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THE BAYER

CLIMATE PROGRAM

Science For A Better Life


CONTENTS

Editorial 3

How the climate is created : From weather to climate 4

Climate change : Humankind is changing the climate 6

Climate protection and climate policy : Ambitious goals 8

The Bayer Climate Program : One billion euros for climate protection 10

EcoCommercial Building : Intelligent building 12

Agriculture and nutrition : Stress-tolerant plants 14

Climate protection and the chemical industry : The Bayer Climate Check 18

Children’s painting competition :


LIVING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE 20

A challenge from the children : How do children perceive climate change? 22


Werner Wenning,
Chairman of the Board of Management of Bayer AG

Dear Reader,
Global climate change is one of the most dominant issues of our age. Its impact on our lives is
considerable – ecosystems and species are disappearing, extreme weather conditions are becom-
ing more frequent, glaciers are melting and sea levels are rising.

As a large industrial company, Bayer does naturally emit greenhouse gases – but we are also part
of the solution. In many different ways, our products play their part in saving energy and con-
serving resources. And when it comes to our plants, we have already made great progress as far as
climate protection is concerned. Between 1990 and 2007, we cut our CO2 emissions by more than
a third, primarily as a result of improved energy efficiency.

In the future, too, we aim to raise the bar and pursue new, ambitious emissions targets. To that
end, we are investing EUR 1 billion in a Group-wide Climate Program that features pioneering
projects and brings together our particular skills as an inventor company.

This brochure outlines the complex relationships that exist within our climate system, the im-
pact on climate of humankind and the actions being taken to tackle climate change on a political
level. It also documents Bayer’s objective to lead the way when it comes to climate protection.

In the second section, this brochure features pictures from a painting competition initiated
jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Bayer that illustrate the
extent to which climate change is already embedded in the consciousness of children and young
people throughout the world.

We want to use our commitment to climate protection to develop more solutions to help us deal
with the challenges the future will bring – a goal that is true to our Mission Statement “Bayer:
Science For A Better Life.”

I hope you will find this brochure both interesting and informative.
HOW THE CLIMATE IS CREATED

FROM WEATHER TO CLIMATE


Our climate is in a constant state of change – it has never remained static. Geological processes
and the position of the Earth relative to the Sun create activity and change.

Often, the climate and the Descriptions of the effects of global ground-level air tempera-
weather are mistakenly assumed greenhouse gases are often ture of 15 degrees Celsius. Without
to be one and the same. The somewhat one-sided. greenhouse gases, it would be bitterly
weather actually represents the day- We owe our ability to live to the cold with temperatures of minus 18
to-day changes in the state of our natural, primary greenhouse gases. degrees Celsius. The disturbance of
atmosphere – temperature, wind, The Earth’s atmosphere is a master- the atmosphere’s natural balance
precipitation, humidity and clouds. piece of Mother Nature – the Earth is due to greenhouse gas emissions
The weather itself is the result of is surrounded by a protective shield caused by humans (anthropogenic
meteorological conditions that arise consisting mainly of water vapor, but emissions – see next chapter).
rapidly and then pass on, such as a also of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane The current interglacial period,
brief area of low pressure, or a more and nitrous oxide. Although these which began almost 12,000 years
persistent zone of high pressure. substances occur in the atmosphere ago, has alternated between warm
It is only possible to forecast the in only a very low concentration, and cold spells without any extreme
weather for a limited period, usually they prevent warmth radiating out fluctuations (e.g. ice age).
no more than a week in advance. into space and generate an average
The climate is very different. The cli-
mate represents the average weather
conditions, including extreme How the climate is created
values, at a specific location over an
extended period of time. The area Clouds regularly form along mountain Plants absorb CO2 during the day and partially
in question can be large or small, a slopes and cause rain to fall. release it during the night. The majority of the
water absorbed evaporates through the leaves
region, continent or even the entire and regulates the humidity of the air.
globe. The key factor is the time re-
quired to generate a statistical mean
– the usual timescale is 30 years.
The climate is therefore a statistical
representation of the weather. It
is only when changes occur in the
statistics relating to meteorological
data that climate researchers begin
to refer to climate change.

