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For years, the trusty   provided the sole form of passive restraint in our cars.
There were debates about their safety, especially relating to children, but over time, much of
the country adopted mandatory seat-belt laws. Statistics have shown that the use of seat belts
has saved thousands of lives that might have been lost in collisions. Like seat belts, the
concept of the airbag -- a soft pillow to land against in a crash -- has been around for many
years. The first patent on an inflatable crash-landing device for airplanes was filed during
World War II. In the 1980s, the first commercial airbags appeared in automobiles.

Since model year 1998, all new cars sold in the United States have been required to
have airbags on both driver and passenger sides. (Light trucks came under the rule in 1999.)
To date, statistics show that airbags reduce the risk of dying in a direct frontal crash by about
  . Then came seat-mounted and door-mounted side airbags. Today, some cars go
far beyond having dual airbags to having six or even eight airbags. Having evoked some of
the same controversy that surrounded seat-belt use in its early years, airbags are the subject of
serious government and industry research and tests.
Rn   is a !   device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a
flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision, to prevent
occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window. Modern
vehicles may contain multiple airbags in various side and frontal locations of the passenger
seating positions, and sensors may deploy one or more airbags in an impact zone at variable
rates based on the type and severity of impact; the airbag is designed to only inflate in mild to
severe frontal crashes. Rirbags are normally designed with the intention of supplementing the
protection of an occupant who is correctly restrained with a seatbelt. Most designs are
inflated through pyrotechnic means and can only be operated once.

The first commercial designs were introduced in passenger automobiles during the
1970s with limited success. Broad commercial adoption of airbags occurred in many markets
during the late 1980s and early 1990s with two airbags for the front occupants, and many
modern vehicles now include four or more units.

!" !  

# $

Before looking at specifics, let's review our knowledge of the  $

. First, we know
that moving objects have 
  (the product of the mass and the velocity of an object).
Unless an outside
 acts on an object, the object will continue to move at its present
speed and direction. Cars consist of several objects, including the vehicle itself, loose objects
in the car and, of course, passengers. If these objects are not restrained, they will continue
moving at whatever speed the car is traveling at, even if the car is stopped by a collision.
Stopping an object's momentum requires force acting
 . When a car
crashes, the force required to stop an object is very great because the car's momentum has
changed instantly while the passengers' has not -- there is not much time to work with. The
goal of any supplemental restraint system is to help stop the passenger while doing as little
damage to him or her as possible. 

What an airbag wants to do is to slow the passenger's speed to zero with little or no
damage. The constraints that it has to work within are huge. The airbag has the space between
the passenger and the steering wheel or dashboard and a fraction of a second to work with.
Öven that tiny amount of space and time is valuable, however, if the system can slow the
passenger evenly rather than forcing an abrupt halt to his or her motion.


The goal of an airbag is to slow the passenger's forward motion as evenly as possible
in a fraction of a second. There are three parts to an airbag that help to accomplish this feat:

! The   itself is made of a thin, nylon fabric, which is folded into the steering wheel
or dashboard or, more recently, the seat or door.

! The 
 is the device that tells the bag to inflate. Inflation happens when there is a
collision force equal to running into a brick wall at 10 to 15 miles per hour (16 to 24
km per hour). R mechanical switch is flipped when there is a mass shift that closes an
electrical contact, telling the sensors that a crash has occurred. The sensors receive
information from an 
  built into a microchip.

! The airbag's   
  reacts sodium azide (NaN3) with potassium nitrate
(KNO3) to produce  
 . Hot blasts of the nitrogen inflate the airbag.
The airbag and inflation system stored in the steering wheel.

Öarly efforts to adapt the airbag for use in cars bumped up against prohibitive prices and
technical hurdles involving the storage and release of 
 " . Researchers

! If there was enough room in a car for a gas canister

! Whether the gas would remain contained at high pressure for the life of the car

! How the bag could be made to expand quickly and reliably at a variety of operating
temperatures and without emitting an ear-splitting bang

The inflation system uses a solid propellant and an igniter.

