Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 104
00 Editorial 01 Editor’s Mail Box 02 Campus Update / Surjya Chutia 08 Academic World
00
Editorial
01
Editor’s Mail Box
02
Campus Update
/
Surjya Chutia
08
Academic World Around
10
Panorama
Personality
16 22 Ways to Become Spectacularly Inspirational
/
Robin Sharma
Exam & Education
17
áàÒü¤à¹\Kt¡t¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠šøìÚàK "à¹ç¡ ÒüÚ๠šøìÚà\>ãÚt¡à
/
"gº ¤¹à
22
"‹¸Ú> ëA¡ïź δšìA¢¡-6
/
³èº : ë™àìW¡ó¡ ëóø¡S¡ ëºr¡Wô¡¤à\¢à¹; ">å : ¤[”z³àºà 냯ã
26
On the Art of Writing
/
Maj. (Retd) H.P. Singh
Career
27
Career Jyoti
/
Nilim Jyoti Senapati
30
Notes for Freshers - II
/
Prasanta Bora
32
List of Unapproved and Unrecognized Universities-III
34
Career Tabloid
Science & Tech.
35
󡺹 ¹\à "à³¹ Îå¹Û¡à
/
¹ç¡‰ >à¹àÚo ¤¹A¡àA¡[t¡
37
Role of Traditional Plants in the Treatment
/ Biplab Banik
Social Science
39
Role of Media in the Peace Process
/ Biraj Dutta & Bristi Senapati
47
Child Labour – Please think Twice
/ Anirban Ghosh
49
Empowering Women as Social Partner
/ Dr. B.K. Sen
TheTheTheTheThe EditorialEditorialEditorialEditorialEditorial BoarBoarBoarBoarBoarddddd ofofofofof PragyanPragyanPragyanPragyanPragyan
exprexprexprexprexpressesessesessesessesesses gratitudegratitudegratitudegratitudegratitude tototototo AnjalAnjalAnjalAnjalAnjal Borah,Borah,Borah,Borah,Borah,
JosephJosephJosephJosephJoseph LandsberLandsberLandsberLandsberLandsbergergergergerger,,,,, MajMajMajMajMaj (Rtd)(Rtd)(Rtd)(Rtd)(Rtd)
H.PH.PH.PH.PH.P Singh,Singh,Singh,Singh,Singh, PrasantaPrasantaPrasantaPrasantaPrasanta Bora,Bora,Bora,Bora,Bora,
RudraRudraRudraRudraRudra NarayanNarayanNarayanNarayanNarayan BorkakotyBorkakotyBorkakotyBorkakotyBorkakoty,,,,, BirajBirajBirajBirajBiraj
Dutta,Dutta,Dutta,Dutta,Dutta, BristiBristiBristiBristiBristi Senapati,Senapati,Senapati,Senapati,Senapati, AnirbanAnirbanAnirbanAnirbanAnirban
Ghosh,Ghosh,Ghosh,Ghosh,Ghosh, DrDrDrDrDr B.K.B.K.B.K.B.K.B.K. Sen,Sen,Sen,Sen,Sen, PrafullaPrafullaPrafullaPrafullaPrafulla
Gogoi,Gogoi,Gogoi,Gogoi,Gogoi, HarHarHarHarHarendranathendranathendranathendranathendranath BorBorBorBorBorthakurthakurthakurthakurthakur,,,,,
SaptarshiSaptarshiSaptarshiSaptarshiSaptarshi Biswas,Biswas,Biswas,Biswas,Biswas, AnirbanAnirbanAnirbanAnirbanAnirban
Dharitriputra,Dharitriputra,Dharitriputra,Dharitriputra,Dharitriputra, ChandramaChandramaChandramaChandramaChandrama Kalita,Kalita,Kalita,Kalita,Kalita,
PalashjyotiPalashjyotiPalashjyotiPalashjyotiPalashjyoti SarSarSarSarSarmamamamama andandandandand SangeetaSangeetaSangeetaSangeetaSangeeta
ModiModiModiModiModi forforforforfor theirtheirtheirtheirtheir invaluableinvaluableinvaluableinvaluableinvaluable
contributioncontributioncontributioncontributioncontribution tototototo thisthisthisthisthis issue.issue.issue.issue.issue. WWWWWeeeee ararararareeeee
lookinglookinglookinglookinglooking forforforforforwarwarwarwarwarddddd forforforforfor mormormormormoreeeee
contributionscontributionscontributionscontributionscontributions ininininin futurfuturfuturfuturfutureeeee
50
Domestic Violence Against Women
/ Rashmi Dutta & Baikuntha Das
54
Problems of the Ageing Population in India
/ Monika Das
57
"γ¹ ëƒl¡ü¹ã \>ìKàË¡ã¹ ëºàA¡[¤Å«àÎ
/ ëÒ³àºÛ¡ã KîK
63
2011-12 ¹È¢¹ Îà‹à¹o ¤àì\i¡¹ &[i¡ š™¢àìºàW¡>à
/ Î虢¸ Wå¡t¡ãÚà
66
The Concept of Humanism in the
/ Debananda Bhattacharjee
Language & Literature
69
¹[¤@ƒø>à= k¡àA塹¹ [¤Å« š[¹yû¡³à¹ Òü[t¡ÒàÎ – ‘¹à[áÚ๠[W¡[k¡’
/ šøóå¡À KîK
73
[¤Å«A¡[¤ ¹¤ã@ƒø>à= "à¹ç¡ ¹ê¡šìAò¡à¯¹ ë\¸à[t¡šøÎàƒ
/ Òì¹@ƒø>à= ¤¹k¡àA塹
77
\ã¤>à>ì@ƒ¹ ëW¡àìJ ¹¤ã@ƒø>à= – &A¡[i¡ "δšèo¢ γãÛ¡à
/ Îœ¡[È¢ [¤Å«àÎ
83
Gender Representation in Shakespeare's Plays
/ Anjali Baruah
87
A¡[¤t¡à : "[>¤¢à> ‹[¹yãšåy, l¡ 0 A¡³ìºÅ A¡[ºt¡à, W¡@ƒø³à A¡[ºt¡à, g§{JVm ‘moXr,
i¡³àW¡ ëÎàì>à¯àº
Students’ Column
90
\º[¤ƒå¸; šøA¡¿ "à¹ç¡ ®¡[¯È¸t¡¹ "γ
/ ³ì>à¹g> ³¹ào (P¡¹ç¡})
92
Thoughts for a Dream – Shattered
/ Bobita Bhoktiari
93
Wå¡[i¡ K¿ :– Aõ¡Ì¡Wè¡Øl¡à – ët¡à³à¹ "ìšÛ¡àt¡
/ W¡Ú[>A¡à Òà\[¹A¡à
95
A¡[¤t¡à : šºàÅì\¸à[t¡ ų¢à, Kã[t¡A¡à, ë³ïW塳ã ëQòà¹àìW¡à¯à, ¹ê¡š>@ƒ> šàk¡A¡, ³õƒåº
KîK, ël¡Òü\ã KîK, ¤àÑz¤ ³¹ào, Shubhadeep Paul, "Û¡Ú\ã; ëšà„à¹
Patron : Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal, Tinsukia College
Adviser : Anjan Borthakur, President, ACTA, Tinsukia College Unit
Editor in Chief : Rana K. Changmai
Executive Editor : Sushanta Kar
Editors : Monika Devi, Roshmi Dutta, Mayuri Sharma Baruah, Monika Das, Manashi
Rajkhowa, Santanu Borah, Nilimjyoti Senapati, Surjya Chutia, Satyajyoti Gogoi, Dr.
Kamalesh Kalita
Students’ Representatives : Pranjal Gogoi, (Magazine Secretaty, TCSU)
Published by :
Secretary, Assam College Teachers’ Association (ACTA),
Tinsukia College Unit, Tinsukia College, Tinsukia - 786125
Contact : Web : http://sites.google.com/site/pragyan06now ;
Blog : http:pragyan06now.blogspot.com ; Cell : 9954226966
email : pragyan_tsc50@yahoo.co.in ; pragyan.tsc50@gmail.com
Printed at : The Assam Computers (Govt. app ‘A’ Category Press)
email : assamcomputer@gmail.com/
http://theassamcomputers.webs.com/ Tinsukia - 786125 (Assam)
You Have Added one more Dedicated Reader to your Magazine I have just gone through

You Have Added one more Dedicated Reader to your Magazine

I have just gone through the issue of Pragyan which you had forwarded.First of all, I must

congratulate you on the excellent quality of all the articles. The level of merit that the articles have attained is of the highest order.I must really commend you for your fine work.

I must also express my gratefulness at the publishing of an interview with me. It is really a great honor for me to have my interview published in your magazine, and I will always cherish this memory in my heart. You can be sure that you have added one more dedicated reader of your magazine in me. Thanking you again, P.J.Mazumdar, Guwahati palashm@yahoo.com

Thanking you again, P.J.Mazumdar, Guwahati palashm@yahoo.com The Magazine is Really Good T hank you so much

The Magazine is Really Good

T hank you so much for sending Pragyan.I have

just received it and was going through the articles. The magazine is really good and I am sure will only become well with your care and effort. Although I am not publicity hungry guy, yet it felt good to see my own name in fine prints. One small correction though - that “h” in my surname “Borah” is not

required - it is plain “Bora”. Thank you again and regards. Prasanta Bora Silchar, Cachar., mailborap@gmail.com

(Readers may choose whatever language they feel comfort to write in mailbox. But for better communication we prefer English and Assamese. — Editor)

1

/

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Surjya Chutia 1 Workshop on Capacity Building of Women Managers in Higher Education held at
Surjya Chutia
1
Workshop on Capacity Building of Women Managers in
Higher Education held at Tinsukia College

A lthough women constitute almost a half of the population and are equally gifted, talented

and competent in scholarship, leadership, management and policy making, there is inequity as seen in their representation at these higher levels. Having experienced a gender sensitivity programme, they could catalyze the system to move towards a gender-just system, by bringing their perspectives into decision-making. Keeping this in view, the UGC started organizing workshops since 2002-2003 in different universities and colleges of the country Sensitizing, creating Awareness and building Motivation (SAM) for women teachers in higher education, The participants of such workshop generally constitute middle and senior level women in administrative positions or who have the potential to occupy such positions in the near future.

The Cell for Women’s Studies and Development (CWSD), Tinsukia College organized a 5 days Residential Sensitization/ Awareness/ Motivation (SAM) Workshop under UGC Scheme on ‘Capacity Building of Women Managers in Higher Education’ from 08 November, 2010. Altogether twenty nine (29) women teachers from different colleges of Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sivsagar and Jorhat districts participated in the Workshop. Dr. Anjali Goswami, Bibha Rani Goswami, Ashima Borah, Dr. Tanusree Sarker (Women’s College, Tinsukia), Sikha Rani Dutta, Ira Majumdar (Tinsukia Commerce College), Tilottama Gogoi, Dr. Sanjita Chetia (Digboi Mahila Mahavidyalaya), Runjun Saikia, Bitumoni Malia (Margherita College), Jolly Borthakur Kotoky (J.B.College), Bina Baruah, Pronamika Goswami, Himanjoli Sarmah (Sibsagar College),

Bina Baruah, Pronamika Goswami, Himanjoli Sarmah (Sibsagar College), /Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11 /
Bina Baruah, Pronamika Goswami, Himanjoli Sarmah (Sibsagar College), /Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 2

Deepa Gogoi, Dr. Mamoni Borah (Swahid Maniram Dewan College), Swapna Borah, Monimala Borah, Kabree Borpuzari Sarmah (Doomdooma College), Sujata Borthakur, Sarojini Dutta, Jina Borbora (Nazira College), Dr. Salma Nasreen (Sibsagar Girls’ College), Anima Hazarika, Kiron Goswami, Bantimala Devi, Ranee Borthakur, Pranamika Das and Dr. Deepika Bhattacharjee (Tinsukia College) participated in the five days Workshop. The Inaugural Session of the Workshop was held at the Tinsukia College premises on 08 November, 2010. Anita Baruwa, the Local Coordiantor of the Workshop greeted the participants, invited guests and resource persons and the session began with the College Chorus sung by the College students. The welcome address was delivered by Sangita Baruah, the Coordinator of the Cell for Women’s Studies and Development, Tinsukia College. The UGC Core Group Resource Person for the North East Region, Prof Nasreen Rustomfram enlightened the gathering about the importance, focus and objectives of the workshop, precisely mentioning the five Substantiative Manuals designed as subject material for the workshop. Prof. Rustomfram is a faculty in the Center for Lifelong Learning, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. Dr. Ajanta Rajkonwar, Reader, Department of Commerce, Dibrugarh University, who is the Sub Regional Coordinator of the SAM Workshop, elaborated on the genesis of the workshop. Dr. Daisy Bora Talukdar, Director i/c,

Center for Women’s Studies, Dibrugarh University gave the inaugural address. Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal, Tinsukia College expressed his views on the Workshop and also planted a sapling of Sanchi tree to mark the occasion. Pallavi Gogoi, Asst. Coordinator of the workshop delivered the vote of thanks. There were 15 technical sessions in all and the resource persons for these sessions were: Rita Borkotoky, Assoc. Prof., Home Science, Sibsagar Girls’ College, Dr. Champa Rao Mohan, Asst. Prof., English dept, Doomdooma College, Anita Barwua, Asst. Prof., Economics, Tinsukia College, Ashifa Sobhan, Asst. Prof., English, Namrup College and Dr Sunita Agarwalla, Assoc. Prof., Education, Dispur College. Apart from 15 technical sessions which covered the 5 substantiative manuals in the five days, there were two Open Sessions of one and a half hours’ duration. One such session was on ‘Witch Craft and Witch Hunting in Assam’. The resource person for that session was Prof. Jahnabi Gogoi, Department of History, Dibrugarh University. Dr. Madhumita Purkayashtha Asst. Prof, English, D.H.S.K.College, Dibrugarh was the resource person for the second open session which was on ‘Sexual Harassment at Workplace: Theory and Praxis’. The Workshop came to an end with a brief valedictory session on the evening of 12 November, 2010 in the presence of the Principal, Tinsukia College, Dr. Ajanta Rajkonwar and Dr. Sunita Agarwalla. The Cell published booklet ‘Anuronon’ on this occasion.

2 UGC Sponsored Workshop on Assamese Dictionary held A UGC sponsored workshop on “Compilation of
2 UGC Sponsored Workshop on Assamese Dictionary held
A UGC sponsored workshop on “Compilation
of a New Comprehensive Assamese
Dictionary: Challenges & Strategies” was
organized successfully by department of
Assamese, Womens’ College, Tinsukia in
collaboration with the department of Assamese,
Tinsukia College, Tinsukia on 10 th , 11 th and 12 th
of February 2011. The three days workshop was
held at the Womens’ College premises. Altogether
33 teachers from various Colleges of upper Assam
and Dibrugarh University participated in the
workshop. In all 10 technical sessions were held
during the three days.
The resource persons of the workshop were-
Dr. Bhimkanta Baruah, Professor, Department of
Assamese, Dibrugarh University, Dr. Madan
Sharma, Professor, Department of English &
Foreign Language, Tezpur University, Dr. Ramesh
Pathak, Retd. Professor, Department of Assamese,
Cotton College, Dr. Basanta kr. Goswami, Retd.
Professor, Department of Assamese, D.C.B. Girls’
College, Jorhat and Dr. Devabrata Sharma,

3 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Associate Professor, Department of English, Jorhat College, Jorhat. The workshop ended with a brief valedictory
Associate Professor, Department of English,
Jorhat College, Jorhat.
The workshop ended with a brief valedictory
function held on the evening of 12 th of February,
2011 under the chairmanship of Dr. Chandrakanta
Sharma, Principal, Women's College, where
participation certificates were distributed among
the participants.
3 College Teachers Paid Tributes to Departed Colleagues
3 College Teachers Paid Tributes to Departed Colleagues

A ssam College Teachers’ Association, Tinsukia College Unit organizes the ‘Annual

Departed Teachers’Memorial Lecture’ regularly in memory of the Colleagues who died either in service or after retirement. The memorial lecture for the year 2010 was organized by the Unit on 7 th of December 2010 at the College auditorium. At the outset of the function, Dr Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal, Tinsukia College, kindled a lamp in memory of the departed teachers which was followed by floral tribute to the departed souls by Kiron Goswami, the Vice Principal of the College and Anjan Borthakur, the President of the Teachers’Unit. Dr. Akhil Ranjan Dutta, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Gauhati University delivered lecture on the topic “Uttor- Pub Bharator Jono Nirapatta, Rastra, Nagarik Samaj aru Gana Andolonar Bhumika” In his address, Dr. Dutta elaborately discussed each and every movement that took place from the medieval era to present juncture of north east region of the country. He said that whenever a particular ethnic group felt a threat to its cultural dignity and fabric, it revolted against the oppressors. Many a time, even unknowingly, these became inter- ethnic group conflicts for which

the people of this region failed to fight for a common issue unitedly. These uprisings were mainly through arms in the pre- independence era and some of the struggles are still continuing. Though in the post-independence era, most of the uprisings were launched in a non- violent way but due to some unfortunate factors sometimes these became violent. He further stated that each and every ethnic group has its own culture and tradition and these should be given proper respect by others. Dr Dutta also appealed to the students’ community to study history of the region by which they would be richer academically. The lecture session was followed by an important interaction session. The whole function was presided over by Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal and anchored by Rana Kr. Changmai, HoD, English Department of the College. The day long programme ended with vote of thanks offered by Anjan Borthakur, the President of the Unit.

ended with vote of thanks offered by Anjan Borthakur, the President of the Unit. /Vol. VIII,
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 4

4 AIDS Day Observed at Tinsukia College A long with the rest of the world,
4 AIDS Day Observed at Tinsukia College
A long with the rest of the world, the AIDS Day
was observed with a day long programme on
1 st December, 2010 by NRHM, Tinsukia
district Unit in collaboration with Assam
State AIDS Control society. On the
occasion, a rally was taken out from
Tinsukia College campus through
the streets of Tinsukia town. The
rally, attended by member of
NGOs, ASHA workers, School &
College students, was flagged off by
Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal,
Tinsukia College. Astreet play was also
staged by Suryudoy, an NGO, at the college
campus after the rally.
An awareness meeting was also held on the
occasion at the college premise under the
presidentship of Kavita Baibhav
Padmanabham, Additional Deputy
Commissioner, Tinsukia district.
The meeting was addressed by
Dr. Swaraj Mohan Bora, Joint
Director of Health Service,
Tinsukia, Dr. PC Saikia. Sub-
divisional Medical Officer,
Hapjan, Dr. Mridul Gogoi,
Medical Officer, GBC Hospital,
Tinsukia and others.
5 Dr. Sunita Agarwala Delivered Talk on Stress Free Living
5 Dr. Sunita Agarwala Delivered Talk on Stress Free Living

T oday, it is a major course of concern in our society that the number of youths suffering

from stress related problems in our society have been increasing day by day. Talk, counselling programme on such problems among the youths is considered very important and relevant. Keeping this view in mind, The Pragyan Editorial Board in collaboration with the Cell for Women’s Studies & Development, Tinsukia College organized a talk on the topic ‘Stress Free Living’ at the college premise successfully on 13 th of December 2010. Dr Sunita Agarwala, Associate Professor, Department of Education, Dispur College, Dispur delivered a lecture on the topic as the key resource person. Most of the students and teachers of the college were present in the programme. In her deliberation Dr. Agarwala discussed the various tips on attitude and

personality development so that one can minimize the stress in life. She appealed to the students to be always positive to success in life. She said, “The positive thinker is always a part of answer; The negative thinker is always a part of problem, The positive thinkers say ‘ It may be difficult but possible’; The negative thinkers say ‘ it may be possible but is too difficult’, The positive thinkers see the gain; the negative thinkers see the pain, The positive thinkers recognize limitations but focus on strengths; The negative thinkers recognize strengths but focus on limitation.” The talk was followed by an interaction session on the topic. The programme ended with vote of thanks offered by Sushanta Kar, the Executive Editor, Pragyan.

with vote of thanks offered by Sushanta Kar, the Executive Editor, Pragyan. 5 / /Vol. VIII,

5 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
6 46 th Annual College Week held at the College A s per the academic
6 46 th Annual College Week held at the College
A s per the academic schedule of Tinsukia
College, the 46 th Annual College Week was
organized by the college students’ union from 18 th
to 24 th of December 2010. The week long
programme started with hoisting of the College
Flag by Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal of the
college. It was followed by the floral tribute at
the martyrs column initiated by Bantimala Devi,
HoD, Department of Assamese. Then a new issue
of the college wall magazine ‘Bhaskar’ was
inaugurated by Kanak Chanda, HoD, Department
of Bengali. The issue of the magazine was edited
by Pranjal Gogoi, the Magazine Secretary of the
students’ body.
The
schedule of
the whole
college week
included
almost all the
relevant
sport events,
literary and
cultural competitions and other related activities
which can prove students’ talent. On the last day
of the week, i.e. 24 th of December 2010, the open
session and prize distribution ceremony was held
at the college auditorium under the presidentship
of Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal of the college.
The chief guests who attended the session were
Dr. Samujjal Kr. Bhattacharyya, the advisor of
ASSU Central committee, Shri Mrinal Hazarika,
leader, ULFA (Pro-Talk Group). They addressed
the session with their inspiring words and
congratulated the students who got prizes in
different
competitions
during the college
week.
A colourful
cultural
extravaganza
marked the
evening of the day
where Sri Neel
Akash, renowned
artist & former
student of the
college along
with the local artists entertained the audience.
7 NCC Unit Adjudged the Best T insukia College NCC unit (‘D’ Coy) is one
7
NCC Unit Adjudged the Best
T insukia College NCC unit (‘D’ Coy) is one of
the best NCC units under the 10th Assam Bn.,
Dibrugarh, which has both the Boys’ and Girls’
wings. Apart from the participations in various
social works, the cadets of the unit participate
regularly in the ‘Independence Day’ and ‘Republic
Day’ parades organized centrally by the district
authority of Tinsukia district. The cadets of the
unit performed well in the last ‘Republic Day’
Parade on 26 th of January, 2011 and the unit was
adjudged the best unit and awarded the 1 st prize
in it’s category.
8 The 9 th Chemistry Olympiad Held and New Lab Inaugurated at Dept. of Chemisty
8 The 9 th Chemistry Olympiad Held and
New Lab Inaugurated at Dept. of Chemisty
T he 9 th Chemistry Olympiad programme was
organized by the department of Chemistry,
Tinsukia College on 10 th of October 2010 at the
college premises. A good number of students from
various local schools and colleges took part in the
programme. The result of the Olympiad was
declared on 20 th of December 2010. The students
who have earned glory to the college center are –
Sayam Chakraborty, Sauvik Kashyap (both are
from Guru Teg Bahadur Academy, Tinsukia) and
Luna Phukan (Saumarjyoti Vidyalaya) jointly got
the 6 th rank in the junior category (class X level).
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 6

Ranbir Chakraborty (Guru Teg BahadurAcademy) got the 10th rank in the same category. In the
Ranbir Chakraborty (Guru Teg BahadurAcademy)
got the 10th rank in the same category. In the
category class XII level, Hrishrat ( Kendriya
Vidyalaya, Tinsukia) got the 8 th rank and Nanda
Dulal Sen (Tinsukia college) got the 9 th rank.
The newly constructed well furnished
laboratory of the Chemistry department was also
officially inaugurated on 10 th of November 2010
by Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the principal of the
college.
9 Free ENGG/ MEDICAL/IIT-JEE Entrance Coaching Week Held at Dept. of Physics W ith a
9 Free ENGG/ MEDICAL/IIT-JEE Entrance Coaching Week
Held at Dept. of Physics
W ith a view to provide necessary guidance
to the engineering-medical aspiring students
of HS 2 nd year (science stream) of Tinsukia college,
the department of Physics has organized a crash
coaching week starting from 5 th to 10 th of January,
2010. In all twenty students in this category of
the college participated in the programme.
The resource persons who took classes in the
programme are — Dr. Rajib Bordoloi,
Sri Satyajyoti Gogoi, and Dr. Bulbul
Gogoi of Physics Department; Sri
Biplab Banik of Chemistry Department
and Sri Deepjyoti Sarma of Commerce
Department
The students were provided with
necessary skills and techniques for
solving various tricky questions that
are generally set in those entrance
examinations. The programme will be
undertaken again immediately after
completion of the HS final
examination.
10 ‘Papori’ the Departmental Magazine of Assamese Department Published A t the initiative of the
10 ‘Papori’ the Departmental Magazine of
Assamese Department Published
A t the initiative of the teachers and students of Assamese
Dept. Tinsukia College, the inaugural issue of a new departmental
magazine — christened as ‘Papori’ was published in the month of February,
2011 with the financial support of IQAC of the college. The articles of the
magazine are contributed by the students of the department and being edited

7 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

jointly by three major students namely – Pranami Borthakur, Sanjeev Chetia and Bastav Moran under the guidance of Bontimala Devi, HoD of the Department. Since the longest journey begins with the

single step, the inaugural issue of the magazine

is the 1 st step of its long journey in future. It is

also a part of on going endeavour for creating

a congenial academic atmosphere in the college.

Dr. Bhuban Gogoi and Dr. Kamalesh Kalita Attended 11 International Conference at Ethiopia D r.
Dr. Bhuban Gogoi and Dr. Kamalesh Kalita Attended
11 International Conference at Ethiopia
D r. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal and Dr. Kamalesh Kalita, Asst. Prof., Department of Geography,
Tinsukia College participated and presented research paper at the International Conference on
Geomorphology held from 15 th Feb to 22 nd Feb of 2011 at Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, Africa.
The Conference was organised by the
Association of International
Geomorphologist. The subject matter of the
conference was Geomorphology for Human
Adaptation to Changing Tropical
Environment. The association organises such
conference at the interval of every 4 years in
different countries of the world. About 200
scientists and researchers from more than 30
countries of the world took part in the
Conference. It is mentionable here that Dr.
Gogoi and Dr. Kalita were the only participants from India.
Dr. Gogoi presented paper on ‘Fluvial Geomorphology and Flood Problems of the Brahmaputra
Valley, Assam’ and Dr. Kalita presented paper on ‘Landslides Hazards in Gangtok, Sikkim, India’ at the
conference. Their presentation had been highly appreciated by the world geomorphological community.
Prominent Geomorphologist, Geologist, Geo-Archeologist, Professor and Researchers from diverse
field and institutes have presented new scientific ideas and views from international perspectives in the
conference.

(The Updater teaches Economics)

Assam University, Silchar
Assam University, Silchar

Saurav Stars in Convocation

A ll the academic luminaries and students who had gathered in the Netaji Subhas hall of the

university to receive their degrees burst out in

applause as Sourav Ganguly, the ex-captain of Team India, draped in a ceremonial purple gown,

received his PhD as Honoris Causa as a mark of excellence in cricket at the 11th convocation of Assam Central University in Dargakona hills near Silchar. Sourav Ganguly was being selected for this honour along with three other scholars like

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 8

Prof. K.G. Subramanyam, a noted painter, muralist and a renowned teacher of art, Prof. Irfan
Prof. K.G. Subramanyam, a noted
painter, muralist and a renowned
teacher of art, Prof. Irfan Habib, a
doyen of history and Homen
Borgohain, the Assamese novelist.
Prof Habib and Novelist
Borgohain couldn’t make it there
due to ill health.
The chief guest, Prof N.R.
Madhava Menon, who is a legal
pundit and the head of the Dr S.
Radhakrishnan Centre for Parliamentary Studies
in the Rajya Sabha, said in the convocation that
nearly 200 million youths in the country are now
denied the scope of higher education for paucity
of seats. At present only about 12
per cent students in the country
could manage to attend the portals
of higher learning.
Prof. Tapodhir Bhattacharjee,
vice-chancellor,Assam University,
Silchar, in his address in the
convocation gave an overview of
the spectacular progress the
institute had made in its brief
period of existence. He said from
meagre six departments, the university has now
grown into a massive centre of education and
research with 34 departments and nine schools
of studies. [PEB]
A one day workshop on Semester System at Undergraduate Level held at Margherita College on
A one day workshop on Semester System at Undergraduate Level held at Margherita College on 10 th of
January. The workshop was organised by ACTA, Margherita College Unit in association with ACTA,
Tinsukia Zone.
UGC sponsored workshop on Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation at the Undergraduate Level : Problems and
UGC sponsored workshop on Continuous and
Comprehensive Evaluation at the Undergraduate
Level : Problems and Prospects was held at Women's
College, Tinsukia on 5 th and 6 th of Feb, 2011. The
workshop was organised by the Dept. of Education
in association with Community Development
Society, Tinsukia.
A one day workshop on Minor Research Project held at Women's College, Tinsukia on 24
A one day workshop on Minor Research
Project held at Women's College, Tinsukia
on 24 th of Dec, 2010. The workshop was
organised by ACTA Women's College,
Tinsukia Unit in association with ACTA,
Tinsukia Zone.

9 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
1 Wahid Saleh, this year’s Recipient of the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman : The Personality and
1
Wahid Saleh, this year’s Recipient of the
Pravasi Bharatiya Samman : The Personality and His Works

Y ears before a Telegraph story wrote, when Wahid Saleh boarded his ship in Bombay for

the long journey to Europe, the Jorhat-born student of aircraft maintenance had a two-anna coin in his pocket. It was an experience he recalled with amusement when, nearly 40 years later, Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands knighted him with the Ridder va de Orange in 2002. His journey to distinction began when his college in Ernakulam selected him for higher training in Germany. But when he eventually got to his workplace, BMW, in Munich, he discovered he had been taken on not for training but as an unskilled labourer. But there was no going back, so he forged on, determinedly and, some jobs — and disappointments — later, joined Lufthansa in Hamburg. And then

he fell in love with

happened. A penfriend he used to correspond with in the Netherlands came to visit him and romance blossomed. As she was studying medicine back home, he decided to join her there, and eventually joined a Dutch company in Rotterdam as a computer programmer. He excelled at it and, by 1983 was able to implement one of the biggest PC networks in Europe. This year on 9 th of January, ’11 Wahid Saleh was awarded the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman by the Hon’ble President of India, Smt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil at Vigyan Bhawan, Delhi. He was also given the rare honour of making the acceptance speech on behalf of all the PBS recipients. He is an active member of the Netherlands-India Association, established in April 1954, and then got elected to the Board. For more than fifteen years he has served the organization as secretary. Eventually he became information center for the

secretary. Eventually he became information center for the a new phenomenon. It was the computer, for

a

new phenomenon.

