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A report submitted to Delhi Business School, New Delhi
as a part fulfillment of
MBA+PGP Graduate program (industry integrated) in entrepreneurship and business.

Submitted to: Submitted by:

Director Academic Name: Usama waheed
Delhi Business school Roll no: dbs/08-10/w-225
New Delhi Batch: Winter batch
Semester: 3rd
University: PTU

Internal guide:
Delhi Business School
New Delhi

delhi business school

Delhi Business School

B-II/M.C.I.E.,Mathura Road , New Delhi
Table of content
1. Acknowledgement
2. Declaration
3. Introduction of Delhi metro
4. Mission
5. Delhi’s metro corporate culture
6. Structure
7. History of Delhi metro
8. Arrangement of fund for Delhi metro
9. World best system of Public transport
10. Delhi Metro rated world-class by UK agency
11. Delhi metro development plan
12. Delhi Metro Rail as conceived In Delhi Master Plan
13. Benefit of Delhi metro
14. Economic benefit
15. Enactment of the Metro Railways (Construction of Works)
16. Act, 1978
17. Delhi metro’s plan feeder buses
18. Need for MRTS (Mass rapid transit system)
19. Delhi metro’s success story
20. Features of Delhi Metro
a) Cleanliness
b) Infrastructure
c) Fare
d) Punctuality
e) Coaches
f) Station
g) General awareness
21. Operations and safety
22. Types of ticket
a) Smart card
b) RFID token
c) Tourist card
23. First Delhi Metro Coach To Come By Air Arrives From Germany
24. Special Features in New Metro Trains
25. Solution for crowd management at busy metro station
26. Market analysis
27. Bibliography
With sincere thoughts and deep sense of gratitude I would like to acknowledge the
contribution of following groups and individual to the development of my project and
successful completion of the Management Research Project in the partial fulfillment
of the requirement of MBA program of Delhi Business School, New Delhi.

In the line I would like to extend my first and foremost gratitude to my guide Mr. Lok
Nath Mishra and Mr. Ashish Shah who has been the key person for me in getting
corporate exposure. She is the person with whose guidance I learned the difference
between the theory and practical application of the concept of knowledge workers.
Also, he kept a close supervision on me and guided me at every step.
I usama waheed declare that this project report entitled “Customer satisfaction” is an
original piece of work done and submitted by me towards partial fulfillment of my
Post graduate Diploma in Business Administration.

Mahesh Sharma
Introduction of Delhi Metro
For implementation and subsequent operation of Delhi MRTS, a company under the
name DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION was registered on 03-05-95 under the
Companies Act, 1956. DMRC has equal equity participation from GOI and GNCTD.
• To cover the whole of Delhi with a Metro Network by the year 2021.
• Delhi Metro to be of world class standards in regard to safety, reliability,
punctuality, comfort and customer satisfaction.
• Metro to operate on sound commercial lines obviating the need for
Government support.
Delhi Metro’s corporate culture
• We should be totally dedicated and committed to the Corporate Mission.
• Personal integrity should never be in doubt, we should maintain full
transparency in all our decisions and transactions.
• The Organization must be lean but effective.
• The Corporation must project an image of efficiency, transparency, courtesy
and “we mean business” attitude.
• Our construction activities should not inconvenience or endanger public life
nor should lead to ecological or environmental degradation.
• All our structures should be aesthetically planned and well maintained.
• Safety of Metro users is our paramount responsibility.
• Our stations and trains should be spotlessly clean.
• Our staff should be smartly dressed, punctual, polite and helpful to the
• Employees should discharge their responsibilities with pride, perfection and
• Chairman - Shri M Ramachandran
• Managing Director - Dr. E. Sreedharan
• Total No. of Directors – 16
• Nominee of Govt. of India – 5
• Nominee of Govt. of NCTD - 5 (Including MD)
• No. of full-time functional Directors at present including MD – 7
• The corporate office of the company is located at Metro Bhawan, Fire Brigade
Lane, Barakhamba Road New Delhi - 110001, India
History of Delhi Metro

