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The Egyptian Int. J. of Eng. Sci.

and Technology
Vol.15, No. 2 (May 2012)

TOPSIS AND MULTI-CHOICE GOAL PROGRAMMING


EIJEST APPROACH TO SUPPLIER SELECTION IN SUPPLY CHAIN
MANAGEMENT*
Mohamed A. El-baz and Yehya I. Mesalam**
Industrial Eng. Dept., Zagazig University, Egypt

ABSTRACT
Supplier selection decision is vital problem in supply chain management, which involving multiple
objectives. In this paper, a formulation of fuzzy multi-choice goal programming (FMCGP) is presented
after calculate the closeness confections of each supplier using fuzzy TOPSIS (Techniques for Order
Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The proposed approach improves the applicability of goal
programming in real world situations and provides useful insight about the solution of a new class of
problems. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method, a case study is presented and the
proposed approach obtains a better solution than Fuzzy Goal Programming (FGP).

KEY WORDS: supplier selection, goal programming, multi choice goal programming. Fuzzy goal
programming.

TOPSIS ET MULTI-CHOIX APPROCHE DE PROGRAMMATION POUR BUT DE


SÉLECTION DES FOURNISSEURS EN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

RÉSUMÉ
Décision de sélection des fournisseurs est un problème vital dans la gestion de la chaîne
d'approvisionnement, ce qui en termes d'objectifs multiples. Dans ce papier, une formulation de
programmation objectif floue à choix multiples (FMCGP) est présentée après le calcul des confiseries
proximité de chaque fournisseur, en utilisant TOPSIS floues (Techniques de préférence Trier par
similarité à la solution idéale). L'approche proposée améliore l'applicabilité de la programmation
objectif dans des situations du monde réel et fournit un aperçu utile sur la solution d'une nouvelle
classe de problèmes. Pour démontrer l'utilité de la méthode proposée, une étude de cas est présentée et
l'approche proposée obtient une meilleure solution que de programmation Objectif floue (FGP).

MOTS CLÉS: le choix du fournisseur, de programmation objectif, programmation multi objectif


choix. Programmation objectif floue.

* Received: 15/1/2011, accepted: 6/2/2012 (Original Paper)


** Contact author (ymesalam@yahoo.com, +2 01015904433)

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TOPSIS AND MULTI-CHOICE GOAL PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO SUPPLIER SELECTION IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
El-baz and Mesalam

1. INTRODUCTION reduce a DM’s evaluation time, and it can be easily


implemented with a computer program.
Supplier selection decision is an important
component of purchasing management companies
Recently, the supplier selection process has received
(Dobler et al., 1990; Willis et al., 1993). Selecting the
considerable attention in the marketing management
right suppliers and determining the appropriate
literature. Chen et al. (2006) adopted a fuzzy decision
orders from them can bring significant benefit in the
making approach to address the supplier selection
reduction in purchasing cost, decrease in supplying
problem in the supply chain system. Five benefit
risk and improved product quality. Accordingly,
criteria were considered, including the profitability of
international organizations usually build long term
supplier, relationship closeness, technological
contracts with main global suppliers and determine
capability, conformance quality, and conflict
the appropriate orders from them based on their
resolution. Lin and Chang (2008) claimed that
characteristics (cost capability, product quality, on-
communication, reputation, industry position,
time delivery and service) (Min, 1994; Ghodsypour
relationship closeness, customer responsiveness, and
& O’Brien, 1998; Chan & Kumar, 2007). According
conflict-solving capabilities are important criteria in
to suppliers’ different characteristics, organizations
vendor selection. In addition, the role of
adopt different strategies such as cost leadership
organizational size in the supplier selection process
strategy (Porter, 1980), differentiation strategy
has been addressed by Wang et al. (2009).
(Porter, 1980), quick response (Iyer & Bergen, 1997)
and Just-in-time strategy (Schonberger, 1982) to
Over the years, a number of techniques have been
cope with different issues.
proposed to solve the supplier selection problem. The
long list of approaches includes linear programming
It is not easy to utilize published supplier selection
(LP), mathematical programming models, multiple-
models because all coefficients of supplier selection
objective programming, statistical and probabilistic
models should be recomputed when an organization
methods, data envelopment analysis (DEA), cost-
changes their supply chain strategy according to
based methods (CBM), case-based reasoning (CBR),
marketing needs. In order to express decision
neural networks (NN), AHP, analytic network
makers’ (DMs) preference for different supply chain
process (ANP), fuzzy set theory, and techniques for
strategies, DMs need the flexibility to determine not
order preference by similarity to ideal solution
only the imprecise target of each goal but also fuzzy
(TOPSIS).
relations among goals. When considering the setting
of the priority of goals, a decision maker (DM)
Recently, the integration of different methodologies
usually assigns different weights to each goal that
to supplier selection process has received
they are concerned with. Traditionally, a DM can use
considerable attention in the supply chain
analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to structure the
management literature. Faez, Ghodsypour, and
problem and determine the weights of each attribute
O’brien (2009) presented an integrated fuzzy case-
(Liou & Chuang, 2008; Fazlollahtabar, 2008).
based reasoning and mathematical programming
However, a DM will suffer from the complicated pair
method. Ö nüt, Kara, and Isik (2009) developed a
comparison process between the criteria in AHP
supplier evaluation approach based on the ANP and
hierarchy. With AHP, a DM is asked to estimate pair
TOPSIS methods to help a telecommunication
wise comparison ratios with respect to strength of
company in vendor selection. Ha and Krishnan
preference between suppliers by using a long
(2008) developed a hybrid model that including
questionnaire. It is too complicated for DMs to
AHP, DEA and NN approaches to the supplier
conduct pair wise comparison because many supplier
selection problem. Kokangul and Susuz (2009)
selection criteria and potential suppliers should be
integrated AHP and mathematical programming to
considered simultaneously. Moreover, if the housing
consider both non-linear integer and multiple-
criteria hierarchy is not carefully designed, the result
objective programming under certain constraints to
of the problem will be invalid and biased. Compared
determine the best suppliers. The integrated model
with AHP FGP is much more suitable for DMs to
uses source data provided by a manufacturing firm to
make decisions because it only requires DMs to set
address a real world supplier selection problem.
their housing goals and constraints. This can help to
Demirtas and Üstün(2008) introduce an integrated
approach of analytic network process (ANP) and