It

was the computer,

for it was the dawn of the computer age. And so he joined the computer industry.And then love of another kind

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 10

Dutch students and public about India and Indian migrants on Netherlands. Even if the Indian Embassy was not able to give answer to queries, they directed the public to contact Wahid Saleh. Indian Tourist Office directed the public to contact Wahid Saleh with their specific questions. He started writing down the questions and also the answers. This was the foundation of his book called Indiawijzer (Guide to India) first published in 1992.The profit of the first edition was donated to the Netherlands-India Association. The first edition was of 142 pages while the second edition of 412 pages was published in 1999. The profit of this edition was donated to an educational foundation from Assam. He frequently visits Assam and here he helped to set up an educational Trust in the name of his parents. It is meant for Assamese students and for higher studies. Last year the trust helped six students and this year also financial assistance was given to another six. Besides the above trust he is helping few other institutions like Parijat Academy,started in 2003 by social entrepreneur Uttam Teron; Pragyalaya,an orphanage started in 2002 by Late Jugal Bhuyan; Society for Health & Educational Development (SHED),residential rehabilitation centre in Guwahati for differently able children; Baby Micro financing,supervised and guided by Uttam Teron. Another accomplishment which he is very

proud of is to furnish historical evidence that the name Assam was not coined by the British and existed before the British came toAssam. In a Dutch museum he discovered a map of Eastern part of India cartographed in 1661 AD, where the name Assam was clearly mentioned. He also discovered the autobiography of Frans Van Der Heyden, a Dutch sailor shipwrecked in the bay of Bengal and was forced to fight in the army of Mir Jumla. He was in Assam in 1663 and the book was published in 1675. It was he who recently led an online movement to increase Assamese content on net. It resulted in formation of a group called E-Junaki Jug (Òü-ë\à>àA¡ã ™åK http://sites.google.com/site/ ejonakijug/home) and a Facebook group called:

"γãÚàt¡ A¡=à ¤t¡¹à , which now have more than seven and half hundred active Members who interact and help others to do so in Assamese. When PRAGYAN went online three years back he was among the first few well-wishers and supporters those we had, only because it’s another selfless service like his kind of work for people and their land. Even if one stays far from his land and people, it’s the attitude that determines if he or she will be able to win hearts and live there for ever. Becoming an NRI never becomes any excuse for a personality like Wahid Saleh. To know more on him one can visit his site :http:// www.indiawijzer.nl. [PEB]

2 Dr Hifzur R. Siddique, Received American Society of Basic Urology Award-2010
2 Dr Hifzur R. Siddique, Received
American Society of Basic Urology Award-2010

D r. Hifzur R. Siddique, hailing from Karimganj, Assam and a post doctoral

Scientist at The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota received the American Society for Basic Urologic Research Award-2010 (SBUR- outstanding research award) in a function held at Hotel Grand Hayat, Atlanta, GA on November 14, 2010. In USA, around 40,000 post doctorates are working from different countries. In every two year, SBUR gives this award to 4 people. This year it was Dr. Siddique’s turn. SBUR conferred him this award for his discovery, the role of Bmi- 1 protein in the survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Bmi-1 helps cells to survive the attack of chemotherapy agents, and, because

of that, could be used as a target for new drugs to treat prostate cancer. There’s also hope to use Bmi-1 as

a biomarker
a biomarker

for the future diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. According to the experts of Urology fields, “It’s a very significant discovery that gives us insight into how cancer cells escape the affects of chemotherapy in prostate cancer

11 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
patients”. The Hormal Institute, where Dr. Siddique works, is world’s renowned medical research center, specializing
patients”. The Hormal Institute, where Dr.
Siddique works, is world’s renowned medical
research center, specializing in research into natural
compounds/small inhibitory
molecules (SIMs) that might
prevent, control or cure
cancer. Dr. Siddique has
been an extraordinary and
meritorious student
throughout his career. This
is evident from the
prestigious scholarships and
awards received by him.
These include Junior
Research Fellowship (JRF) from Council of
scientific and Industrial Research, and Graduate
Aptitude Test for Engineering (GATE) fellowship.
During his Master’s degree program, he was
awarded University Merit Scholarship for two
consecutive years. Dr. Siddique obtained his M.Sc.
degree in the year 2001 in the
subject of Zoology
(specialization in Genetics)
from Aligarh Muslim
University, UP. He did his
Ph.D. from the Indian Institute
of Toxicology Research,
Lucknow in the year 2008.
After completing his Ph.D.,
Dr. Siddique pursued
postdoctoral training in cancer
biology at the University of Wisconsin. In January,
2010, Dr. Siddique joined The Hormel Institute at
the University of Minnesota. [PEB]
3 Dr. Musahid Ahmed : A Scientist from Assam Bagging Honors in US D r.
3 Dr. Musahid Ahmed
: A Scientist from Assam Bagging Honors in US
D r. Musahid Ahmed, a scientist hailing from Assam, presently working as a senior scientist
at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, USA, has been elected as a fellow to the
American Physical Society recently for his outstanding contribution to Physics. Dr. Ahmed is also
member of American Chemical Society, American Physical Society and American Association of
Advancement of Science and in 2010 he has been elected as fellow to the American Physical Society.
His citation which appeared in his fellowship certificate reads: “for his creation of a world class
synchrotron chemical dynamics facility serving the community and his unique
marriage of lasers with synchrotron science, used to study small molecules
spectroscopy and energetic, biological imaging, combustion, nanoparticle
reactivity and chemical dynamics.” His fellowship citation will be published
in the March 2011 issue of APC News.
Dr. Ahmed is in USA since 1995 and his research encompasses
fundamental studies which are relevant to energy and environmental processes.
Born in Assam’s Digboi city Dr. Ahmed did his schooling in Scindia school in
Gwalior. Later he obtained his bachelor’s degree in Chemistry from Delhi
University in the year 1985 and in the same year he joined for Ph.D.
programme in Cambridge University in UK and obtained Ph.D. in 1989.
He completed his post doctoral degree from University of Leicester
and Manchester in UK and Max Planck Institute in Gottingen,
Germany. [PEB]
4 Dr Saitanya K Bharadwaj Received 2010 Eli Lilly and Company Asia Outstanding Thesis Award
4 Dr Saitanya K Bharadwaj
Received 2010 Eli Lilly and Company Asia Outstanding Thesis Award
D r Saitanya K Bharadwaj, hailing from Hazari
Para Shipajhar, Darang has received the
“2010 Eli Lilly and Company Asia Outstanding
Thesis Award” for the first time in India. Eli Lilly
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 12

and Company is a world wide famous research laboratory, situated in every continent. The main
and Company is a world wide famous research
laboratory, situated in every continent. The main
branch is situated in
Indianapolis,
Indiana 46285
USA. Eli Lilly
and company Asia
invited
nominations for
best thesis from all
institutes and
universities
through
NOST
(National
Organic
Symposium
Trust) in India. His thesis was nominated by IIT,
Guwahati.
Dr Saitanya K Bharadwaj was honored
with Ph.D in September, 2009 from Indian
Institute of Technology Guwahati under the
Supervision of Prof. Mihir Kanti Chaudhuri.
Development of green protocol for extraction of
Bromine from sea water, Synthesis of anti-diabetic
compounds and development of industrially
important catalysts are main themes of his thesis.
His team work has been highlighted in several
conferences including PANIIT2007 held at Santa
Clara, California, USA. He is currently doing his
2nd postdoctoral research in Technische
Universität München, Germany after returning
from USA in September 2010.
Eli Lilly award ceremony was held in
January 28, 2011 at Hyderabad University, along
with the J-NOST conference. The awards contain
a certificate from Eli Lilly and company, a plaque,
and 1000 USD.
5 The First Ever Knowledge Fair held at Tinsukia T he Tinsukia District administration in
5 The First Ever Knowledge Fair held at Tinsukia
T he Tinsukia District administration in
collaboration with some social organizations
and intelligentsia has organized an intellectually
enriching event, the Tinsukia Knowledge Fair,
2011 comprising major attractions i.e. Book fair,
Science Exhibition, seminars , Kavi Sammelan,
Career Counseling,
adda, Children’s
competition and
cultural programme
from 16th February
to 20 the February,
2011. It was in the
year 1996 last such
event was organized
in this eastern most
city of Assam. The
event took place at
Chaliha Nagar Khel Pothar, Tinsukia.
Tinsukia being a commercial hub is vibrant with
business activities and always a desired destination
of business communities. With its huge potential for
growth in various fields, Tinsukia is an ideal place
for such an event, both for exploration of newer
scientifically advanced community. Such an initiative
will enlarge the boundary of knowledge and
consciousness and help to propel Tinusukia on the path
of knowledge based growth and development. Every
day apart from the visitors almost 500 school children
were brought by the organizers to attend the event from
avenues of knowledge as well as for promotion of a
across the district, particularly, from remote areas like
Sadiya, Kakopathar, Pengeree, Philobari, Bordumsa,
Jagun etc., in order to thrust in this direction and to
provide an exposure.
More than 25 publishers and book dealers
Like, Sahitya Academi, Scholars, and Satirtha from
the state and beyond attended the fair. [PEB]

13 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
6 Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡ –––––
6 Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡Aåò¡[Òšàt¡ ––––– ³åA¡[º³åA¡[º³åA¡[º³åA¡[º³åA¡[º Ò’ºÒ’ºÒ’ºÒ’ºÒ’º &A¡&A¡&A¡&A¡&A¡ >tå¡>>tå¡>>tå¡>>tå¡>>tå¡> "γãÚà"γãÚà"γãÚà"γãÚà"γãÚà Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡ ó¡@i¡ó¡@i¡ó¡@i¡ó¡@i¡ó¡@i¡
”z–¹àÊ¡öãÚ ³àtõ¡®¡àÈà [ƒ¯Î¹
ºKt¡ Î}K[t¡ ¹à[J 21
ëó¡¤ø硯à¹ã, 2011 [ƒ>à¡ ¹àÒü\¹
³à\t¡ Aåò¡[Òšàt¡ >à³¹ "γãÚà
Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡ ó¡@i¡ìi¡à (Unicode
Assamese font) ³åA¡[º A¡[¹ [ƒìº
ÒüÚ๠[>³¢àt¡à ¤>[\; šàk¡ìA¡¡ú
Òül¡ü[>ìA¡àl¡ [®¡[v¡t¡ [¤A¡à[Åt¡ A¡¹à
"γãÚà ó¡@i¡ìi¡à¹ [¤ÈìÚ [¤Ñzõt¡ \à[>¤îº ºK "> A¡¹A¡
&Òü "àA¡à¹t¡ š[Øn¡¤îº ®¡àº (best
readability) ¤å[º "à[³ [¤ì¤W¡>à
A¡ì¹à¡ú’’
ÒüÚàt¡ :– www.kuhipat.org
ó¡@i¡ìi¡à¹ [¤ÈìÚ \à[>¤îº [ƒ ¤>[\ìt¡ [º[Jìá,
‘‘">¸ "γãÚà "=¤à ¤à}ºà ó¡@i¡¹ ƒì¹Òü ÒüÚàìA¡à šøàÚ
ÎA¡ìºà window application t¡ ë™ì> MS Word, MS
Paint, Online Browser t¡ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú
Òü@i¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ "γãÚà [ºJà "=¤à šØn¡à¹ Îå[¤‹à¹ šø[t¡ ºÛ¡¸
¹à[J [¤A¡[Åt¡ A¡[¹¤îº ™â¥ A¡¹à íÒìá, ÒüÚ๠"=¢ Ò’º
&Òü ó¡@i¡ìi¡à Òü@i¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ "γãÚà [ºJà "=¤à šØn¡à¹ ¤àì¤ìÒ
l¡üš™åv¡û¡ú Îà‹à¹oìt¡ [™ìA¡àì>à W¡àÒüt¡¹ "àJ¹ì¤à¹¹ áàÒü\
(font size)12 =àìA¡¡ú Default ®¡àì¯ "à³à¹ &Òü ó¡@i¡ìi¡à
"γãÚà [ºJ๠[>\Ѭ [A¡áå³à>
íźã "àìá, ë™ì>, K + l¡ü A¡à¹ =
P¡, ¹ + l¡ü A¡à¹ = ¹ç¡ Å + l¡ü A¡à¹ =
Ç¡ "à[ƒ, ³ + ¹ A¡à¹ = ´÷ (δ÷à\¸)
">¸ [A¡áå³à> "γãÚà support =A¡à
ó¡@i¡t¡ &ì> [A¡áå³à> "àJ¹ ¤à ™åv¡û¡àÛ¡¹ ®¡àºîA¡ ëƒJà
>à™àÚ¡ú "γãÚàt¡ ‘Î’¹ ºKt¡ l¡ü A¡à¹ ë™àK [ƒìº ÒüÚàA¡
ƒåÒü ‹¹ìo [ºJà ™àÚ, ëÎìÚìÒ ƒåìÚài¡à íźã ÒüÚ๠¹Jà
íÒìá, [A¡”ñ ÒüÚ๠[A¡áå Îã³à¤‡ý¡t¡à "àìá, ë™ì> ëA¡àì>à
šø¤Þê¡ printout "=¤à [W¡y [ÒW¡àìš ít¡Ú๠A¡[¹¤îº Ò’ìº
ƒåìÚài¡à &ìA¡ºìK "=¤à [™ìA¡àì>à &i¡à ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤
š¹à ™à¤¡ú ‘l¡ 0 ’ &Òüìi¡à "à> [A¡áå³à> ó¡@i¡t¡ [º[J¤îº
"Îå[¤‹à ÒÚ, ‘l¡0’ &ì>îA¡ [ºJà ÒÚ, &Òü ó¡@i¡t¡ ‘l¡ 0 ’ìi¡à
¹Jà íÒìá¡ú "ºšìt¡ ®¡à¹t¡ W¡¹A¡àì¹ ®¡à¹t¡ãÚ ³å‰à¹ šøt¡ãA¡
[W¡Òû¡ \à[¹ A¡[¹ìá¡ú Aåò¡[Òšàt¡ ó¡@i¡t¡ ®¡à¹t¡ãÚ ³å‰à¹ šøt¡ãA¡
[W¡Òû¡ìi¡à ( ) ¹Jà "àìá¡ú [PEB]
7 ŦŦŦŦŦ A¡ºà\A¡ºà\A¡ºà\A¡ºà\A¡ºà\ –––––
7 ŦŦŦŦŦ A¡ºà\A¡ºà\A¡ºà\A¡ºà\A¡ºà\ ––––– "γãÚà"γãÚà"γãÚà"γãÚà"γãÚà Îà[Òt¡¸¹Îà[Òt¡¸¹Îà[Òt¡¸¹Îà[Òt¡¸¹Îà[Òt¡¸¹ >tå¡>>tå¡>>tå¡>>tå¡>>tå¡> 믤믤믤믤믤 δ±à¹Î´±à¹Î´±à¹Î´±à¹Î´±à¹
γãÚà ®¡àÈà-Îà[Òt¡¸¹ l¡üv¡¹o t¡=à γõ[‡ý¡¹ ºÛ¡¸ì¹
\@µ [ƒÚà ‘Å¦ A¡ºà\’ >à³¹
Òü-"àìºàW¡>ãJ> ë™à¯à 30
\à>å¯à¹ã t¡à[¹J, ëƒ*¤àì¹
[t¡[>Wå¡A¡ãÚà ³Òà[¤ƒ¸àºÚ šøà}K>t¡
Ç¡®¡ l¡üì@µàW¡> ÒÚ¡ú [l¡¤øç¡KØl¡
[¤Å«[¤ƒ¸àºÚ¹ Òü}¹à\ã [¤®¡àK¹
³è¹¤Œã "‹¸àšA¡ t¡=à [¤[ÅÊ¡ [ºJA¡
l¡ 0 "à>@ƒ ¤¹³åîƒìÚ l¡üì@µàW¡> A¡¹à
ŦA¡ºà\ >à³¹ Òü-"àìºàW¡>ãJ>
"γãÚà Îà[Òt¡¸ \Kt¡t¡ &A¡
¤¸[t¡yû¡³ã šøìW¡Ê¡à¡ú &A¡ A¡[¤t¡à
">åË¡àì>ì¹ "๴± A¡¹à l¡üì@µàW¡>ã
">åË¡à>ìi¡àt¡ [l¡¤øç¡KØl¡¹ Îà[Ò[t¡¸A¡,
[W¡y[Å¿ã ët¡ì\@ƒø >à= KîK "à¹ç¡
[l¡¤øç¡KØl¡ ">àtò¡à¹ ëA¡@ƒø¹ >ài¡
[¤®¡àK¹ ëQàÈA¡ ‡ãìš@ƒø >à= A¡àA¡[t¡ìA¡ ‹[¹ ¤×ìt¡à >-
šå¹[o A¡[¤ "à¹ç¡ Ko¸³à>¸ ëºàA¡ l¡üš[Ñ‚t¡
=àìA¡¡ú í®¡¹¯ ëKòàÒàìÚ "òàt¡‹¹à
">åË¡à>ìi¡àt¡ >-šå¹[o A¡[¤¹ A¡[¤t¡à
šàìk¡ A¡à™¢¸ÎèW¡ã ³ì>àNøàÒã A¡[¹ ët¡à캡ú
l¡üìÀJì™àK¸ ë™ [t¡[>Wå¡A¡ãÚà [>¤àÎã
ë\¸à[t¡³¢Ú ƒv¡¹ ³åJ¸ δšàƒ>àì¹ šøA¡à[Åt¡
&Òü ŦA¡ºàt¡ "àìºàW¡>ãJ> Òü@i¡à¹ì>i¡t¡
(www.sabdakalaz.com)¹ ë™àìK[ƒ
šØn¡æî¯ÎA¡º¹ l¡üšº§¡ Ò’¤¡ú ëƒàÒà[¹¤¹
šøìÚà\> ë™ [¤Å«¹ ëKàºA¡ãÚ šøÎà¹t¡à¹
ºìK ºìK &J> Òü@i¡à¹ì>i¡ "àìºàW¡>ãìÚ
>tå¡> šø\@µA¡ "γãÚà Kãt¡-³àt¡,
ëºàA¡Îà[Òt¡¸, K¿, A¡[¤t¡à "à[ƒ¹ ºKt¡
[W¡>à[A¡ A¡[¹ [ƒÚ๠"Nøoã ®è¡[³A¡à NøÒo
A¡[¹¤¡ú [PEB]
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 14

1. The color orange was named after
1. The color orange was named after

the fruit : Before that, the English- speaking world referred to the orange color as ‘geoluhread,’ which literally translates to “yellow-red!” The word orange itself was derived from the Spanish word ‘naranja,’ which likewise

came from the Sanskrit word ‘naranga,’ meaning “orange tree.” Over time, the English dropped the first “n,” and soon

the word was transformed to ‘orange.’ This word was also applied to the fruit’s color in the 1540’s, likely due to the increased popularity of oranges around this time.

2. A two-year-old girl scored a 156 on

the IQ test : At 2 years and 4 months old, British toddler Elise Tan-Roberts has been accepted as the youngest-ever member of the high IQ fraternity known

as Mensa! The club can typically only test children who are older than 10, but an exception was made in Elise’s case because her IQ score was already proven to be in the top 2% of the country. Tan- Roberts has an IQ of 156, which is just 4 points lower than Albert Einstein’s! She already knows 35 world capitals, including Paris, Tokyo, and Washington, D.C. She can even count in Spanish.

3. Yawning is not caused by boredom

or tiredness : Most likely explanation is that we yawn in order to take in more air. Normal breathing patterns only use our

lungs’ lower air sacs, called alveoli - they do not even come close to using our lung capacity! That being said, if these

alveoli do not receive air regularly they will collapse a bit and stiffen. Therefore, experts believe that our brains trigger

a

yawn as a way to keep these sacs flexible.

4.

About 19% of all Nobel Prize recipients have been

Jewish, though Jews only make up about 0.2% of the world’s population : The Jewish people have received more Nobel prizes than any other ethnic minority group. Out of the roughly 700 individuals who have received the prize over 120

of them are Jewish. This is despite the fact that Jews make up

a tiny percentage of the world population. This disproportion

makes sense when you consider that Jews are overrepresented

in the professional fields from which Nobel laureates are selected (physical and social sciences, and literature).

5. Leonardo da Vinci painted tiny letters in the eyes of

the Mona Lisa : It turns out there really is a “Da Vinci Code”

after all! The 500-year old masterpiece has always been shrouded in mystery, but Italy’s National Committee for Cultural Heritage recently revealed that magnification of the painting’s eyes shows tiny letters and numbers! In the right eye, the letters “LV” appear, while in the other can be seen either “BE” or “C.” On the bridge in the background, symbols that appear to be the number “72” are also visible. Experts

are still baffled at what the symbols could mean, though “LV” is likely a signature by the artist himself.

6. The movie Avatar takes up over one petabyte of

storage space : A petabyte is the equivalent of 500 hard

drives, each with a capacity of 2 terrabytes (a terrabyte to 1,000 gigabytes!). That’s the size of a 32 YEAR long mp3 file. The movie was shot in 3-D and rendered in one of the most powerful data centers in the world. Its computing core adds up to 40,000 processors and 104 terabytes of RAM. It would be realistic to assume that a significant portion of the film’s $300 million budget went to storage space.

7. In western culture, pink was the color originally

associated with males : The tradition of assigning colors to each gender began back in the 1920s. At this time, pink was deemed more appropriate for boys due to its close

associations with red. Blue was assigned to girls since it was more “delicate and dainty” and had close ties to imagery of the Virgin Mary. This practice continued until the 1940s, when the gender colors were reversed and became the stereotypes that we are still familiar with today.

8. The odds of a meteor landing on your house are 1 in

182,138,880,000,000 : Your odds of becoming the President of the United States,or dating a supermodel are much much

(Contd. on Page 21)

15 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
1. Do important work vs. merely offering opinions. 2. Lift people up vs. tear others
1. Do important work vs. merely offering opinions.
2. Lift people up vs. tear others down.
3. Use the words of leadership vs. the language of
victimhood.
4. Don’t worry about getting the credit for getting things
done.
5. Become part of the solution rather than part of the
problem.
6. Take your health to a level called superfit.
7. Commit to mastery of your craft instead of accepting
mediocrity in your work.
8. Associate with people whose lives you want to be
living.
9. Study for an hour a day. Double your learning and
you’ll triple your success.
10. Run your own race. “No one can possibly achieve real
and lasting success by being a conformist,” wrote
billionaire J. Paul Getty.
11. Do something small yet scary every single day.
12. Lead Without a Title.
13. Focus on people’s strengths vs. obsessing around their
weaknesses.
14. Remember that potential unused turns into pain. So
dedicate yourself to expressing your best.
15. Smile more.
16. Listen more.
17. Read the autobiography of Nelson Mandela.
18. Reflect on the words of Eleanor Roosevelt who
said: — “Great minds discuss ideas; Average
minds discuss events; Small minds discuss
people.”
19. Persist longer than the critics suggest you
should.
20. Say “please” and “thank you”.
21. Love your loved ones.
22. Do work that matters.
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/ 16
"gº ¤¹à
"gº ¤¹à

³Ú¹ š[¹¯t¢¡>¹ ºìK ºìK [¤`¡à> "à¹ç¡ šø™å[v¡û¡[¤ƒ¸à¹ l¡üÄ[t¡ìÚ ³à>åÒA¡ ¤×ìt¡à A¡=àÒü >tå¡>îA¡ ®¡à[¤¤îº ¤à‹¸ A¡[¹ìá¡ú ëKàºA¡ãA¡¹o¹ ó¡ºt¡ ³à>åìÒ "à[\ [¤Å«¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zt¡ =à[A¡ \ã[¯A¡à [>¤¢àÒ A¡[¹ìá¡ú ¤á¹ ¤á¹ ‹[¹ &J> >tå¡> γà\t¡ ¤àÎ A¡¹à¹ ó¡ºt¡ ët¡*òìºàìA¡ [>\¹ ®¡àÈà-Îà[Òt¡¸, A¡ºà-Î}ÑHõ[t¡¹ ºKìt¡ \à[t¡ìi¡à¹ ¤×ìt¡à "àšå¹ç¡KãÚà δ±à¹A¡ šàÒ[¹ ™à¤îº ¤à‹¸ íÒìá¡ú ëÎìÚ &[t¡Úà [¤Å«¤¸àšã =A¡à [ÅšàÒã> &Òü >tå¡> "γãÚà δ߃àÚA¡ [>\-[>\ A¡³¢Ñ‚à>ìt¡ "àìšà> ®¡àÈà-Î}ÑHõ[t¡A¡ Åø‡ý¡àì¹ Ñ¶¹o A¡¹à¤îº "à³àA¡ šøìÚà\> íÒìá &J> >tå¡> Òü-γà\’¡ú ™àA¡ ëA¡¯º δ±¯ A¡[¹ tå¡[º¤ šà[¹¤ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ "à¹ç¡ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ >tå¡>->tå¡> l¡üŠ±à¯[> Å[v¡û¡ "à¹ç¡ ÒüÚ๠¤¸¯Òà칡ú Òü}¹à\ã Cyber Ŧìi¡àì¯ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à [¤ÈÚìi¡àìA¡ ÎèW¡àÚ¡ú áàÒü¤à¹ [¤šÃ¯¹ \[¹Úìt¡Òü "à[³ "à³à¹ ®¡àÈà-Îà[Òt¡¸, A¡ºà-Î}ÑHõ[t¡A¡ [¤Å«¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zîº A¡[Øn¡ÚàÒü íº ™à¤ šà[¹³¡ú δß[t¡ [¤[®¡Ä ‘á[W¡ìÚº ë>i¡¯[A¡¢} áàÒüi¡ "A墡i¡, ëó¡á¤åA¡, iå¡Òüi¡à¹ "à[ƒ¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹* &W¡à³ "γãÚà ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ [¤[®¡Ä "γãÚà γº, ¤à-¤àt¡[¹ "à[ƒ šõ[=¯ã¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zt¡ =A¡à ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ ºKt¡ "àƒà>- šøƒà> A¡[¹ìá¡ú &Úà &A¡ Ç¡®¡ ºÛ¡o¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈ๠³à‹¸ì³ì¹ [¤[®¡Ä 믤W¡àÒüi¡t¡ "γ δšìA¢¡ >à>à> t¡=¸ [¤W¡à[¹ ëšà¯à ™àÚ¡ú "γA¡ "à”z–¹àÊ¡öãÚ ëšøÛ¡àši¡t¡ tå¡[º ‹[¹¤îº Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈ๠³à‹¸ì³ì¹ šøW¡à¹ A¡¹à &ì> t¡=¸Î³èÒ¹ P¡¹ç¡â«t¡à ">ѬãA¡à™¢¡ú [A¡”ñ ÒüÚ๠ºìK ºìK

ë™> [>\¹ šø[t¡ =à[A¡¤ ºKà "à³à¹ ƒàÚ¤‡ý¡t¡à Îã[³t¡ íÒ š[¹ìá¡ú "à[³ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ "à¹ç¡ Òüsi¡à¹ì>ìi¡ A¡[Øn¡ÚàÒü ">à [¤[®¡Ä Îå[¤‹àA¡ ë™> "γãÚà ®¡àÈà šøW¡à¹¹ ¤àì¤ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú &Òü ëÛ¡yt¡ "γ¹ šø[t¡\> ÎìW¡t¡> [Å[Û¡t¡ ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ ƒà[Úâ« "à¹ç¡ Î}¤àƒ-šyγèÒ¹ ®è¡[³A¡à "[‹A¡ P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢¡ú Îà´ß[t¡A¡ γÚt¡ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠šøW¡à¹ š™¢àœ ë>àìÒà¯à¹ ³èºìt¡ íÒìá l¡üš™åv¡û¡ ¤¸¯Òà¹A¡à¹ã¹ (user) "®¡à¯¡ú ÒüÚàì¹àš[¹ "à³à¹ [¤[®¡Ä ÑHæº-A¡ìº\γèÒt¡ ¤àÑz¯ γڹ ºKt¡ Jàš Jठš¹àîA¡ l¡üÄt¡ t¡=¸-šø™å[v¡û¡¹ Îå[¤‹à ëƒJà ëšà¯à >à™àÚ¡ú ™à¹ ó¡ºt¡ ¤t¢¡³à> ¤×ìt¡à áày-áàyãìÚ šø™å[v¡û¡[¤ƒ¸àì¹ "à¯[¹ ‹¹à >tå¡> šõ[=¯ãJ>¹ [¤ÈìÚ \à[>¤îº Îå[¤‹à ëšà¯à >àÒü¡ú Kt¡à>åK[t¡A¡ šàk¡¸yû¡³ "à¹ç¡ šå¹[o [ÅÛ¡à šøoàºã¹ šøìÚàìKÒü ÒüÚ๠šø‹à> "”z¹àÚ ¤å[º ®¡à[¤¤ šà[¹¡ú W¡¹A¡à¹ã [¤ƒ¸àºÚγèÒt¡ "à[\* A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [ÅÛ¡à ÎÒ\º®¡¸ íÒ l¡ük¡à >àÒü¡ú Îà´ß[t¡A¡ γÚt¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹t¡ >-> áóô¡i¡ì¯¹¹ Î}ì™àìKì¹ "à³à¹ [ÅÛ¡à šøoàºãA¡ "[‹A¡ ÎÒ\ A¡[¹ tå¡[ºìá¡ú [A¡”ñ š™¢àœ Îå[¤‹à¹ "®¡à¯t¡ "à[³ t¡àA¡ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú ¤×ìt¡ ®¡¤à¹ ƒì¹ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹t¡ "γãÚà [ºJàìi¡à &[t¡Úà ëA¡àì>à i¡à> A¡à³ íÒ =A¡à >àÒü¡ú "à‹å[>A¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹¹ >tå¡> l¡üŠ±à¯[> Å[v¡û¡ìÚ &[t¡Úà "γãÚà [ºJàìi¡à Îà‹à¹o A¡àK\-A¡º³¹ ƒì¹Òü ÎÒ\ A¡[¹ tå¡[ºìá¡ú l¡üš™åv¡û¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠áóô¡i¡ì¯¹ Ñ‚àš> (Install) A¡[¹ ¤à A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹t¡ Î}ºN— íÒ =A¡à Òü>ÑI¡ãŸi¡ A¡ãì¤àl¢¡¹ (Inscript Keyboard) ‡à¹à* ">àÚàìÎ &\> ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ [ºJ๠A¡ºà "àÚâ« A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ÒüÚ๠¤àì¤ "[t¡ ÎÒ\ ¤¸¯Ñ‚àìi¡à íÒìá Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡

17 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

(Unicode) [ºJàìi¡à¡ú A¡à¹o Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡ šõ[=¯ã¹ šø[t¡ìi¡à ®¡àÈ๠¤àì¤ &[i¡ &A¡A¡ Î}J¸à [>‡ý¢¡à¹o A¡¹à =àìA¡¡ú ™àìt¡ ÒüÚàA¡ [™ìA¡àì>à ëšÃi¡ó¡³¢ìt¡, [™ ëA¡àì>à šø’Nøà³ìt¡ ¤à [™ìA¡àì>à ®¡àÈàìt¡ &A¡ ‹¹ìo [º[J¤ šà[¹¡ú ÒüÚ๠ºKìt¡ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡ [ºJà [™ìA¡àì>à t¡=¸A¡ [¤[®¡Ä [áìÊ¡³¹ š¹à ëA¡àì>à ‹¹o¹ γθà ë>àìÒà¯àîA¡ šø[t¡[º[š* A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ ">å¤àƒ A¡¹à ³àÒüyû¡’áó¡i¡¹ ÎA¡ìºà >tå¡> "’šàì¹[i¡} [áìÊ¡ì³à Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡ìt¡ [ºJà íÒìá "à¹ç¡ &Òü [áìÊ¡³Î³èìÒ "[t¡ ÎÒ\ìt¡ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡¹ "”zK¢t¡ ó¡’si¡Î³èÒ Î³=¢> A¡ì¹¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ìt¡ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡¹ [¤ÈìÚ [¤Åƒ®¡àì¯ ™ì=Ê ëºJà šøA¡àÅ A¡¹à "àìá¡ú Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡ γ[=¢t¡ A¡ãì¤àl¢¡ì¹ "γãÚàt¡ ëA¡ì>ƒì¹ i¡àÒüš A¡[¹¤ šà[¹ ëÎÒü

[¤ÈìÚ >\>à ÎA¡ìº -ÿ- www.keymanweb.com/go/

asm/sabdalipiunicode >à³¹ 믤W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡à Jå[º W¡à¤ šà칡ú ÒüÚàt¡ "[t¡ ÎÒ\®¡àì¯ A¡ãì¤àl¢¡ÎÒ "γãÚàt¡ [º[J¤ š¹àîA¡ ít¡Ú๠A¡[¹ ë=à¯à "àìá¡ú ºKìt¡ l¡àl¡ü>ìºàl¡ A¡[¹¤ š¹àîA¡* ¤¸¯Ñ‚à ¹Jà íÒìá¡ú A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ "à¹ç¡ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ δšA¢¡ "UàUã¡ú A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [™ƒì¹ "à³à¹ Åà¹ã[¹A¡, ³à>[ÎA¡ A¡Ê¡A¡ ºàQ¯ A¡[¹ "à³à¹ \ã¯> ®¡¹àÒü tå¡[ºìá &ìA¡ƒì¹ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ëίàÒü ëKàìi¡Òü [¤Å«A¡ &i¡à [AáA¡ìt¡ "à³à¹ W¡A塹 ΖµåJt¡ tå¡[º ‹[¹ìá¡ú Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ \[¹Úìt¡ "à[³ "à³à¹ ³>¹ ®¡à¤, [¤[®¡Ä γº Òü-ë³Òüº, ¤Ã’K, W¡ài¡ (chat) "à[ƒ¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹ šõ[=¯ã¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zîº Û¡ãšø®¡àì¯ ëšø¹o A¡[¹¤ šàì¹òà¡ú "γt¡ &[t¡Úà* Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ëίà "à> ¹à\¸¹ t塺>àt¡ ÎÒ\º®¡¸ "à¹ç¡ ‰ç¡t¡ K[t¡t¡ "àK¤Øn¡à >àÒü¡ú Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ëί๠³”‚¹ K[t¡, ¤[‡ý¡¢t¡ ³èº¸ "à¹ç¡ [¤ƒå¸t¡¹ γθàÒü ÒüÚ๠³èº A¡à¹o ¤å[º¤ šà[¹¡ú &Òü [J[>ìt¡ l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à ®¡àº ë™, Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹ "γãÚà ®¡àÈà šøW¡à¹ A¡¹à [¤[®¡Ä ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ ë¤[ᮡàìKÒü "γ¹ ¤à[Ò¹t¡ A¡³¢Îèìy =A¡à &W¡à³ šø¯àÎã "γãÚàìÒ¡ú [™ ƒåÒü &i¡à 믤W¡àÒüi¡¹ \[¹Úìt¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈà šøW¡à¹ A¡¹à íÒìá t¡à¹ Î¹Ò Î}J¸A¡ì¹ ¤å[>Úàƒ ¹[W¡t¡ íÒìá "γ¹ ¤à[Ò¹¹ [¤[®¡Ä áóô¡i¡ì¯¹ ëA¡à´šà>ãγèÒ¹ \[¹Úìt¡ìÒ¡ú Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ¤¸¯Ò๹ ¤àì¤ [™ìÒtå¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹¹ "à¯Å¸A¡ K[t¡ìA¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [Åۡ๠ºKìt¡ Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈà- `¡à>ì¹à šøìÚà\>¡ú [A¡”ñ ¤t¢¡³à> Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈà-`¡à>¹ ëÎÒü Îã³à¤‡ý¡t¡àA¡ "[t¡yû¡³ A¡[¹* &\> "γãÚà ®¡àÈã ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ [>\¹ ³àtõ¡®¡àÈàìt¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ š¹à¹ >tå¡> š‡ý¡[t¡* Îõ[Ê A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [¤šÃ¯¹ "[t¡ \>[šøÚ >à³ íÒìá ³àÒüyû¡’áóô¡i¡ A¡š¢’ì¹Å¸>’¡ú ³àÒüyû¡’áóô¡ìi¡ ¤t¢¡³à>

"γãÚàìA¡ ‹[¹ ">¸à>¸ ¹àÊ¡öãÚ®¡àÈàγèÒt¡ ët¡*òìºàA¡¹ [¤[®¡Ä "’šàì¹[i¡} [áìÊ¡³Î³èÒ (Operating System) ">å¤àƒ A¡¹à¹ A¡à³ Òàt¡t¡ íºìá¡ú "γ¹ ¤à[Ò¹¹ [¤[®¡Ä áóô¡i¡ì¯¹ ëA¡à´šà>ãt¡ ë™à¯à šòàW¡ ¤á¹ ‹[¹ [¤[®¡Ä "γãÚà ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ ÎÒàìÚì¹ ">å¤àƒ A¡[¹ =A¡à &ì> "’šàì¹[i¡} [áìÊ¡³Î³èÒ¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ "àìá Win-

dows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Live "à[ƒ¡ú ºKìt¡

&Òü A¡=à* ">å[A¡ÚàÒü ë=à¯à ®¡àº ë™ Nokia, Samsung "à[ƒ ³’¤àÒüº ëA¡à´šà>ãìÚ* ¤t¡¢³à> "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ A¡à³ δšèo¢ A¡[¹ìá)¡ú &Òü "’šàì¹[i¡} [áìÊ¡³Î³èÒ¹ ">å¤àƒ A¡à™¢¸ Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ Î³àœ ëÒà¯à¹ š=t¡¡ú δšèo¢ [>\¹ ³àtõ¡®¡àÈàìt¡ =A¡à &Òü "’šàì¹[i¡} [áìÊ¡³Î³èÒ¹ ‡à¹à [™ìA¡àì>à &\> A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ ¤¸¯Òà¹A¡à¹ãìÚ "γãÚà ®¡àÈàìt¡ [>\¹ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à¹ Îå[¤‹à ºà®¡ A¡[¹¤¡ú A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹¹ ƒì¹ "à‹å[>A¡ γà\¹ "[t¡ šøìÚà\>ãÚ &i¡à ³à‹¸³¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠тàÚã ¤¸¯Òàì¹ Îåƒè¹ ®¡[¯È¸ìt¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠Î}A¡i¡¹ Îì– ƒÒt¡ 뮡àKàÎA¡ºA¡ [A¡áå ÎA¡àÒ [ƒ¤ šà[¹¤¡ú δß[t¡ ">å¤àƒÎ³èÒ¹ ³à\t¡ [¤[®¡Ä A¡à[¹A¡¹ã A¡à¹ot¡ "ì>A¡ ®¡àÈàKt¡ yç¡[i¡ ëƒJà [ƒìá ™[ƒ* Îåƒè¹ ®¡[¯È¸ìt¡ ÒüÚàA¡ ¤¸¯Òà¹A¡à¹ã¹ ³”z¤¸¹ "à‹à¹t¡ šå>¹ãÛ¡o¹ \[¹Úìt¡ Ç¡‡ý¡ A¡[¹¤ š¹à¹ š= ³åA¡[º íÒ "àìá¡ú ëA¡àì>à &i¡à ®¡àÈ๠[¤[®¡Ä γº šøW¡à¹ A¡¹à¹ "ài¡àÒüt¡îA¡ l¡üš™åv¡û¡ ³à‹¸³ Ò’º ¤Ã’KγèÒ¡ú ¤Ã’K íÒìá Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ \[¹Úìt¡ [>\¹ ®¡à¤, [W¡”zà "à[ƒ [º[J¤ š¹à &i¡à ³åA¡[º šõË¡à¡ú ¤Ã’K [º[J¤ š¹à 믤W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡àt¡ šgãÚ>®å¡v¡û¡ [™ìA¡àì>à ¤¸¯Òà¹A¡à¹ãìÚÒü ³åv¡û¡®¡àì¯ [>\¹ >à³t¡ ³>¹ ®¡à¤ šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈàt¡ [º[J¤ š¹à "ì>A¡ ¤Ã’K Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ ³\åt¡ "àìá ™[ƒ* "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ [º[J¤ š¹à &i¡à l¡üìÀJì™àK¸ ¤Ã’K 믤W¡àÒüi¡ íÒìá [¤× l¡i¡ Òü>¡ú ÒüÚ๠믤W¡àÒüi¡ íÒìá www.bihu.in ú &Òü 믤W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡à¹ \[¹Úìt¡ &\> ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ [>\¹ >à³t¡ &i¡à ¤Ã’K &A¡àl¡üsi¡ ëJà[º¤ šàì¹ "à¹ç¡ ëÎÒü &A¡àl¡üsi¡¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ [>\¹ ëºJà šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ¤t¢¡³à> ëA¡Òü¤à\ì>à ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ ¤Ã’K¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹ "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ [¤[®¡Ä ëºJà šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹ìá¡ú "à>Òàìt¡ blogspot.com >à³¹ 믤W¡àÒüìi¡à¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹* ƒåÒü &\> "γãÚà ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ "γãÚàìt¡ [>\¹ ¤Ã’K šøA¡àÅ A¡¹à ëƒJà íKìá¡ú &Òü ëÛ¡yt¡ šø=³ "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ ¤Ã’K "๴± A¡¹à ¤t¢¡³à> ƒ[Û¡o ëA¡à[¹Úàt¡ =A¡à [t¡[>Wå¡A¡ãÚ๠[šøÚ}Aå¡ Å³¢à¹ >à³ l¡üìÀJì™àK¸¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ W¡[º =A¡à &J> [‡®¡àÈãA¡ Òü- "àìºàW¡>ã Ò’º &>à\¹ã¡ú ÒüÚ๠믤W¡àÒüi¡ Ò’º

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 18

www.enajori.com ú "γãÚà "à¹ç¡ Òü}¹à\ã ƒåìÚài¡à ®¡àÈàìt¡ ëºJà š[k¡Úठš¹à &Òü 믤W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡àì¯ "γãÚà ®¡àÈà Îà[Òt¡¸A¡ [¤Å«¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zîº íº ë™à¯àt¡ [¤ìÅÈ "[¹Òoà "àK¤Øn¡àÒüìá¡ú Îà[Òt¡¸, Î}ÑHõ[t¡, A¡ºà, š™¢i¡> "à[ƒ [¤[®¡Ä [Åt¡à>¹ ºKìt¡ "γãÚà "à‹å[>A¡ "à¹ç¡ šå¹[o Kãt¡ì¹à Î}NøÒ &Òü Òü "àìºàW¡>ãJ>¹ ³à\t¡ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú ÒüÚ๠ºKìt¡ [ÅÇ¡ [Åt¡à> "àì¹àÒì> [ÅÇ¡¹ ë¤ï[‡ý¡A¡ ³à>[ÎA¡ [¤A¡àÅìi¡à "[¹Òoà ë™àKàÒüìá¡ú "γãÚà ®¡àÈà-Îà[Òt¡¸-Î}ÑHõ[t¡¹ šøW¡à¹¹ ¤àì¤ =A¡à "à> &i¡à l¡üìÀJì™àK¸ 믤W¡àÒüi¡ Ò’º [¯[A¡ìš[l¡Ú๠"”zK¢t¡ "γãÚà Ko [¤Å«ìA¡àÈ (Assamese open content

Wikipedia)¡ú www.as.wikipedia.org >à³¹ &Òü

믤W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡àt¡ ÎA¡ìºà ¤¸¯Òà¹A¡à¹ãìÚ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡ [ºJ๠ºKìt¡ [>\¹ ÒüZáà³ìt¡ δšàƒ>à* A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú [A¡”ñ "[t¡ š[¹t¡àš¹ A¡=à ë™ [¤Å«ìA¡àÈJ> "γãÚà ®¡àÈã ëºJA¡¹ (ëѬZáàìίA¡) "®¡à¯t¡ "àK¤à[Øn¡¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú Wikimedia India Community- ¹ ëáìŸi¡´¬¹ 2010 Î}J¸à¹ Î}¤àƒšyt¡ šøA¡àÅ ëšà¯à t¡=¸ ">åÎ[¹ "γãÚà [¯[A¡[š[l¡Úàt¡ ¤t¢¡³à> 275 i¡à šø¯Þê¡ "àìá¡ú "à>Òàìt¡ šgãAõ¡t¡ ΃θ¹ Î}J¸à 10 \>ì¹à "[‹A¡ >ÒÚ¡ú t¡àì¹ Î[yû¡Ú δšàƒA¡ Ò’º &\>¡ú "γãÚà ®¡àÈà ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à ëºàA¡¹ Î}J¸à Ò’º 13 [³[ºÚ>¡ú "à>Òàìt¡ 230 [³[ºÚ> ¤à}ºà®¡àÈã ëºàA¡¹ ¤à}ºà [¯[A¡[š[l¡Úàt¡ 2010 W¡>¹ \åºàÒü ³àÒîºìA¡ 21, 500 i¡à šø¯Þê¡ "àìá¡ú 14, 600 \> šgãAõ¡t¡ ΃θ "àìá¡ú 8 \> ¤¸¯Ñ‚àšA¡ "àìá "à¹ç¡ 45 \> Î[yû¡Ú δšàƒA¡ "àìá¡ú "à[³ ™å[v¡û¡¹ Jà[t¡¹t¡ ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈà ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à ëºàA¡¹ Î}J¸à Î¹Ò ëÒà¯à ¤àì¤Òü ¤à}ºà [¯[A¡[š[l¡Úàt¡ "[‹A¡ šø¯Þê¡ [ºJà íÒìá ¤å[º ‹[¹ º’¤ šàì¹òà¡ú [A¡”ñ &i¡à A¡=à ³> A¡[¹ìº ëƒJà ™àÚ ë™, ëA¡¯º 0.45 [³[ºÚ> [¤Ìå¡[šøÚà ³[ošå¹ã ®¡àÈà ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à [¤Ìå¡[šøÚà ³[ošå¹ã [¯[A¡[š[l¡Úàt¡ ¤t¢¡³à> "àìá 24,753 i¡à šø¯Þê¡ "à¹ç¡ ÒüÚàìi¡à Î[yû¡Ú δšàƒA¡¹ Î}J¸à íÒìá ³ày 3 \>¡ú K[t¡ìA¡ &Òü ëÛ¡yt¡ [A¡³à> Î}J¸A¡ ëºàìA¡ ®¡àÈàìi¡à ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡ì¹ ëÎÒüìi¡à ëA¡àì>à P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢ A¡=à >ÒÚ¡ú P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢ A¡=à íA¡ìá "à[³ [>\¹ ®¡àÈàìi¡àA¡ áàÒü¤à¹ \Kt¡t¡ šøW¡à¹ A¡[¹¤¹ A¡à¹ìo [A¡³à> ÎìW¡t¡> ëÎÒüìi¡àìÒ¡ú ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈ๠A¡=àìi¡à l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à¹ "=¢ íÒìá [™ ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈ๠\Kt¡t¡ šøW¡à¹ A¡[¹¤¹ A¡à¹ìo [A¡³à> ÎìW¡t¡> ëÎÒüìi¡àìÒ¡ú ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈ๠A¡=àìi¡à l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à¹ "=¢ íÒìá [™ ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈ๠K¹àÒ¹ š¹à "γãÚà ®¡àÈàA¡ l¡ü‡ý¡à¹ A¡[¹¤¹ A¡à¹ìo¡ ‘ë\à>àA¡ã’¹ Îõ[Ê¡ì¹ &i¡à ®¡à[ÈA¡ "àì–ƒàº>¹ Îõ[Ê íÒ[ẠëÎÒü \à[t¡Út¡à¤àƒã "àì¯K "à[\ "γãÚ๠šøàot¡ ëƒJà ëšà¯à >à™àÚ¡ú ÒüÚ๠[¤š¹ãìt¡ Îà´ß[t¡A¡

γÚìt¡à ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈàÒü Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹* [>\¹ ®¡à[ÈA¡ ëW¡t¡>àA¡ \ãÚàÒü ¹à[Jìá "à¹ç¡ >-> γìºì¹ áàÒü¤à¹\Kt¡t¡ "àušøA¡àÅ A¡[¹ìá¡ú Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ šøA¡àÅ ëšà¯à Òü}¹à\ã-"γãÚà šø=³ ">ºàÒü> "[®¡‹à>J> Ò’º ‘Ŧ’ (Xobdo)¡ú ÒüÚ๠믤W¡àÒüìi¡à Ò’º www.xobdo.org ú šõ[=¯ã¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zt¡ =A¡à 1500 \>ì¹à "[‹A¡ ΃θ¹ "¯ƒàì>ì¹ ‘Ŧ’Òü ¤t¢¡³à> 31,068* i¡à "γãÚà Ŧ¹ Îã³à "[t¡yû¡³ A¡[¹ìá¡ú ‘Ŧ’ ëA¡¯º "γãÚà ®¡àÈàì¹ "[®¡‹à> >ÒÚ¡ú l¡üv¡¹-šè¤¢àe¡º¹ šøàÚ 23 i¡à ®¡àÈàA¡ ÒüÚàt¡ Ñ‚à> [ƒÚà íÒìá "à¹ç¡ ³èº Òü}¹à\ã- "γãÚà Ŧ¹ γà=¢A¡ [ÒW¡àìš "à> ®¡àÈ๠ŦγèÒ "”z®å¢¡v¡û¡ A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú &Òü ó¡àº¹ š¹à ‘Ŧ’ &J> ¤×®¡à[ÈA¡ ¤o¢à>àuA¡ "[®¡‹à>¡ú ‘Ŧ’t¡ ¤t¢¡³à>îºìA¡ [l¡³àáà ®¡àÈ๠2890 i¡à, A¡à[¤¢ ®¡àÈ๠2045 i¡à, í³ît¡ ³[ošå¹ã (Meeteilon) ®¡àÈ๠1320 i¡à, i¡àÒü ®¡àÈ๠1054 i¡à, ¤ìØl¡à ®¡àÈ๠829 i¡à, [³[W¡} ®¡àÈ๠655 i¡à, ³à¹ ®¡àÈ๠633 i¡à A¡à[¤¢ ®¡àÈ๠410 i¡à A¡A¡-¤¹A¡ ®¡àÈ๠306 i¡à Ŧ "”z®å¡¢v¡û¡ A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú áàÒü¤à¹ \Kt¡t¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠ºKìt¡ l¡üv¡¹-šè¤¢àe¡º¹ šøàÚ ëA¡Òüi¡à ®¡àÈàìA¡ ¹Û¡à A¡¹à¹ ëÛ¡yt¡ &Òü "[®¡‹à>Jì> [¤ìÅÈ ®è¡[³A¡à NøÒo A¡[¹ìá¡ú šø[t¡[ƒ> ÒüÚ๠Ŧ¹ Î}J¸à ¤õ[‡ý¡ šàÚ "à[Òìá ™[ƒ* "[®¡‹à>J>A¡ &J> šèo¢àU "[®¡‹à> [ÒW¡àìš K[Øn¡ tå¡[º¤îº ÎA¡ìºà ®¡àÈàì¹ Î[yû¡Ú ΃θ¹ "à¯Å¸A¡ "àìá¡ú δß[t¡ "[®¡‹à>J> "γãÚà "à¹ç¡ Òü}¹à\ã ƒåìÚài¡à ³à‹¸³ìt¡ šøA¡àÅ A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú l¡üv¡¹-šè¤¢àe¡º¹ [¤[®¡Ä "àe¡[ºA¡ ®¡àÈàγèÒA¡ šõ[=¯ã¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zt¡ =à[A¡* Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹ [ÅA¡à¹ ºKìt¡ šøì™à\> ">åÎ[¹ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤îº ‘Ŧ’Òü Ò’¤ šàì¹ &A¡ [>®¢¡¹ì™àK¸ l¡ü;Ρú ÒüÚ๠ºKìt¡ P¡¯àÒài¡ã [¤Å«[¤ƒ¸àºÚ¹ ‡à¹à šøA¡à[Åt¡ ‘W¡–ƒøA¡à”z’ "[®¡‹à>Jì>à ¤t¢¡³à> [l¡[\ìi¡º š‡ý¡[t¡ì¹ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ l¡üšº®¡¸ íÒìá¡ú http://

dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/candrakanta/ >à³¹

믤W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡à¹ \[¹Úìt¡ "[®¡‹à>J>t¡ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡ Ŧ i¡àÒüš A¡[¹ [™ìA¡àì>à Ŧ ÎÞê¡à> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú "γãÚà ®¡àÈàA¡ áàÒü¤à¹ \Kt¡t¡ šøW¡à¹ A¡¹à¹ ëÛ¡yt¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠Î}¤àƒ-šyγèÒ¹ ">ºàÒü> Î}ÑH¹oγèìÒ* [¤ìÅÈ ®è¡[³A¡à NøÒo A¡[¹ìá¡ú ÒüÚ๠ºKìt¡ [¤Ñ¶Ú, [šøÚ ÎJã "à[ƒ "àìºàW¡>ã ëA¡ÒüJì>* [A¡áå "®¡à¯ šè¹o A¡[¹ìá¡ú Q¹ìt¡ ¤[Ò Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ÎÒàìÚì¹ ëA¡àì>à ³àW塺¹ "[¤Òì>Òü ¹à[t¡šå¯àÒü Î}¤àƒ-šyγèÒ š[Øn¡¤ šà[¹¡ú [A¡”ñ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠Î}¤àƒ-šy "à¹ç¡ "àìºàW¡>ã ëA¡ÒüJ> .jpg, .bmp "à[ƒ Îðàt¡ (ó¡ìi¡à¹ ƒì¹) šøA¡àÅ A¡¹àt¡ "à> &A¡ [ƒÅt¡ "γãÚà

19 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

®¡àÈà áàÒü¤à¹ \Kt¡t¡ šøW¡à¹ ëÒà¯àt¡ ¤õÒ; ëÒR¡à¹ íÒ ëƒJà [ƒìá¡ú áàÒü¤à¹ \Kt¡¹ &i¡à ¤õÒ; 믤W¡àÒüi¡ Google- ¹ [¤[®¡Ä "à>åÈ[UA¡ 믤W¡àÒüi¡ì¤à¹¹ [®¡t¡¹¹ &i¡à Ò’º Google

Translation ¤à Google Translator Toolkit ú 2009

W¡>¹ 9 \å> t¡à[¹ìJ "๴± ëÒà¯à &Òü W¡àÒüi¡ìi¡àì¯ &i¡à ®¡àÈ๠š¹à "à> &i¡à ®¡àÈàîº Ñ¬Ú}[yû¡Ú®¡àì¯ ">å¤àƒ, ">å¤àƒ¹ δšàƒ>à "à[ƒ A¡¹àt¡ ÎÒàÚ A¡ì¹¡ú ÒüÚ๠l¡ü;Î ®¡àÈà (Source Language)t¡ Òü}¹à\ãìA¡ ‹[¹ šøàÚ 31 i¡à ®¡àÈà "à¹ç¡ ºÛ¡¸ ®¡àÈà (Target Language) t¡ "γãÚàìA¡ ‹[¹ 348 i¡à ®¡àÈà "”z®å¢¡v¡û¡ A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú [A¡”ñ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠š™¢àœ γº¹ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡ [ºJà "®¡à¯t¡ ¤t¢¡³àì>Òü Google-¹ &Òü search engine ëi¡à¹ A¡à³ δšèo¢ íÒ l¡ü[k¡¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú &Òü ëÛ¡yt¡ šø‹à> ëÒR¡à¹ íÒ ëƒJà [ƒìá "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ šøA¡àÅ A¡¹à Î}¤àƒšy, "àìºàW¡>ãγèÒ¹

.jpg, .bmp "à[ƒ ÎðàÒü¡ú Google Search Engine ëi¡à¹

¤àì¤ ³èº γº íÒìá Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ šøA¡àÅ ëÒà¯à ëA¡àì>à &i¡à ®¡àÈ๠[¤[®¡Ä γº (Content) "à¹ç¡ t¡à¹ &ìA¡ [¤ÈÚ¹ Òü}¹à\ã γº¡ú &Òü ëÛ¡yt¡ Î}¤àƒ-šyγèìÒÒü íÒìá γº¹ [>®¢¡¹ì™àK¸ l¡ü;Ρú &Òü γºÎ³èÒ Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡t¡ [ºJ๠ºKìt¡ "[t¡ ÎÒ\ìt¡ šø[t¡[º[š A¡[¹¤ š¹à Ò’¤ ºà[K¤¡ú ®¡à¹t¡ãÚ ">¸à>¸ ®¡àÈàt¡ &ì> "ì>A¡ γº Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ [¤W¡à[¹ ëšà¯à ™àÚ¡ú ëÎìÚ ">¸ ®¡àÈàt¡ ">åÎÞê¡à> Òü[g>ìi¡à Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ δšèo¢ íÒ l¡ü[k¡ìá¡ú "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠ºKt¡ ó¡si¡ "à¹ç¡ [º[š¹ ëÛ¡yt¡ [³º =A¡à ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈàìt¡à &Òü ">åÎÞê¡à> Òü[g>ìi¡à¹ A¡à³ Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ δšÄ íÒìá¡ú ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈ๠"[t¡ \>[šøÚ Î}¤àƒ- šy "à>–ƒ¤\๠š[yA¡à¹ ºKìt¡ BBC ¤à}ºà* Òül¡ü[>A¡’l¡ [ºJ๠ºKìt¡ ">¸à>¸ ¤×ìi¡à Î}¤àƒ-šy* šø[t¡[º[š A¡[¹¤ š¹à Îðàt¡ šøA¡àÅ A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú Google Translation ¹ A¡à¹ìo Google¹ [®¡t¡¹¹ "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ ">å¤àƒ A¡[¹¤îº ¹à[J ë=à¯à [¤[®¡Ä Ŧ, ¤àA¡¸ ">å¤àƒ A¡[¹* search engine ëi¡à δšèo¢ ëÒà¯àt¡ ÎÒàÚ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ÒüÚ๠¤àì¤ www.google.com t¡ [>\¹ &i¡à &A¡àl¡üsi¡ Jå[º Google

Account Setting ¹ [®¡t¡¹¹ Google in your language

[AáA¡ A¡[¹ "γãÚà ®¡àÈà [>¤¢àW¡> A¡[¹ A¡à³ "๴± A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú γڹ ºKt¡ ëJà\t¡ ëJà\ [³ºàÒü ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈàÒü áàÒü¤à¹\Kt¡t¡ "àK¤à[Øn¡ ™à¤ šà[¹ìº "γãÚà ®¡àÈà ë>à¯à¹à¹ ëA¡àì>à A¡à¹o =à[A¡¤ ë>à¯à칡ú ÒüÚ๠¤àì¤ ºàìK ³àì=à [A¡áå t¡¸àK "à¹ç¡ "à³à¹ ®¡àÈ๠šø[t¡ šøAõ¡t¡ ΃õZáà¡ú ™à¹ "®¡à¯t¡ &i¡à Îå[¤‹à\>A¡ Îò\å[º (Tool) δšèo¢ íÒ l¡ü[k¡¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú [¤Å«àÚ>¹ ™åKt¡ ³à>åìÒ Î³Ú¹ ºKt¡ ëJà\ [³ºàÒü ™à¤

šà[¹ìºìÒ &J> γà\ δšèo¢®¡àì¯ "àK¤à[Øn¡ íKìá ¤å[º ®¡à[¤¤ šà[¹¡ú ®¡àÈà &i¡à¹ ®¡[¯È¸t¡¹ ëÛ¡yìi¡à &Òü A¡=àìi¡à [>®¡¢¹ A¡ì¹¡ú A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [¤`¡à>¹ ‰ç¡t¡ [¤A¡àÅ "à¹ç¡ Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈ๠¤×º šøìÚàK¹ ó¡ºt¡ ¤á¹ ¤á¹ ‹[¹ Òàt¡t¡ A¡º³ ‹[¹ ë>àìšà¯à "à‹å[>A¡ [Å[Û¡t¡ γà\J>A¡ [>\¹ ®¡àÈà-Î}ÑHõ[t¡¹ [ÅÛ¡à [ƒÚàìt¡à &[i¡ \[i¡º šø[yû¡Úà¡ú Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹Òü ëKàìi¡Òü [¤Å«A¡ [>\¹ Òàt¡¹ ³å[k¡t¡ ¹Jà "à‹å[>A¡ [Å[Û¡t¡ áày- áàyãÎA¡ºA¡ "γãÚà [º[šìt¡ ®¡àÈà-Îà[Òt¡¸¹ `¡à> [ƒ¤îº "à[³ ιç¡ì¹ š¹à A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹¹ ³à‹¸ì³ì¹Òü [>\¹ ®¡àÈàìt¡ ®¡à¤-[¤[>³Ú A¡[¹¤îº ëW¡Ê¡à ºà[K¤¡ú A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹t¡ "γãÚà [º[Jìº Òü}¹à\ã >à\àì> ¤å[º ®¡¤à¹ Òã>³à>¸t¡àA¡ š[¹t¡¸àK A¡[¹ ®¡àÈàìi¡à¹ [¤A¡àÅt¡ "[¹Òoà "àK¤ìØn¡à¯à l¡ü[W¡t¡¡ú "à[\ "γ¹ [ÅÛ¡à ¤¸¯Ñ‚àt¡ >tå¡> >tå¡> šø™å[v¡û¡-[¤ƒ¸à¹ "®¡à¯t¡ áày-áàyãÎA¡ìº ιç¡ì¹ š¹àÒü "à‹å[>A¡ šõ[=¯ãJ>¹ ‰ç¡t¡ [¤A¡àŹ [¤ÈìÚ `¡à> ºà®¡ A¡[¹¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú &ì> A¡à¹oìt¡ ÒàÒüÑHæº, ÒàÚ๠ëáìA¡ìr¡[¹ [ÅÛ¡à”z š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ ‘Ñ‚à> ƒJº’ A¡¹à šø[t¡®¡à¯à> ¤å[º ®¡¤à áày-áàyãÎA¡º¹ ³à\ìt¡à "γ δšìA¢¡Òü `¡à>¹ "®¡à¯ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú šø[t¡®¡à [¤A¡àŹ l¡üš™åv¡û¡ š[¹ì¯Å¹ "®¡à¯ìt¡à &W¡à³ šø[t¡®¡à¯à> áày-áàyã šø[t¡ ¤áì¹ ¤à[Ò¹îº *ºàÒü ™à¤îº ¤à‹¸ íÒìá¡ú ">¸Òàìt¡ "à[=¢A¡®¡àì¯ ƒè¤¢º áày-áàyãÎA¡ìº [>\¹ šø[t¡®¡àA¡ Îã[³t¡ š[¹ì¯Å¹ ³à\ìt¡ "ேý¡ ¹à[J¤ ºKà íÒìá "à¹ç¡ [W¡¹[ƒ>¹ ¤àì¤ ëÎÒü šø[t¡®¡à Ñz§¡ íÒ š[¹ìá¡ú &Òü [¤ÈìÚ [l¡¤øç¡KØl¡ [¤Å«[¤ƒ¸àºÚ¹ "¯Î¹šøàœ l¡üšàW¡à™¢¸ l¡ 0 Aå¡ìº–ƒå šàk¡ìA¡ (šøà[”zA¡, 16 \å>

2010) l¡üìÀJ A¡[¹ìá ë™, ‘‘šø[t¡®¡à =à[A¡¤ ºà[K¤, [A¡”ñ ët¡ì> ³à>åìÒ [A¡áå³à> "Îà‹à¹o Îåì™àK šà¤ ºà[K¤ "à¹ç¡ ëÎÒü Îåì™àK¹ ΃¤¸¯Ò๠šèo¢³àyàÒü A¡[¹¤ ºà[K¤¡ú’’ ët¡*ò

[>\¹ šø¯Þê¡ìi¡àt¡ "àì³[¹A¡à¹ 볺A¡’º³ ëNÃl¡ì¯º¹ 'Outliers' [A¡t¡àšJ>¹ ÎÒàÚt¡ A¡[´šl¡üt¡à¹ \Kt¡¹ [¤J¸àt¡ ¤¸[v¡û¡ [¤º ëKÒüi¡W¡ (³àÒüyû¡’áó¡i¡), [Ê¡®¡ \’¤á (&šº A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹), &[¹A¡ [Ѷl¡i¡ (>’쮡º "à¹ç¡ KåKåº), [¤º \Ú (áà> ³àÒüyû¡’ [áìÊ¡³) "à[ƒìÚ ÒàÒüÑHæº š™¢àÚìt¡ (1968 W¡>ìt¡) ºà®¡ A¡¹à l¡üÄt¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [ÅÛ¡à ¤¸¯Ñ‚à "à¹ç¡ šø[t¡®¡à [¤A¡àŹ Îå[¤‹à¹ [¤ÈìÚ Îå–ƒ¹®¡àì¯ l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à¹ ºKìt¡ &i¡à "[t¡ P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢ A¡=à l¡üìÀJ A¡[¹ìá ‘‘"γãÚà ιº

³à>[ÎA¡t¡àì¹ "à[³ ‹[¹ º*ò ë™ ët¡*òìºàA¡ šø[t¡®¡à¯à>; [A¡”ñ ëÎÒü A¡=à ÎòW¡à Ò’ìº* šø[t¡®¡à¹ [¤A¡àŹ ¤àì¤ "à[³ [A¡¤à A¡ì¹òàì>¡? ë³à¹ ®¡à¤ Ò’º -ÿ- [¤º \Ú, [¤º ëKÒüi¡á ¤à \> ëº>> "γt¡ \–µ NøÒo A¡[¹ ÒüÚàìt¡ =A¡à Ò’ìº ët¡*òìºàìA¡

šø[t¡®¡à [¤A¡àŹ š= ¤à l¡üšàÚ [¤W¡à[¹ >àšàìºìÒòìt¡>¡!