Delhi became the seat of Government of India in 1911

when the Imperial Government shifted its capital from
Calcutta to Delhi. Initially the capital was located on the
Ridge, north of the walled city of Delhi. As this site was
not found suitable to serve as the seat of the
Government, a new city, namely, New Delhi, located to
the south of the walled city was planned. Construction
work of New Delhi started in 1912 under the supervision of renowned city planners
and architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. Construction of New Delhi
was completed in 1931 when the seat of the Government was shifted to this new
place. The city has continued to grow since then at a fast pace.
National Capital Territory of Delhi today covers an area of
1486 sq Kms and is a Union Territory with all powers of
State Government. The history of planning a Metro
Project for Delhi dates back to 70's. The Central Road
Research Institute (CRRI) undertook the first exhaustive
study on traffic and travel characteristics of Delhi in 1969-
70. While bringing out extensive data describing the
traffic and travel characteristics, it developed mathematical models to project travel
demand. By examining several alternatives, it recommended for a Mass Rapid
Transit Network for Delhi. Metropolitan Transport Team (MTT), Indian Railways, has
reviewed the above schemes. MTT sought for some modifications to
recommendations of CRRI and planned for a well knit Mass Rapid Transit System
for the capital city of India. The system comprised of 36 Km of underground corridors
aligned two axes North-South and East-West Corridors and 96 Kms of surface rail
corridors. Metropolitan Transport Project (MTP-R, set up by the Ministry of Railways,
Government of India) prepared an engineering plan to construct the MTR system.
Since CRRI proposal was based on transport demand projection up to the year
1981, it was assigned to Town & Country Planning Organization the work of further
projection of demand to the year 2001. Its concept plan envisaged a network of 58
km underground & 195 km surface corridors. As a part of the techno-economic
feasibility study, subsoil exploration were conducted on four specific trunk routes and
by the side of existing railway tracks and recommended for taking up pilot projects.
Delhi Development Authority (DDA) prepared a perspective plan for Delhi (MPD-
2001) in 1984 and recommended for a multi modal transport system comprising of
200 km of Light Rail Transit System, 10 Km of Tramway, an extension to surface rail
system and extensive road network. The Urban Arts Commission suggested some
modifications to the proposal of DDA and recommended for the development of the
existing Ring Railway with three radial underground MRT corridors.

Due to rapid growth especially along the western and eastern parts of the city, a
study group was appointed by the Ministry of Railways, Govt. of India to recommend
a precise alignment for the East-West corridor and in 1987 further appointed a Task
Force for assessing the choice of exact construction technology. While suggesting
some changes to the alignment of study group, it recommended for pilot project
based on M-Bahn Magnetic Levitation System in case of negation suggested for
replacement by Light Rail Transit System.
Feasibility Report on Integrated Multi Modal Mass Rapid Transport System of Delhi
(IMMRTS) prepared by RITES recommended for three-component system
comprising of Rail corridors, Metro corridors and dedicated bus way totaling to 184.5
Km and further addition of 14 km increased to 198.5 km. The total network contains
16 sections to be implemented in a sequence based on passenger kilometer carried
per kilometer length of each section. The first phase of the network, now
(commissioned) comprises of 65.11 km of route length with 13.01 km underground
called Metro corridor and 52.10 km surface / elevated called Rail Corridor.
Arrangement of Funds for Delhi Metro Rail

As urban MRT projects are mean to provide a safe, speedy and affordable mode of
travel to the commuters, they have not generally been found to be financially viable
in the most cities of the world, despite their large economic benefits. MRT fares
cannot be fixed purely on the basis of commercial principles, without drastic
decrease in ridership and defeating the very object of setting up such mass transit
system. Hence, the city dwellers must necessarily supplement the contributions to
be made by the system users to meet the costs of setting up. as well as running the
system. Delhi being national capital and international city, the GOI and GNCTD must
also contribute to meet part of these costs. It has accordingly been decided that the
project will be financed by way of equity contributions from the GOI / GNCTD, soft
loan from the OECF (Japan), property development revenue and certain decided
levies / taxes on the city dwellers.

The loan will rapid partly from surpluses from the box revenue, partly through
dedicated levies / taxes in the NCT.

The financial plan of the project has been approved by the GNCTD and GIO on
24.7.1996 and 17.9.19996 respectively.

Source of fund Percentage of total cost

1. Equity contribution from GOI & GNCTD 15% each
2. OECF (Japan) loan Approx 56%
3. Revenue from property development Approx 6%
4. Subordinate debt towards cost and land Approx 8%
The above financial plan is based on:

• Debt equity ratio 2:1

• Fare: Base rate rs. 5.00 (at April 1995

prices) per passenger trip of 7.12 km

World best system of Public transport

Delhi Metro is on the threshold of vast changes and developments in India. It is a
period of optimism for most Indians, a period when they can legitimately dream of a
better life, a better country. The time is, therefore, ripe to imagine the India of the
future. However, when we contemplate what the country can become, It should not
lose sight of the fact that India had a glorious past, not only in terms of economic
prosperity but also on moral values. Delhi metro is proud of being an Indian and the
values that are associated with India. Our spiritual heritage and high moral values
set us apart, and we should never lose sight of this in our quest for development.