They needed a way to set off a chemical reaction that would produce the nitrogen that
would inflate the bag. Small 
 came to the rescue in the 1970s. The
inflation system is not unlike a solid rocket booster . The airbag system ignites a 

  , which burns extremely rapidly to create a large volume of gas to inflate the bag.
The bag then literally    from its storage site at up to 200 mph (322 kph) -- faster than
the blink of an eye! R second later, the gas quickly dissipates through tiny holes in the bag,
thus "   the bag so you can move.

Öven though the whole process happens in only

& $ &  !
", the
additional time is enough to help prevent serious injury. The
$"   released
from the airbag, by the way, is regular cornstarch or talcum powder, which is used by the
airbag manufacturers to keep the bags pliable and lubricated while they're in storage.


Since the early days of auto airbags, experts have cautioned that airbags are to be used
in tandem with seat belts. Seat belts were still completely necessary because airbags worked
only in front-end collisions occurring at more than 10 mph (6 kph). Only seat belts could help
in side swipes and crashes (although side-mounted airbags are becoming more common
now), rear-end collisions and secondary impacts. Öven as the technology advances, airbags
still are only effective when used with a lap/shoulder seat belt.

It didn't take long to learn that the force of an airbag can hurt those who are too close to it.
Researchers have determined that the risk zone for driver airbags is the first '
! (5
to 8 cm) of inflation. So, placing yourself 10 inches (25 cm) from your driver airbag gives
you a clear margin of safety. Measure this distance from the center of the steering wheel to
your breastbone. If you currently sit less than 10 inches away, you can adjust your driving
position in the following ways:

! Move your seat to the rear as far as possible while still reaching the pedals

! Slightly recline the back of your seat. Rlthough car designs vary, most drivers can
achieve the 10-inch distance even with the driver seat all the way forward by slightly
reclining the back of the seat. If reclining the seat makes it hard to see the road, you
can raise yourself up by using your car's seat-raising system (not all cars have this!) or
a firm, non-slippery cushion to achieve the same effect.
! uoint the airbag toward your chest, instead of your head and neck, by tilting your
steering wheel downward (this only works if your steering wheel is adjustable).

The rules are different for !". Rn airbag can seriously injure or even kill an
unbuckled child who is sitting too close to it or is thrown toward the dash during emergency
braking. Öxperts agree that the following safety points are important:

! Children 12 and under should ride buckled up in a properly installed, age-appropriate

car seat in the rear seat.

! Infants in rear-facing child seats (under one year old and weighing less than 20
pounds / 10 kg) should never ride in the front seat of a car that has a passenger-side

! If a child over one year old must ride in the front seat with a passenger-side airbag, he
or she should be in a front-facing child safety seat, a booster seat or a properly fitting
lap/shoulder belt, and the seat should be moved as far back as possible.


In response to concerns about children -- and others, especially smaller people -- being
killed or seriously injured by malfunctioning or overly powerful airbags, the National
Highway Traffic Safety Rdministration (NHTSR) in 1997 issued a final rule to allow auto
manufacturers to use lower-powered airbags. This rule permits airbags to be "
$" by
20 to 35 percent. In addition, starting in 1998, repair shops and dealers were allowed to install

$ ! that allow airbags to be deactivated. Vehicle owners could now be authorized
(by the NHTSR) to get on/off switches installed for one or both airbags in their car if they (or
other users of their car) fell into one or more of these specific risk groups:

! F

!" " " - Individuals with medical conditions in which
the risks of deploying the airbag exceed the risk of impact in the absence of an airbag
! F
 !"" (in addition to medical conditions) - Those who cannot position
themselves to properly operate their cars at least 10 inches (25.4 cm) back from the
center of the driver airbag cover

! F
 ! " (in addition to medical conditions) - Individuals who need to
transport a baby in a rear-facing child restraint in the front seat because the car has no
rear seat, the rear seat is too small to accommodate a rear-facing child seat or because
it's necessary to constantly monitor a child's medical condition

! F
 ! " (in addition to medical conditions) - Individuals who need to
carry children between one and 12 years old in the front seat because (a) the car has
no rear seat, (b) the vehicle owner must carry more children than can fit into the back
seat or (c) because it's necessary to constantly monitor a child's health

Literature :



http://www.freescale.com/files/sensors/doc/fact_sheet/RIRBR FS.pdf