The climate is defined by complex natu-


Humus is formed from the remains
ral processes. The interaction between Rainwater gathers in rivers and
of dead plants in which carbon is
lakes, or forms groundwater.
the ocean and the atmosphere plays an stored.

important role.
IN BRIEF The Bayer Climate Program
+ The weather and the 4 5
climate are not one and the
same – the weather repre-
sents the current state of
the atmosphere.
+ The climate is a statisti-
cal representation of
the weather at a specific 500 km Exosphere
location over an extended
period of time. The layers of the
atmosphere. The
+ Among other factors, the airless expanse
Our climate system consists of Earth’s climate is defined of space begins
various components known as by the interaction between upwards of approx.
the ocean and the atmo- 500 km.
non-linear dynamic subsystems. sphere. Thermosphere
The atmosphere is one of these, as
+ Life can exist because of
is the hydrosphere with all the seas, natural greenhouse gases.
rivers, lakes, rain and groundwater. It is only through man’s
Another key component is the influence that they become
80 km
a threat.
cryosphere which encompasses the
inland ice masses, sea ice, snow and
Mesosphere
permafrost. The final components
are the marine and terrestrial bio-
sphere and the soil. Even the small- of the ocean. In addition, the high
est disruptions to these subsystems specific heat capacity of water helps
50 km
can result in dramatic changes. to compensate for temperature
The Earth’s climate is defined pri- fluctuations in the atmosphere. One
marily by the interaction between other crucial factor is the system
the ocean and the atmosphere – of ocean currents. This transports Stratosphere
water accounts for 71 percent of the large volumes of energy over long
Earth’s surface. Radiation energy distances and, without it, life would
from the Sun is transformed into not be possible at all in the higher
25 km
warmth mainly in the surface layer latitudes.
Ozone layer

17 km

A volcano erupts, releasing gases The sun’s energy reaches the The sun warms the
into the atmosphere. Earth, activating all the various surface of the water.
climate processes. Troposphere

The water
evaporates.

Water from deeper levels rises


towards the surface and is Cold water sinks to Ice sheets reflect the light. The climate
warmed. deeper levels. becomes cooler.
CLIMATE CHANGE

HUMANKIND IS
CHANGING THE CLIMATE
Climate change has already be- The scientists’ forecasts don’t dioxide (CO2) far exceeds anything
make for comfortable reading. identified from ice cores – a type of
come a reality. For millions of The Intergovernmental Panel on historical record of the Earth that
Climate Change (IPCC) collates stretches back hundreds of thou-
people, global warming could lead
research results on climate change. sands of years.
to starvation, illness and water The Panel’s fourth assessment report
of November 2007 made one thing Ever since the process of indus-
shortages. very clear – there can no longer be trialization that took place in the
any doubt that global warming is 18th century, humankind has had a
really happening. Climate change is direct impact on the atmosphere,
picking up pace. It is already impact- primarily as a result of burning fos-
ing on life on Earth and it is highly sil fuels such as coal and oil. These
likely that humankind is to blame. anthropogenic (caused by humankind)
In order to identify a comparable greenhouse gases are increasing at a
period of development, scientists dangerous rate. They are responsible
looked back on 650,000 years of his- for the greenhouse effect – similar to a
tory – they found no such evidence. glass dome under which the tempera-
The current concentration of carbon ture is constantly rising. This process is

A balanced climate depends on careful


regulation of carbon levels. The global carbon cycle
For millions of years, billions of tons
of carbon have been bound up under-
Carbon dioxide is released when
ground and in the oceans in the form of
fossil fuels are burned.
coal, oil and gas. If the carbon is burnt,
Industry causes emissions that affect the Areas used to grow plants and
it is converted into gaseous CO2 and
climate and contributes to the pressure placed farm livestock restrict the
enters the atmosphere. Biosphere between 540 and on the natural cycle in a number of ways. “green lungs” of the Earth and
610 billion metric tons emit greenhouse gases.

The blue text indicates where and how


much carbon is bound up in nature.

The red text indicates where emissions


are released by man.

Soils and organic material: Reservoirs of oil and gas:


1,580 billion metric tons 300 billion metric tons

Sources: Center for Climatic Research, Institute for Environmental Studies,


University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Okanagan University College
(Canada), Institute of Geography; World Watch, November/December 1998; Nature;
IPCC, 2001 and 2007.
IN BRIEF The Bayer Climate Program
+ Climate change is a reality 6 7
and humankind is one of
accelerated by excessive agriculture and its primary causes. the global temperature rises by two
deforestation. Trees bind CO2 through + Since industrialization, to three degrees Celsius compared
photosynthesis and generate oxygen. there has been a marked to values in the pre-industrial era.
However, the plants are no longer able rise in anthropogenic
greenhouse gases.
to cope – between 1970 and 2002 alone, Land masses in the higher
anthropogenic emissions on Earth
+ There is an increased northern latitudes are the most
likelihood of extreme
increased by 70 percent and the concen- weather, the ice is melting, affected by global warming. If,
tration of CO2 by as much as 80 percent. sea levels are rising, and as some scientists suggest, the criti-
Global greenhouse gas emissions total starvation and illness are cal temperature threshold for the
becoming more
around 50 billion metric tons each year. widespread. Greenland ice sheet is exceeded by
The impact of emerging nations such as a significant degree, the ice could
China, India and Brazil on this figure is melt away completely, causing the
increasing all the time. sea level to rise considerably. Some
very poor countries that themselves
Over the past 100 years, the waves, droughts, heavy precipita- bear little responsibility for climate
Earth has warmed by 0.74 de- tion and tropical storms is also change are already suffering the
grees Celsius. It’s important to note increasing. The seas are becoming consequences of the rising oceans.
that the rise in temperature over the warmer and are expected to rise by In Bangladesh, for example, large
last 50 years was almost double that 18 – 53 centimeters in the course of expanses of the country lie below
of the previous half century. Projec- the 21st century. Melting glaciers, sea level.
tions suggest that there will probably shrinking ice caps and weakening There is no way to halt climate
be an increase of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees polar ice sheets are causing the seas change. The question now is the
Celsius in the average global ground- to rise even further. The potential scale to which it will develop – and
level air temperature by 2100, the consequences of extreme weather what action humankind must take
highest level for 10,000 years. conditions caused by climate in order to mitigate the impact of
change include flooding, crop climate change.
A rise in temperature increases failures, starvation and the spread
the amount of water vapor in of dangerous diseases like malaria.
the air. The likelihood of extreme 20 to 30 percent of all plant and ani-
weather conditions such as heat mal species will be under threat if