Despite its golden past, numerous wars and foreign occupation kept India behind the
rest of the world for hundreds of years. Post-Independence, things started to
improve. India has witnessed improvement is the last 60 years, especially in
industrialization, agriculture and infrastructure development. A lot, however, still
needs to be achieved.
I have noticed a welcome change in the last two decades. Call it the result of
economic reforms or a new awakening, these last few years have given Indians the
confidence to believe in themselves. I am proud that the Delhi Metro also played a
small role in this. The construction and operation of this world-class Metro system
ahead of schedule and within the budget has given Indians the confidence to believe
that they can build the most challenging and technically complex projects.

I have spent decades in public transport and infrastructure and the India of my
dreams will have a public transport system that can measure up to the best in the
world. I know this is possible but many things will have to change before this
becomes a reality.

India is a vast country with long distances and therefore quick, reliable and safe
transportation systems are most essential for its economic growth. Unfortunately,
our planners have not realized that investments in the transport sector come back to
the nation manifold, fueling growth in many other sectors. More than 70% of the
country’s goods and population move by roads. A lot needs to be done to lay new
roads and improve existing ones, national highways. The golden quadrilateral
project is a beginning, and I hope such projects will gather momentum.

As for the Indian Railways, an aggressive policy for modernization and improving the
safety record is the need of the day. The focus of the Railways should change from
dedicated freight corridors to dedicated high-speed passenger corridors, to which all
mail and express trains should be diverted. Capacity thus released will be more than
what is needed for freight movement.

On the aviation front also, we do not seem to be looking into the future. The country
needs modern airports and at least three to four times more than the number
available today. Greenfield airports are coming up at Devanahalli near Bangalore
and Shamshabad near Hyderabad, but many more such projects, especially in
remote areas, are required and I am hopeful that air connectivity to all corners of the
country will be a reality in the future.
While our cities are growing very fast, the urban transport infrastructure is lagging
terribly behind. Modern public transport systems like the Delhi Metro are essential to
sustain economic activities in our cities. Measures to reduce private ownership of
cars and encourage use of public transport are urgently required. Thankfully, after
the success of the Delhi Metro, several Indian cities such as Mumbai, Bangalore,
Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Chennai are now taking up Metro projects.

The government has recently come out with a National Urban Transport Policy,
which is a good beginning. The government should also seriously think of setting up
a separate ministry to oversee and expedite Metro constructions in all our cities with
populations over three million. Only such measures will solve the transportation
problems of our medium and large cities.

India also needs an administrative environment where decision-making is very fast.

Procedural shackles slow down projects and this situation must change. Delhi Metro
Rail Corporation has been quite successful in this respect and there is no reason
why government departments and public sector undertakings cannot follow the Delhi
Metro example.

Undoubtedly, public transport is one area where vast improvements will have to be
made to build a dream India. Ultimately, the benefits of the country’s progress
should reach the poor and the villages. Sadly, the progress of the country that we
are witnessing is largely limited to urban areas. In the India I envision, all citizens will
have easy access to education, healthcare and employment. Merely pouring
thousands of crore to set up schools and hospitals in rural areas will not fulfill this
dream. The government must ensure that teachers and doctors carry out their duties
diligently. Providing seasonal employment is also not enough. It will be better to take
concrete steps to increase our agricultural output and set up hundreds of vocational
training centre.

In my 75 years, I have witnessed great changes in India. Some of the changes have
been for the better and some for the worse. The India of the future, I firmly believe,
will take its place in the comity of developed nations and I sincerely hope that the
moral heritage of my country remains in place. After all, there is no point in
prosperity at the cost of ethics.

Delhi Metro rated world-class by UK agency

A Leading international accredition service has rated the performance of Delhi Metro
network as world-class. A surveillance witness audit of Delhi Metro was recently
conducted by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). The report termed
DMRC’s housekeeping and operational controls as world-class

UKAS is the sole national accredition body recognized by the government to assess,
in accordance with international agreed standards, organizations that provide
certification, testing, inspection and calibration services.

“The fact that DMRC included occupational health and safety in an integrated
management system is particularly laudable,” said UKAS auditor Andrew Marlow.
He said DMRC’s efforts for water harvesting and energy saving are a model for
other big organizations to follow

DMRC CPRO Anuj Dayal said: “It is the management style which is unique. It is
based on practical experience...The credit goes to the managing director and the
entire team”.
Delhi metro development plan
Almost all old cities of the developing countries which are supporting the highest
population densities are facing the problems of heavy traffic, lack of proper
sewerage & storm water disposal system, lack of parking spaces, and lack of social
infrastructure etc. Solving of these problems were not within the capability of the
local Authorities due to non availability of space in such cities and lack of

In the present era of science and development, the advent of new technology has
made it possible to solve above problems by providing such infrastructure below or
above the ground of such cities. For the benefits of the public, the living example of
Delhi Metro Rail including its vast railway stations and restaurants etc. which have
been constructed below and above the ground has been described as below.