[ƒ>ìi¡à

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 20

[¤\åºã ë™àKà>¹ [Ñ‚¹t¡à >=A¡à ¹à\¸t¡ W¡¹A¡àì¹ [ÅÛ¡à”z š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ Åt¡A¡¹à Èà[k¡ >´¬¹ ëšà¯à ÎA¡ºA¡ &ìA¡ài¡à [š[á (PC) [ƒìÚÒü A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [¤šÃ¯ "γìt¡à A¡[¹¤ š¹à ™à¤ ¤å[º ®¡à쯡ú [ÅÛ¡à”z š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ ®¡àº [¹\àÂi¡ A¡¹àÎA¡º¹ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ >tå¡>îA¡ [Å[A¡¤îº Î³Ú A¡’t¡¡?’’

0 šàk¡A¡ l¡àR¡¹ãÚ๠¤v¡û¡¤¸[J[> l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à¹ "=¢ Ò’º š[ÆW¡³ãÚà [ÅÛ¡à ¤¸¯Ñ‚à "à¹ç¡ "à³à¹ [ÅÛ¡à ¤¸¯Ñ‚๠³à\t¡ =A¡à šà=¢A¡¸Î³èÒ [¤ì¤W¡>à A¡¹à¡ú "à³à¹ Kt¡à>åK[t¡A¡ [ÅÛ¡à ¤¸¯Ñ‚๠ó¡ºt¡ šø[t¡ ¤áì¹ Òà\๠Òà\๠тà> šøàœ áày- áàyã¹ Îõ[Ê íÒìá ™[ƒ* l¡üÄt¡ ³à>¯ δšƒ Îõ[Ê íÒìá ¤å[º ®¡à[¤¤ ë>à¯à[¹¡ú "[\* "γt¡ "à‹å[>A¡ t¡=¸-šø™å[v¡û¡¹ ÎÒàìÚì¹ [ÅÛ¡à [ƒÚ๠¤¸¯Ñ‚à ÎÒ\º®¡¸ íÒ l¡ük¡à >àÒü¡ú "à>[A¡ [¤Å«[¤ƒ¸àºÚ š™¢àÚìi¡à A¡ºà ÅàJ๠áày-áàyãÎA¡º¹ ¤àì¤ š™¢àœ š[¹³àìo ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ š¹àîA¡ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ëί๠¤¸¯Ñ‚à >àÒü¡ú P¡¯àÒài¡ã¹ ƒì¹ ³Òà>K¹ìt¡ š™¢àœ áàÒü¤à¹ìA¡ìó¡ (Cybercafe) >àÒü ¤à =A¡àγèÒìi¡à Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ëίà Îå[¤‹à\>A¡ "à¹ç¡ ÎÒ\º®¡¸ >ÒÚ¡ú "γt¡ "à[\îºìA¡ ëA¡àì>à l¡üÄt¡ áóô¡i¡ì¯¹ ëA¡à´šà>ã K[Øn¡ l¡ük¡à ëƒJà >K’º¡ú "à[\* W¡¹A¡à¹ã [¤ƒ¸àºÚγèÒt¡ ">¸à>¸ [Åۡ๠ºKìt¡ A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [ÅÛ¡à ¤à‹¸t¡à³èºA¡ ëÒà¯à >àÒü¡ú ™à¹ "®¡à¯ìt¡ áày-áàyãìÚ Î¹ç¡ì¹ š¹à A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ [¤šÃ¯¹ >-> l¡üŠ±à¯>ã Å[v¡û¡ìÚ áà[> ‹¹à >tå¡> šõ[=¯ãJ>¹ A¡=à K³ ë>àìšà¯àîA¡ìÚ ¤àÑz¯¹ &J> \[i¡º γà\t¡ ®¡[¹ [ƒ [ƒA¡[¤[ƒA¡ ëҹ硯ठºKà ÒÚ¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> "γãÚàìA¡ ‹[¹ ">¸à>¸ "àe¡[ºA¡ ®¡àÈàγèÒ¹ Î}A¡i¡¹ [¤ÈìÚ Î³ìÚ Î³ìÚ [¤[®¡Ä "àìºàW¡>à ëÒà¯à ëƒJà íKìá¡ú ®¡àÈà &i¡à Î}A¡i¡NøÑz ÒÚì> >ÒÚ ëÎÒüìi¡à [>‡ý¢¡à¹o A¡[¹¤¹ ¤àì¤ Òül¡üì>ìÑHàÒü [A¡áå³à> í¤[ÅÊ¡¸ (feature) l¡üìÀJ

A¡[¹ìá¡ú ëÎÒü í¤[ÅÊ¡¸Î³èÒ¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ &i¡à l¡üìÀJì™àK¸ [¤ÈÚ

íÒìá ‘‘šøW¡à¹ ³à‹¸³ "à¹ç¡ >¤¸ š[¹ì¯Åt¡ ®¡àÈàìi¡à¹ ">å[yû¡Úà, šø‹à>t¡@ "à‹å[>A¡t¡à¹ ºKt¡ ®¡àÈàìi¡à [A¡ š[¹³àì> Jàš JàÒü

š[¹ìá¡ú’’ (Response to new domains and media, mainly concerned with the extent to which the lan- guage scopes with modernity.)¡ú &Òüìi¡à [>@Îì–ƒÒ ë™

A¡[´šl¡üi¡à¹ "à¹ç¡ Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ ¤×º šøìÚàìKÒü íÒìá &Òü "à‹å[>A¡t¡à¹ ³èº l¡ü;Ρú áàÒü¤à¹\Kt¡¹ [¤[®¡Ä 믤W¡àÒüi¡, ¤Ã’K "à¹ç¡ ‘á[W¡ìÚº ë>i¡¯[A¡} áàÒüi¡’γèÒìA¡à "à[³ "γãÚà ®¡àÈà šøW¡à¹¹ &J> ëšÃi¡ó¡³¢ [ÒW¡àìš ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ šàì¹òà¡ú &ÒüìÛ¡yt¡ "àe¡[ºA¡ ®¡àÈàγèÒ¹ šøìÚàK ¤t¢¡³à> &ìA¡¤àì¹ ëÒà¯à >àÒü ™[ƒ* ÒüÚ๠®¡[¯È¸t¡ ">å^º ¤å[º ®¡à[¤¤ ë>à¯à[¹¡ú ÒüÚ๠¤àì¤ šøìÚà\> ³àì=à Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à ëÎÒü ®¡àÈ๠[¤[®¡Ä ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ ÒüZáà "à¹ç¡ šøìW¡Ê¡à¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡t¡ šøW¡à¹¹ ¤àì¤ [¤Å«¹ [¤[®¡Ä šøà”zt¡ A¡³¢¹t¡ &W¡à³ šø¯àÎã "γãÚàÒü ‘Òü-ë\à>àA¡ã ™åK’ >àì³ì¹ &i¡à Î}Kk¡>ì¹à Kk¡> A¡[¹ìá¡ú "à[³ "àÅà A¡ì¹òà &[ƒ> Òüsi¡à¹ì>i¡¹ \[¹Úìt¡ γNø [¤Å«Òü "γãÚà ®¡àÈà-Îà[Òt¡¸A¡ "‹¸Ú> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¤¡ú "à³à¹ "àìºàW¡>àt¡ áàÒü¤à¹\Kt¡t¡ "γãÚà ®¡àÈ๠šøÎ๹ šøìÚà\>ãÚt¡à¹ ºKìt¡ "à³à¹ [ÅÛ¡à ¤¸¯Ñ‚๠[A¡áå A¡=à* šøÎUyû¡ì³ l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú &ÒüìÛ¡yt¡ W¡¹A¡à¹ &J>¹ ΃õŸ๠ºKìt¡ "à³à¹ ƒà[Úâ«ì¤à‹ "[t¡îA¡ šøìÚà\>ãÚ¡ú [¤[®¡Ä ƒå>¢ã[t¡, l¡üNøš”‚㹠γθà "à¹ç¡ ³èº¸¤õ[‡ý¡ìÚ ëA¡àR¡à A¡¹à ¹à\¸J>t¡ &ì>ì¤à¹ P¡¹ç¡â«t¡àA¡ l¡üšº[§¡ A¡¹à¹ Î³Ú "à[Ò š[¹ìá¡ú ÎA¡ìºà A¡à³ W¡¹A¡à¹îº &[¹ [>[ƒ "à[³ [>ì\* γڹ ºKt¡ ëJà\t¡ ëJà\ [³ºàÒü "àK¤à[Øn¡ ™à¤ šà[¹ìºìÒ [>\¹ ºKìt¡ γà\J>ìA¡à "àP¡¯àÒü [>¤ šà[¹³¡ú

(*Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ 4 ³àW¢¡, 2011 t¡à[¹ìJ ŦÒü 35000 "γãÚà Ŧ¹ ºÛ¡¸ Îã³à "[t¡yû¡³ A¡[¹ìá¡ - δšàƒA¡ šø`¡à>) (ëºJA¡ P¡¯àÒài¡ã [¤Å«[¤ƒ¸àºÚ¹ "‹ã>t¡ Kì¯Èoà¹t¡ áày¡ú "gº¹ ">¸ ëºJàγèÒ š[Øn¡¤îº W¡à*A¡ ët¡*ò¹ ¤ÃK :

http://anjal.mywebduniya.com)

(Contd. from Page 15) A Few Amazing Facts
(Contd. from Page 15)
A Few Amazing Facts

better than your odds of your house getting hit by a meteor. You’re also more likely to witness a UFO or die from either a shark attack or from contact with hot tap water.

A flea can jump 30,000 times without

stopping : They can also jump 50-100 times their own body height. Also, a flea’s acceleration when

jumping is 50 times that of a space shuttle taking off.

Scientists have created a solar-powered

toothbrush that doesn’t need toothpaste : The

9.
9.
10.
10.

‘Soladey-J3X’ was designed by Dr. Kunio Komiyama, a former dentistry professor at the University of Saskatchewan. The device sends electrons through a lead wire that runs from a solar panel at its base to the brush head on top. These electrons then form a chemical reaction with acid in the mouth, which eliminates bacteria and breaks down plaque. The whole process requires about the same amount of light used by a solar-powered calculator.

(Compiled by Lohit Dutta, B.Sc II Yr. Lohit writes in his blog http://waxan.blogspot.com)

21 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
³èº : ë™àìW¡ó¡ ëóø¡S¡ ëºr¡W¡¤à\¢à¹ ">å : ¤[”z³àºà 냯ã [ºJA¡¹
³èº : ë™àìW¡ó¡ ëóø¡S¡ ëºr¡W¡¤à\¢à¹
">å : ¤[”z³àºà 냯ã
[ºJA¡¹ δšìA¢¡ : "àì³[¹A¡à¹ [³ì>W¡’i¡à šøìƒÅ¹ ëW¡–i¡ š’º (City of St. Paul, Minnestota, USA) >K¹¹ "[‹¤àÎã
ë™àìW¡ó¡ ëóø¡S¡ ëºr¡Wô¡¤à\¢àì¹ (Joseph Frank Landsberger) [¤Kt¡ 7³ ¤È¢, 1³ Î}J¸à¹ š¹à &Òü ‹à¹à¤à[ÒA¡ ëºJ[>"๴±
A¡[¹[áºú Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ [¤Kt¡ Î}J¸à ëA¡Òüi¡à¹ ">è[ƒt¡ "}ìÅì¹ ë\à’ ëºr¡W¡¤à\¢à¹¹ [>\à 믤áàÒüi¡ www.studygs.net — t¡ >tå¡>
šõË¡àγèÒ "๴± A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú "γãÚà ">å¤àƒ¹ ºKìt¡ ÎåÅà”z A¡ì¹ A¡¹à ¤à}ºà ">å¤àìƒà t¡àt¡ šøA¡à[Åt¡ íÒìáú "γãÚà "à¹ç¡ ¤à}ºà
ƒåìÚài¡à šõˡ๠ºKt¡ ‘šø`¡à>’ "à¹ç¡ ‘[t¡[>Wå¡A¡ãÚà ³Òà[¤ƒ¸àºÚ’ ¹ 믤áàÒüi¡ Î}™åv¡û¡ íÒìá¡ú &Òü A¡à³t¡ ë\à’ ëºr¡W¡¤à\¢à¹A¡ ÎÒì™à[Kt¡à
A¡[¹ìá ‘šø`¡à>’¹ A¡à™¢¤àÒã δšàƒA¡ ÎåÅà”z A¡ì¹¡ú &[t¡Ú๠š¹à Study Guides &Strategies ¹ š¹à [™ìA¡àì>à ƒÅ¢A¡ ‘šø`¡à>’îº"à¹ç¡
‘šø`¡à>’¹ š¹à Study Guides & Strategies íº "Òà ë™à¯à A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¤¡ú Òü "à³à¹ ¤àì¤ &A¡ l¡àR¡¹ Ζµà> "à¹ç¡ šøà[œ¡¤å[º
®¡àì¤à¡ú 믤áàÒüi¡¹ ¤àì¤ ³èºà>åK A¡[¹ìº* šø`¡à>¹ šØn¡æî¯ÎA¡º¹ A¡=à ³>t¡ ¹à[J "à[³ ³³¢à=¢ìÒ ">å¤àƒ A¡[¹ìáà¡ú ëÎÒü¤àì¤
ÒüÚàt¡ áày-áàyãìÚ l¡üšº[§¡ A¡[¹¤ š¹àîA¡ [A¡áå³à> A¡=à ëA¡à¯à Ò’¤, ºKìt¡ Ñ‚à>ãÚ l¡üƒàÒ¹oì¹à l¡üìÀJ šà¤¡ú
ë\à’ ëºr¡W¡¤à\¢à¹¹ [ºJàì¤à¹ ³èºt¡@ ët¡*ò¹ 믤W¡àÒüi¡¹ ¤àì¤ [ºJà "à¹ç¡ ëÎÒü ƒì¹ ÒüÚ๠®¡àÈà* š[¹A¡[¿t¡¡ú ët¡*ò¹
[ºJ[> ¤àt¢¡àºàš ³èºA¡ (Interactive)¡ú"=¢à; [ºJA¡ "à¹ç¡ šàk¡A¡¹ "}ÅNøÒo "[¤Òì> ÒüÚ๠šøAõ¡t¡ "ì=¢à‡ý¡à¹ A¡¹àìi¡à i¡à>¡ú
[¤ìÅÈîA¡ "à[³ ™’t¡ (*) [W¡ì>ì¹ [W¡[Òû¡t¡ A¡[¹³ ëÎÒü "}Åì¤à¹ ët¡*ò¹ 믤W¡àÒüt¡îº íK ët¡*ò¹ š¹à ëšà>ši¡ãÚà š¹à³Å¢ ºìº
áày-áàyãÎA¡º ë¤[á l¡üšAõ¡t¡ ëÒà¯àìi¡à Jài¡à}¡ú ëÎìÚìÒ &Òü [ºJ๠³àì\ì¹ ÎA¡ìºàìA¡ ë\à’ ë¯¤W¡àÒüi¡ W¡à¤îº l¡ü;Îà[Òt¡
A¡¹àìi¡àì¯Òü "à³à¹ ³èº ºÛ¡¸¡ú -ÿ-ÿ- δšàƒA¡)
y-áàyãÎA¡º, ë™à¯à Î}J¸àt¡ ‘"àuà>åÅàÎ>¹
l¡üv¡¹o’t¡ íƒ>[–ƒ> γÚÎèW¡ã¹ š[¹A¡¿>à, ëÎÒü
š[¹A¡¿>à ">å™àÚã A¡³¢-[>‹¢à¹o, ">åÅãº> "à¹ç¡
¹ê¡šàÚ> δšìA¢¡ [A¡áå A¡=à ëA¡à¯à íÒ[ạú "àÅà A¡[¹ìáà
ëA¡àì>à¤à ëA¡àì>à¤àÒü [>ÆW¡Ú "๴± A¡[¹áà¡ú A¡à¹ì>à
¤à¹ç¡ [>\ìA¡ Îó¡º ¹ê¡št¡ W¡à¤îº ³> >à™àÚ¡! >ÒÚ
\àì>à¡?
&Òü¤à¹ γÚ-¤¸¯Ñ‚àš>๠[¤ÈìÚ "஡àÎ &i¡à
[ƒ¤îº ëW¡Ê¡à A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú
Î³Ú ¤¸¯Ñ‚àš>à
š[¹A¡[¿t¡ "òàW¡[>ì¹ ®¡àºîA¡ "๴± A¡¹à A¡à³¹ Îà‹à¹oìt¡
γàšì>à Ç¡®¡ ÒÚ¡ú - W¡ó¡’Aô¡ºôWô¡ Jøã– 496-406
ët¡à³à¹ [ƒ>ìi¡à¹ A¡à™¢ÎèW¡ã –
tå¡[³ ëA¡ì>îA¡ Î³Ú A¡ìi¡à¯à šå>[>¢¹ãÛ¡o A¡¹à¡ú
"Nøà[‹A¡à¹¹ [®¡[v¡t¡ ët¡à³à¹ ºÛ¡¸ "à¹ç¡ l¡üì„Ÿ¹
šøà‹à>¸ [>o¢Ú A¡¹à¡ú
ƒåìÚài¡à¹ ³à\t¡ t塺>à A¡[¹ ëW¡à¯à¡ú
t¡ºt¡ [ƒÚà yû¡³ ">å™àÚã γڹ [ÒW¡àš &i¡à A¡[¹¤
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 22

šà[¹ìº ët¡à³à¹ Îå[¤‹à Ò’¤ šàì¹ :

Î³Ú ¤¸¯Ñ‚àš>à – [ÅA¡à¹ç¡ ÎA¡º¹ A¡à¹ìo Îàœ¡à[ÒA¡

1)

tå¡[³ [ƒ>ìi¡à¹ 24 Qsi¡à Î³Ú ëA¡ì>îA¡ A¡i¡à¤à

A¡[¹¤ ºKà ÎA¡ìºà A¡à³¹ ³åk¡ Î³Ú [>o¢Ú A¡¹à¡ú

š[¹A¡¿>à –

2)

[k¡A¡ A¡[¹ ëºà¯à¡ú šø[t¡ìi¡à A¡à³ "à¹ç¡ t¡à¹ ¤àì¤ šøìÚà\>ãÚ Î³Ú

γÚÎèW¡ãìÚ [™ ëA¡àì>à ë¤ì³\à[º "à¹ç¡ Îà³[ÚA¡ l¡üìv¡\>à ¤à ×\ååK¹ š¹à ¹Û¡à A¡ì¹¡ú

3)

"=¤à γڹ ®¡N¥à}Å [ºJà "à¹ç¡ [ƒ>¹ ³åk¡ γڹ š¹à ¤àƒ [ƒ ë™à¯à¡ú

1 ¹ š¹à 3 [¤ìÚàK A¡¹à¡ú "=¢à; ³åk¡ 24 Q@i¡à¹ š¹à ët¡à³à¹ A¡à³¹ ¤àì¤ šøìÚà\>ãÚ Î³Ú ¤àƒ [ƒÚà¡ú ët¡[t¡Úà ¹à[Ò ëÒà¯à γÚ[J[> [>o¢Ú A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¤à¡ú

- &[> [l¡ºl¢¡, "àì³[¹A¡à, 1945¡ú &i¡à [¤ìÅÈ Îœ¡àÒ ëA¡ì>îA¡ A¡i¡à¤à Îå[>[ÆW¡t¡ A¡[¹ Îàœ¡à[ÒA¡ A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã ít¡Ú๠A¡¹à¡ú "àKìt¡ A¡[¹ "Òà γڹ [ÒW¡àšìi¡à "àìA¡ï ³>t¡ ëšìºà¯à "à¹ç¡ šø[t¡ìi¡à A¡à³¹ ¤àì¤ A¡¹à šøÑñ[t¡¹ ¤àì¤ [™³à> Î³Ú ™àÚ ëÎÒü γÚ[J[> šø[t¡ìi¡à [ƒ>¹ ³åk¡ γڹ š¹à ¤àƒ [ƒÚà¡ú &Òü [>‹¢à[¹t¡ Îàœ¡à[ÒA¡ A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã šøÎU [>샢Ź ¤àì¤ "à¹ç¡ šå>[>¢¹ãÛ¡o¹ Îå[¤‹à¹ ¤àì¤ ">¤¹ìt¡ ëƒ[J

-ÿ- "à>–ƒ ¤à ÎåJ &i¡à ºÛ¡¸ Ò’¤ ë>à¯àì¹ú Òü &i¡à

[ƒ>ìi¡à¹ ³åk¡ Qsi¡à¹ š¹à íƒ[>A¡ A¡à™¢à¯ºã¹ >à³t¡ [A¡³à> Î³Ú Òàt¡¹ š¹à ι[A¡ ™àÚ ëW¡à¯à – ëÅà¯à¹ Î³Ú [>\¹ A¡à¹ìo ëºà¯à ™â—¹ Î³Ú / Q¹ç¡¯à A¡àì¹à¤à¹ "ຠíšW¡à> ‹ì¹àìt¡ ëºà¯à γÚ

=A¡àîA¡ [º[J ë=à¯à¡ú Î³Ú ¤¸¯Ñ‚àš>à – ºÛ¡¸ / l¡üì„Ÿ "à¹ç¡ šøà‹à>¸ ¤à "Nøà[‹A¡à¹

">审¯, [™ A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã "àK¤Øn¡àÒü [>Úàt¡ ºìK ºìK =à[A¡ l¡ü„ãš>à

Jàƒ¸ šøÑñt¡ A¡¹à, ëJà¯à, W¡àóô¡-[W¡Aå¡o A¡ì¹àìt¡ ëºà¯à ë™àKàÚ¡ú -ÿ- šº P¡l¡ì³>ú "àì³[¹A¡à, 1911-1972¡ú

t¡ºt¡ [ƒÚà ">åÅãº>t¡ tå¡[³ ®¡¤à [t¡[>i¡à ºÛ¡¸ ¤à l¡üì„Ÿ ¤à[W¡ ëºà¯à¡ú [™ ëA¡Òüi¡à tå¡[³ δšèo¢ A¡¹à¹ A¡=à

¤Þêå¡-¤àÞꡯ¹ ºKt¡ "’îº t¡’îº ë™à¯à, ¤à ®¡à[¤áà, ëÎÒü ëA¡Òüi¡àA¡ tå¡[³ [>‹¢à[¹t¡ A¡à³ ¹ê¡ìš Ko¸ A¡¹à¡ú

"à>–ƒ-óè¡[t¢¡¹ A¡à¹ìo A¡ìi¡à¯à Î³Ú "A¡ìº ³åA¡[º-³è[¹ÚàîA¡ [i¡.[®¡ ëW¡à¯à, ëJºà Òüt¡¸à[ƒ¹ ¤àì¤ Î³Ú ë™àK-¤¸àÚà³, ëJºà-‹èºà "à[ƒ¹ ¤àì¤ Î³Ú

[ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à> ¤à "à> A¡à³îº "Òà-ë™à¯à A¡ì¹àìt¡ A¡¹à [™ ëA¡Òüi¡à tå¡[³ δšèo¢ A¡[¹¤îº [¤W¡à¹à¡ú

Î³Ú š[¹Úູ šø[t¡ [ƒ¤ ºKà γÚ

ët¡à³à¹ A¡¹oãÚ A¡à³ ëA¡Òüi¡à Î\àÒü ëºà¯à¡ú &Òü ëÛ¡yt¡ δ±à¤¸ [™ ëA¡àì>à ëÒòW¡à ¤à \å³å[¹ W¡´±à[º¤îº šøÑñt¡ =àA¡à¡ú ëÒòW¡à A¡³à¤îº tå¡[³ [A¡ ëA¡ïź º’¤à [W¡>àv¡û¡ A¡[¹ ëºà¯à "à¹ç¡ [t¡[>i¡à ƒ¹A¡à¹ã A¡à³¹ t¡à[ºA¡à

ëºà¯à γÚ

l¡üƒàÒ¹o [ÒW¡àìš [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>t¡ ët¡à³à¹ ‹¹à-¤Þê¡à γڹ

1¡ú

[¤[®¡Ä A¡à³t¡ Qì¹-¤à[Òì¹ A¡ìi¡à¯à γÚ

2¡ú

ëÅøoãt¡ l¡üš[Ñ‚t¡ =A¡à Î³Ú "‹¸Ú>¹ Î³Ú ">¸à>¸ [A¡¤à A¡à¹ot¡ J¹W¡ ëÒà¯à Î³Ú ëA¡ì>îA¡ A¡[¹¤à¡?

[®¡t¡¹ìt¡ &i¡à [¤ìÅÈ Îœ¡àÒ¹ ¤àì¤ Î´šèo¢ γÚ-ÎèW¡ã &J>

3¡ú

&Òü [t¡[>i¡à A¡à³t¡ ëA¡à>ìi¡à A¡à³¹ ¤àì¤ ët¡à³à¹ *š¹t¡ ë\๠š[¹¤ šàì¹ ¤à ëÒòW¡à š[¹¤ ¤å[º ">审¤ íÒìá ëÎÒüìi¡à [W¡>àv¡û¡ A¡[¹ t¡à[ºA¡à®å¡v¡û¡ A¡¹à¡ú ³>t¡ ¹à[J¤à, šø[t¡ìi¡à A¡à³ δšèo¢ A¡[¹¤îº [t¡[>i¡à Jàš =à[A¡¤ &ì>ƒì¹

ít¡Ú๠A¡[¹ ëºà¯à¡ú

1A¡

1J

1K

[¤ÈÚ¹ šøà‹à>¸ ">å™àÚã t¡à[ºA¡à®å¡v¡û¡ A¡¹à

2A¡

2J

2K

ët¡à³à¹ [¤ƒ¸àºÚ / ³Òà[¤ƒ¸àºÚ¹ [™ [ƒ>-¤à¹¹

3A¡

3A¡

3K

t¡à[ºA¡à (calender) "àìá t¡à¹ [®¡t¡¹ìt¡ Îã³à¤‡ý¡ A¡[¹ [>‹¢à¹o A¡¹à

&[t¡Úà ®¡àºîA¡ ®¡à[¤-[W¡[”z šøà‹à>¸¹ [®¡[v¡t¡ &A¡à[ƒyû¡ì³ A¡à³ ëA¡Òüi¡à Î\àÒü íº A¡[¹¤ ºKà A¡à³ [ÒW¡àìš [º[J ¤à ášà

¤¸[t¡yû¡³ã ¤¸¯Ñ‚àì¹* A¡[¹¤ š¹à ™àÚ ë>[A¡ ëW¡à¯à A¡[¹ Ò’ìº* ">¤¹ìt¡ ëƒ[J =A¡àîA¡ W¡A塹 "àKt¡ ¹àJà ™àìt¡

23 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

ëÎÒü³ìt¡ ">åιo A¡[¹ "àK¤à[Øn¡ ™à¤ šà¹à¡ú [¤A¡¿ ">åÅãº> – ët¡à³à¹ šá–ƒ ³ìt¡ [>‹¢à[¹t¡ A¡à³¹ δšèo¢ šø[t¡[º[š¹ ášà¹ê¡š l¡ü[ºÚàÒü ëºà¯à¡ú ët¡à³à¹ ¤àì¤ ƒ¹A¡à¹ã [t¡[>i¡à ºÛ¡¸ ¤à l¡üì„Ÿ t¡à[ºA¡à A¡[¹ ëÎÒü ëA¡Òüi¡à δšÄ A¡[¹¤îº ƒãQºãÚà Î³Ú º’¤ ë> ³‹¸³ãÚà Î³Ú º’¤ ë> ëÎà>A¡àìºÒü A¡[¹¤ š¹à ™à¤ ëÎÒü ³ìt¡ l¡üìÀJ A¡[¹¤à¡ú &[t¡Úà ëW¡à¯àìW¡à> Îœ¡àÒìi¡àt¡ šø[t¡ìi¡à ºÛ¡¸ šè¹o¹ ¤àì¤ tå¡[³ [A¡³à> Î³Ú ¹à[Jáà¡? tå¡[³ ¹Jà γڹ [¤®¡à\>ì¤àì¹ ºÛ¡¸¹ "Nøà[‹A¡à¹ ¤à šøà‹à>¸ šø[t¡ó¡[ºt¡ A¡[¹ìáì>¡?