Vehicles emit CO2 that is


The constant increase in air travel puts
harmful to the climate.
pressure on the atmosphere due to the release
of emissions that impact on the climate. Atmosphere:
Cities are characterized by sealed ground, 750 billion metric tons
high energy consumption and high emissions
of exhaust gases.
Shipping also increases the pressure
on the environment worldwide.

Surface water: 1,020


billion metric tons

Hydrosphere: 38,000 Marine organisms:


Carbon reservoirs: billion metric tons 3 billion metric tons
3,000 billion metric tons

Dissolved organic carbon:


Lithosphere: Marine and rock deposits between Sediments: 150 billion 700 billion metric tons
50,000,000 and 100,000,000 billion metric tons metric tons
CLIMATE PROTECTION AND CLIMATE POLICY

AMBITIOUS GOALS
Climate protection is one of the biggest challenges facing the world – both now and in the future.
It is becoming clearer than ever that the way in which we address climate change is very much in
the hands of our political leaders.

Is climate protection a viable Protocol came into force in 2005


technical and financial proposi- and expires in 2012, and is the first
tion? As far as the IPCC is con- such agreement to lay down bind-
cerned, the answer is a definitive ing target values for emissions of
Emissions caused by industry,
“Yes.” The combination of existing greenhouse gases.
transportation, homes, agricul-
and upcoming technologies that During what is known as the first
ture and slash and burn are major
will soon be market-ready could commitment period from 2008 to
causes of global warming. When result in a far more tolerable level 2012, the industrial nations pledge
it comes to climate protection, of stability. The market for energy to reduce their greenhouse gas emis-
one of the key tasks is to reduce generation excluding carbon fuels sions by an average of 5.2 percent
CO2 emissions. is estimated to be US$ 500 billion compared to 1990 levels. Six gases are
annually in 2050. According to a subject to regulation – carbon dioxide
report published in 2006 by the for- (CO2, serves as a reference value),
mer chief economist of the World methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O),
Bank, Nicholas Stern, inaction partially halogenated hydrofluoro-
would consume five percent of the carbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons
worldwide growth each year, at that (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
time equivalent to US$ 2,200 billion.
In contrast, at the time this estimate In July 2008, the G8 Summit in
was made the cost of climate protec- Toyako, Japan, vowed to uphold
tion was just one percent of the the spirit of Kyoto. The world’s
worldwide gross domestic product. eight major industrial nations have
now expressly declared their com-
Back in December 1997, the mitment to halving greenhouse gas
imperial city of Kyoto, Japan, emissions by 2050.
welcomed thousands of delegates As part of the Kyoto Protocol, a
from across the globe to a confer- special system known as burden
ence devoted to climate protection. sharing applies in Europe. Under
Ever since then, climate protection this system, a group of signatory
has been identified with one name – states can fulfill the targets for
the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment greenhouse gas emissions on a joint
to the United Nations Framework basis. For the EU, that means a bot-
Convention on Climate Change tom line of minus eight percent by
(UNFCCC) signed by 154 nations 2012. By implementing a reduction
in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Under of 21 percent, Germany wants to
this convention, the formulation of achieve three quarters of the entire
global climate protection targets is savings potential in Europe. And
the responsibility of the UN Climate the Germans are keen to continue
Change Conferences. The Kyoto setting the pace with plans for 40
The Bayer Climate Program
8 9
percent fewer emissions by 2020
compared to 1990 – provided the EU
as a whole reduces greenhouse gas
emissions by 30 percent in the same
period.