Delhi Metro Rail as conceived In Delhi Master Plan

The walled city of Delhi developed traditionally over a period of time into mixed land
uses associated with whole sale markets is a most congested part of the city facing
acute traffic problems, lack of parking spaces, and lack of social infrastructure etc.
Recently, the construction of Metro Rail below ground in the said walled city has
proved that natural constraints coming in the way of development can be overcome
with the application of advanced technology. The Delhi Metro Rail Project is being
implemented primarily to solve traffic problems of Delhi as first of all conceived in
Delhi Master Plan in 1960.
Benefits of Delhi Metro
The 1st. phase, 2nd phase and 3rd phase of Delhi Metro Rail have already been
commissioned. The operation of said Metro rail has reduced the traffic congestion on
roads running parallel to the said Metro line. It has also reduced the traveling time of
the commuters. It is considered reliable, safe, and more comfortable mode of
transportation as it has reduced the road accidents. In addition, it has reduced
atmospheric pollution including noise and has also reduced the fuel consumption of
transport sector resulting in saving of foreign exchange. It reduced the need for
parking spaces, expansion of roads, flyovers, laying of new roads etc. in areas which
are being served by it. It reflects sense of pride to the city and country having a
world class facility.

Economic Benefits

The Delhi MRTS is essentially a "social" sector project, whose benefits will pervade
wide sections of economy. The modified first phase will generate substantial benefits
to the economy by the way of:

• Time saving for commuters

• Reliable and safe journey
• Reduction in atmospheric pollution
• Reduction in accident
• Reduced fuel consumption
• Reduced vehicle operating costs
• Increase in the average speed of road vehicles
• Improvement in the quality of life
• More attractive city for economic investment and growth
Enactment of the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978
The proposal of Delhi Metropolitan Rail first of all was conceived in Delhi Master
Plan, published in 1960. For the implementation of this Project, the Metro Railway
(Construction of Works) Act, 1978 was enacted and Delhi Metro Rail Co. was
formulated. The responsibility for implementation of this project was given to Shri
Sreedharan by appointing him as Chairman of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. He
is also known for the completion of Konkan Railway Project in India before schedule.

Delhi metro plans feeder buses

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) would soon be running special feeder buses,
which would provide connectivity to commuters from metro stations to their nearest
bus stops.
Also, these buses would be equipped with global positioning system (GPS)
technology, which would enable smart card users to use them in the buses too.
As part of a pilot project, DMRC would be taking 200 buses from Delhi Transport
Corporation (DTC), and would be equipping them with GPS technology. Regular
Delhi Metro commuters, who already have smart cards, would be able to use them
in these buses too
DMRC Managing Director E Sreedharan said not only would these buses solve the
long standing problems of last mile connectivity for commuters, it would be a
modern, efficient and commuter friendly transport system
These buses would have the same colour scheme as that of the Delhi Metro
coaches and the drivers would be given uniforms, Sreedharan said.
DMRC has been in talks with Delhi government over issuance of license for running
feeder buses from stations for commuters for a long time now. DMRC officials told
Business Standard that they were hopeful for getting the license in the next three
The absence of feeder services from Metro stations to bus stops has been a long
standing grievance of Delhi Metro commuters
A source in DMRC said due to bureaucratic hurdles, the matter had not been
resolved, but with DMRC all set to get the license, the pilot project would solve this
problem. If the project is found successful, then it would be continued further, the
source said.

Need for MRTS (Mass rapid transit system)

As cities grow in size, the number of vehicular trips on

road system goes up. This necessitates a pragmatic
policy shift to discourage private modes and encourage
public transport once the level of traffic along any
travel corridor in one direction exceeds 20,000 persons
per hour.

Introduction of a rail based (MRTS) Mass Rapid Transit System is called for. Mass
Rapid Transit Systems are capital intensive and have long gestation period. It has
been observed that in developed countries, planning for mass transit system starts
when city population size exceeds 1 million; the system is in position by the time the
city population is 2 to 3 million and once the population exceeds 4 million or so,
planned extensions to the Mass Rapid Transit Systems is vigorously taken up. In
developing countries including India, because of paucity of funds planning and
implementation of rail based Mass Rapid Transit Systems has been lagging far
behind the requirements.

The city of Delhi with a population of round 12 (16.2)

million should have had an MRTS network of at
least 100 (300) KM by this time, whereas actually it is
still (65.10 kms) at the take-off stage. Delhi has all
the ideal dress-up for an excellent Mass Rapid Transit System to be brought in. It
has wide roads (roads cover 23% of the city area) where road possession for
construction is not difficult (except in the old city area). Implementation will also not
involve demolition of large scale private properties. Most of the land required is
under Government control and hence can be easily acquired.

The citizens are enlightened and would eagerly welcome introduction of people
friendly MRTS though they may initially face some difficulties during the
implementation phase. Added to this Delhi has an unassailable advantage in its
excellent railway network comprising two rings and six spurs totaling about 120 KM
within the urban area.