šøà‹à>¸ ">å™àÚã A¡[¹¤îº ëºà¯à A¡à³¹ ¤àì¤ ¹Jà [>[ƒ¢Ê Î³Ú Îº[> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¤àì>¡? ÎÒì\ Î³Ú Îº[> A¡¹à¹ Îå[¤‹à ëA¡à>[J[>t¡ "àìá -ÿ- Îœ¡àÒìi¡à¹ ëÅȹ ó¡àìº ë> ëƒ*¤à¹¹ ¤à[Òì¹ "à> ëA¡àì>à [ƒ>t¡¡? š[¹¯t¢¡> A¡[¹¤ Jå[\ìº ëA¡à>ìi¡à γÚt¡ šà[¹¤à, ë> ƒåìÚài¡à γÚìt¡ šà[¹¤à¡? ºÛ¡¸š[¹¯t¢¡>A¡[¹¤šà[¹¤àì>¡?[¤A¡¿ì¤à¹[A¡[A¡¡? [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>¹ [¤¹[t¡ ¤à ¤Þê¡ ëÒà¯à¹ γÚîºìA¡ [A¡¤à ºÛ¡¸ [šáå¯à¤ šà[¹¤à ë>[A¡¡? [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>¹ "஡¸”z¹ão š¹ãÛ¡à ¤à Î}[ÅÃÊ íÅ[Û¡A¡ A¡³¢Òü ët¡à³à¹ Î³Ú [¤®¡à\>t¡ ëA¡ì>A塯à "Îå[¤‹à¹ Îõ[Ê A¡[¹ìá¡? ëÅøoã-ëA¡àk¡à¹ [ÅÛ¡à NøÒo¹ ƒàÚ-ƒà[Úâ« "à¹ç¡ A¡t¢¡¤¸t¡ [¤[Q[> >Qìi¡à¯àîA¡ tå¡[³ [A¡ ƒì¹ š[¹¯t¢¡> Îà‹> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¤à¡? Î³Ú ¤¸¯Ñ‚àš>à – [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>¹ [ƒ> ¤à¹¹ t¡à[ºA¡à ">å™àÚã A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã [>‹¢à¹o [™ ëA¡àì>à A¡=à ™=à=¢®¡àì¤ ó¡ºšøÎè Ò’¤ ët¡[t¡ÚàìÒ, ë™[t¡Úà Î³Ú ">åyû¡³ Î[k¡A¡ Ò’¤¡ú - ³àA¢¡ ëi¡àì¯Òü>, "àì³[¹A¡à, 1835-1910 ¡ú (&ÒüJ> &J> ¤Òº š[¹Î¹¹ á[¤, ÒüÚàA¡ ë¤[á [¤Ñzõt¡ A¡[¹¤ >àºàìK)

[>¹ê¡[št¡ [ƒ>-¤à¹¹ t¡à[ºA¡àJ> ºKt¡ ¹àJà¡ú

[>\तãÚàîA¡ &J> ëA¡ìºr¡à¹ šøÑñt¡ A¡¹à¡ú ë™ì> -ÿ- šøÅ— A¡àA¡t¡ ">å™àÚã "‹¸Ú>, ¤Þê¡, [¤¹[t¡,

šøìÅ—àv¡¹ [ºJ>, šøàÎ[UA¡ "‹¸Ú>, šøA¡¿ šøÑñt¡A¡¹o, [ÅÛ¡à¤È¢¹ "஡¸”z[¹o š¹ãÛ¡à, ¤àá[> š¹ãÛ¡à, [ÅÛ¡à”z š¹ãÛ¡à Òüt¡¸à[ƒ¡ú šà[¹¤à[¹A¡ "à¹ç¡ Îà³à[\A¡ \ã¯>¹ ¤àì¤ ƒ¹A¡à¹ ëÒà¯à t¡à[¹Jì¤àì¹à "”z®å¡¢v¡û¡ A¡¹à¡ú šø[t¡ìi¡à Îœ¡àÒ¹ ¤àì¤ íƒ[>A¡ A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã &J> ít¡Ú๠A¡¹à, [™J>t¡ ¹ç¡[i¡> J>¹ ºKìt¡ ƒ¹A¡à¹ã t¡à[¹Jì¤àì¹à =à[A¡¤¡ú tå¡[³ šØn¡à-Ç¡>à A¡¹à [>[ƒ¢Ê k¡àÒüt¡ &ÒüJ> ÎÒì\ W¡Aå¡t¡ š¹àîA¡ ºKàÒü ëºà¯à, ™àìt¡ ët¡à³à¹ šø[t¡ìi¡à A¡¹oãÚ A¡à³, ëÎÒü A¡à³¹ šå>[>¢¹ãÛ¡o "à¹ç¡ "NøK[t¡¹ [¤ÈìÚ J[t¡Úà> ëºà¯àt¡ ÎÒàÚA¡ ÒÚ¡ú

šø[t¡ Î[Þê¡Úà &i¡à Î³Ú [k¡A¡ A¡[¹ ëºà¯à, [™ìi¡à γÚt¡ tå¡[³ [šá[ƒ>๠¤àì¤ =A¡à A¡à³ì¤à¹ "àKt¡ãÚàîA¡ Kt¡ ºKàÒü =¤ šà[¹¤à¡ú ‹[¹ ëºà¯à, ¹ç¡[i¡>¹ A¡à³¹ l¡üš[¹* A¡àì¹à¤àA¡ ºK A¡¹à, [A¡¤à šøìÚà\>t¡ A¡’¹¤àîº ™à¤ ºKà "à[ƒ¹ ¤àì¤ Î³Ú [W¡”zà A¡[¹ =¤ šà¹à¡ú šø[t¡ [ƒ>¹ A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã šå¯à &¤à¹ [>¹ãÛ¡o A¡¹àìi¡à ¤àf¡>ãÚ¡ú ët¡[t¡Úà A¡à³ì¤à¹t¡ ë¤ì³\à[º >àºàìK¡ú

A¡[¹¤ ºKà A¡à³¹ t¡à[ºA¡à šøÑñt¡ A¡¹o –

[™ ëA¡àì>à A¡à³ 󡺚øÎè Ò’¤îº ΃àÚ šøoàºã¤‡ý¡t¡à ³à[> W¡[º¤ ºàìK, A¡à¹o ³à>åÒ¹ ¤àì¤ "‹³ Åyç¡ Ò’º ÅõTºàÒã>t¡à¡ú

-ÿ- ëÒ[áÚl¡, &\> NøãA¡ A¡[¤, 8 ³ Å[t¡A¡à, (Jøã:šè:)¡ú A¡[¹¤ ºKà A¡à³¹ t¡à[ºA¡à - [A¡, [A¡Ú "à¹ç¡ ëA¡ì>îA¡ – [A¡ – t¡à[ºA¡à šøÑñt¡ – [¤[®¡Ä A¡à³¹ [®¡t¡¹¹ P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢ ¤å[º ®¡¤à [t¡[>i¡à¹ š¹à šòàW¡i¡à A¡à³ [>¤¢àW¡> A¡[¹ ÎÒì\ W¡à¤ š¹àîA¡ [º[J ¹àJà ™àìt¡ ëA¡à>ìi¡à A¡à³¹ [šát¡ ëA¡à>ìi¡à A¡à³ ëA¡[t¡Úà A¡[¹¤ ºà[K¤ ®¡¤à-[W¡”zà A¡[¹ Î³Ú >Ê >A¡¹àîA¡ "àK¤à[Øn¡¤ š¹à ™àÚ¡ú Ñ‚à>W塸t¡ Ò’¤ ë>௹àîA¡ ºKàÒü ¹àJà – ºJà[J[> &J> ¤åìº[i¡> ¤l¢¡t¡ ºKàÒü &ì> &k¡àÒüt¡ ë=à¯à ™àìt¡ "àìÒàìt¡- ™à*òìt¡ W¡Aå¡t¡ šì¹ "à¹ç¡ ët¡à³àA¡ šøà‹à>¸ ">åÎ[¹ ‹à™¢ A¡¹à γڹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ A¡à³ì¤à¹ δšÄ A¡[¹¤îº l¡üƒK[> [ƒ =àìA¡¡ú Î}K[k¡t¡ A¡¹à – A¡³¢ÎèW¡ã šøÑñt¡ "à¹ç¡ [>‹¢à¹o¹ ¤àì¤

[ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>¹ ¤àì¤ [>‹¢à[¹t¡ A¡à³ ¤à Èà–µ[ÎA¡¹ ¤àì¤ &Òüìi¡à &i¡à Îà}Kk¡[>A¡ ëA¡ïź, [™ìi¡àA¡ í¤ƒå¸[t¡> ëA¡ìºr¡à¹

ít¡Ú๠A¡ì¹àìt¡, Òü-ë³Òüº, &W¡.&³.&W¡, t¡à;Û¡[oA¡

ët¡à³à¹ ëÅøoãì¤à¹¹ A¡à¹ìo ƒ¹A¡à¹ã t¡à[¹Jì¤àì¹ì¹ ¤àt¢¡à¤Ò>, ëA¡ïźKt¡ ¤¸¯Ñ‚à "à¹ç¡ "à> ë™àKàì™àK¹

ëÛ¡yìt¡à ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú &ÒüJ> A¡[¹¤ >ºKà A¡à³¹ t¡à[ºA¡à Ò’¤ šàì¹ ™[ƒìÒ

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 24

A¡à³¹ ¤àì¤ Î³Ú ÎèW¡ã [>‹¢à¹o A¡¹à >à=àìA¡, "=W¡ [¤ÈÚìi¡à šàÒ[¹¤îº [>[¤W¡¹à¹ ¤àì¤ tå¡[³ ³åA¡[º* Ò’¤ š¹à >àÒü¡ú &ì> ¤¸¯Ñ‚àÒü ët¡à³àA¡ A¡àº>åyû¡³¹ "[®¡`¡t¡à [ƒÚ๠ºKìt¡ δš[A¢¡t¡ "à> l¡üš¹ç¡¯à A¡à³ "à[ƒ¹ [¤ÈìÚ* l¡üšº[§¡ A¡¹à¤ [™ ët¡à³à¹ A¡à³ δšÄ ëÒà¯àt¡ ÎÒàÚA¡ Ò’¤¡ú [A¡”ñ l¡üš-A¡à³ì¤à¹ &ÒüJ> t¡à[ºA¡à¹ [®¡t¡¹ç¡¯à >ÒÚ¡ú – [A¡Ú – ³à>[ÎA¡ ëÒòW¡à A¡ì³à¯à¡[¤ÈÚ¹ šøà‹à>¸ ">å™àÚã A¡[¹¤ ºKà A¡à³ì¤à¹A¡ ët¡à³à¹ \ã¯>¹ ºK¹ãÚà ¤å[º ®¡à[¤ "àìšà> A¡[¹ º’¤ šà[¹ìº ³à>[ÎA¡ ëÒòW¡à¹ š¹à ³åA¡[º Ò’¤ šà[¹¤à¡ú [>ì\ [>\¹ ³>t¡ ¹àJà – l¡üš™åv¡û¡ Ñ‚à>t¡ ëƒ[J =A¡àîA¡ [º[J ¹Jà &ì>A塯à A¡³¢ÎèW¡ãìÚ ët¡à³àA¡ ët¡à³à¹ šøìÚà\>ãÚ A¡à³ A¡[¹¤îº Ît¡ìt¡ ³>t¡ 뚺àÒü =à[A¡¤¡ú š‡ý¡[t¡Kt¡ ëA¡ïÅìºì¹ δšàƒ> – A¡à™¢ÎèW¡ãJ> ëƒJ๠ºìK ºìK ët¡à³à¹ ³>îº A¡à³ìi¡à A¡[¹¤ ºK๠®¡à¤ìi¡à "à[Ò¤¡ú ët¡[t¡Úà ëA¡ì>îA¡, [A¡Ò¹ ÎÒàÚt¡ "à¹ç¡ [A¡ l¡üšàìÚì¹ A¡à³ìi¡à δšÄ A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¤à ëÎÒü "òàW¡[>ìi¡à* ³>îº "à[Ò¤¡ú

NøÒo A¡[¹¤ šà¹à – ³à>[ÎA¡ ëÒòW¡à ¤å[º ®¡à[¤¤îº &[¹ìºÒü ³>îº "Òà ³åA¡[º ®¡àì¤ ³>ìi¡àA¡ šàt¡º A¡[¹ l¡ü;Îà[Òt¡ A¡[¹¤ "à¹ç¡ A¡à³ìi¡à δšÄ A¡¹à¹ "à>–ƒƒàÚA¡ ">å®è¡[t¡ &i¡àÒü [yû¡Úà A¡[¹ γà[œ¡¹ [šì> ët¡à³àA¡ "àK¤Øn¡àÒü íº ™à¤¡ú A¡à³ìi¡à¹ ºKt¡ δ¬Þê¡ =A¡à [A¡¤à ¹ê¡š ¤à "àAõ¡[t¡, šø[t¡Aõ¡[t¡ >àÒü¤à á[¤¹ Î}ì™à\ì>* ët¡à³àA¡ A¡à³ìi¡à l¡üšì®¡àK A¡[¹¤îº [ÅìA¡à¯à¹ ºKìt¡ Î[k¡A¡ l¡üšÑ‚àš>ìt¡à ÎÒàÚ A¡[¹¤¡ú @ ëA¡ì>îA¡ @ *š¹t¡ [ƒÚà Îà‹à¹o ">åÅãº>ìi¡à A¡à³¹ [W¡>àv¡û¡ A¡¹o¹ A¡à¹ìo ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à¡ú

A¡à³¹ šøà‹à>¸ ">åÎ[¹ A¡à™¢ š”‚à¹* ">åyû¡³ [k¡A¡ A¡[¹ ™’t¡ í=[áºà ëÎÒüJ> W¡àÒü šå>–šå>– Î}ìÅà‹>, Î}ì™à\> A¡[¹ ë™à¯à¡ú [¤ÈÚì¤à¹ í¤ƒå¸[t¡> ëA¡ìºr¡à¹t¡, Òü ë³Òüºt¡, &W¡. &³.&W¡.t¡, t¡à;Û¡[oA¡ ¤àt¢¡à¤Ò> ¹ê¡št¡, ëA¡ïźKt¡ ¤¸¯Ñ‚à ¹ê¡št¡ "à¹ç¡ ">¸à>¸ ë™àKàì™àK ¤¸¯Ñ‚à ¹ê¡št¡ Îå³å¯àÒü ¹àJà¡ú ët¡à³à¹ A¡à™¢ÎèW¡ã¹ š[¹A¡¿>๠[¤ÈìÚ ®¡à¤ [¤[>³Ú A¡¹à¡ú ët¡à³à¹ ¤Þêå¡ ¤K¢A¡, š[¹Úຠ¤à ÎÒšàk¡ãA¡ ët¡à³à¹ A¡à™¢š”‚à δšìA¢¡ "¯Kt¡ A¡¹àÒü ¹àJà; ™àìt¡ tå¡[³ A¡’t¡ "àáà, [A¡ A¡[¹ "àáà, \à[> =à[A¡¤ šàì¹, ÎÒì™àK A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ëA¡àì>à A¡à³ ¤à [¤ÈÚ Î³àš> Ò’ìº ëÎÒüìi¡à [º[J ¹Jà t¡à[ºA¡àt¡ A¡à[i¡ [ƒÚà "à¹ç¡ γà[œ¹ "à>–ƒ l¡üšì®¡àK A¡¹à¡ú ët¡à³à¹ íƒ>[–ƒ> \ã¯>¹ A¡à™¢ yû¡³[oA¡àìt¡à &ì>îA¡ A¡[¹¤ ºKà A¡à³¹ t¡à[ºA¡à A¡[¹ ëºà¯à¡ú Î\ "®¡¸àÎ, Î\ [¤W¡à¹ ¤å[‡ý¡ &ì>îA¡ &Jàš &JàšîA¡ K[Øn¡ tå¡[º¤îº ³>ìi¡àA¡ šøÑñt¡ A¡[¹¤ šà[¹ áàyà¯Ñ‚àìt¡¡ú

&ì> ¤¸¯Ñ‚àA¡ tå¡[³ "à>@ƒƒàÚA¡ 닳à[º [ÒW¡àìš* \ã¯>¹ "³èº¸ Î³Ú "™=à ™à¤îº [>[ƒ šø[t¡ìi¡à A¡à³

ÅõTºà¤‡ý¡ A¡³¢ š‡ý¡[t¡ì¹ š[¹A¡[¿t¡ γÚÎèW¡ã ">å™àÚã δšàƒ> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹ìº \ã¯>¹ ºÛ¡¸ "à¹ç¡ l¡üì„Ÿt¡ Aõ¡t¡A¡à™¢t¡à¹ \Jºàì¹ "àì¹àÒo A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú \ã¯>¹ A¡³¢ìÛ¡yt¡ Aõ¡[t¡â« ºà®¡ A¡[¹ ™ÅѬã ëÒà¯à ³Òà> šå¹ç¡È¹ \ã¯>ãìÚ "à³àA¡ t¡àìA¡Òü [ÅA¡àÚ¡ú

@ Î}ìà\> @ ‘‘γڹ "àW¡º ³èº¸ ¤å[\¤îº ëW¡Ê¡à A¡¹à¡ú γڹ šø[t¡ìi¡à ³åÒèt¢¡ =[šÚàÒü ëºà¯à, Jà³å[W¡ ‹¹à, l¡üšì®¡àK A¡¹à¡ú "àºÎ¸, "¯Îàƒ, ƒãQ¢ Îè[yt¡à -ÿ- &Òüì¤à¹ &ìA¡¤àì¹Òü >W¡[º¤¡ú [™ìi¡à A¡à³ "à[\ A¡[¹¤ šà¹à, ëÎÒü A¡à³ A¡àÒüîº A¡[¹³ ¤å[º 뚺àÒü >=’¤à¡ú’’ -ÿ- ºl¢¡ ëW¡Ê¡à¹[ó¡Á¡

(">å¤à[ƒA¡à "γãÚà [¤®¡àK¹ [ÅÛ¡[Úyã)

(Contd. from Page 26) : On the Art of Writing
(Contd. from Page 26) : On the Art of Writing

in Nagaland jail was quite humane as compared to what I have heard in other state jails. With my short stint with writing and in jail I had to leave Nagaland, which turned out to be a blessing in disguise. I shifted to Shillong and started Cafeteria Nazareth Hospital, which later on became famous for hotdogs.

Now I have started writing again at the age of 78 and aim to become a graphomaniac. If I do succeed the credit would go to my dear friends who encourage me to do so. My daughter Arshi too has been asking me to redeem myself by becoming a writer. I don’t know where my graphomania will land me this time!

(The writer is in his sunset years, Is a bohemian and footloose. He is a Spoken English Trainer and Counsellor)

25 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Maj(Retd) H.P Singh B asically educated human beings can be divided into two categories –
Maj(Retd) H.P Singh
B asically educated human beings can be
divided into two categories –
graphophobics and graphomaniacs. 98%
are graphophobics, who detest writing. I belong
to the majority; unless driven by strong
emotions. For me putting pen to paper is the
biggest nightmare. During the last 33 years of
my retirement, I have read a lot but the sum
total of my efforts on paper might not even fill
a medium-sized school notebook. The lucky
graphomaniacs take to writing like fish take to
water.
To be able to write you must have a large
vocabulary, keep a diary & you should be a
voracious reader and finally you can only
become a writer by writing regularly. Writing
is a craft which can be learnt by anyone with
practice; there are however exceptions. Osho
never wrote a single word. He used to speak to
his audiences – these speeches were tape
recorded and later resulted in 650 printed books.
But every one is not Osho. For us mortals back
to the basics.
As I have already said I write only when I
am driven by intense emotional experience. In
1977 there were xenophobic riots against non-
tribals at Dimapur in Nagaland. For three days
& three nights, marauding bands of locals held
the city to ransom with arson and looting. 800
houses in all were gutted. Being a retired army
man wears uniform he becomes above caste, creed
or religion, but here the Nagaland police were
actively involved.
Armed with a cheap “click” camera bought
from the army canteen for rupees 30 only, I clicked
the marauders, including the police personnel who
were egging the crowds on, instead of doing their
duty, laced with these photographs I approached
The Indian Express office in Delhi and handed
over to the office photos for publication. They told
me “Major sahib please do write the details” and
gave me a sheaf of blank sheets.
I went to “gankura” then a very popular fast-
food joint at the Cannaught Place and horribly
scribbled a few paragraphs while I was having my
lunch. Handed over the photos with my write up to
the Indian Express office and forgot all about it.
10 May 1977 will remain etched on my
memory. That day The Indian Express had splashed
the short article and the photo on the front page.
The administration went into a tizzy. They
confiscated all the newspaper copies from the
railway station and the stalls and then came barging
into my hotel. The Superintendent of police
Dimapur with a camera was in the lead taking snaps
from various angles till he found the view identical
to the newspaper photo. Then the search to nab me
began. I went underground till my friends got me
an anticipatory bail. But the freedom was short-
lived, the bail was cancelled and I had to cool my
heels in the jail for a week. It was a devastating
experience but I must say in passing that treatment
officer it was galling for me to accept what we
humans were doing to each other. To me once a (Contd. on Page 25)
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 26

>ã[º³ ë\¸à[t¡ ëÎ>àš[t¡
>ã[º³ ë\¸à[t¡ ëÎ>àš[t¡

´ß[t¡A¡ γÚìW¡à¯àt¡ áày-áàyã t¡=à "[®¡®¡à¯A¡ ÎA¡º¹ ³à\t¡ ëA¡[¹Ú๠Î\àKt¡à "t¡¸”z ‰ç¡t¡ K[t¡t¡ ¤õ[‡ý¡ ëÒà¯à ëƒJà íKìá¡ú ¤t¢¡³à>¹ "[‹A¡à}Å "[®¡®¡à¯ìA¡Òü [¤áàì¹ ët¡*òìºàA¡¹ Δzà>¹ &A¡ ®¡àº ëA¡[¹Ú๡ú áày-áàyã ÎA¡ìº* ¤å\à->å¤å\๠¤ÚÎìt¡ "๴± A¡ì¹ ëA¡[¹Ú๠KØn¡à¹ ëƒï¹¡ú &Òü ëƒï¹t¡ ëA¡àì>à "àK¤àìØn¡, ëA¡àì>à šàá šì¹¡ú ëA¡[¹Ú๠KØn¡à¹ ëƒï¹t¡ [™ ÎA¡º Îó¡º Ò’¤ ë>à¯àì¹ ët¡*òìºàA¡ íÒ šì¹ Òt¡àÅ๠[W¡A¡à¹ [™ ¤× γÚt¡ ¤× \>¹ \ã¯> ‹ÿ¤}ι A¡à¹A¡ íÒ šì¹¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> γÚt¡ ™å¯ šø\–µ¹ ³à\t¡ Òt¡àÅàÒü &A¡ ®¡Úà¤Ò ¹ê¡š ‹à¹oà A¡[¹ &A¡ Îà³à[\A¡ γθ๠Îõ[Ê A¡[¹ìá¡ú ëA¡[¹Ú๹ Ѭš— ëJ[ƒ [¤ó¡º íÒ ¤× šø[t¡®¡à¤à> ™å¯A¡ ™å¯t¡ã "à>[A¡ [A¡ìÅ๠[A¡ìÅà¹ãìÚ* ¤× "Îà³à[\A¡ A¡à™¢t¡ [ºœ ëÒà¯à "à>[A¡ "àuÒ>>¹ ƒì¹ Wè¡Øl¡à”z š”‚à* NøÒo A¡¹à ëƒJà íKìá¡ú "à>[A¡ "àÒü "àÒü [i¡ (IIT) ¹ ƒì¹ l¡ü;Aõ¡Ê ³à>¹ [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>¹ "[t¡ šø[t¡®¡à¤à> "à¹ç¡ δ±à¤>à³Ú áày-áàyãìÚ* Òt¡àÅ๠[W¡A¡à¹ íÒ "àuÒt¡¸à¹ A¡¹à¹ ¤× Qi¡>à Q[i¡ìá "à¹ç¡ ÒüÚ๠Ò๠[¤Kt¡ γÚìáà¯àt¡ ¤õ[‡ý¡ ëÒà¯à* γãÛ¡àt¡ šøA¡àÅ šàÒüìá¡ú áày-áàyã t¡=à ™å¯ áà³¹ ³à\t¡ ëƒJà ëšà¯à Òt¡àÅà [A¡”ñ ëA¡àì>à ¤¸[v¡û¡Kt¡ ¤à [¤[ZáÄ š[¹Qi¡>à >ÒÚ¡ú Òü Îà´ß[t¡A¡ γà\¹ ¤¸¯Ñ‚à¹ìÒ šø[t¡ó¡º>¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> γÚt¡ áày-áàyã ÎA¡º¹ ³à\t¡ ëA¡[¹Ú๠Τ¢Ñ¬ [™ ³à>[ÎA¡t¡à K[Øn¡ l¡ü[k¡ìá [Î ¤× γÚt¡ ë>[t¡¤àW¡A¡ šø®¡à¯ 뚺àÒüìá¡ú ëA¡[¹Ú๠ÎìW¡t¡>t¡à ®¡àº A¡=à, [A¡”ñ ëƒJàA¡ ëƒ[J [>\Ѭ šW¡–ƒ, ¹ç¡[W¡, ë™àK¸t¡à "à[ƒ [¤W¡à¹ >A¡¹àîA¡ &ìA¡ài¡à ëA¡[¹Ú๠[>¤¢àW¡> A¡[¹ t¡à¹ šàát¡ ëƒï¹à¹ ó¡º ¤× γÚt¡ [Òìt¡ [¤š¹ãt¡ ëÒà¯àìÒ ëƒJà ëšà¯à ™àÚ¡ú ¤t¢¡³à>¹ γà\t¡ ëƒJà

27 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

íKìá ëA¡Òüi¡à³à> ëÛ¡y, [¤ìÅÈîA¡ Òü[g[>Úà[¹R¡, ë³ì>\ì³si¡ "à[ƒt¡ áày-áàyã¹ "t¡¸à[‹A¡ ëk¡ºà- ëÒòW¡à¡ú ÒüÚ๠ó¡ºt¡ šø[t¡ì™àKãt¡à¹ Ñz¹ íÒ š[¹ìá "[t¡ l¡üZW¡¡ú &Òü l¡üZW¡ šø[t¡ì™àKãt¡à¹ W¡àš Î[Ò¤ ë>à¯à[¹ ¤× áày-áàyã ‘Åà¹ã¹’ ¤à[Ò¹ íÒ š[¹¤ ºKàt¡ š[¹ìá¡ú [A¡”ñ šø[t¡ì™àKãt¡àt¡ [t¡[Ë¡¤ ë>à¯à¹à áày-áàyã ÎA¡º íÒ š[¹ìá Òt¡àÅ๠[W¡A¡à¹ ™à¹ ó¡ºt¡ ët¡*òìºàA¡¹ ë¤[á ®¡àìKÒü [>\ìA¡ "ì™àK¸ ¤à "šƒà=¢ ¤å[º ®¡à[¤¤îº íºìá¡ú [A¡”ñ ëA¡àì>à &i¡à šøì¤Å š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ [¤ó¡º Ò’ìº "=¤à ³ì> ®¡¤à (¤à "àì> [k¡A¡ A¡[¹ [ƒÚà) W¡¡àA¡[¹ &i¡à >àšàìºÒü \ã¯> ëÅÈ íÒ >à™àÚ¡ú šõ[=¯ãt¡ [>\A¡ šø[t¡Ë¡à A¡[¹¤îº, [>\¹ ë™àK¸t¡à šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹¤îº ¤× k¡àÒü "àìá, ¤× š= "àìá¡ú ëA¡[¹Ú๠³àì> γàì\ [>[ƒ¢Ê A¡[¹ [ƒÚà ëA¡Òüi¡à³à> ‘ëºà®¡>ãÚ’ W¡àA¡[¹ >ÒÚ¡ú ™à¹ ë™àK¸t¡à "àìá, šø[t¡®¡à "àìá "à¹ç¡ "àìá š[¹Åø³ A¡¹à¹ [>Ë¡à ët¡*ò [>\¹ ¤àì¤ [>ì\Òü &ìA¡ài¡à ëA¡[¹Ú๠[>³¢ào A¡[¹ º’¤ šà칡ú "à¹ç¡ \ã¯>t¡ Îó¡ºt¡à¹ 뮡[i¡ìÚÒü Ò’º [¤ó¡ºt¡à¡ú A¡à¹o [¤ó¡ºt¡àÒü ³à>åÒA¡ [>\A¡ š¹ãÛ¡à A¡[¹¤îº [ÅA¡àÚ¡ú Òt¡àÅà Îà󡺸¹ šø‹à> Åyç¡¡ú Òt¡àÅ๠*W¡¹t¡ >[t¡ ѬãA¡à¹ A¡¹à Ò’ìº "à[\¹ ¤× Îó¡º ¤¸[v¡û¡â«A¡ "à[³ [W¡[>ìÚÒü >àšàìºàìÒòìt¡>¡ú [Ò–ƒã W¡º[W¡y¹ ÎÒÑ÷হ ë³Kàʡ๠"[³t¡à®¡ ¤ZW¡>¹ ëA¡[¹Ú๹ "๴±[o "à[Ạ"[t¡ Òt¡àÅà\>A¡¡ú &J>¹ šàát¡ &J> óáš [W¡ì>³àÒü "[³t¡à®¡A¡ ³å´¬àÒü¹ á[¤ \Kt¡¹ ¤¸=¢ >àÚA¡t¡ š[¹ot¡ A¡[¹[ạú ët¡*ò "à>[A¡ "[®¡>Ú ¤àƒ [ƒ ">¸ ¤õ[v¡ NøÒo A¡¹à¹ A¡=à* ®¡à[¤[ạú [A¡”ñ ët¡*ò "[®¡>Ú ë>[¹ìº, ¤¹e¡ "[‹A¡ &A¡àNøt¡àì¹ A¡à³ A¡[¹ K’º¡ú [>\¹ š[¹Åø³, [>Ë¡à, šø[t¡®¡à "à¹ç¡ ™å\òà¹ç¡ ³à>[ÎA¡t¡à¹ ó¡ºt¡ &γڹ óáš [Òì¹à\> š[¹ot¡ Ò’º "à[\¹ "[³t¡à®¡ ¤ZW¡>t¡¡ú [¤ó¡ºt¡àA¡ \Ú A¡[¹ Îà󡺸 ºà®¡ A¡[¹¤¹ ¤àì¤ "[t¡ šøìÚà\>ãÚ &i¡à l¡üšàƒà> Ò’º "àu[¤Å«àΡú [>\¹ *š¹t¡, [>\¹ Îà³¢=¸ "à¹ç¡ šø[t¡®¡à¹ *š¹t¡ ™à¹ [¤Å«àÎ "àìá ëÎÒü\> ëA¡[t¡Úà* Òà[¹ >à™àÚ¡ú [™ ëA¡àì>à ëÛ¡yìt¡Òü ët¡*òìºàìA¡ íÒ šì¹ Î󡺡ú ¤× γÚt¡ "à³à¹ áày-áàyã ÎA¡ìº ®å¡º ëÛ¡yt¡ A¡à³ A¡[¹ =àìA¡, ™à¹ ó¡ºt¡ ët¡*òìºàìA¡ Îó¡º >ÒÚ, ºKìt¡ [>\¹ šø[t¡®¡àì¹à "šW¡Ú ÒÚ¡ú Kt¡à>åK[t¡A¡t¡à¹ ¤õv¡ ®¡à[R¡ [>\Ѭ š= ¤à[á º’¤ šà[¹ìº Îó¡ºt¡à¹ "àA¡àÅ W塤 šà[¹¡ú t¡=àA¡[=t¡ ëºà®¡>ãÚ ëA¡[¹Ú๹ šàát¡ ëƒï¹à ™å¯ áà³¹ ¤àì¤ &ì> ¤× l¡üƒàÒ¹o "àìá ™’t¡ &ìA¡à\> ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ [>\¹ ëÛ¡y¹ ¤à[Ò¹t¡ *ºàÒü "à[Ò ë¤[á Îó¡º íÒìá¡ú "àÒü "àÒü