In August 2007, the German


government agreed on the cor-
nerstones of an integrated energy
and climate program, a catalog of
29 individual measures to reduce
the energy consumed by heating,
domestic appliances, cars and
businesses. The aim is to more than
double the proportion of renew-
able energy used in the generation
of power, increasing it to up to 30
percent by 2030. The volume of
energy produced by cogeneration
will also be boosted significantly by cut the heat energy required by six
2020 while, in the future, new build- percent. Every home could make en-
ings should use renewable sources ergy savings of more than 10 percent
to cover 15 percent of their energy simply by switching off the standby
requirements. function on televisions, CD players
and computers. The energy con-
It’s important to remember that sumption of some refrigerators and
it’s not just companies that can freezers can be two or three times
and should contribute to climate that of others. Energy-saving lights
protection – it’s also up to the use 80 percent less power than con-
average man and woman on the ventional lightbulbs. And by leaving
street. Energy saving begins at home. the car at home more often or simply
70 percent of the energy consumed taking your foot off the gas, you can
within a household is used for both play your part in protecting
heating purposes, yet a one degree the climate and relieve some of the
reduction in room temperature can strain on your wallet.

IN BRIEF Examples of a proactive approach to


climate protection include the use of al-
+ Climate protection is a major global challenge.
ternative energies (such as wind power),
+ The Kyoto Protocol marks a sea change in inter-
national climate policy. The first commitment environmentally friendly new technolo-
period draws to a close in 2012. gies (e.g. in automotive engineering)
+ Overall, Europe aims to cut its greenhouse gas and changes in the home (use of energy-
emissions by 20 percent by 2020. saving lightbulbs, etc.).
+ Germany aims to achieve a reduction of
40 percent if the EU strives for a reduction
of 30 percent.
THE BAYER CLIMATE PROGRAM

ONE BILLION FOR CLIMATE PROTECTION


According to IPCC findings, climate change will bring about dramatic changes to our lives and
the ecosystems. Much depends on how rapidly this change takes place and how mankind responds
to it. In the period to 2010 alone, Bayer is investing EUR 1 billion in a unique climate protection
program.

As a large industrial company, Ambitious production targets and Science, the most energy-intensive
Bayer is responsible for emitting major investment in the develop- of the subgroups, is set to lower its
greenhouse gases. However, as a ment of climate-friendly products specific greenhouse gas emissions
research-based company, Bayer also and processes are the hallmarks per metric ton of sold product by
helps to save energy and protect of the Bayer Climate Program – an a quarter by 2020. Over the same
the environment. “We are, above action plan that pools the company’s period, Bayer CropScience and
all, part of the solution,” says Bayer technological expertise. Bayer is one Bayer HealthCare will reduce their
Chairman Werner Wenning. of the first DAX 30 groups to bring greenhouse gases by 15 percent and
When it comes to effective climate together all of its global measures five percent respectively in absolute
protection, the rate of innovation for climate protection. EUR 1 billion terms. The Bayer Climate Program
influences the rate at which climate are available for this project over the has also initiated pioneering projects
change progresses – such innova- period to 2010 alone. (see following pages) and Bayer
tion includes the intelligent applica- Bayer has been actively involved in products are already helping to
tion of cutting-edge techniques, new climate protection for many years. save energy and conserve resources
technologies for more efficient use Between 1990 and 2007, the Group in many different ways. Examples
of energies and the development of reduced its carbon dioxide emissions include products for insulating
alternative fuels. by over 37 percent. Bayer Material- buildings and refrigerators and for
constructing lightweight automotive
components.
Lowering Bayer’s own CO2 emissions and developing new solutions for climate
protection and tackling climate change – the Bayer Climate Program was launched
Bayer was the only European
company in the industry to be
at an international press conference in Leverkusen in November 2007.
named “Best in Class” in the Carbon
Disclosure Leadership Index in 2008
for the fourth time in a row. Of the
500 largest listed companies in the
world, this first global ranking for
climate protection selects those that
offer effective strategies for tackling
climate change. This index identi-
fies Bayer as an international leader
in climate protection.
IN BRIEF The Bayer Climate Program
+ Between 1990 and 10 11
2007, the Bayer Group
reduced its greenhouse agement and support to scientists companies. Bayer views the Climate
gas emissions by over and young people involved in Program as a fully integrated plan
37 percent.
developing solutions for climate of action. That means that the over
+ Bayer expects to change. For example, the Bayer 100,000 staff employed by the Group
maintain its absolute
greenhouse gas emis- Science & Education Foundation have an important role to play – after
sions at 2007 levels has established new programs based all, it’s all about leading by example.
until 2020 despite the around the topic of “Climate Change When it comes to business trips,
growth in production
volumes. – Climate Protection.” These include for example, the Group is turning
the Bayer Climate Award which was to more climate-conscious means
+ Bayer is investing EUR
1 billion in a unique launched in 2008 and is presented of mobility and using conferencing
climate program in the every two years. Boasting a prize technology that makes many flights
period to 2010 alone. fund of EUR 50,000, this interna- redundant. “EcoFleet” is an initiative
tional prize is awarded for work in to increasingly employ vehicles with
climate research. The Foundation’s lower carbon dioxide emissions.
A commitment to social issues “Bayer Climate Fellows” project Ambitious climate protection tar-
and a contribution to sustainable supports particularly committed and gets can only be achieved with the
development are the cornerstones talented young people. In addition, help of new ideas and new technolo-
of the Bayer corporate philosophy. Bayer also puts its expertise to good gies. Climate protection is the door
That’s why part of the Bayer Climate use in an ongoing process of dialogue to major new opportunities – and
Program focuses on giving encour- with politicians, NGOs and other innovation is the key.

