sandwich
Para dar consejos. You should go to when I finish this.
the Yemo Cineplex
cinemas. Predicciones sobre el It will be sunny.
futuro.
You ought to spend Decisiones. I will buy a new car.
more time with
them. Ofrecimientos. I will do it.
Peticiones. Will you pass me the
salt?

WOULD SHALL

Peticiones y Would you like to


ofrecimientos. come with me? Auxiliar de futuro I shall go.

Hábitos y rutinas en el In 1998 I would walk Puede expresar cierta We shall never
pasado. a lot. determinación surrender.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 38


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

USED TO NEED

Hábitos en el I used to sing in Verbo modal o verbo ordinario.


pasado. the shower.
He needs a lot of money to get married.

You needn’t come tomorrow.

Need to indica necesidad.

I need to consult a good doctor.

RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS


NEED
MODALES
• He needs to have more money to buy this Can. Habilidades. I can swim.
car. Petición de Can I come in?
permiso. He can’t go now.
• Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos Imposibilidad.
opciones:
Could. Habilidad en el He could read
pasado. Russian.
• Need you buy so much?
Posibilidad. They could be in
Imposibilidad. Tokyo.
• Do you need to buy so much?
Sugerencias. I couldn’t buy the
car.
You could try next
year.

RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS


MODALES MODALES
Will. Predicciones. They will come.
May. Posibilidad. It may rain Decisiones. I will buy a Harley.
Permiso. tomorrow.
Would. Peticiones Would you marry
Prohibición May I come in?
formales. me?
You may not
Acciones pasadas. I would play tennis
smoke here.
Preferencias. when I was 10.
Might. Posibilidad It might snow. I would rather go to
remota. the cinema.
Shall. Peticiones Shall I open the
formales. window?
Acciones futuras. I shall visit her.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 39


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS


MODALES MODALES
May, might Deducciones They may have gone.
Should Consejos. You should buy her a Could, donde no She could have seen
Ought to. diamond. + Have + tenemos her.
Participio mucha
Pasado. seguridad.
Must. Obligación. I must study.
Prohibiciones. You must not go with
Need. Necesidad. You are going to need
that boy.
a lot of help.

Needn’t. Ausencia de You needn’t come


necesidad. tomorrow.

RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS


QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS)
MODALES
Have to. Obligaciones You have to drive on
impuestas. the right. Preguntas que sirven para confirmar una suposición.

Be able to. Habilidades. He is able to make a Tienen dos partes, si la primera es afirmativa, la
cake. segunda será negativa.

Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectivos forman


Must, can’t Deducciones. They must have
la coletilla con el mismo verbo.
have + PP. bought a new house.
They can’t have come
Con los demás verbos se usan las partículas do, does,
here this morning.
en presente.

QUESTION TAGS QUESTION TAGS


(COLETILLAS) (COLETILLAS)
She couldn't run fast, could she?
You are from Petrel, aren't you?
You study every day, don't you?
You aren’t from Petrel, are you?

She isn’t from Sax, is she? She plays golf, doesn't she?

He has a Harley, hasn't he? You don't speak Chinese, do you?

You can swim, can't you? She doesn't write very well, does she?

You went to Milan, didn't you?

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 40


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

QUESTION TAGS QUESTION TAGS


(COLETILLAS) (COLETILLAS)
•En futuro se usa will y won't. • Recuerda que son como una pila
They will come tomorrow, won't they?
• Positivo
Positivo--negativo
They won't come tomorrow, will they?

•En condicional se usa would. • Negativo


Negativo--positivo

They would buy it if they could, wouldn't they?

She wouldn't buy it, would she?

SAY Y TELL
MAKE Y DO
• Tienen el mismo significado, decir y contar.
•Comparten el significado de hacer
• To tell va con un complemento indirecto.
•No existen reglas
•To say solo necesita un complemento directo.
•To make tiene el matiz de fabricar.
I told her your story

I told your story to her.

I said that I was going to move to Sax.

MAKE Y DO MAKE Y DO
Everybody makes I always do the ironing. I make many His son is doing badly at
mistakes. telephone calls. university.

I make the beds in He does well in his job.


He is always How do you do?
the morning.
making friends.
Make me a promise. I do the dusting on
He makes a lot of I do the cooking. Tuesday.
noise. She is making My sister does the washing
coffee. up.
I´m going to We do business with
make you my last Japan. She made a fortune She did her hair yesterday.
offer. in Cuba.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 41


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EXCLAMACIONES EXCLAMACIONES
What a. What a yacht.
Se usa con How. How beautiful.
sustantivos. Se usa con adjetivos How fast.
y adverbios.
También con adjetivos What a pretty girl.

What. What pretty girls. Oraciones Isn’t he the perfect


Se usa con plurales e What horribe films. interrogativas football player?
incontables. What weather. negativas.