[i¡ (IIT) "à¹ç¡ IIM ¹ áày ëW¡t¡> ®¡Kt¡¹ "à[\ "àA¡àź}Qã J¸à[t¡ [A¡”ñ ëA¡àì>à ¤× \à[t¡A¡ ëA¡à´šà>ã¹ [¤ÈÚà [ÒW¡àì¤ >ÒÚ ¤¹e¡ &\> ëºJA¡ [ÒW¡àì¤ìÒ¡ú ët¡ì>îA¡ "γ¹ ƒåÒü Îó¡º ¤¸[v¡û¡â« l¡ 0 ®è¡ìš> Òà\[¹A¡à "à¹ç¡ ëÒàì³> ¤¹ìKàÒà[d¡¹ A¡=à* A¡’¤ šà[¹¡ú l¡ 0 Òà\[¹A¡àÒü [¤Å« [¤ƒ¸àºÚ¹ "‹¸àšA¡¹ "à¹ç¡ ¤¹ìKàÒà[d¡ìÚ & [W¡ &W¡ (ACS) ¹ [>¹àšƒ W¡àA¡[¹ t¡¸àK A¡[¹ ¤à[á íº[ẠÎ}Nøà³¹ \ã¯>¡ú t¡àt¡ ët¡*òìºàA¡ ¤× ¤à‹à, ¤× Òt¡àÅ๠ΖµåJã> íÒ[ạú [A¡”ñ [>\¹ "àu[¤Å«àÎ "à¹ç¡ "[¤¹t¡ Î}Nøà³¹ ó¡ºt¡ ët¡*òìºàA¡ "à[\ [>\Ѭ ëÛ¡y¹ &ìA¡à\> ³Òã¹ê¡Òt¡ š[¹ot¡ íÒìá¡ú K[t¡ìA¡ ëA¡[¹Ú๠KØn¡à¹ >à³t¡ šàKº¹ ƒì¹ &ìA¡àJ> ëÛ¡yìt¡ [®¡¹ A¡¹à¹ š[¹¤ìt¢¡ "à³à¹ áày-áàyãÎA¡ìº [>\¹ ¤àì¤ [®¡Ä [®¡Ä ëÛ¡y ¤à[á º’¤ ºàìK¡ú "à[\¹ šõ[=¤ãt¡ ëA¡àì>à A¡àì³Òü "ÍšõŸ >ÒÚ¡ú Wå¡[º A¡i¡à¹ ƒì¹ t¡àÒà[>¹ t¡=à A¡[=t¡ [>³— Jàš¹ ¤õ[v¡* "à[\¹ [¤Å«àÚ>¹ ™åKt¡ íÒ š[¹ìá &A¡ ëNóà¹W¡ ëA¡[¹Ú๡ú γà\¹ "¯ìÒ[ºt¡ >à[št¡ ¤õ[v¡ "à[\ \àìÒƒ Òà[¤¤ ¤à ëÒ[A¡³¹ ƒì¹ ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ Òàt¡t¡ š[¹ ‘ëÒÚ๠ÊàÒü[ºÊ’¹ "àA¡Èo¢ãÚ ëA¡[¹Úà¹t¡ š[¹ot¡ íÒìá¡ú t¡àÒà[>¹ ¹àÞê¡[> "à[\ íÒ š[¹ìá ‘ëW¡ó¡’ [™ ¤t¢¡³à> γڹ &A¡ "[t¡ 䱤>àšèo¢ "à¹ç¡ "àA¡È¢oãÚ ¤õ[v¡¡ú K[t¡ìA¡ "à³à¹ áày-áàyã ÎA¡ìº Kt¡à>åK[t¡A¡ ëA¡Òüi¡à³à> ¤õv¡t¡ "इý¡ >à=à[A¡ γìÚ "à[> [ƒÚà š[¹¤t¢¡>¹ Îåì™àK º’¤îº [Å[A¡¤ ºàìK¡ú š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ ºà®¡ A¡¹à ë¤Úà ó¡º ¤à ³ì> [¤á¹à šàk¡¸yû¡³t¡ >à³ ®¡[t¢¡¹ Îåì™àK ë>àìšà¯à "à[ƒ¹ ƒì¹ Qi¡>àt¡ Òt¡àÅ >îÒ >tå¡> l¡üƒ¸ì³ì¹ "àK¤à[Øn¡ìº Îà󡺸 [>[ÆW¡t¡¡ú ¤¸=¢t¡à [™³àì> ë¤[á ÒÚ, Îà󡺸* [™³àì>Òü "[‹A¡ ÒÚ¡ú A¡à¹o ÎÒì\ ëšà¯à Îà󡺸Òü &\> ¤¸[v¡û¡¹ l¡üƒ¸³ "à¹ç¡ ™å\òà¹ç¡ ³à>[ÎA¡t¡à ÒùàÎ A¡[¹ 뚺àÚ¡ú [A¡”ñ [¤ó¡ºt¡àÒü ³à>åÒA¡ \åìÚ ëšà¹à ëÎào¹ ƒì¹ "[‹A¡ l¡üƒ¸³ã, "[‹A¡ š[¹Åø³ã A¡[¹ ët¡à캡ú ët¡ì> ³à>åìÒ ëA¡[t¡Úà* =³[A¡ >¹Ú "à¹ç¡ ΃àÚ Îà󡺸¹ Åõ}Kt¡ "àì¹àÒ¹o¹ ¤àì¤ š[¹Åø³ A¡[¹ ™àÚ, ™à¹ ó¡ºt¡ [>[ÆW¡t¡ ®¡àì¤ ët¡*òìºàìA¡ íÒ šì¹ Î󡺡ú [¤Kt¡ ƒåi¡à ƒÅA¡t¡ [¤Å«àÚ> "à¹ç¡ ³åv¡û¡ ¤\๠"=¢>ã[t¡ìÚ Î³Nø [¤Å«ì¹ Î}Ñ‚àš>¹ ëÛ¡yJ>t¡ "à³èº š[¹¤v¢¡> "à[>ìá¡ú Òü ">ѬãA¡à™¢ ë™ [¤Å«àÚ>, l¡üƒà¹ãA¡¹o¹ >ã[t¡ NøÒo A¡¹à¹ ó¡ºt¡ [¤Kt¡ γÚìáà¯àt¡ "à³à¹ ëƒÅìt¡à W¡¹A¡à¹ã Jr¡t¡ W¡àA¡[¹¹ Îåì™àK ¤× š[¹³àìo A¡[³ "à[Òìá¡ú W¡àA¡[¹ šøt¡¸àÅã ºàJ ºàJ [Å[Û¡t¡ ™å¯A¡-™å¯t¡ã W¡àA¡[¹ >àšàÒü Òt¡àÅàt¡ 뮡àKà* š[¹º[Û¡t¡ íÒìá¡ú [A¡”ñ &Òü [Å[Û¡t¡ ™å¯W¡àì³ Òt¡àÅ๠[W¡A¡à¹ ëÒà¯à¹ š[¹¤ìt¢¡ [¤Å«àÚì> "à[> [ƒÚà Îå[¤‹à γèÒ

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 28

NøÒo A¡[¹¤¹ ¤àì¤ìÒ šøÚàÎ A¡¹à l¡ü[W¡t¡¡ú &ÒüÚà Ît¡¸ ë™ Îà´ß[t¡A¡ γÚt¡ W¡¹A¡à¹ã W¡àA¡[¹¹ Îå[¤‹à [>¤>å¯à¹ Î}J¸à ¤õ[‡ý¡¹ t塺>àt¡ ët¡ì>Òü A¡³¡ú [A¡”ñ ºKìt¡ &Òü A¡=à* šàÒ[¹ìº >Ò’¤ ë™ ³åv¡û¡ ¤\๠"=¢>ã[t¡ìÚ ¤¸[v¡û¡Kt¡ Jr¡t¡ A¡³¢ Î}Ñ‚àš>¹ ¤× >tå¡> Îåì™àK ³åA¡[º A¡[¹ìá¡ú "àW¡ºìt¡ "à[\ ‘W¡àA¡[¹¹’ Î}`¡àÒü κ[> íÒ š[¹ìá¡ú ¤¸[v¡û¡Kt¡ Jr¡t¡ [l¡Nøã ¤à "Òt¢¡àt¡îA¡ ë¤[á P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢ ‘ƒÛ¡t¡à’ìÒ¡ú ¤t¢¡³à>¹ š[¹¤[t¢¡t¡ "=¢>ã[t¡¹ ™åKt¡ ƒÛ¡ \>¹ ¤àì¤ [A¡”ñ šè¤¢¹ t塺>àt¡ "šøt¡¸à[Åt¡ A¡à³ "à¹ç¡ l¡üšà\¢>¹ Îåì™àK "à[Ò š[¹ìá¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> šè¤¢¹ ƒì¹ Ñ‚àÚã, [>¹àšƒ "à¹ç¡ ‹¹à¤Þê¡à γڹ Kt¡à>åK[t¡A¡ W¡àA¡[¹¹ ™åK ë>àìÒà¯à íÒ "à[Òìá¡ú

t¡à¹ š[¹¤ìt¢¡ &ìA¡\> ¤¸[v¡û¡ìÚ [>\¹ "Òt¢¡à "à¹ç¡ ƒÛ¡t¡à ">åÎ[¹ &ìA¡ γÚìt¡ [¤[®¡Ä ëÛ¡yt¡ "}ÅA¡àºã> A¡à³ A¡[¹ [>\¹ ÎA¡ìºà [ƒÅ¹ ƒÛ¡t¡à ‘[¤yû¡ã’ A¡[¹ ¤×³åJã ëA¡[¹Ú๠KØn¡à¹ >tå¡> ‹à¹à¹ Îõ[Ê íÒìá¡ú "à‹å[>A¡ š[¹W¡àº>à t¡â«A¡ ÒüÚàA¡ ëA¡à¯à ÒÚ ‘ši¢¡ó¡[º* \¤’ (Portfolio job)¡ú "à[\¹ áày-áàyã ÎA¡ìº* γڹ [ÅA¡[> ¤å[\ š[¹¤[t¢¡t¡ š[¹[Ñ‚[t¡¹ ºKt¡ [>\A¡ Jàš-Jå¯à¤îº ³à>[ÎA¡ ®¡àì¤ šøÑñt¡ Ò’¤¹ Ò’º¡ú "à[\¹ šõ[=¯ã Òt¡àÅ, Òã>³>¸ ¤à &ìº×¯à \>¹ ¤àì¤ >ÒÚ, ƒÛ¡, š[¹Åø³ã, "àuà[¤Å«àÎã "à¹ç¡ l¡üƒ¸³ã \>¹ ¤àì¤ìÒ¡ú [ƒK”z "à[\ šøÎà[¹t¡ íÒìá¡ú l¡ü[¹¤¹ ¤àì¤ ºà[K¤ [>\¹ ƒå¤à×¹ ¤º¡ú

ëºàA¡ìίà "àìÚàK¹ >tå¡> šàk¡¸yû¡³ –

ëA¡–ƒøãÚ ëºàA¡ìίà "àìÚàìK (UPSC) ÒüÚ๠‡à¹à ">å[Ñ‚t¡ "Îà³à[¹A¡ ëÎ¯à š¹ãÛ¡à (Civil Services Exam) ¹ šàk¡¸yû¡³t¡ [A¡áå "à³èº š[¹¤t¢¡>¹ Qi¡àÒüìá¡ú "àìÚàK¹ "‹ã>t¡ IAS, IFS, IPS "à¹ç¡ ">¸à>¸ ÅãÈ¢ Τ¢ ®¡à¹t¡ãÚ ëίà γèÒ¹ ¤àì¤ šøà=¢ã [>¤¢àW¡>¹ ¤àì¤ &Òü ¤á¹ ">å[Ñ‚[t¡ Ò’¤ºKãÚà šø[t¡ì™àKãt¡à ³èºA¡ ¤àá[> š¹ãۡ๠šàk¡¸yû¡³t¡ ™ì=Ê š[¹¤t¢¡> Qìi¡à¯à íÒìá¡ú šø=³ š™¢àÚt¡ "¯ìŸ ëA¡¯º šøà¹[´±A¡ (Preliminiary) š¹ãۡ๠šàk¡¸yû¡³ìt¡ìÒ š[¹¤t¢¡> A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú &[t¡Úàì¹ š¹à šøà¹[´±A¡ š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ šè¤¢¹ ƒì¹ '[ZáA¡ (optional) [¤ÈÚ¹ A¡àA¡t¡ >à=à[A¡¤¡ú t¡à¹ š[¹¤ìt¢¡ ƒåJ> ¤à‹¸t¡à³èºA¡ A¡àA¡t¡¹ š¹ãÛ¡à ÎA¡ìºà šøà=¢ãìÚ [ƒ¤ ºà[K¤¡ú "àìÚàK¹ š[¹¤[t¢¡t¡ šàk¡¸yû¡³ ">åÎ[¹ šøà¹[´±A¡ š¹ãÛ¡àt¡ ƒåJ> A¡àA¡t¡ =à[A¡¤ – 1) Îà‹à¹o `¡à> – ÒüÚàt¡ ®¡à¹t¡¹ Òü[t¡ÒàÎ, "à¹ç¡ Ѭà‹ã>t¡à Î}Nøà³, ®¡à¹t¡ "à¹ç¡ [¤Å«¹ ®è¡ìKàº, ®¡à¹t¡¹ ¹à\>ã[t¡ "à¹ç¡ šøÅàÎ>, í\¯ í¤[W¡y, \º¤àÚå š[¹¤t¢¡>, Îà‹à¹o [¤`¡à> "à¹ç¡ Îà´ß[t¡A¡ Qi¡>௺㹠ºKt¡ \[Øl¡t¡ šøÅ— =à[A¡¤¡ú 2) ³à>[ÎA¡ ÎÛ¡³t¡à – &Òü A¡àA¡t¡t¡ t¡A¢¡Å[v¡û¡, [¤ìÅÃÈo "à¹ç¡ γθà γà‹à> Û¡³t¡à, ëºJ "à¹ç¡ ë¹Jà [W¡y, t¡à[ºA¡à, Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈ๠`¡à> "à¹ç¡ ƒÅ³ ëÅøoã Ñz¹¹ "}A¡ [¤ÈÚ¹ šøÅ— =à[A¡¤¡ú

Revised syllabus for UPSC-civil Services (Prelims)

Paper I –History of India, National Movement, Geography of India & World (physical, social, eco- nomic), Indian politics & administration (Construction, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Civil Rights, Social & Economic development etc), observation, Bio-diversity, climate change, Gen- eral Science, Current affairs. Paper II – Mental aptitute, Comprehension, Reasoning, Numerical ability, chart-diagram, English etc.

Comprehension, Reasoning, Numerical ability, chart-diagram, English etc. 2 9 / /Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Comprehension, Reasoning, Numerical ability, chart-diagram, English etc. 2 9 / /Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

29 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Prashanta Bora [Editor's Note : Prasanta Bora is an Engineer by profession. His blog Career
Prashanta Bora
[Editor's Note : Prasanta Bora is an Engineer by profession. His blog Career Quips is world’s 5th best
career blog. Its Google page rank is 4th. With more than 3,500 blog subscriber Career Quips gets more than
3,50,000 visitors per month, but, very few of them are from NE India, for whom it’s created. To make such a
wonderful blog popular among NE Indian students and Pragyan readers we invited Prasanta to write for us. We
are grateful that he has started a new series.]
A few words from the writer: The contents of this write up have actually been reproduced for Pragyan
from my career blog: www. careerquips.blogspot.com. As the contents were actually made for the blog, to present it to
the students as a published form we needed some minor edits.
Full potential of the knowledge imparted here can be found only online at the blog, since many contents can not
be presented in hard published form – say for example, the video on demo GD in section “Group Discussion”. Also
we may not be in position to write in details about links of other sites those our blog have. We’ll try to mention the
related web IDs here. Students are advised to visit those sites or our blog to search it, simply type “Career Quips” or
“careerquips” or any combination of these two words. The first result shown is the blog: www.
careerquips.blogspot.com.)
2. Job Channels
During my time of job-haunt, which is good
15 years back (I graduated in 1992), the channels
3.0
Walk-in Jobs.
4.0
Common Recruitment Tests.
through which job could be found was minimal.
Job availability situations were available mainly
in print media such as newspapers. Campus
interview was rare and Internet was at its
infancy.You are however at the most fortunate
time with evolved Internet with which you can
haunt for jobs at the click of a button. There is
more reason to be optimistic about finding the
right job, as the economy of India is booming,
creating more job opportunities.
If you ask me what channels are available
to you for job-haunting, I would try to summarize
as follows:
New Age Job Channels: Those that have come
through Internet.
5.0
Job-site based Jobs.
6.0
Referral Jobs (Buddy Lao jobs).
Age-Old Job Channels: Those that have
been in existence even before Internet came.
1.0
Campus Interview Jobs.
2.0
Pool Campus Jobs.
The above list is indicative only and is
categorized according to how the job selection
process is organized by the recruiter. Let us go into
details of these job-channels.
1.0 Campus Interview Jobs: If you are fortunate
to belong to a very good institute (i.e. attractive
in the eyes of a recruiter), then this channel is open
before you when recruiters come hunting for you
in your own institute campus.The Training &
Placement cells of these institutes maintain very
close relations with the recruiters, providing them
with all required data on who would be attending
the Campus Interview.
The selection process by the recruiter varies
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 30

from recruiter to recruiter, but most recruiter goes through the usual round of Written Test > Group Discussion > Personal Interview, sometimes with Psychometric Tests. Never had campus interview in the past, but would like to have one? If there had never been a Campus Interview in your institute but you think that recruiters would find your students attractive to employ, then you need to chalk up a strategy as follows:

i) Form a Training & Placement Cell with concurrence from your institute authority. There must be at least a group of five/six active individuals, with an active faculty as a mentor.Prepare an Institute Profile file (Name, Address, Branches, Qualifications awarded, Accreditation, Academic Calendar etc.), which is sought by the recruiters when you approach them for campus interview.

ii) Gather maximum data on your alumni:

“Who is working in which organizations, in what capacity, which cities of which country”. More well placed are your alumni, more attractive the institute looks to a recruiter.

iii) The Institute Profile File and Alumni

Profile becomes your sales brochure for the institute. With it, start approaching the recruiters through e-mail and phone. Where would you find these contact details? Use your contacts (Faculties, fellow friends from other institutes, alumnus) and of course Google to find the corporate websites! Since the recruiters are always bombarded with requests for campus interview, it is unlikely that your requests would be accepted on your first request itself. Therefore you need to have patience

for that first Campus Interview to occur for your institute. It may quite be possible that whatever you are doing the fruits of it would be enjoyed by your junior students. Also try to go in for good placement agencies first (rather than the employing organizations themselves), so that your students gets used to the whole idea of Campus Placement. Why? Because this way chances of conducting the first Campus

interview is always better. Later you can go for employing organizations directly.

2.0 Pool Campus Jobs:

Very akin to the Campus Interview jobs, in Pool Campus Jobs, few institutes form a pool and organize the selection process in a common venue, mostly in one of the institutes having better

infrastructure or better communication facilities. The advantage for the recruiter is that they find students from all the institutes in a common place and thus do not have to visit the institutes individually. And hence more and better recruiter comes, which helps more students getting placed with better job offer. North East Professional Institutes Forum (NEPIF) is one such forum which organizes Pool Campus Jobs for its member institutes of North East India. If your own institute belongs to North East India, you may wish to contact NEPIF to accept your institute as a member institute. Also, your own institute can form such a partnership with other institutes offering similar courses and qualifications and together you can invite recruiters for Pool Campus Jobs.

3.0 Walk-in Jobs:

As the name suggests, these kinds of jobs are advertised by the recruiters in the electronic (Internet) and print media (newspapers) and you just have to walk-in to appear in the selection

process.In most cases, the written-test round is not conducted and candidates are required to appear in the GD/Interview rounds directly. Walk-in Interviews are a little bit different than the normal interviews – since the interviewer may not have heard at all about the institute you passed out from. His perception on you would bank entirely on your resume. Therefore you need to prepare as good a resume as possible. Following two items are must-carry items while going for a walk-in:

1. Few (2/3) hardcopy of your resume.

2. Few (2/3) passport size photographs.

Also, if you are an working individual, you need to carry photocopies of the last increment letter/offer letter, whichever is latest. You can visit following internet sites to find walk-in job announcements:

http://search.clickjobs.com/js/search/

31 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

jresult.php?walkin=yes http://www.walkinsindia.com/ http://www.mywalkin.com/ Do you know of any better sites for walk-in jobs? Kindly send me the web site address at careerquips@gmail.com. We would acknowledge your contributions with sincere thanks. 4.0 Common Recruitment Tests :

This is the most formal out of all the job channels, which have been around for a long, long time. Used by all Government agencies (UPSC Exams – Civil Services, Defence, Railways etc.) and Public Sector industries (such as IOCL, NTPC, SAIL etc.), its advertisement are given elaborately in Print (newspapers) as well as in Electronic media (Internet). Not many Private Sector industries however conduct common

recruitment tests. The format of selection process is elaborate again: You need to apply in specified formats; you are called for written exams in selected centers after which GD & Interview is held.Government jobs and Public Sector industries jobs are a happy hunting ground for freshers, since the intake is at entry-level, experience is not asked for. Following links should help you getting these kinds of jobs:

http://www.employmentnews.gov.in/ www.yuvajobs.com/indian-govt-jobs.asp Above rounds up the job channels which have been existing even before Internet came. Would you like to know the New Age Job Channels? Follow me in next issue of Pragyan.

(to be continued)

– An NE Career Guidance Presentation-III N E Career Guidance is working towards helping students
– An NE Career Guidance Presentation-III
N E Career Guidance is working towards helping students in North Eastern States to choose right career for their
life. It is very crucial for students to choose right Institution or College and be careful that they don’t fall into

trap of choosing an UNAPPROVED or UNRECOGNIZED Institute, College or a Course. To ensure that students do not make any mistakes choosing an unapproved Institute or College or a course which are not recognized by Government or UGC, we share here the list available in public domain. Please note that students taking up such courses or getting admitted to such institutes may not affect in some instances getting employment but at the same though it does not guarantee. Studying in such institute may impact your higher educational ventures or taking up any Government job or employment. However, NE Career Guidance suggests further investigation by admission seeker should be done prior to taking admission.

61 Institute of Management KKWCampus, Pimpalgaon Bawanti, Nasik

62 Institute of Rural Studies & Admn Institutional Area 1, Guntur – 522019, A.P. Programmes : PG Programme in Rural Mgt – Running under MOU with MGCGV Chitrakoot, Fellowship Programme in Rural Mgt Running under MOU with MGCGV Chitrakoot. PG Programme in Disaster Mgt, Conflict Mgt & Family Mgt, Fellowship Programme in Disaster Mgt,

Conflict Mgt & Family Mgt

63 International Business School, 12/1Mathura Road, Delhi Programme : MBA-FT

64 International College of Financial Planning, Mumbai-13. Programme : PG DIP. In Financial Planning

65 International Council for Management Studies, Chennai – 28, Tamil Nadu Programme : 6 Month Dip & 18 Months PG courses by Correspondence (Distance Education)

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 32

66 International Institute of Hotel Management, Gurgaon-122 002

67 International Institute of Information Technology and Management, Kerala

68 International Institute of Information Technology, Pune-411057 Programme : MBA programs, MS programs in Automotive Engg., Computational Fluid Dynamics, Oil and Gas Engg., Embedded System Design

69 International School of Business & Media Pune – 411014 Programme : PG programmes in Management

70 International School of Business & Media Delhi – 110034 Programme : PG Prog. In Business Mgt. , PG Prog. In Human Resource Mgt., PG Prog. In Supply Chain & Operations Mgt (Only for Engineering Graduates),

71 International School of Business & Media, Bangalore 560 037

72 International School of Business & Media Kolkata 700 091. Programme : PGDBM

73 Ismail Yusuf College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Mumbai-60 Programme : PG Dip./Degree In Hotel Management courses, MBA (Hospitality Management)

74 ITM Business School, Hyderabad-500 044, Programme : Masters in Pharma & HealthCare Mgt, MS (IT) Telecom & Networking, Exe Masters in program for Pharma Industry

75 Jai Hind Institute of Computer Studies & Research, Pimpri, Pune – 400018

76 JSP’s CISBMR, Bhosari, Pune – 411037

Management and Research (NICMAR) Hyderabad Programme : PGD in Advance Construction Mgt (PGD ACM) – 2 yrs, Graduate Dip in Construction Safety Mgt (GD CSM) – 1 Yr FT, Graduate Dip in Bldg Services & Facilities Mgt (GD BSFM) – 1 Yr FT.