Bayer is setting the standard in climate protection with a carefully integrated portfolio of projects and measures. The Climate Check
is a control instrument for use in production that identifies potential for saving energy and cutting CO2 levels while also taking pre-
production processes into account. The EcoCommercial Building offers a concept for a zero-emission building that is applicable in all
climate zones. And with concepts for higher yields on smaller areas, biotechnology from Bayer supports the agriculture of the future.
ECOCOMMERCIAL BUILDING

INTELLIGENT BUILDING
According to figures from the IPCC, energy consumption in production process consumes less
energy than that of glass.
buildings accounts for almost 20 percent of total greenhouse The EcoCommercial Building also
harnesses the energy storage capac-
gas emissions worldwide.
ity of concrete, supports and ceilings
to balance the temperature through-
out the cycle of day and night.
In Central Europe, the primary Bayer MaterialScience is a world When the sun shines, a battery
concern is to protect houses leader in the polyurethane stores energy. Based on an annual
against the cold. In warmer climes industry. Polyurethanes are an average, this innovative building
the situation is reversed, with integral component of a pioneering generates at least as much energy as
large amounts of energy devoted project being carried out as part of it draws from the supplier.
to keeping buildings cool. Insulat- the Bayer Climate Program – the
ing materials with low thermal “EcoCommercial Building.” Ap- The first EcoCommercial Build-
conductivity are particularly suitable plicable throughout the world, this ing is being built near New Delhi
for preventing both heat loss and concept for zero-emission buildings in India. In this part of the world,
heat gain. Using rigid polyurethane in the commercial and industrial it is not unusual for temperatures
foams is therefore a particularly sector subscribes to the idea that in the shade to reach 40 degrees
convincing solution in terms of the adapting a building to the climate Celsius and, on a yearly average,
energy balance. The energy saved by is better than adapting its cooling the temperature barely falls below
polyurethane insulating materials is and heating system to the climate. 25 degrees. Nevertheless, Bayer
more than 70 times that required for The best materials, systems and MaterialScience’s 1,200-square-
their lifecycle (production, transport technologies are brought together to meter Innovation Center and an
and usage). define a new standard in sustainable additional display hall of almost
industrial architecture. Experts are the same size are set to require a
confident that intelligent use of ef- good 70 percent less energy than
ficient insulating materials can halve conventional buildings in this
the energy consumption of build- region – while still ensuring rooms
ings – a proposal that is naturally of remain at a comfortable tempera-
considerable economic interest to ture. The building is scheduled to
IN BRIEF investors, too. open in 2009.

+ Almost 20 percent of all Based on insulation made of Bayer


greenhouse gas emissions materials and the building’s own
are the result of energy
consumption in buildings. resources for generating renewable
solar energy, the EcoCommercial
+ Bayer’s EcoCommercial
Building – using BMS Building can meet its entire energy
technology to create zero- needs itself – from power, heating
emission buildings. and hot water to cooling. Bayer also
+ The first EcoCommercial provides components for photovol-
Building in New Delhi aims taic modules made of thermoplastic
to consume 70 percent
less energy. polyurethanes. Polycarbonate panels
for transparent roofing, for example,
have an insulating effect and their
The Bayer Climate Program
12 13

EcoCommercial Building
Sophisticated design, intelligent use of cutting-edge technology and expertise from Bayer MaterialScience all combine to
make the EcoCommercial Building an environmentally friendly and economical building solution for the future.

Solar power Makrolon roof


The solar cells are embed- The high-tech plastic
ded in thermoplastic provides protection
polyurethane from Bayer from the heat and is
MaterialScience. lightweight and break-
resistant. This makes it
the ideal choice for the
atrium roofing.

Window design
Stepped facade The size of the windows is
The lower section of the determined by the amount
building is set back under the of daylight required at the
upper section. This reduces workplaces in the building.
the amount of sun shining
Insulating material directly into the building.
Polyurethane reduces
Cold storage
the thermal conductiv-
During the day, the build-
ity of the building. In
ing supports, floor panels
terms of insulating
and ceiling panels cool the
performance, the plastic
surroundings by absorb-
outstrips all commonly
ing warmth. This warmth is
used materials.
released at night.