Unfortunately, these Rail assets are not presently fully being utilized as its share of
commuter traffic is only a mere 2%.

Delhi has experienced phenomenal growth in

population in the last few decades. Its population
has increased from 57 lakhs in 1981 to 120 (162)
lakhs in 1998 (2006) and is poised to reach 132
(190) lakhs by the year 2001 (2011). For want of an
efficient mass transport system, the number of motor vehicles has increased from
5.4 lakhs in 1981 to 30 (51) lakhs in 1998 (2007) and is (increasing at the rate of
6.21 per annum). The number of motor vehicles in Delhi is now more than that of
Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai put together. The result is extreme congestion on Delhi
roads, ever slowing speeds, increase in road accidents fuel wastage and
environmental pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two
thirds of the atmospheric pollution.

Today the traffic on roads of Delhi is a heterogeneous mix of cycles scooters buses
cars and rickshaws jostling with each other. This has resulted in a chaotic situation
so much so that due to road accidents, the average number of persons killed per
day has increased to 5 and of those injured to 13. The position is expected to
deteriorate further in the years to come.

To rectify this situation the Government of India and the Government of National
Capital Territory of Delhi, in equal partnership have set up a company named Delhi
Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. under the Companies Act,1956 which has (already
commissioned a 65.10 kms route in Phase-I and is proceeding ahead with another
121 kms in Phase –II).

Delhi Metro’s success story

The facilities on the metro system are not only modern and aesthetic, but are
also easily accessible for disabled commuters, including elderly people. It is
probably the only agency involved with transportation in India that has
incoporated accessible design in its facilities.

The new accessible New Delhi Metro Rail

Corporation (D.M.R.C.) is ready for use by
disabled people and seniors. It is probably the
only agency involved with transportation in India
that has thought of constructing an overhead
ramp for the physically challenged. The ill and
the disabled persons who cannot use the foot
over bridges or subway, can now take the ramp
from St Stephen's side at Tis Hazari station, and directly reach the concourse or
ticketing area, which is on the second level of the station.

The facilities on the metro system are designed to be modern, aesthetic, and easily
accessible for the disabled commuters. There are escalators and accessible
elevators at all stations. In addition, the entry path is lined with tactile tiles to guide
the visually impaired from outside the stations to the trains. Disabled commuters can
also expect accessible seating on the trains, as well as Braille instruction signs and
audio announcements.
The Metro Sahayaks (or Metro Helpers) are present at stations to provide assistance
at all times. Some specific facilities for disabled commuters are:

• Labels printed in braille in the lifts to indicate floors

• Elevator control buttons positioned at heights that are accessible to
wheelchair users
• Grip rails on the the sidewalls of the elevator car
• Wide doors for lifts
• Ramps at the entrance of every station
• Adequate landing space at the start and end of every ramp
• Reservation for employment of physically challenged
• Accesssible toilets on every floor
• Handrails inside toilets
• Well lit corridors for persons with visual impairments
• Ticket gate exclusively for disabled passengers
• Tactile tiles on all common passages
• Tactile warnings for abrupt change in height or near hazardous areas
• Audible warnings and announcing devices wherever possible

The metro is now offering tours to better acquaint users with the new system. To do
so, disabled users can go to the Kashmere Gate station (West End) near Mori Gate
Bus Terminal at 10 a.m. on any Wednesday for an orientation.

Exactly five years ago Delhiites were introduced to an all new travel experience as
the first stretch of Delhi Metro between Shahdara and Tis Hazari was thrown open to
the public on dec. 25, 2002. Since then Delhi metro train have run 2.25 carore kms
and the number of station have increased from 6 to 59. As construction is on to add
79 stations and 500 train to the Delhi metro network, Time city traces the major
achievements and grey areas in the journey so far.
The first stretch of Delhi Metro, spanning across just 8.5 kms, was inaugurated
amidst much hype. The system was truly world-class- air-conditioned trains
replacing rickety buses, contactless tokens in place of tickets, escalators, clean
platforms and a relief from traffic snarls. It was no surprise then that on day one of
operations, about 12 lakh people landed up at the stations. The system had been
designed to ferry just two lakh, so Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) actually
gave out advertisements requesting people to "defer pleasure trips for the time being
and allow essential travel to take place comfortably."
Officials say that the Hong Kong metro had seen a similar rush due to which the
system had collapsed right on the first day. It was reopened only about a month

Another little known fact is that the system — which introduced Delhi to token travel
and escalators — had actually given out paper tickets initially. "The managing
director had got tickets printed in Lucknow, which were used in addition to tokens in
the initial days as the automated gates couldn't handle the rush," said Anuj Dayal,
DMRC’s chief spokesperson.