82 National Institute of Human Recourse Development, Chennai-600004, TamilNadu Programme : PGDHRD (PT)

83 Nexgen School of Management & Technology, Kolkata-71 Programme : MBA

84 NIFT-TEA Knitwear Fashion Institute Tamil Nadu Programme : Applied Arts & Crafts

85 Oxford Business College, New Delhi Programme : MBA

86 Ozar Vikas Sanstha’s Institute of Management & Research Center , Nasik Programme : Conducting unapproved courses without obtaining prior approval from AICTE

87 Parle Tilak Vidyalaya Association’s Institute of Management & Professional Studies, Mulund College of Commerce, Mumbai – 80. Programme : Various diploma in mgmt courses

88 Peoples Empowerment Group, International School of Business and Media, Pune-411 014 Programme : PGDM (Marketing), PGDBM (Insurance and Risk Management), PGDBM (Finance), PGDBM (HR), PGDBM (SCM & OM)

89 Prajnanannanda Institute of Technology

77 MAII (K.K. Modi Group) New Delhi

Kolkata-14

78 Marathwada Institute of Mert, Pune

Programme : MBA

79 N.S. Dixit Institute of Management & Technology, Hinjwadi, Pune – 411027

80 National Institute of Business Management Chennai – 600 020, Tamil Nadu Programme : MBAin Various Functional Field in DISTANCE MODE, Exe MBA (1 Yr)

81 National Institute of Construction

90 Prestige College of Management and Technology,under Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune (Deemed University) Programmes : MBA, MPM, PGDBM, MMM

91 Raffles DesignInternational, RahejaCentre

Mumbai-54

Programme : Interior Design

The complete list can be read on www.necareerguidance.com

33 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
It’s not Dearth of Job, but Job Seekers in the Region: The Staff Selection Commission
It’s not Dearth of Job, but Job Seekers in the Region: The Staff Selection Commission
It’s not Dearth of Job, but Job Seekers in the Region:
The Staff Selection Commission is Worried
T he Staff Selection Commission (SSC) has
expressed concern over the lack of response
from the local youths of the north-eastern region
to the various posts in the Central Government
setups. The Regional Director (NER) of SSC,
Debolina Thakur, has recently commented before
media saying, “Various examinations being
conducted by the SSC are great opportunities for
seeking employment in the government sector.
However, it’s a matter of concern that our local
youths are not applying for these examinations to
the extent one would expect given the high
incidence of educated unemployment in the
Northeast”. 60,075 applications handled by the
regional office in the year 2010-11 as against
64,371 in 2009-10, far less then all India Numbers.
Lack of awareness might be one possible
reason for poor representation from the Northeast
among students about different examinations
being conducted, the syllabi and requisite
education.
According to The Regional Director (NER),
this year alone the Staff Selection Commission
(SSC) will recruit 53,200 constables from the
region for six paramilitary forces on behalf of the
Ministry of Home Affairs. The vacancies include
880 in the Assam Rifles, 3,320 in the Indo-Tibetan
Police Force and the rest in four others forces –
CRPF, Sashastra Seema Bal, CISF and BSF. The
advertisement published on the current issue of
employment newspaper and the entire process
would be concluded by July 31, 2011. Among
the vacancies, the highest number of 3,206 posts
of constables will be recruited from Assam,
followed by 449 from Tripura, 329 from Mizoram,
316 from Meghalaya, 229 from Nagaland, 217
from Manipur and 100 from Arunachal Pradesh.
The minimum educational qualification required
is matriculation, which should make most youths
eligible to apply. [PEB]
Gauhati University to Start Radiological Physics Course G auhati University begins its masters course in
Gauhati University to Start Radiological Physics Course
G auhati University begins its masters course in
Radiological Physics. The
university had signed an MoU
with the B. Borooah Cancer
Institute (BBCI) in November
2010 to jointly run the course.
Besides Gauhati University,
only two universities in the
country offer masters in
Radiological Physics.
For its first batch, the university has decided
to admit less than 10 students so that all of them
can find employment as soon as they complete
the course. While the BBCI is a
recognized institution for cancer
treatment and research, Gauhati
University’s Physics Department is
a fast growing one. While some
of the courses would be conducted
at the Physics Department of the
university, other classes would be
held on the BBCI campus, where
students can interact with experts in the
field. [PEB]
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 34

¹ç¡‰ >à¹àÚo ¤¹A¡àA¡[t¡ 3) 4) ³ (Mangifera indica L.) A¡ yû¡à”zãÚ ó¡º¹ 5) ¹\à
¹ç¡‰ >à¹àÚo ¤¹A¡àA¡[t¡
3)
4)
³ (Mangifera indica L.) A¡ yû¡à”zãÚ ó¡º¹
5)
¹\à ë¤àºà ÒÚ¡ú ™[ƒ* Òü yû¡à”zãÚ "e¡ºt¡ ¤õ[‡ý¡¹
¤àì¤ ">åA塺 š[¹ì¤Å šàÒü, t¡=à[š Î³å‰ šõË¡¹ š¹à
1400 [³i¡à¹ l¡üZW¡t¡àîºìA¡ ÒüÚ๠[¤Ñzõ[t¡ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú
"γìA¡ ‹[¹ ®¡à¹t¡¹ [¤[®¡Ä "e¡ºt¡ "à³¹ Ká,
šàt¡ "à¹ç¡ ó¡ºA¡ š[¤y l¡ü;ί šà¤¢ot¡ ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à¹
ºKìt¡, ÒüÚà¹ ó¡º ëAò¡W¡à ¤à šA¡à "¤Ñ‚àt¡ Jàƒ¸ [ÒW¡àìš
³à>åìÒ NøÒo A¡ì¹¡ú "à³¹ +È[‹ P¡ìoòà ëšà¯à ™àÚ -
ÿ"à³¹ ¤àA¡[º¹ ¹v¡û¡ Û¡¹o ¤Þê¡ A¡[¹¤ š¹à P¡ìoì¹
6)
ë³}K’ [³[º ¤àK (Drosicha mangiferae)
ë³}K’ ëÊ¡³ ¤¹à¹ (Batocera rufomaculata)
ë³}K’ óøå¡Òüi¡ óáàÒü (Bactrocera dorsalis)
ë³}K’ ¤àl¡ ³àÒüi¡ (Aceria magniferae)
7)
8)
ë³}K’ W塸i¡ Kº št¡}K (Apsylla cistella)
ë³}K’ [ºó¡ Kº št¡}K (Amaraemyia spp.)
A¡) ë³}K’ šà¿ l¡üÒü[®¡º @ "à³ KáA¡ "àyû¡³o A¡¹à A¡ãi¡-
št¡}K γèÒ¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ &Òü[¤‹ št¡}KÒü ë¤[á ³à¹àuA¡¡ú
³àÒüA¡ã K®¢¡¯t¡ã št¡}Kìi¡àì¯ "à³¹ ³[ºt¡ &[šøº-ë³’
³àÒt¡ [l¡´¬ šøί A¡ì¹¡ú [l¡´¬ óå¡[i¡ \–µà šºåì¤àì¹ "à³¹
³R¡Ò "}Å &A¡à-ë¤òA¡à Îå¹}K Jà[–ƒ Jàƒ¸ [ÒW¡àìš ¤¸¯Òà¹
γõ‡ý¡, ÒüÚàì¹àš[¹ ÎåѬàƒå, ÎåKÞê¡³Ú "à¹ç¡ tõ¡[œ¡ƒàÚA¡
šA¡à "à³ Ò’º [®¡i¡à[³> ‘&’ "à¹ç¡ ‘[W¡’ (Vitamin
‘A’ & ‘C’) ¹ ®¡àr¡à¹¡ú
šõ[=¤ã¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ ®¡à¹ìt¡ Τ¢à[‹A¡ Î}J¸A¡ "à³
l¡ü;šàƒ> A¡ì¹¡ú šõ[=¤ã¹ Τ¢³åk¡ l¡ü;šàƒ>¹ 80% ®¡à¹ìt¡
"A¡ìº l¡ü;šàƒ> A¡ì¹¡ú ®¡à¹t¡¹ 942,560 ëÒC¡¹
³à[i¡ "[‹A¡à¹ A¡[¹ =A¡à "à³ Ká¹ š¹à
8,216, 510 i¡> l¡ü;šÄ ÒÚ¡ú "¯ìŸ "γt¡ 5.26
Òà\๠ëÒC¡¹ ³à[i¡A¡à[ºA¡ "àP¡[¹ =A¡à "à³ Ká¹ š¹à
¤á[¹ 20.00 Òà\๠i¡> "à³ l¡ü;šàƒ> ÒÚ¡ú
"à³A¡ 175 [¤‹t¡îA¡ "[‹A¡ šø\à[t¡¹ A¡ãi¡-
št¡U >à>à ‹¹o¹ 뤳๠"à¹ç¡ [¤[®¡Ä Åθ Źã¹
\[>t¡ [¤Î}K[t¡ìÚ "àyû¡³o A¡ì¹¡ú
"à³ KáA¡ "àyû¡³o A¡¹à A¡ãi¡-št¡}K –
A¡ì¹¡ú 󡺹 [®¡t¡¹ìt¡ ëºi¡à ¤àìÞê¡ "à¹ç¡ šøàœ¤ÚÑH št¡}Kì¹à
l¡ü;š[v¡ ÒÚ¡ú "àyû¡³o¹ A¡à¹ìo "A¡àºìt¡ Î[¹ š¹à 󡺹
š¹à šøàœ¤ÚÑH št¡}Kì¤à¹, [በÎ[Êì¹ *ºàÚ "à[Ò Ç¡A¡à>
Kàt¡ ¤à QòàÒ¹ ³à\t¡ ºåA¡àÒü [¤Åøà³ ºÚ¡ú
šø[t¡A¡à¹ –
1)
2)
3)
1)
2)
ë³}K’ šà¿ l¡üÒü[®¡º (sternochetus frigidus)
ë³}K’ Ò’šà¹ (Idioscopus clypealis) "à¹ç¡
(Amritodus atkinsoni)
‘W¡àÒüšà¹ ë³[=ø>’, ‘>㺳’ "à¹ç¡ ‘¤àKà> š[À¹’
ƒì¹ "[t¡ њŢA¡àt¡¹ ÎòW¡ì¤à¹ ë¹àšo >A¡¹àÚ ®¡àº¡ú
"àyû¡à”z Ká¹ š¹à Î[¹ š¹à ëKºà "à³ì¤à¹ Î}NøÒ
A¡[¹ [>¹àšƒ Ñ‚à>t¡ šå[t¡ ¤à šå[¹ 뚺ठºàìK,
™àìt¡ [®¡t¡¹¹ št¡}Kì¤à¹ ‹ÿ¤}Î ÒÚ¡ú
[l¡ìW¡´¬¹-\à>å¯à¹ã ³àÒt¡ Ká¹ P¡[Øl¡¹ š¹à šøàÚ
2 [³i¡à¹ *š¹îºìA¡ ‘ëó¡[”‚Ú>’ (0.05%) ¤à
‘¤à‹à[¹º’ (0.1%) ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à¹ *š[¹* Kà-
Ká "}Åt¡ "àk¡à\àt¡ãÚ ¤Ññ¹ šø캚 [ƒ šè¤¢¯t¢¡ã
¤È¢t¡ Ç¡A¡à> šàt¡ "à¹ç¡ QòàÒt¡ "àÅøÚ íº =A¡à
šøàœ¤ÚÑH št¡}Kì¤à¹A¡ Ká¹ *š¹îº ¤KàÚ

35 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

ë™à¯àt¡ ¤à‹à šøƒà> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú 4) ³[º*¯à¹ 6 Îœ¡àÒ šàát¡ ‘ël¡Âi¡àì³[G>’ (0.0025%) "à¹ç¡ ÒüÚ๠š¹à &šìÈA¡¹ šàát¡ ‘ëó¡[–µÚ>’ (0.05%) ‰¯o á[i¡ÚàÒü Îåó¡º šà¤ šà[¹¡ú

2)

A¡à[i¡ ëšìºà¯à l¡ü[W¡t¡¡ú Ká¹ A¡àr¡ "}Åt¡ K¹³ A¡à[º, ‘Aá’¹’šàÒü[¹ó¡W¡’ (0.1%) + [>³ (1%) + ‘A¡’šà¹ "[GAá¹àÒül¡’ (0.4%) ¹ ³r¡ ¤>àÒü šøìÚàK A¡[¹ìº [l¡´¬ šøί¹

J)

ë³}K’ Ò’šà¹ – "à³ Ká¹ ëA¡à³º šàt¡ "à¹ç¡ šåÍš

³àyà ÒùàÎ A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú

3)

‘l¡àÒüAá’¹’®¡W¡’ (0.1%)¹ ‰¯>t¡ A¡šàÒ [t¡ÚàÒü,

³gæ¹ã¹ š¹à ¹Î ëÅàÈo A¡¹à¹ ó¡ºt¡ Ká ë\àšà¹ Û¡[t¡ ÒÚ¡ú ë¤[áîA¡ "àyû¡à”z šàt¡t¡ ®ò¡à\ ºà[K ™àÚ "à¹ç¡ šåÍš

³gæ¹ã Ç¡A¡àÒü ™àÚ¡ú ³¹[Ò ë™à¯à "}Åt¡ -ÿ- ‘Wå¡[i¡ ³’Á¡’ >à³¹ ë®ò¡A塹 K\à* ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú Ká¹ šàt¡t¡ ®ò¡à\ ºà[K a[º ë™à¯àìA¡ ‘Ò’šà¹ ¤ào¢’ ¤å[º* \>à ™àÚ¡ú šø[t¡A¡à¹ :–

1)

Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ Îõ[Ê A¡¹à [á‰Î³èÒt¡ ®¡¹àÒü ³à[i¡ì¹ ¤Þê¡ A¡[¹ [ƒ¤ ºàìK¡ú R¡) ë³}K’ óøå¡Òüi¡ óáàÒü – &Òü ³à[Jì¤àì¹ "à³¹ ¤àA¡[º¹

t¡ºt¡ [l¡´¬ šøί A¡ì¹¡ú [l¡´¬ óå¡[i¡ Îõ[Ê ëÒà¯à "št¡¸ šºåì¤à¹ ³R¡Ò "}Å Jàƒ¸ [ÒW¡àìš ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹ ëKºàÒü 뚺àÚ¡ú "àyû¡à”z ó¡ºì¤à¹ KàØn¡ ³i¡ãÚà ¤¹o¹ ëÒà¯à¹ ºKìt¡ k¡àìÚ

2)

2)

"à³ Káì¤à¹ Q>-Q>îA¡ ë¹àš> A¡[¹¤ >àºàìK¡ú šå¹[o l¡àºì¤à¹¹ ºKìt¡ "àyû¡à”z ÅàJàì¤à¹ γìÚ

k¡àìÚ ëK[º "A¡àºìt¡ Î[¹ ™àÚ¡ú ÎA¡ìºà ‹¹o¹ ¤à[o[\¸A¡

3)

γìÚ A¡à[i¡ =à[A¡¤ ºàìK¡ú ³åA塺 Îõ[Ê "à¹ç¡ ³[º*¯à γÚt¡ ‘W¡àÒüüšà¹ ë³[=ø>’

ÎòW¡ &Òü ³à[J¹ šø[t¡ њŢA¡àt¡¹ ™[ƒ* ‘ëºìU¹à’, ‘l¡W¡àÒà[¹’, "à¹ç¡ ‘¤ì´¬ Nøão’¹ šø[t¡ì¹à‹ Û¡³t¡à "àìá¡ú

¤à ‘ëó¡> 뮡ºàì¹i¡’ (0.01%) "à¹ç¡ NSKE (4%) ¹ ‰¯o á[i¡Úàìº Îåó¡º šà¤ šà[¹¡ú ó塺 ó塺๠γÚt¡ ¹àÎàÚ[>A¡ ‰¤¸ šøìÚàK >A¡¹à ®¡àº [A¡Úì>à, Òü š¹àK Î}ì™àKt¡ ¤à‹à [ƒìÚ¡ú

šø[t¡A¡à¹ – 1) ë™ï> ëó¡¹³> ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹ ³à[J¹ Î}J¸à¤õ[‡ý¡¹ š[¹³ào W¡à¤ šà[¹¡ú

K) ë³}K’ [³[º ¤àK – &Òü št¡}K¹ "št¡¸ Ñz¹ "à¹ç¡ šèo¢à}K ë¤àì¹ "à³ Ká¹ šåÍš ³gæ¹ã "à¹ç¡ A塳ºãÚà šàt¡¹

3)

ëK[º Î[¹ š¹à "à³ Î}NøÒ A¡[¹ [>¹àšƒ Ñ‚à>t¡ ‹ÿ¤}Î A¡[¹ 뚺ठºàìK¡ú íš>t¡ "ೠγÚt¡ šà[¹ìº, ³à[JìÚ [l¡´¬ šøί¹

š¹à ¹Î ëÅàÈo A¡¹à¹ ó¡ºt¡ ëÎÒü "}ŠγèÒt¡ ‘Wå¡[i¡ ³’Á¡’ >à³¹ ë®ò¡A塹 K[\ Ç¡A¡àÒü ™àÚ¡ú šø[t¡A¡à¹ –

Îå[¤‹à >àšàÚ¡ú W¡) ë³U’ ¤àl¡ ³àÒüi¡ – &Òü Wò¡à[Òì¤àì¹ ³åA塺¹ š¹à ¹Î ëÎàÒ๠ó¡ºt¡ A塳ºãÚà A¡ºàì¤à¹ a[º ™àÚ¡ú Î}J¸àKt¡

1)

K¹³ A¡à[º ¤àKà>¹ ³à[i¡ W¡Ò A¡[¹, &Òü št¡}K¹

š[¹³ào "[‹A¡ Ò’ìº ëKàìi¡Òü ³åA塺ì¤à¹ ‹ÿ¤}Î Ò’¤ šà칡ú

[l¡´¬ì¤à¹A¡ ¹’ƒ¹ t¡àš "à¹ç¡ í\¯ [>Ú”|A¡ l¡ü;ι ‡à¹à ‹ÿ¤}Î A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú

&Òü Wò¡à[ÒìÚ ÎA¡ìºà šøA¡à¹¹ ÎòW¡A¡ "àyû¡³o A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú šø[t¡A¡à¹ –

2)

Kà-Kát¡ Û¡à¹A¡ãÚ šƒà=¢¹ šø캚 [ƒ ³à[i¡¹ š¹à

1)

"àyû¡à”z šåÍš ³gæ¹ã ‹ÿ¤}Î A¡¹à l¡ü[W¡t¡¡ú

Ká¹ *š¹îº ¤Kठ[¤W¡¹à št¡}Kì¤à¹¹ K[t¡A¡ ¤à‹à [ƒ¤ šà[¹¡ú ÒüÚ๠ºKìt¡ šø캚¹ t¡º¹ "}Åt¡ \³à ëÒà¯à št¡}KA¡ NSKE (4%) ¤à >Ò¹ç¡ ët¡º (1%) ‰¯> á[i¡ÚàÒü ‹ÿ¤}Î A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú

2)

‘l¡àÒü[³=ìÚi¡’ 30 Òü. [W¡.¹ ‰¯o á[i¡Úठšà[¹¡ú ‘ë³U’ Wå¡i¡ Kº’ št¡}K¹ "àyû¡³o¹ ó¡ºt¡ A¡àr¡ "à¹ç¡ ³åA塺t¡ ëi¡àìšà¹à ëƒJà ™àÚ, "à>ó¡àìº ‘ë³U’ [ºó¡ Kº’ št¡}K¹ "àyû¡³o¹ ó¡ºt¡ šàt¡t¡ ëi¡àìšà¹à

Q)

ë³}K ëÊ¡³ ¤¹à¹ – ¤õÒ;, ƒãQº [Å[R¡Úà KàØn¡ ³i¡ãÚà

l¡ük¡à ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú

¤¹o¹ št¡}Kì¤àì¹ "à³ Ká¹ A¡àr¡ "à¹ç¡ Kà "}Åt¡ =A¡à ¤àA¡[º¹ *š¹t¡ "àyû¡³o A¡ì¹¡ú ó¡ºt¡ Kà-Ká¹ š¹à "àk¡àìº[t¡Úà šƒà=¢ ¤à[Ò¹ *ºàÚ "àyû¡à”z "}Åt¡ Îå³àÒü šì¹¡ú "àyû¡à”z l¡àºì¤à¹ Î[¹ ë™à¯à¹ ºKìt¡, Ká¹ ó¡º ºK๠š[¹³ào ÒùàÎ šàÚ¡ú šø[t¡A¡à¹ – 1) ³õt¡ ¤àA¡[º "à¹ç¡ Ç¡A¡à> l¡àºì¤à¹ γìÚ Î³ìÚ

šàÚ¡ú šø[t¡A¡à¹ – 1) ³õt¡ ¤àA¡[º "à¹ç¡ Ç¡A¡à> l¡àºì¤à¹ γìÚ Î³ìÚ
šàÚ¡ú šø[t¡A¡à¹ – 1) ³õt¡ ¤àA¡[º "à¹ç¡ Ç¡A¡à> l¡àºì¤à¹ γìÚ Î³ìÚ

Ź㹠\[>t¡ [¤Î}K[t¡ –

Ź㹠\[>t¡ [¤Î}K[t¡ –

1)

2)

&¤á¹ &[¹ &¤á¹ ó¡º ºKà (Alternate bear- ing) @- &Òü ¤¸à[‹ Îà‹à¹oìt¡ ¤×t¡ ‹¹o¹ ÎWò¡t¡ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú ³à[i¡t¡ ‘ëšAá’¤ål¡üi¡öà\º’ (Paclobutrazole) A¡ 10 Nøà³ šø[t¡ì\àšà Ká [Òáàšt¡ šøìÚàK A¡[¹ Îåó¡º šà¤ šà[¹¡ú

"à³¹ A塹ꡚt¡à (Mango Malformation) @ Kà-

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 36

3)

Ká¹ A塹ꡚt¡à "à¹ç¡ šåÍš A塹ꡚt¡àA¡ ™=àyû¡ì³ šå[º¤à[¹ "à¹ç¡ 󡺹 ¤àKà>t¡ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú 200 [š.[š.&³. Å[v¡û¡™åv¡û¡ NAA šøìÚàK¹ ‡à¹à A塹ꡚt¡à ÒùàÎ A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú P¡Zá Îõ[Ê (Clustering) @ k¡à[¹¹ "àKt¡ ºåš- ºåšîA¡ ¤×t¡ ³[º ºàìK ™[ƒ* ³à¤¢º¹ ë\àJ¹ Ò*òìt¡Òü ³¹[Ò ™àÚ¡ú šøìÚà\>t¡îA¡ A¡³ t¡àš³ày๠¤àì¤ &Òü ¤¸à[‹ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú

4)

Îåš Îå[šÚà A¡ºà (Spongs Tissue) @ ‘"àºó¡>ôW¡’ "à³t¡ &Òü ¤¸à[‹ ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ú ó¡ºìi¡à ¤à[Ò¹¹ š¹à ëƒJàt¡ Ѭ஡à[¯A¡ ™[ƒ* [®¡t¡¹ J> Îåš Îå[šÚà ÒÚ¡ú ÒüÚàì¹àš[¹ ëi¡R¡à P¡o ë¤[á ÒÚ¡ú "[‹A¡ l¡üÌ¡t¡à¹ ¤àì¤ š[A¡¤¹ ¤àì¤ ƒàÚ¤‡ý¡ l¡ü;ìÎW¡A¡ Îõ[Êt¡ ¤à‹à ëšà¯à¹ ó¡ºt¡ &Òü ¤¸à[‹ ÒÚ¡ú šøàÚ 75% íš>t¡ ëÒà¯à¹ "¤Ñ‚àt¡ ó¡º šà[¹¤ ºàìK¡ú ‘t¡à¹A¡à šå>ãt¡’ "à¹ç¡ ‘¹â—à’ >à³¹ ¤o¢ Î}A¡¹ \òàt¡ì¤à¹t¡ &Òü ¤¸à[‹ >ÒÚ¡ú

[>Kòà* ("γ)¹ &Òü\> Aõ¡[È[¤`¡à>ã "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ [¤`¡à> [¤ÈÚ¹ &\> º§¡ šø[t¡Ë¡ ëºJA¡ "à¹ç¡ Kì¯ÈA¡¡ú δß[t¡ ‘št¡}K ¹Òθ’ >àì³ì¹ ët¡*ò &J> [A¡t¡àš šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹ l¡ü[ºÚàÒüìá¡ú]

Assam is rich in varieties of ethnomedicinal plats. The perfect natural conditions like humidity, fertility
Assam
is rich in
varieties of
ethnomedicinal
plats. The perfect natural
conditions like humidity,
fertility of the land and moderate
temperature leads to the rich flaura & fauna
Biplab Banik
available here.The study on medicinal plants
had started in India in Vedic eras 4500-1500
B.C. where chemon, peeple, pithuan medicinal
plants are mentioned. In the history of
1. Vern Name:Tulsi
a)
Tulsi leaf extract mixed with mouri leaf
extract, if eaten removes cough completely.
b)
It also gives relief from otorrhoea (ear pain).
th
Ayurvedic Sastra, the 16 th & 17
century
c)
It increases the digestion power.
period in India was considered as age of Herbal
medicine. Presently 25% of allopathic medicine
is made from various plants. With the rapid
advancement of medical science, still today it
is observed that plant is the only source of
treatment in the backward village areas.
Without plant, the survival of human and other
living species is very difficult. So the
importance of conservation of medicinal plants
and social forestration is understood minutely.
Different Ethno medicinal plants and their
medicinal values:
d)
It removes vomiting tendency, thread wormproblems,
apesia, dyspepsia (loss of appetite), anorexia.
2.
Vern Name:Duburi Bon
a)
Blood removal in piles disease can be
prevented.
b)
Blood removal due to dental decay, from
wounded place can be stopped immediately.
c)
Ulcer becomes dry if it is applied at the
affected place.
3.
Vern Name: Siju Goch.
a)
Leprosy , Diabetes, cough, otorrhoea diseases
can be cured.

37 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

b)

Lower abdominal pain, abscess, carbuncle, thread worm problems can be problems.

a)

Piles, high blood pressure, ring worm, scabies can be cured.

c)

It also acts as anti venom for poisonous snakes and insects.

b)

It is a good vitamin A and vitamin C source for Pregnant woman.

4.

Vern Name: Chal kuori

c)

It is a blood purifier.

a)

Diabetes, leprosy, liver diseases, gastric

13.

Vern Name: Betgoch

problems, thread worm problems, fertility problems, anorexia can be cured.

a)

Intestine and pancreas stone, ulcer, allergy, elephantiasis can be cured.

b)

Blood Circulation in ovary can be done.

b)

Diabetes, fishtulainano, can be cured.

c)

Typhoid, Pneumonia fever, flatulence, blood pressure and headache can be cured.

14.

Vern Name: Bhedailata Body and chest pain, piles disease, anorexia,

d)

muscle pain, burning pain can also be cured.

rheumatism, can be cured.

5.

Vern Name : Bor Manimuni Shak.

15.

Vern Name: Nayan Tora

a)

Leprosy, Disynetry, Abdominal gripes, Skin

a)

Diabetes, high sugar level in blood, can be cured.

problems, apilepsy, curbancle, ring worm problems can be cured.

b)

High blood pressure, thread worm problems cab be cured.

b)

It also increases the intelligency and memory

c)

It increases memory power.

power.

16.

Vern Name: Keharaj

c)

It relives from sleeping disorder.

a) Blood deficiency, Jaundice, Hepatitis, Ring

d)

It is a good medicine for nurve and blood.

worm, sexual inability, ascifes, leucorrhoea

6.

Vern Name: Dupur tenga or Pategoja.

cab be cured.

a)

It removes Gall Bladder stones, urinary

b) It is a good medicine for hair fall problem.

bladder stone and kidney stone.

17. Vern Name: Khutura Shak

b)

It keeps the brain cool and sexual debility can be cured.

a) Piles, diabetes, leprosy, cough, cold fever , Irregular menstruation can be cured.

c) It is a good medicine for high blood pressure patient.

b) It acts as anti venom for snake.

18. Vern Name: Duran

7. Vern Name: Podina

a) Disynetry, Stomach problems, Gall bladder

a)

Malaria, Pneumonia, Jaundice, Worm problems, piles, ascites, scene disease can be cured.

stone can be cured.

b)

It acts as anti venom for snake.

b)

Gastric problems, otorrhea, headache, swelling

c)

It makes liver strong.

of nails can be cured.

19.

Vern Name: Ronga Joba

8. Vern Name: Masandari

a) Disynetry, abdominal gripes, stomach problems,

a)

Cough, sexual inability, urinary disorder, parturition disease can be cured.

bronchitis & pneumonia can be cured.

b)

It makes hair roots strong.

b)

Heart diseases and blood circulation problems

20.

Vern Name: Bonsot

can be cured.

a)

Hydrophobia, heart disease, blood removal

9.

Vern Name: Ban Amlokhi Ascites, Jandish, disynetry, ulcer can be cured.

due to piles disease can be cured, it acts as anti vomiting medicine.

10.

Vern Name: Tengechi Shak

Conclusion:

From the above discussion it can

a)

Disynetry, Loss of appetite, diarrhea, anorexia, apesia, dyspepsia problems can be cured.

be understood very minutely the importance of locally available ethomedicinal plants in our

b)

Ascites, eczema disease, diabetes can be cured.

habitat, surrounding house yards which can cure

11.

Vern Name : Dhatura

various human disease. We all don’t have to run

a)

It acts as pain reliever, tranqulizer.

after allopathic medicine as these medicinal plats

b)

It acts as anti snake venom, insects venom.

could be a substitute for it. Due to urbanization

c)

Bronchial asthma, eczema disease, mumps, dental Pieria can be cured.

effect, these plants are going to be extinct in near future. So all of us now should concentrate upon

12.

Vern Name:Kola kachu

the conservation of such medicinal plants.

(The author teaches Chemistry)

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 38

Biraj Dutta Bristi Senapati Objective of the Paper: I ntroduction: The North-East Region (NER) of
Biraj Dutta
Bristi Senapati
Objective of the Paper:
I ntroduction: The North-East Region
(NER) of India spreads over an area of
262179sq. kms and comprises of eight states:
1. The paper tries to highlight the historical
legacy and reasons behind Insurgency in
North-East India.
Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and
Sikkim. It is stretched between 89.46 degree
to 97.30 degree East longitude and 21.57
degree to 29.30 degree North latitude. 1 Of
the 5,633 communities listed by the “People
of India” project, 635 were categorized as
tribal, of which 213 were found in the North
East Indian States. This project also listed
325 languages of which 175 belonging to the
Tibeto-Burman and the Mon-Khmer family
were found in North East India.2 The North-
Eastern Region (NER) is located in the
easternmost part of the country, which is
accessible by roads or rails through the
narrow corridor at Siliguri in West Bengal,
popularly known as “Chicken’s Neck”. Due
to the geographical location far away from
the mainland India, poor means of road and
rail connectivity to most parts of the region,
and absolutely poor air connectivity even
with the capitals of the constituent states,
barring Guwahati (Assam), Agartala
(Tripura), Imphal (Manipur), and Gangtok
(Sikkim), the region remains mostly
unknown to the country. 3
2. Further the paper tries to analyze the Role
of Media in the on going Peace Process
of North-East India.
Methodology: The present paper is primarily
based on secondary sources like, Books, Journals,
Articles, Daily and Weekly News Papers (Both
English and Assamese) etc.
History of Insurgency in North East India:
There is a historical legacy of insurgency in
North Eastern States of India. India’s North East
has been the theatre of earliest and longest-lasting
insurgency in the country. In the Naga Hills- then
a district of Assam State, violence centering in
independence started in 1952 soon after India’s
independence. It was followed by the Mizo
rebellion in 1966 and a proliferation of more
recent conflict since the late 1970s. 4 Tripura and
Assam started agitation which later turned into
insurgencies against huge influx of people across
the border from Bangladesh; Manipur insurgency
largely centres around ethnic rights.All these have
prevented investment and, therefore, jobs. Lack
of employment opportunities further fuelled the
movements. Every state of North East Region
(NER) except Sikkim is currently affected by
some form of insurgent violence. 5

39 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

The North-Eastern States of India are having a large number of terrorist organizations or groups which are creating terror, instability and situation of insecurity in the region. As per the records there are 120 no. of Terrorist Organization/Groups in North East India. Though they are organized with their own ideology and demands but the people at large are the victim of the terrorist activities. In most of the cases it has been witnessed that due to their demands and anti-state activity the people of the region have to suffer to a great extent. Violation of human rights is not a very new issue in the region. The worst sufferers are the women, children and the elderly persons, as they are the prime target of these terrorist activities. This is what we are witnessing for decades in North-East India. Table 1 shows the number of terrorist organizations operating in the North-East India. Table: 1 Terrorist/Insurgent/Extremist Groups operating in North-East India

Name of the State

No. of Insurgent Groups

Arunachal Pradesh

01

Assam

38

Manipur

40

Meghalaya

05

Mizoram

02

Nagaland

04

Tripura

30

Total

120

Reasons behind Insurgency in North-East India:

The Terrorist/Insurgent Groups were formed in the states of North-East India with their own ideology and demands. Though the reasons behind insurgency are not same for all the states of the region, even there are some common reasons behind the problem of insurgency in North-East India (NEI). Here an attempt has been made to trace the reasons behind the growth of insurgency in the North-East India as a whole. (i) Economic, Cultural, Social and Political Insecurity among the People: Feelings of insecurity among the different classes of people in NEI is one of the prime reasons for the problem of insurgency. However, the feelings of insecurity can be of four different types. All these forms of insecurity whether Economic, Social or Cultural or Political do not matter, but increase of fear among the people about their cheers survival.