Effective insulation can halve a build-


ing’s energy consumption. The lower the
thermal conductivity of the insulating
material, the more effectively it will
prevent heat loss and gain. As poly-
urethane has extremely low thermal
conductivity, insulation panels made of
this plastic are the ideal way to achieve
dramatic reductions in heating and cool-
ing requirements.
AGRICULTURE AND NUTRITION

STRESS-TOLERANT PLANTS
The world’s population is increasing all the time. 850 million people are suffering from hunger and
malnutrition. Yet at the same time, growing prosperity in the emerging nations is bringing about
a rapid change in consumer habits. Demand for foodstuffs is rising and the land available for
cultivation is becoming scarce.

The expected increase in average The relationship between the Abiotic stress factors – such as heat,
temperatures poses serious conse- climate and plant growth is a drought, increased light stress and
quences for humankind and nature complex one. Although many soil salinity – can reduce yields by
and has a considerable impact on the plants are able to withstand high up to 80 percent. Climate research-
production of staple foods. This can temperatures, there are limits to ers expect extreme weather events
be a contributory factor in food crises. how much heat they can tolerate. like hurricanes, floods and droughts
IN BRIEF The Bayer Climate Program
+ Demand for foodstuffs is 14 15
growing, but they are be-
coming increasingly difficult
to become more frequent. These to produce. new crop protection solutions, seeds
phenomena have the power to + The production of bioenergy with higher potential yields, and
destroy entire crops and thus cause
must be reconciled with the optimized crop rotation, irriga-
need to meet the demand for
food shortages. food. tion technology and fertilization.
This approach also represents new
+ Use of new crop protection
The solution is to develop strate- solutions, optimized cultiva- opportunities in terms of modern
gies, capable of supplying food to tion technology and cutting- plant cultivation methods and
a global population that, according edge biotechnology. recognizes the potential of state-
to estimates, is growing at the rate of-the-art plant biotechnology. If
of 80 million people each year. How harvests are to be safeguarded, com-
can we safeguard crops and increase prehensive crop protection is more
yields? Fossil fuels are increas- and achieve a significant increase essential than ever before – and
ingly scarce and energy is becoming in agricultural productivity, i.e. that’s where Bayer CropScience’s
more expensive. Could plants be the yield per hectare of land under extensive experience in this area
the alternative fuel that can fill the cultivation. In addition, research is comes in. New active ingredients
gap and help to improve the global being carried out into ways to make help to protect harvests. Research
climate? How can the issue of global greater use of plants as fuels, while shows a close correlation between
bioenergy production be reconciled ensuring that the cultivation of the stress factors drought, heat, cold
with the need to meet the world- such plants does not conflict with and high light intensity, and energy
wide demand for food? the production of food. metabolism in plants. Bayer is work-
ing on biotech solutions for use in
Safeguarding and boosting crop Bayer is carrying out intensive this field.
yields plays a vital role. As part research into solutions that can
of the Bayer Climate Program, the help to meet the growing demand
Bayer CropScience subgroup has for agricultural products. This can
initiated a number of projects to only be achieved by using an inte-
make plants more stress-resistant grated approach that encompasses

Grain is a staple food for a large proportion of the world’s population. Cereals that deliver a higher yield could help to safeguard
food supplies for people worldwide.
Today’s modern technology can make plants more resistant and deliver higher yields. This in turn helps to meet the needs of the
ever-increasing global population. At Bayer CropScience’s research center in Ghent, Belgium, work is carried out to optimize crop
plants such as rice, canola (below right) and cotton (below left).
IN BRIEF
+ Controversy surrounds the
use of canola as a source of
biofuel.
+ Excessive cultivation of approach is based on the stress-re- view of rising food prices and the
canola as a fuel could have ducing effect of established active need to safeguard supplies, the ex-
a negative impact on the ingredients used in crop protec- cessive use of food crops to produce
production of food crops.
tion. For example, certain insecti- fuel for cars is a contentious issue.
+ Bayer is developing higher- cides can have a positive effect on
yielding canola and promot-
ing Jatropha curcas growth regardless of whether the Bayer is following this debate
as an alternative plant is infested with insects or very closely and is addressing the
source of biofuel. not. Bayer crop protection products issue in two ways. The first is an
containing the active ingredient innovative means of significantly
imidacloprid – sold under the increasing the productivity of canola
brand names Gaucho, Admire and cultivation – InVigor, a high-yielding
Confidor – significantly increase variety of canola developed by Bayer
the salt tolerance of rice. CropScience in Canada, delivers a
biodiesel yield around 20 percent
Canola is the subject of contro- higher than that of similar seeds. The
Scientists working on canola have versial discussion. The discussion second involves the development of
succeeded in reducing the activity revolves around the question of innovative crop protection solutions
of a gene responsible for generating whether, and to what extent, the for a plant that can produce the oil
high energy consumption when potential of biofuels should be har- of the future. This plant is Jatropha
the plant reacts to stress – a factor nessed as an alternative to fossil fu- curcas, a member of the Euphorbia
that can lead to dramatic crop els. Canola is a raw material for the family that was formerly used for its
losses. Under dry field conditions, production of biodiesel. Compared purgative properties. This high-yield-
plants with reduced defensive to conventional fuel, biodiesel can ing oil crop does not conflict with
reactions to stress demonstrated a reduce CO2 emissions considerably. the production of foodstuffs and, in
considerable increase in yield. This Canola therefore makes a good fuel a few years time, it could replace a
research is now being extended to and is good for the environment. significant proportion of the demand
corn, cotton and rice. One chemical However, canola is a food crop. In for diesel fuel in India.
The Bayer Climate Program
16 17
Jatropha prospers on barren
GREEN LUNGS ground that is unsuitable for the
cultivation of food crops. More than
30 percent of the seed of Jatropha (or
purging nut) is made up of inedible
oil. With a cetane number of around
60 (compared to canola’s 54), it is
one of the world’s most effective
vegetable oils for use in technical
applications. The plant helps to
regenerate the soil and protect the
climate.