The grey areas toilets, the elevated-underground debate and relocation of life in
some areas. "Toilets have now been provided on most stations. If they are
unavailable, people have been granted access to staff toilets," Dayal added. But,
Panchkuian Road, which was made one-way to ease construction of Line three, is
still one-way as the case of the shopkeepers is still in court. They refused to move
into a multi-level complex at Bhai Veer Singh Marg, since with the metro being
operational, road users are still forced to take a long detour.

The recent underground vs elevated debate for the line from Central Secretariat to
Badarpur is also giving DMRC sleepless nights, as the project with a 2010 deadline
may get delayed if work doesn't start immediately.
Features of Delhi Metro


The stations on the route are spic and span and so are the trains. It seems the
cleanliness is maintained by not having any stalls on the platforms and by imposing
heavy fines if one is caught eating/drinking on board. Even chewing gum is banned!.
At the metro station and in the train also every time it cleans .

The ticketing machine, turn-stiles, escalators, digital signboards, announcement and
light systems all are in excellent conditions. Even after extensive use there is no sign
of wear. Each station of Delhi Metro has sufficient parking space where people can
park their vehicles and use the metro service. They are also running some feeder
bus service to & fro stations.


The fare is very nominal. It is only from Dwarka to Rajiv Chowk (previously
Connaught Place) in an air-conditioned vehicle in just Rs.17.00 or to Chandni Chowk
for another five rupees or so. The DMRC has also introduced multi-purpose
Smartcards for regular commuters.


In punctuality Delhi metro always on time not a single train comes at station after its
time. Passenger have not to wait for the train very much time after five or six minutes
train comes regularly. So passenger are easily catch the train without waisting there

The Delhi Metro coaches are designed & equipped with modern facilities and
ensures the safety and comfort of passengers. The coaches are fully automatic with
doors being operated automatically and there are emergency exits in the train. One
can communicate with the driver at any point in case of an emergency. Unlike New
York, Paris or Sydney where they have more seating capacity, lesser no. of seats
makes it possible for Delhi Metro to carry more passengers.

General awareness

The general awareness among the commuters was good, none of them looked lost
or confused. Perhaps the reason for this was various announcements made on the
platforms and inside the trains. They were sufficiently detailed, bilingual and clear.
The signs and signboards at different places also played important role


The stations have an international look and have special care for handicaps and
senior citizens with escalators and lifts in place. Every where way marks are given
for the convenience of passenger.

Operations and safety

Each train consists of four coaches and can carry up to 240 seated and 400
standing passengers. The trains operate at intervals of 3 to 4.5 minutes between
6:00 to 23:00. Coaches on all trains are well ventilated and air-conditioned at a
temperature of 20~22°C. Trains operating within the network typically travel at
speeds below 80 km/h, or 50 mph, and stop about 20 seconds at each MRTS
station. The MRTS rolling stock are manufactured by ROTEM, relying on 1676 mm
(5 ft 6 in) track gauge (broad gauge). As of 2009, the metro system has a total
network length of 76.7 km, with 68 stations on 3 separate lines (14 underground, 52
elevated and 2 at-grade station

All metro stations and trains are monitored constantly by more than 1200 closed-
circuit cameras, and specially trained Delhi Metro police are stationed at all stations
and trains to deal with law and order issues in the system. Trains are at platform
level with a small platform gap to allow easy movement of passengers. The Delhi
Metro is also one of the few metros in the world to have plain clothed metro-
marshals on trains. Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency
communication between the passengers and the driver.

Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing of gum are prohibited in the entire system.
Automated station announcements are recorded in Hindi and English. Many stations
have services such as ATMs, food outlets, cafés and convenience stores.

Delhi Metro commuters have the following choices for ticket purchase:-
• Smart card

Valid for one year from the last time of use, these cards are available in
denominations of Rs.50 to Rs. 800. A 10% discount is given on all travel made on it.
A deposit of Rs.50 needs to be made to buy a new card.[35] These cards are most
convenient for frequent commuters.

• RFID Token

These tokens are valid only for a single journey on the day of purchase and the
value depends on the destination. Fares are decided based on the destination
station using the token table. Fares for a single journey range from Rs.6 to Rs.22

Tourist card

These cards can be used for unlimited travels on the Delhi metro network over a
short period of time. There are two kinds of tourist cards - the 1 day and the 3 day.
Cost of 1-day card is Rs. 70 and 3-day card is Rs. 200.

First Delhi Metro Coach To Come By Air Arrives From Germany

The first Metro coach to be brought to India by air arrived at the Indira Gandhi
International Airport on 26th February 2009 from Germany.

The coach was brought by a colossal AN - 24 aircraft from Germany and landed at
about 5:00 p.m. today. It was received by Dr. E. Sreedharan, MD, DMRC and other
DMRC Directors.