ORACIONES CONDICIONALES ORACIONES CONDICIONALES


PRIMER TIPO SEGUNDO TIPO TERCER Primer tipo: If + If I eat chocolate, I get
TIPO presente + presente. fat.
Acciones probables Acciones Acciones También podemos tener: If I eat chocolate, I will
If + presente + futuro. get fat.
en presente o improbables, imposibles.
futuro. situaciones
hipotéticas. Segundo tipo: If + If I ate chocolate, I
pasado simple + would get fat.
Si llueve me mojo. Si lloviera me Si hubiera
conditional simple.
mojaría. llovido me
habría Tercer tipo: If + If I had eaten chocolate,
mojado. pasado perfecto + I would have get fat.
condicional perfecto.

OTRAS COMBINACIONES OTRAS COMBINACIONES


If + presente + If I finish early I can go. Suppose. Suppose you are rich, would
modal. you live in a big house?
should + imperativo. Should you see her give her Supposing. Supposing you find a wallet
my regards. with money, what will you
Imperativo + Stop shouting or I will get do?
conjunction + clause angry. As long as. You could go as long as you
Unless se suele We won’t go out unless you pay your part.
emplear en lugar de pay. On the condition On the condition that you pay
if not. that. you can be with us.
Con imperativo. If you are hungry, eat Provided. Provided you want it I will
something give it to you.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 42


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

LA VOZ PASIVA FÓRMULA

• CD pasa a Sujeto
•Se usa para resaltar más la acción que el sujeto.

• Puede que desconozcamos al autor de la acción o


• Se utiliza el verbo To be en el mismo tiempo
que no nos interese.
• Aparece el Participio Pasado
•En inglés se usa mucho más que en castellano.
• Yo como pan. El pan es comido

LA VOZ PASIVA T. SIMPLES LA VOZ PASIVA T. CONTINUOS


ACTIVA PASIVA ACTIVA PASIVA
I eat bread with Bread with olive oil is I am eating bread Bread is being eaten
olive oil. eaten.
I was eating bread Bread was being eaten
I ate bread with Bread with olive oil was
olive oil. eaten.
I will be eating Bread will be being eaten
bread
I will eat bread Bread will be eaten
I would be eating Bread would be being eaten
I would eat braed Bread would be eaten bread

LA VOZ PASIVA T. PERFECTOS LA VOZ PASIVA


ACTIVA PASIVA

I have eaten Bread has been eaten by indica el complemento agente.


bread
I had eaten bread Bread had been eaten
It was done by my mother.

I will have eaten Bread will have been eaten


bread
I would have Bread would have been eaten
eaten bread

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 43


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

LA VOZ PASIVA.
PASIVA. C INDIRECTO LA VOZ PASIVA.
PASIVA. C INDIRECTO
Con estos verbos se puede usar el
complemento indirecto como sujeto. I gave Mary a kiss. Mary was given a
Esto no ocurre en español. kiss.
I showed my friend my My friend was
Give. Lend. Offer. Pay. house. shown my house.
Dar. Prestar. Ofrecer. Pagar.
It is said that he is going to be promoted.
Promise. Refuse. Send. Show.
Prometer. Negarse a. Enviar. Mostrar.

LA VOZ PASIVA. OTROS VERBOS EL ESTILO INDIRECTO

To know. To believe. To think.


Saber. Creer. Pensar.
•Para contar lo que dijo alguien.
To say. To consider.
Decir . Considerar •Los verbos suelen ir en pasado.

•En estilo indirecto la frase suele empezar con


It is said that it was stolen un verbo.
It is believed thathe was murdered

EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. VERBOS CAMBIOS


Say. Tell. Ask.
Decir Contar. Preguntar. El tiempo de lo narrado da un salto hacia atrás
Explain. Complain. Warn.
Explicar. Quejarse. Advertir. Las preguntas dejan de serlo.
Declare. State. Announce.
Declarar. Afirmar. Anunciar. Cambios: en expresiones temporales, en los tiempos
verbales y en los pronombres.
Inquire. Think. Claim.
Solicitar. Pensar. Reclamar
Point out. Remark. Protest.
Señalar. Remarcar. Protestar

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 44


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO.


Presente Simple. Pasado Simple.
I live in Elda. He said he lived in Elda. I have been He said he had been
Presente Continuo. Pasado Continuo. working with him. working with him.
I am reading a book. He said he was reading a
Pasado Simple. Pasado Perfecto.
book.
Presente Perfecto Simple. Pasado Perfecto Simple. I went to London. He said he had gone to
London.
I have bought a car. He said he had bought a
car. Pasado Continuo. Pasado Perfecto Continuo.
Presente Perfecto Pasado Perfecto Continuo. I was writing a He said he had been writing
Continuo. letter. a letter.

EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. EL ESTILO INDIRECTO.