Forests are the green lungs of the Earth. Like all green plants, trees
use photosynthesis to bind carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. By
cleansing the Earth’s atmosphere, forests carry out a crucial and
irreplaceable role. However, they are under great threat as a result
of fires, slash and burn cultivation, and deforestation which destroy
around one million hectares of forest each year. We need the forests
to help us tackle climate change – so saving them is one of the most
important aspects of climate protection. That’s why Bayer is support-
ing “Plant for the Planet: the Billion Tree Campaign” organized by the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Bayer CropScience is helping to make the cultivation of raw materials for biofuels and of
foodstuffs more compatible by carrying out research into stress-resistant, high-yielding
plants and developing innovative crop protection solutions for Jatropha.
CLIMATE PROTECTION AND THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

THE BAYER CLIMATE CHECK


Energy is fundamental to chemistry. For virtually every single developments in the generation,
storage and usage of energy would
process, the chemical industry requires power, gas or heat. be practically impossible without
new solutions in the chemical
industry.

Raw materials and energy are This is where the “Bayer Climate
key production and cost factors. Check” comes in. The Group
For that reason alone, companies uses this tool developed by Bayer
have a vested interest in using Technology Services to analyze
resources as efficiently as they possi- production processes worldwide
bly can. Chemistry has a key role to – including aspects such as raw
play in environmental and climate materials, logistics and energy –
protection. Throughout their life and determine their interaction
span, many products of chemi- with the climate. This check affects
Innovative technologies and products
cal production are already saving around 100 subgroup plants that
from the chemical industry play an considerably more energy than they are responsible for 85 percent of the
important role in conserving resources require during their manufactur- greenhouse gases emitted as a result
and protecting the climate. ing process. Equally, technologies of Bayer production. It is expected
Bayer analyzes its production sites and products from the chemical that emissions of direct and indirect
worldwide in order to minimize industry are helping to save energy greenhouse gases in the Group will
emissions of gases that impact on in other fields and thereby prevent be reduced by a further five to 10
the climate. greenhouse gas emissions. Crucial percent.
IN BRIEF The Bayer Climate Program

+ The chemical industry


18 19
offers a wide range of po-
tential solutions to protect Conserving Resources Protecting the Climate e
the environment and the Science For A Better Life

climate.
+ The Bayer Climate Check
– an objective instrument
that analyzes production Bayer is developing solutions that will
processes to determine
their interaction with the reduce the “Climate Footprint,” which sym-
climate. bolizes the negative effects humankind’s
+ Overall goal – the ongoing actions have on the climate. An advertising
reduction of greenhouse campaign clearly illustrates the Group’s
gas emissions in the
Group. commitment to the environment.

What effects do the raw materi- quantities crucial to evaluating the The Bayer Climate Check is an
als used have on the climate? impact different process variants objective instrument that enables
Are the type of energy used and the and sites have on the climate. It Bayer to ensure transparent, sustain-
means of supply as efficient as they serves as an important source able documentation and internal
can be? What is the best way to or- of information for investment reporting. The Climate Footprint has
ganize logistics processes? From an plans and technology projects, for been certified by TÜV Süd, an official
ecological production perspective, example. The second component inspection agency in Germany.
these are all extremely pertinent is the “Climate Impact Analysis,” a
questions. systematic, climate-focused exami-
The Bayer Climate Check stands nation of manufacturing processes
out because it is transparent and and production plants. Once the
easy to understand. It is made up of potential for saving CO2 has been
two components – the specially de- identified, it is possible to assess
veloped key performance indicator measures for optimizing processes
“Climate Footprint” identifies the and plants.