For the first time, Metro coaches were brought to India by aircraft by Delhi Metro Rail
Corporation. The coach was brought by the colossal Antonov AN - 124 aircraft from
Parchim Airport, Germany.

This was the first of eight Metro coaches, i.e., two trains, which are to be airlifted to
Delhi by April 2009. All of them are broad gauge coaches manufactured in Goerlitz,
Germany. The trains are being airlifted so that they can be commissioned as quickly
as possible to ease travel conditions on the Metro which recorded a 30% increase of
ridership in the last one year. The trains are likely to be commissioned by June 2009
on Line - 2 (Central Secretariat - Jahangirpuri) by June 2009.

Once all 4 coaches of a train arrive at the depot, they are first integrated into train
formation. The train then undergoes tests for technical parameters inside the depot
before tests on the mainline for load, braking, etc.
Special Features in New Metro Trains

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), which has ordered 131 new trains in view
of the increased rush on the Metro system in Delhi, will provide passengers with
power connections inside the coaches so that they can use their laptops and charge
their mobiles while they are traveling in the Metro. Every new Metro coach of Phase
–II will have power supply points for this purpose.

The Metro coaches in Phase - II will also have reduced noise levels inside the trains
as the DMRC is making major design changes to reduce the noise levels by use of
special sound absorbing cushions in the walls of the Metro coaches and more
buffing on the Metro doors which will be better sealed by reducing the door gaps to
ensure that less sound from outside enters the trains thus enabling the passengers
to travel in a better ambience. The noise level in the underground coaches has been
reduced by 8 decibels(db) as in Phase-I the internal noise levels was around 92 db
which will now be only 84 db in Phase-II. In addition, a new type of compressor
called Scroll Compressor System will be used in the air conditioners of the Phase-II
coaches which will be sealed and is more compact and this will reduce noise level in
the coachesfurther.

The Phase-II Metro coaches will also provide a much better level of passenger
comfort as for the first time there will be Humidity control as Humidity Sensors will
activate the newly planned heating system of the air conditioner which will eliminate
humidity inside the coaches. The temperature will be maintained at 25 degree
Celsius and relative humidity will be maintained at 60 % during the summer and
monsoon months (in Phase - I trains, there was only temperature control).

With the start of Phase-II the Delhi Metro will start travelling very far distances
covering around 50 kms in some destinations such as Dwarka-Noida, Gugaon-
Jahangirpuri, etc. To avoid confusion for the passengers who will travel on these
lines, there will be new destination sign boards in LED on one window of the side
wall of each coach so that passengers can view the terminal stations while standing
on the platform as some Trains may be terminating at intermediate stations
depending upon operational needs. This will be necessary as on the same line
different trains may be terminating at different destinations.
Phase - II trains will also have Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTVs) inside
the coaches apart from cameras outside the coaches so that the driver can see the
entry and exit of passengers from the train. The driver of the Metro trains will now be
able to observe passenger behavior in every part of the train at all times.
The trains in Phase - II are also being designed to travel upto a maximum design
speed of 95 kmph as against 90 kmph in Phase - I. The braking system is also better
as DMRC will use Wheel Mounted Disc Brakes which will be micro processor
controlled. In addition, the train will have energy absorbent couplers which can
absorb shock and reduce damage to the car body structure in collisions.
Solution for crowd management at busy metro station

The advent of Delhi metro rail for the people of Delhi really came as a pleasant
achievements after two decades of waiting. When the three lines currently operating
in Delhi were inaugurated one by one, crowd of people rushed to joyfully attend the
inaugurations and many enjoyed traveling with VIPs like Delhi’s chief minister and
other on such occasions.

But people soon realized that the number of travelers in the Delhi metro is much
larger than what the Delhi metro can actually accommodate. However a very
miserable situation arises at stations like Rajiv chowk, especially when there is some
occasion like the International Trade fair at Pragati maidan, Which is the third station
from Rajiv chowk on line-3 (Blue line), the Dwarka- Indraprastha track. The same
uncontrollable situation is noticed at other important station like kashmiri gate,
Chandini chowk and New Delhi in the fully underground yellow line from central
Secretariat to Vishwavidyalaya. These station may rightly be put in some special
category where thousand of passenger can be seen de-boarding the train everyday.

When the trains stop at any of these special category stations, the passengers de-
boarding experience an uncontrollable attack by the incoming passengers and there
is a stampede like situation which even security personnel can not possibly check.
The forcible entry and exit of passenger pushing madly inopposite check. The
forcible entry and exit of passengers pushing madly in opposite directions can lead
to any mis happening like injuries to passenger or toppling down of old men, women
or children. The women especially experience horrible moment at such times with
their honour at stake as eve teasers can tease them easily and make them feel
helpless till they come out of the crowdie mess.