Economic insecurity basically occurs due to lack of avenues of generation of income. The people of the region are dependant one way or the other on the government, trapped in vicious circle of poverty, mass unemployment, high level of income inequality etc. The fear among the people about the loss of own culture to exotic culture and social structure lead to cultural and social insecurity among the people. Similarly, the possibilities of losing political power among the people lead to political insecurity. All these are happening in the State of Assam and as a result of the growing insecurity arisen among the people of Assam lead to Students’ Movement in Assam and thereby insurgency in the state. The people of Assam started to believe that as a result of the migration of people from the neighbouring countries like Bangladesh and Nepal pose a great threat to the economy, society, demography, politics and culture of the Assamese people. This is also a case for Tripura. The immigrants from Bangladesh reduced Tripura’s citizens to minorities in their own state. Fear of becoming minorities in the state of Assam also always disturbed the minds of the Assamese people. The same kind of movement also stated in Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya against the influx of Bangladeshis. However, for the state of Manipur and Nagaland, insecurity is not a major factor for the growing insurgency problem. (ii) Past History of Independent State:

Before the advent of the North Eastern region by the British, the region was not a part of India and therefore, many organizations of Nagaland and Manipur don’t accept the acknowledgement of the Indian statehood, thereby they have been struggling for the independence of the respective states on the basis of their past history. The British had annexed Nagaland in 1832 and then in 1918 Naga Club was established and became the platform for Naga unity thereby Naga independence movement and later on insurgency after independence. Similar history is also for Manipur. Many people refused to accept the Manipur agreement of submerger, 1949. In Assam, ULFA (United Liberation Front of Assam) has also demanded an independent state, but their demand is only after the student’s movement. (iii) Negligence of the Central Government :

It is a fact that the people from mainland India

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 40

always believed that NEI is a land of jungles and insurgencies. The people from mainland and the central government always neglect the region. The insurgency movement in Mizoram started because of the neglect of the central government during the great Famine of Mizoram during 1960’s. More than half of the tea production, 60 percent of the plywood (till the ban of felling tree came) and a substantial portion of oil and natural gas have been produced in the region but not even a tiny portion of the profit is re-invested in the region. Agriculture of the region is grossly underdeveloped and therefore it will have to import essential goods amounting to Rs. 3,500 Crore annually. The infrastructure of the region is very bad and the steps taken by the Central Government is not up to the mark. It is interesting to observe that only one state capital of the region is covered by railway network. Except the Guwahati airport, the other airports have very minimum facilities. Moreover, vital sectors of the region, such as education, health care, power, etc. are still in primitive state. In fact, despite of having vast natural resources, forest, hydro- electricity, oil & gas, coal, limestone, uranium, extremely rich bio-diversity, the region stands much below the national average as a whole in terms of all development indices (e.g. Per Capita Income, Human Development Index etc.). Thus there is no improvement in the socio-economic life of the people. The region is becoming land of colonial exploitation for the prosperity of the others. All these have made the people of North East India dissatisfied, frustrated, angry, hopeless, rudderless, jealous and feeling of widespread neglect of Centre thereby discontent and insurgency. Shukla Commission rightly pointed out that the North Eastern region cannot be treated merely as a resource region, market dumps and transit yard. (iv) Negligence of National Media: The mass media also always neglect the region. They failed to cover the problems, needs, aspirations of the people of the region. When the people of North East need some help from the national media, they failed to get that and thereby people of the region felt that they are being neglected. This also leads to discontents and insurgency. (v) Geographical and Cultural Isolation:

This is another reason for the emergence of discontent thereby insurgency in the region. The NEI is not only geographically isolated but also culturally isolated from the rest of the country and thus both intensified the extent of insurgency which is already in the valley. Moreover, the tribal person had been isolated by geography, the rugged terrain and environment, and later by political policy. 7 Inner line was drawn to preclude the tribal raids in the plains. The tribal people were kept unawake. But, once they wakened they started to differentiate themselves with others and wanted to preserve their identity and all these efforts are however not bad. But political, cultural, social and identity consciousness lead to ethnic strife among the different tribes of the region basically over the ownership of land, preservation of culture, language etc., thereby discontent and insurgency. Karbi-Kuki conflicts, Bodo movement are such examples. (vi) Inequalities within and outside NE India: Both forms of inequality, within the communities of NEI and with the rest of the states also contribute to the problem of insurgency. Inequalities within the communities lead to ethnic strife within the communities of the region that caused increasing discontent and ultimately insurgency problem. In Assam itself, many insurgent organizations have grown up basically due to economic backwardness of their community, e.g., Adibasi Tiger Force, Birsa Commando Force, Gorkha Tiger Force, Dima Halong Dauga, Kamatapur Liberation Army, etc. Violence of Karbi-Anglong between Kuki and Karbi regarding ownership of land is known to all. Thus, economic inequalities within the communities lead to discontentment and strife among themselves and thereby create the problem of insurgency. Similarly, inequalities in income and wealth of a particular region to the rest of the country also increase the intolerance among the people lead to violence and results in insurgency. However, many economists believe that some sort of income inequalities is inevitable in the initial stages of development. Muller & Seligson concluded that income inequality is responsible for violence and that slowed down the growth. 8 Many others also believe that inequality in the distribution of land and/or lack of ownership (landlessness) to be among the

41 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

more fundamental economic preconditions of insurgency and revolution. The extent of income inequalities of the region can be shown with the help of the Table 2 given below as the distribution of households by income profile reflects income inequalities among state. Moreover the GDP growth rate on the North- Eastern states is also very poor in comparison to the national average. Table 3 clearly indicates the growth rate of the North-Eastern States. Table: 2 Income Inequalities Among the States

violence in people’s lives such as militarization, structural violence of racial and economic injustices, violence against women etc. A positive peace initiative that addresses wider socio-political issues may here lead to the reduction of all forms of violences. Without that any such initiative which is blind to the dynamics of domination, or power over “the other” will be fragile based on injustice and unable to bring an end to the conflicts that are inevitable in militaristic societies. 12 As the anti-state activities of the terrorist/insurgent groups creates lots of problem to the people of North-East India, so under such circumstances there is the need of some positive initiative to have some desired solution to the problem of insurgency and to bring peace and stability to the region. The noble initiatives may be called as Peace Talk to have a solution to the demands raised by the various terrorist/insurgent groups of the region. Several initiatives have been carried out by various Governmental as well Non-Governmental Organizations for concluding a peace treaty between the Terrorist/

Insurgent groups with the Central and State Government. Peace and Development:

Peace and development are

very closely associated

with each other, because

without peace we cannot expect or think of proper

development of a Nation

States. As it has been

realized by all that without having a peaceful situation any government cannot implement the development plans and programmes for the development of the country as a whole. Without having a stable and peaceful situation, the government cannot stay in power for a long period or they may face lots of problem in running the administration of the state/country. As a Third World developing Country, India got her independence in 1947 on 15 August from British Imperialism. After 63 years of independence, India is facing number of problems which resulted in multiple problems to India as a whole. The issue of peace and development are inter-related to each

State/Country

Rich

Middle

 

Poor

 

income

 

Assam

6.59

35.67

 

57.74

Manipur

6.16

49.87

 

43.97

Meghalaya

4.64

46.88

 

48.48

West Bengal

5.58

40.97

 

53.44

India

10.06

54.03

 

35.91

 

Table: 3 GDP Growth Rates in North-East India

 

State

Eight

Ninth

Tenth Plan

 

Eleventh Plan

Plan

Plan

Target

Achievement

(preliminary)

Arunachal

5.1

4.4

8.0

5.6

6.4

Assam

2.8

2.1

6.2

6.1

6.5

Manipur

4.6

6.4

6.5

5.8

5.9

Meghalaya

3.8

6.2

6.3

 

- 7.3

Mizoram

-

-

5.3

 

- 7.1

Nagaland

8.9

2.6

5.6

 

- 9.3

Sikkim

5.3

8.3

7.9

7.7

6.7

Tripura

6.6

7.4

7.3

-

6.9

India

6.7

5.3

8.0

7.2

9.0

(i) Alienation: Alienation and isolation from the national mainstream are two important factors responsible for the birth and growth of conflicts in North-East India. It is basically due to the failure to recognize the peculiar historical, social and cultural factors of each area in the region with the common effect of isolation. 11 Meaning of Peace: The definition of peace as an end of armed conflict or as absence of war like situation is a partial definition. Absence of war situation is not enough condition to ensure non- occurrence of armed conflict. The important step for peace is to end and question all forms of

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 42

other in many ways, as instability or unrest is an opposite situation of peace where proper development or desired development cannot be achieved at all. Therefore, it is very essential to have a peaceful situation in the state to attain the desired goals fixed by the planners of the country. The North- Eastern region of India is a region, which is having different problems, and one of the major problems of the region is insurgency and terrorism for which peace of the region is being very much hampered and the process of development becomes stagnant and which indirectly helps to the anti-democratic practices. Peace Process: The term Peace Process means the initiative through which peace talks is conducted. It may be initiated from the governmental side or from the terrorist/insurgent groups, or sometimes any individual or group of individuals come forward to initiate the negotiation between the State and the insurgent groups. It’s a continuous process and may last for several years. When the terrorist/insurgent groups accept the proposal for a peace treaty and ceasefire has to be announced by both the sides. Though a number of civil society organizations and government directed peace initiatives have been undertaken yet peace can not be seen in the region. There are number of causes which had hampered the whole process and initiatives of peace. Two simultaneous, but very different kind of Peace Process are discernible in India’s North East. On the one hand are those in which the Government in involved in talks with any of the insurgent groups in the region. The Goal of such talks is primarily to bridge the conflicting interest of the parties involved. They may culminate in the signing of accords. On the other hand Peace Process that are active mostly at the local level and make coexistence of diverse bodies of people possible- notwithstanding the conflict that take place at the state or regional level. Peace is accordingly negotiated by groups and communities within the neighbourhoods and localities almost on an everyday basis. These may be called “official” and “unofficial” peace process respectively. 13 Official andUnofficial PeaceProcess alsoreflect two different ways of addressing conflicts and of defining the role that civil society groups and initiatives play in them. Official Peace Process

addresses conflict by reducing them to the competing interests of the parties involved. The State and the Insurgent Groups are thus taken as two key players and peace in always defined as some form of a balance of power that obtains between them. The task of such peace groups in this process- for example, that of the Naga People’s Conventions (PNC), Peace Mission (PM), the People’s Consultative Groups (PCG) and People’s Committee for Peace Initiative (PCPI) - is to make the first move in situation of conflict, bring the warring parties to negotiating table, set forth potentially agreeable ceasefire terms, and offer alternative ways of settling conflicts. The purpose of the civil society groups in the unofficial peace process is to constantly negotiate across the ethnic divide that otherwise hardens whenever conflict at the micro-level breaks out, and to make it possible for rivalling communities to live and co-exist within the same village, locality, or neighbourhood without indulging in violation, arson, and bloodshed between them. This is predicated on the assumption that living within the immediate society involves compromises at almost every step and the resolution of local conflicts. Organisations such as the Mothers Union of Meghalaya, the Naga Mothers Association (NMA), and Naga Women’s Union and Meira Paibis in Manipur work mainly as large conglomerates of the locally based bodies representing the interest of respective villages, localities and neighbourhoods.14 State Level Convention in Assam was formed in Guwahati on 24 th April 2010 to have a dialogue between the Centre, State Government and ULFA which can also be categorized among the Unofficial Peace Process of Assam. Dr. Hiren Gohain and Dr. Indira Goswami are some of the eminent facilitator groups of the State Level Convention of Assam (Sanmilita Jatiya Abhibartan). 15 Media and the Peace Process: Media has always been a part of our life. In fact, it is one of the best means of getting information in today’s world. However, in the era of globalization the role of media has become more pronounced and more responsible to the people at large. The media is having an immense role in farming adequate environment for peace process of any ongoing conflict. With the increasing global importance to rising crime, violence, anti-societal elements, corruption, misuse of power, violation of human rights, insurgency,

43 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

terrorism etc. in state, national and international level, which is a matter of concern for every peace loving society, where the role of media cannot be ignored. In such a hostile environment, the media can play a responsible mediator to create an environment for the conflict resolution. Generally media has been classified into three

categories-

Print Media : News Paper, Magazines, Periodicals, Books, Journals etc. Audio Media : Community Radio, F.M. etc. Audio-Visual Media : T.V, News Channels, Cinema, Documentary, Internet etc. “Responsible media can be seen as an important part of the natural immune system of the body politics, which should be mobilized to prevent conflict and to help resolve the factor which gives rise to conflict”. 16 The Responsible Media should inspire all (common people) to make opinions and decisions on development, human rights, in a society. Thus, responsible media can serve to disseminate information about peace and war. They can improve knowledge and shape, perception and attitudes about a verity of subjects, they can influence peace issues, and behaviour of all directly or indirectly associated common people with the ongoing conflict. The need to study the media in a critical and coherent way has become increasingly obvious in recent years, as they have come to occupy a central position in our culture and political life. Virtually all that we know, or think that we know, about the world beyond our immediate experience comes to us through the media. The fact that the media have remained outside the school curriculum at the same time as they have come to dominate so many aspect of our society, and indeed, our individual consciousness, is a tribute to their power to influence us on levels of which we are unaware. It is not surprising then, that we have come to study the media; it is only surprising that it has taken us so long to start. 17 In the changing time and circumstances every individual must have to be media literate or he/she must have the capability to analyze the various media reporting. Media literacy is the ability to shift through and analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell to us every day. There for we must be media literate.

Media literacy is the process of accessing, analysis, evaluating and creating massages in a wide variety of media modes and forms. It uses an inquiry based institutional model that encourages people to ask questions about what they watch, see and read. 18 According to Wally Bowen, “Media- literacy seeks to empower citizens and to transform their passive relationship to media into an active critical engagement- capable of challenging the traditions and structures of a privatized, commercial media culture, and finding new avenues of citizen speech and discourse”. 19 Impact/Influence of Media on the Peace Process:

Generally, the media presents the report on any peace process or conflict resolution measures adopted by the government as well as from the individual initiative or from the rebellion groups. When the media reports any on going peace process then it influences the Peace Process as a whole or direct or indirect impact can be seen on the Peace Process. The influence/impact of media on the Peace Process may be found in the following aspects :

Firstly, the media helps in defining the political atmosphere in which the peace process takes place. Second, the media has an active influence on the strategy and behaviour of the stakeholders to the conflict. Third, the media has an important influence on the nature of debate about a peace process. Fourth, the media can buttress or weaken public legitimacy of the stakeholder’s involvement in the peace process. 21 Role of Media in the Peace Process of North- East India: In order to resolve any ongoing conflict whether it is at a state level, national level or international level the role of media and its time- to-time reporting cannot be ignored. Media Reports can bring up the necessary environment to hold conflict resolution process in a cogitative manner. These reports also make other stakeholders aware about the time-to-time developments in peace resolution process, which is directly or indirectly related to the development of the country as a whole. In the peace process, the role of the media can be regarded as one of the fundamental pillars in order to bring the consensus out of the conflicts. During an on-going violent conflict the role of responsible media are more circumscribed, but

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 44

may include providing necessary channels for dialogue in crisis situation; facilitating and mediating in conflict situation; mobilizing and providing essential social services and humanitarian support. 21 The very role of responsible media has to be played by the media print or audio or visual media operating in North-East India as well as the National Media and the International Media to resolve the conflict in the states of India. It is well assumed that the media operating throughout the country playing an important role by disseminating information to the people at the cost of heavy trouble. Furthermore news channels are providing and reporting day-to-day information to the people on the basis of 24X7 even in regional languages to reach all the sections of the greater society of North- East India and India as a whole. For example the Mass Media of Assam has been reporting the various issues relating to the on- going Peace Process of ULFA (United Liberation Front of Assam) and the Govt. of Assam & Govt. of India. There is a situation where we don’t have any photograph of the top ULFA leaders who are now in jail. We have never heard the voices of these leaders who had created a great tension for the security forces as well as to the Government Officials of State/Central Government. Even one step ahead where the ULFA cadres had never shown the Commander-In-Chief, Sri Paresh Baruah, Chairman of ULFA, Sri Arobind Rajkhowa or the ULFA top leaders like Sri Raju Baruah, Sri Sacha Choudhury, Sri Chitraban Hazarika etc. Moreover we have no idea about the life style of the underground militants. But due to the active and responsible role that played by the mass media of the North-East India has brought them more closer to the people after a long struggle for their demands. No doubt still we are in a state of uncertainty whether the on-going peace process of Assam and the other states of India could bring a desired peace to these states as it requires both side initiatives for a peace treaty. While discussing the role of media in representation of different issues create different impression on the viewers through their ‘NEWS’ reporting, which can be discussed in the following way :

1. Different persons interprets messages differently: Information percolated through mass media is meant for the common people. These

messages can be interpreted differently by different persons according to their level of education, knowledge, analyses ability, prior experience etc.

2. Medium of information dissemination: Each medium of information has its own way of working, style, language, technologies, codes, convention and principles. Messages can be percolated through any of the mass media medium, but care is to be taken that the very essence of the message remains intact.

3. Media Content: The content of media report is based on the ideas, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions of the reporter, editor or publisher. While framing media reports utmost care is necessary to be taken of as it can have significant impact over the society. Every media message holds a value message that can affect differently to different persons according to the level of the recipients.

4. Commercialization of Media: Mass media is not only working for information dissemination, but also has to earn revenue to meet day to day expenses for providing such information of the various sources of information dissemination, each sources used to generate revenue from advertising, publishing, classifieds etc.

5. Impression of Media Messages: According to Marshall Mcluhan, “The medium is the message”. Different kinds of media might report the same event but create different impression. Some medium of message can articulate vital events or messages as less important news, where as sometimes very less important matters are presented with a significant importance. The medium of information can leave significant impression in the minds of receiver from the way he has received the message.

6. Social and Political Implication: A media message leaves ample scope to affect social and political scenario of a society. For instance, for last few years, Government of India (GOI) is taking help of mass media to make local people aware to eradicate polio from India and to make India a polio free nation by the stipulated period. Such kind of promotional advertisement can bring radical change to the whole economy.

45 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

7. Tendency to Influence stakeholders’ behaviour: In the end, information is presented by various mass media holds a tendency to influence the behaviour of various stakeholders. 22 Negative Aspects of Media: Apart from positive view of media, the negative aspect of media cannot be denied. Media is like a twin blade sword, which is having a tremendous potentiality to damage both

the sides of it, if the user does not use it properly.

1. Political Influence: It is very difficult to prove the political influence over the media, but the possibility of such occurring cannot be ignored.

2. Commercialization of Mass Media: Media is holding an influential position in the minds of the common people. With the increasing global competition in every sector, the mass media is also not away from the track. In order to survive in intense competition sometimes the activities of mass media become commercialized, which holds a tendency to leave impact over the society.

3. Doubt over the fundamentals of

Journalism: The media should work responsibly towards presenting reports. Any act to attract higher revenues or fame by presenting information in an irresponsible manner can be dangerous to the whole society. The receiver of the messages interprets and analyses the reports presented by media and react according to their level of understanding. Conclusion: The Media is a pivotal catalyst in the success of the peace process, within an enabling

REFERENCES :

1. http://www.neportal.org/northeastfiles.

2. Bhaumik. Subir, “Negotiating Access: North East India”, Refugee Survey Quarterly 19, no.2 (2000)

3. Madhab Jayanta, “North East and the Eleventh Plan” Yojana, A Development monthly, December 2007, pp.8-9

4. Das. Samir Kr, “Conflict and Peace in India’s North East: The Role of Civil Society”, Policy Studies 42, p.1.

5. Rajkhowa, J.P. “Peace and Development” in Yojana, Decem- ber 2007, Vol 51 pp.13.

6. satp.org/satportgpt/countries/India, last updated on 12 th De- rd

7. Verghese, B.G.: “India’s North-East Resurgent Ethnicity, In- surgency, Governance, Development”, Konark Publishers Pvt.

cember 2010 (visited on 23

December 2010)

Ltd. 2004

8. Muller & Seligson : Inequality and Insurgency, American Political Science Review, Vol. 81, no. 2 (1987)

atmosphere as well as in the development process of a State. Animating its involvement should be a realization that citizens depend on the media for information on the peace process. The relationship between the stakeholders to the conflict, the political and the public is a symbolic one, each moulding the other, in a continuum that contains within the key to conflict transformation as well as the seeds of conflict formation. 23 It is imperative that the importance of media in day-to-day life of the common people cannot be denied. It is the process of binding the news to the footsteps of citizens. The media should try to behave responsibly so that the environment prevailing in the society is not going to be changed for the worst. An active and responsible media is needed for leading the social movement because a strong and responsible media is the foundation of democratic, stable, peaceful and developed society. 24 The conflict situation in North-East India is a politico-military phenomenon. Therefore, the need is to formulate a multi disciplinary option comprising the politico-socio-economic-military fronts. The use of force on its own will not solve the problem. The political socio-economic initiatives would be the only alternative to resolve the conflict. While the governments both as States and as National level must respond appropriately to address the issues, it is the will and effort of the people of North East, which can resolve the conflict. The initiative of the people on the part of Central Government only will not be enough, the State Governments and the people must decide as to how long they would like to suffer and remain in a state of unrest, violence, insecurity and underdevelopment. 25

9. Market Skyline 2006

10.Source: Yojana, December 2007

11. Shekatkar.D.R, Resolving Conflict in NE Perspectives and Response, in Peace Initiative a North East India Perspec- tive, Ed. By Thomas Vattathara & Elizabeth George, Pub-

lished by Don Bosco Institute, Joypur, Guwahati, 04, Assam, 2004, pp-42-56 12.Coomarswamy Radhika, Dirukshi Fonseka, 2004. 13.Das. Samir. Kr., ibid. op.cit. 14.Das. Samir Kr., ibid. op.cit. 15.Gohain. Heren, “Working for Peace in Assam”, Economy and Political Weekly, June 26, 2010, Vol. XLV, No. 26& 27,

p.4

16.Sarup Kamala, “Responsible Media and Peace Process”, http:// bangaladesh-web.com/view.

17.http://www.aml.ca/home

(Contd. on Page56)

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 46

Anirban Ghosh A t the age when other children use to go to school, play
Anirban Ghosh
A t the age when other children use to go
to school, play happily in the playground,
be busy with other childish activities, Nikhil
is busy as a helping hand to a roadside eatery
alongside Shyam Bazar, Kolkata. His works
include collecting used dishes, washing them
and arranging them for further use, arranging
water, helping the cook, Animesh, his co-
worker who of course, might be of the age in
which other children study at Class IX or X.
Yes, this is not only the story of Nikhil
and Animesh. Thousands, in fact tens and
hundreds of thousands of such children are
there throughout the length and breadth of the
country. Not only deprived from the basic
necessities in life, these unfortunate children
have to lead a very hard and miserable life.
According to a study conducted by
International Labour Organisation, the number
of children in India engaged as child labour
between the age group of 5 – 14 years is
estimated around 12.6 million. Though Child
labour is banned in India, the practical scenario
is exactly the opposite. These children can be
very commonly seen engaged as domestic
labour in middle class families, in cheap
restaurants and roadside eateries, garages, brick
fields, firework factories or even in many other
small businesses. The bosses use to engage
them as the remuneration and other facilities
like food and accommodation given to them
prove to be very cheap as compared to an adult
employee. Moreover they can be exploited more
compared to an adult employee.
Now, the question arises – why such a huge
number of children get engaged as Child labour?
A numerous number of factors work behind the
engagement of children as labour. Some of them
include – parental poverty, socio-economic
conditions, high rate of adult unemployment,
trafficking of children and migration (both across
the border and internal), lack of access to basic
education etc.
Around 20% of total child labour forces in
India are engaged as domestic labour. Around 2
million children in India work in hazardous
industries like brick fields, fire cracker industries,
glassware production etc. Child trafficking is
another major contributor to child labour in india.
Around 12000 – 50000 children and women are
being illegally trafficked in India every year from
the neighbouring countries. Apart from these, the
number of internal trafficking is numerous.
For Nikhil and Animesh, the day starts with
getting up early at 4.30 am. Last night they slept
on the Varandah of a Cinema Theater in Shyam
Bazar. This verandah is their accommodation
provided by the owner of the eatery in a condition
that the same can be used from 11pm to 5am. For
the natural activities in the morning, they have to
rush to a nearby vat of Kolkata Municipal
Corporation. However place changes depending
upon the crowd of the same age already in waiting.
Then a Bidi, a relaxing smoke being shared by

47 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

both, gives a freshness of mind. The situation of child labour in India is desperate. The children engaged in different types of jobs are having different working hours and pattern. For example, a child engaged in brick fields has to work for more than 10 hrs each day under any circumstances. Their work starts early in the morning at around 7.30 – 8 am and have to work tirelessly upto sunset. Again the children engaged in roadside eateries and dhabas have to work upto as late as 10 pm, though they start working at around 9.30-10 am in the morning against which they are given a little remuneration, meal for two times and a place to sleep at night, that is too either in their workplace or nearby footpath. Around 6.30, it is the time to rush to office. To them, it is the good old eatery of Manik, the boss. For Nikhil work starts with sweeping the surroundings of the eatery, washing it. Meanwhile, the boss arrives and his day at office starts with some hard words to both the boys. The boys unload all the equipments from the Rickshaw van, that already arrived. Then arrangement for preparing the dishes, serving it, other works related to this, all are handled by these two-boy-army. No Customer time (5mins approx) is the lunch time and the eatery closing time is the dinner time. Menu for lunch is three – four roties each with a plate of the cheapest-of-all- dishes and the menu for dinner is whatever is left unsold, though the quantity is not unlimited. Finally the office is over around 9.30-10.00 pm. There are other effects of this social evil as well. Many of the children engaged in child labours are often seen to become trapped in spider web of crime. Lack of education, and proper supervision by guardians lead this children often to the world of crime. Theft, pick-pocketing are some other activities that these children are seen to be engaged. Consumption and trafficking of narcotics have become common phenomenon by this children. On November 21, 2005, India’s biggest ever raid for child labour rescue was conducted in the eastern New Delhi by NGO Activist and social

worker Junned Khan in association with the Labour Department and NGO Pratham. As a result 480 children, engaged in over 100 embroidery factories at the slums of Seelampur, New Delhi, were rescued.This rescue operation opened the eyes of

the world to the threat of child labour operating right under the nose of the largest democracy in the whole world.

It is entertainment time for Animesh and

Nikhil. Exchange of Hard Slangs with fellow children like them, a competition of throwing stones towards the glow-signs of nearby buildings are best entertainment medium. In between, a bidi or two, being shared by the boys. Some of them even have raised the “art of pick pocketing” to a new height. The art is being shared by all of them. Finally when the last show is over, this is the time

to practice the newly learned art. Sometimes it is good earning. Sometimes hardluck, followed by kicks and slaps thoroughly. Some unlucky fellows reache upto the police station. Bad luck for them. Around 12.30, it is sleeping time and the time for a big fight, fight for the best place available. Best is the area just under the fans and then the surroundings. The weakest and the new comers have the corners reserved for them.

A research conducted in 1997 said that over

40000 children were employed in the famous silk weaving industry of Kanchipuram in Tamilnadu. This included children who were bonded labourers to loom owners. However, Rural Institute for Development Education undertook many activities to improve the situation of these children. As a result of all these measures, the number of children has gone down to less that 4000 by 2007. Engagement of children in various hazardous businesses do not only show the helplessness of the law enforcement agencies to curb it but also finger the ill attitude of the society as a whole. It is said that unless and until the society is vigilant enough the efforts of law enforcing agencies will not yield enough results. So, Next time you come across a child labour or think of engaging a child for domestic help. Please think twice!!

*The Character of Animesh and Nikhil are fictitious and are based on my conversation with a child on the way to Howrah from Chittaranjan a few weeks ago. (The author is an alumni of Tinsukia College and now works at Chittaranjan Loco Works, West Bengal. For more articles on Environmental Issues, please logon at his site :

http://sites.google.com/site/planetgreenactnow & http://blogofanirban.blogspot.com)

/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11

/ 48

W omen are increasingly willing to get empowered and contribute in the nation

building work. The increasing role played by the women folk is also a welcoming fact. Women

support, be implemented for women.

c] Women mobility be increased at a faster rate.

d] Women must learn to protect themselves under critical situation.

empowerment stands for getting power for critical decision making including finance. There is no doubt of the fact that women empowerment has emerged as a crucial phenomenon in the roadmap of the national development. The Bill, Women Reservation is the very instance of such development. The question therefore comes in mind is, why this reservation – (a) Is it because they are not socially safe ? (b) If it is so, how such menacing factors can be removed ? The key issues in women empowerment, which need due attention are awareness, social support, education and publicity in positive direction. Since women population is almost half of the country’s population, they are the ‘Better half’ of the society and hence needs equal growth and development in all respects. Although officially women are at par with men but the truth is otherwise. The ‘low literacy rate’ which is about 40 plus percent at present against 60 plus percent to men and ‘low working women’ at 30 plus percent against 55 plus percent men clearly confirms their growth position in the society compared to men 2 . Frankly speaking our socio cultural traditions and mind setups have been directly arresting the women to be there, within four walls. Considering the low level of women empowerment, we urge

upon the society to come forward with certain positive action plan predominantly taken up by some women NGOs 3 . Our society, therefore, must come ahead with the following definite steps to see women as social partner :

a] Compulsory education for women has to be given first preference.

b] Bonus – scheme, including financial

e] Family ties be developed o t look after Dr. B. K. Sen the children
e]
Family ties be
developed
o
t
look
after
Dr. B. K. Sen
the children
jointly.

f] Advantageous working hours may be arranged for working women, if needed.

g] Division of work at home may come up purposively.

49 /

/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11

h] Housewives be given financial responsibility along with financial management.

i] Women be empowered largely with decision making right and power.

j] Certain category of works be specially resolved for women, such as primary and middle school teaching, salesmanship, tailoring etc.

k] Women be trained with managerial skill

having different Women Cells in different organisations and NGOs.

l] Women be trained with problem solving techniques on war footing. In certain cases, infact the sacrifice of men cannot be denied in empowering the women. However, women must not live at anybody’s mercy, rather they should live at their own footings as ‘social partner’. It is also the responsibility of the society 4 , the other partner in particular, to pull

REFERENCE:

them out of the category ‘Abla’– the weakest partner of the society as said. Qualitatively women are more patience bearing and good marketeer of products and services compared to men. If we really want to see women empowerment, we should begin on critical issues. Only Govt. efforts cannot empower women, however, house to house social effort is a must, besides the formation of Women Club, Women School, Women Market, Women Training Centre and so on for faster growth and development of women as social partner 5 . To conclude, the ‘Better half’ of the society, i. e., women must not live at the mercy of ‘Other half’ of the society. Rather they should come forward and act as social partner which is the only alternative-behind women empowerment. Thus women can become a good social partner to men having equally empowered to the over all growth and development of the country.

1)

The Assam Trubune, Guwahati, 10 th M