Futuro Simple. Condicional Simple.
Pasado Perfecto. Pasado Perfecto.
I will live in He said he would live in
I had been there. He said he had been there. Alicante. Alicante.
Futuro Continuo. Condicional Continuo.
Pasado Perfecto Pasado Perfecto Continuo.
I will be singing in He said he would be
Continuo. a karaoke. singing in a karaoke.
I had been waiting He said he had been waiting
for you. for him.

EL ESTILO INDIRECTO. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES


Now. Then.
Can. Could.
I can swim. He said he could swim. I am happy now. He said he was happy
then.
Shall. Should.
Today. That day.
I shall do it. He said he should do it. I am sad today. He said he was sad that
May. Might. day.
It may rain today. He said it might rain that Yesterday. The day before, The
day. previous day.
Must. Have To. Had To. Yesterday I went He said he had gone to
to Madrid. Madrid the previous
I must study. He said he had to study. day.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 45


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

CAMBIOS TEMPORALES CAMBIOS TEMPORALES


Last week. The previous week.
Tomorrow. The next day.
The following day. I cooked paella last He said he had
The day after. week. cooked paella the
I will go to Valencia He said he would go to previous week.
tomorrow. Valencia the day after. A Week Ago. The Week Before.
Next week. The following week.
Next week I will be He said he would be in A week ago I He said he had played
played tennis in tennis in Almería the
in Milan. Milan the following
week. Almeria. week before.

OTROS CAMBIOS ORDENES


This. That.
Go out. He told us to go out.
I am going to buy He said he was going
this. to buy that.
These. Those.
These are my He said that those Drink the mik . He ordered me to
friends. were his friends. drink the milk.
Here. There.
I live here. He said he lived there. Go out. He invited me to go
Now. Then. out.
Now I want a coffee. He said that then he
wanted a coffee.

SUGERENCIAS PREGUNTAS
Let’s take a taxi. He suggested taking
Where's Mary? He asked where Mary
a taxi.
was.
He suggested that How can I go to He asked me how he
we should take a Elche? could go to Elche?
taxi.
Why do you smoke? He wanted to know
why I smoked.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 46


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

PREGUNTAS WHAT IS LIKE


What does she do? He asked what she •Se utiliza para recabar información sobre el
did. aspecto físico de alguien pues para saber
cómo es alguien de carácter usamos how.
When did you go He asked me when
to Petrel? I had gone to
What is your girlfriend like?
Petrel.
She is very pretty.

DESEOS Y QUEJAS DESEOS

Would like. I would like to go to Paris.

Wish. I wish I had lived in I would like you to come


America. with me.
Expresa deseos, para
su traducción se debe I wish you would be I would like a sandwich.
usar el subjuntivo. rich.
Would prefer. I’d prefer a coffee.
I wish you were quiet.
I would prefer to go with
you.

DESEOS EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS


Prefer. I prefer tea to coffee.
Had better. I had better go to have
a drink.
I prefer swimming to
running. It's time. It's time to eat.
It's time for us to eat.
I prefer to stay at home. It's time we ate.
If only. If only she would stop It's about time. It’s about time he came.
complaining. Used to. He used to drink quite a
lot.
Would rather. I’d rather not go. I used to wear glasses,
but now I use contact
I’d rather not go now. lenses.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 47


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS


To be used to. I am used to reading the Fairly. He speaks English fairly
paper. well.

Enough. I have enough money. Quite. He speaks English quite


I am rich enough. well.

Too. She is too old to climb the Rather. He speaks English rather
mountain. well.

Pretty. He speaks English pretty


well.

EL CAUSATIVO HAVE
EL CAUSATIVO HAVE •Esta estructura se puede usar en todos los tiempos.

•En la interrogrativa y negativa utilizan los auxiliares,


•El que realiza la acción no es el sujeto sino otra do, does, did.
persona.
• Cortarse el pelo, hacerse un empaste. •Se usan los verbos causativos have y get.

•El sujeto no se hace un empaste ni se corta el Did you have your tooth fill?
pelo, sino que contrata un servicio.

I have my hair cut every month. Do you have your carpets cleaned every year?

I have my car repaired when it breaks down.

VERBOS CON PREPOSICÓ


PREPOSICÓN VERBOS CON PREPOSICÓN
Muchos verbos ingleses van acompa ñados de
•Pueden ser: separables e inseparables.
preposiciones o adverbios. EJ. To look
• Serán separables si podemos colocar los
I'm looking for a new job.
complementos entre el verbo y la preposición.
I am going to look up a word in the
I am going to put my coat on.
dictionary.
I am going to put on my coat.
We are looking forward to the festivities.

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 48


RESUMEN GRAMATICAL DE LA
LENGUA INGLESA Y ESPAÑOLA

FINAL

Para cualquier comentario o sugerencia

Pedro Civera Coloma

direelda@centres.cult.gva.es
pcivera@elx.uned.es

Pedro Civera Coloma Elda 2004. 49