Bayer checks its production plants worldwide to determine how their processes interact
with the climate.
Transportation

Raw materials

Reduced emissions

A gglobal commitment to the climate


BBayer is taking steps to increase efficiency at some
Bay
100 plants worldwide. The map shows the Group’s
key sites across the world. Bayer checks what effect
Products raw materials, logistics and the energy used have on
Heat the climate. This allows production to be optimized
Cooling fur
further and made more climate-friendly.
Production
Electricity
CHILDREN’S PAINTING COMPETITION ORGANIZED BY UNEP AND BAYER

LIVING WITH
CLIMATE CHANGE

Lakshmi Shree (10), INDIA


A lack of rain and a sinking groundwater table have already caused the level of the lake on
the edge of the city of Bengaluru to drop by half. Lakshmi, who lives in this metropolis in
southern India, chose this as the place to present her image of climate change. As her pic-
ture clearly illustrates, the felling of trees in India is playing a key role in climate change.
Jiang Ziyan (9), CHINA
In her picture, Jiang from Beijing chose to highlight the negative effects of burning coal.
She presents her picture in a coal mine near the Chinese capital – a city that suffers
more from air pollution than almost any other.
The Bayer Climate Program
A CHALLENGE FROM THE CHILDREN 22 23

How do children perceive CLIMATE CHANGE?

Every year, Bayer and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) organize an
International Children’s Painting Competition. In 2007, the young artists were asked to focus
on the topic of climate change. 13,500 children from 104 countries sent in their pictures
which captured their experiences, fears and hopes ... and set a clear challenge to the adults.
Although they were all very different, all of the paintings expressed one common message:
“Take care of our planet. It’s the only one we have!”
Working on behalf of Bayer, photographer Peter Ginter (see photo below) visited eight of the
young artists in their home countries. He photographed them and their paintings in their
local environment. The images make it strikingly clear that the children’s paintings relate
directly to their own personal experience – they are uncomfortably close to the bone.
The Bayer Climate Program
24 25

Zayaan Masood (12), BANGLADESH


Time and time again, people in Bangladesh are forced to
gather up all their belongings and flee from flooding.
This sad reality is echoed in this painting by Zayaan (in
the yellow T-shirt) from Dhaka.
The Bayer Climate Program
26 27

Renée Wang (13), UNITED STATES


In fall 2007, a lengthy period of persistent heat and dryness unleashed cata-
strophic forest fires in California. Renée from Saratoga presents her picture in a
charred forest near San Diego. It depicts how people react to disasters triggered
by their actions – disasters they could also prevent.
Rajarshi Khan (12), INDIA
The Bayer Climate Program
Rajarshi’s painting shows humankind at a crossroads. Man can choose whether to pollute
28 29
or rescue the Earth – he has the knowledge and ability to do both. Rajarshi presents his
picture against a backdrop of felled trees in Ranchi in north-east India where forests are
disappearing on a daily basis – a resource the Earth cannot afford to lose.
The Bayer Climate Program
30 31

Guy Nindorera (12),


BURUNDI
“If we destroy the trees, we put
our lives in danger,” says Guy from
Bujumbura, the capital of Burun-
di. “Without trees, there will be
erosion and floods and people will
starve.” Guy presents his picture
in the bed of the Ntahangwa river,
the banks of which are scarred by
deforestation and soil erosion.
Charlotte Sullivan (11), UNITED KINGDOM
The Earth has lost its protective power and is turning its back on humanity. Charlotte
from Godalming near London won first place in the International Children’s Paint-
ing Competition with this striking picture. She says: “Not even all the powerful
people in the world can prevent the Earth spinning out of control. It’s up to every
single one of us to do something about climate change.”
The Bayer Climate Program
32 33
The Bayer Climate Program
34 35

A warning, a task – and hope


for the future.
With their impressive pictures,
the young artists made a total of
almost 30,000 calls for action in
2007 and 2008. A small selection
of these images is included in
postcard form.

Entries for the 18th International


Children’s Painting Competition
organized by UNEP and Bayer
can be submitted until June 5,
2009. The theme is: “Climate
Change: Our Challenge.”

Further details are available at


www.unep.bayer.com. In ad-
dition to a wide range of other
information, the video “Solutions
to Climate Change” is available
to view and download at www.
climate.bayer.com.

MASTHEAD : Publisher Bayer AG 51368 Leverkusen Editor Iwan Zinn iwan.zinn.iz@bayer-ag.de Bayer online www.bayer.com
Image rights agentur grintsch Bayer AG corbis getty images istockphoto Design agentur grintsch, Cologne English edition CURRENTA GmbH & Co. OHG Language Service
Typesetting and printing: Kunst- und Werbedruck, Bad Oeynhausen
Science For A Better Life