The trains are virtually risky missing a stampede narrowly almost everyday during
the office hours. Young office going girls somehow exist uncomfortably standing
erect in a painstakingly. But the metro train has become so indispensable for the
people of the capital that they wait with satisfaction for the further appearance of
tracks in areas like Nehru place and CGO complex. Here tens of thousand people
might be waiting for the facility to reach them to make their journey to offices and
back much faster compared to the horrendous bus journey with repeated traffic jams
at red light and other places.

It is however equally natural for the Delhiites to emagine rajiv chowk like situations at
these special category areas like the Nehru place or CGO complex. One therefore
thinks what be done after all to check well in advance such trouble some situations
mentioned above.

In order to think of a solution, one just needs to travel by local trains from the Navi
Mumbai station of Mumbai, and observe the platform on either side of the train. A
passenger could get down as well as enter from either of the two opposite doors and
even at the entry point of the platform the crowds are halved as people make exits
and entries from both the platform.

How ever imitating such a system of platform on either side might not prove as
simple in the case of the Delhi metro rail of which people of Delhi joyfully exclaim
‘Delhi Metro Mera Metro’ but just imagine the CGO complex station with a platform
on both side and when the train reaches this station the doors open simultaneously
and insiders as well as outsiders apply immeasurable force to make their ways out
or in.

The reduction of the trouble as compared to single door may not be notable.

Is it then possible that one of the platforms is for entry and the other is for exit?

But then people entering together may push the exiting people in a very troublesome
way and the outgoing people may feel unduly pushed out. The solution to such a
problem comes from the famous quotation of swami Vivekananda-‘ When one door
closes, another opens. If therefore the doors for exit open for one minute and all the
outgoing passengers successfully exit and the doors for entries may open only after
the closure of exit doors for the boarding passengers to enter.
Never theless for this purpose each special category station will need to have total
three platform and the two tracks for opposite directions alternately constructed
between the three platforms. I hope such an arrangement if planned may solve the
problem of cowded stations and give some relief from the eve teasers and pick
Market analysis from the point of customer benefit
We take the sample of 83 people. From where we get the customer view about
Delhi metro. It is a market survey, which we did at metro stations and market.

Q 1. Do you travel in Delhi metro?

(A) Yes 99%

(B) No 1%

People travel in D MR C



Q 2. Are you frequently user of DMRC ( Delhi Metro Rail Corporation LTD)?

(A) Yes 56%

(B) No 44%

Frequently user of DMRC



Q 3. How many times you travel in a day?

(A) Once 34%

(B) Twice 37%
(C) Thrice 11%
(D) More than thrice 10%
(E) None of these 8%

No of travel time in a day

11% 2

Q 4. Do you use metro on daily basis?

(A) Occasionally 63%

(B) Regularly 37%

use of DMRC



Q 5. Do you find its fare costly?

(A) Yes 38%

(B) No 62%

Fare is costly



Q 6. Do you feel Delhi metro helps to solve the transportation problem?

(A) Yes 99%

(B) No 1%

Helps in transportation problem



Q 7. Do you feel DMRC has reduced traffic in Delhi?

(A) Yes 82%

(B) No 18%

Metro reduced the traffic problem



Q 8. Do you feel that Metro helps to solve the pollution problem?

(A) Yes 95%

(B) No 5%

Splve the pollution problem



Q 9. Would you like to see Metro network in NCR region also?

(A) Yes 99%

(B) No 1%

Should metro in NCR region



Q 10. Do you feel Delhi Metro should work 24x7 ?

(A) Yes 89%

(B) No 11%

Should metro work 24*7



Q 11. Are you satisfied with the service of DMRC?

(A) Yes 93%

(B) No 7%

satisfy with DMRC




Economic times
Times of India News paper and magazine
The Hindu
Name: Sex :
Age: Contact No.:

Q (1) Do you travel in Delhi metro?


Q(2) Are you frequently user of DMRC ( Delhi Metro Rail Corporation LTD)?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q (3) How many times you travel in a day ?

(A) Once
(B) Twice
(C) Thrice
(D) More than thrice

Q (4) Do you use metro?

(A) Occasionally
(B) Regularly

Q (5) Do you find its fare costly?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q (6) Do you feel Delhi metro helps to solve the transportation problem?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q (7) Do you feel safe as you have seen accidents occurred in the last few months in

(A) Yes
(B) No
Q(8) Do you feel DMRC has reduced traffic in Delhi?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q(9) Do you feel that Metro helps to solve the pollution problem?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q (10) Would you like to see Metro network in NCR region also?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q(11) Do you feel Delhi Metro should work 24x7 ?

(A) Yes
(B) No

Q (12) Are you satisfied with the service of DMRC?

(A) Yes
(B) No

## Any advice you want to give to improve the facility of DMRC –