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The Egyptian Int. J. of Eng. Sci. and Technology
Vol.15, No. 2 (May 2012)

multi-objective mixed integer linear programming by using an additive model to maximize the sum of
(MOMILP) is proposed to consider both tangible and achievement degrees from all fuzzy goals. Aköz and
intangible factors in choosing the best suppliers and Petrovic (2007) proposed a modified FGP method to
define the optimum quantities among selected handle imprecision of the relative importance
suppliers to maximize the total value of purchasing relations among goals. However, it is difficult to
and minimize the budget and defect rate. Most implement a situation when the multiple aspiration
recently, Liao and Kao (2011) integrated fuzzy levels appear in a goal by using neither the proposed
Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to methods from Chen and Tsai (2001) nor the work of
Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and multi-choice goal Aköz and Petrovic (2007).
programming (MCGP) approach to solve the supplier
selection problem. The paper is organized as follows. The next section
introduces the basic definitions and notations of
In real life, the modeling of many situations may not fuzzy numbers and linguistic variables. Section 3
be sufficient or exact, as the available data are presents both the GP and FGP approaches. Section 4
inexact, vague, imprecise and uncertain by nature presents the fuzzy TOPSIS. Section 5 presents the
(Sarami, Mousavi, & Sanayei, 2009). Moreover, the Fuzzy multi choice goal programming FMCGP.
decision making processes that take place in such Section 6 presents the proposed integrated Fuzzy
situations are also based on uncertain and ill-defined TOPSIS and FMCGP approach. Section 7 presents
information. In the real practice of supplier selection, the case study. The finally section presents
firms usually confronts with a high degree of conclusions and suggestions for future research
uncertainties and fuzziness. Fuzzy set theory is
considered the most effective methods in managing 2. BASIC DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION
vagueness and uncertainty problems. The concept of
fuzzy sets was introduced by Zadeh (1965) to Some basic concepts of fuzzy numbers and linguistic
mathematically represent data and information variables are now defined
possessing non-statistical uncertainties and to Definition 2.1. A positive trapezoidal fuzzy number
provide formalized tools for dealing with imprecision ñ can be defined as (n1, n2, n3, n4) as shown in Fig. 1.
intrinsic to many problems (Kahraman, Cevik, Ates,
The membership function  n~ ( x) is defined as
& Güfer, 2007). In order to model such situations,
fuzzy set theory was introduced to express the follows:
linguistic terms of decision marking processes.

In this study, an integrated fuzzy TOPSIS and


FMCGP model is developed to solve multi-sourcing (1)
supplier selection problems. First, linguistic values
expressed in trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are applied
to assess weights and ratings of supplier selection
criteria. Second, a hierarchy multi-model based on For a trapezoidal fuzzy number ñ = (n1, n2, n3, n4),
fuzzy set theory is expressed and fuzzy positive and when n2 = n3, the number is called a triangular fuzzy
negative-ideal solutions are used to find each number. A crisp number k can be expressed as (k, k,
supplier’s closeness coefficient. Finally, a FMCGP k, k).
model based on the tangible constrains regarding the
buyer and its suppliers is constructed and solved to Definition 2.2. A matrix à is called a fuzzy matrix,
assign order qualities to each supplier if it contains at least an entry in à is a fuzzy number
(Buckley, 1985).
Curry and Lazzari (2009) adopted fuzzy concept as
linguistic variables to deal consumer preferences. For Definition 2.3. Let = (m1, m2, m3, m4), and ñ =
this, several previous studies have discussed how to (n1, n2, n3, n4), be two trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.
approach the different importance of goals in fuzzy Then the distance between them can be calculated
goal programming (FGP). Chen and Tsai (2001) using the vertex method (see Chen, 2000; Chen et al.,
formulated FGP incorporating different importance 2006):

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TOPSIS AND MULTI-CHOICE GOAL PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO SUPPLIER SELECTION IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
El-baz and Mesalam
forest planning (Viveira, F.D. et al. 2003), and Chang
1 (2007a, 2008, 2009), among others. So, Goal
programming has been, and still is, the most widely
used technique for solving multiple criteria decision
problems and multiple objective decision problems in
finding a set of satisfying solutions. However, the
x
0 major limitation of goal programming is the
n1 n2 n3 n4
aspiration level with scalar value for some multiple
Fig. 1Trapezoidal fuzzy number ñ objective problems.
~, n~)  [(1 / 4)[(m  n ) 2  (m  n ) 2  y
d (m 1 1 2 2
Very
(2) Very Medium Medium
(m3  n3 ) 2  (m4  n41 ) 2 ]] 0.5 1
Low
Low
Low
Medium
High High
High

In this study, the importance weights of various


criteria and the ratings of qualitative criteria are
considered linguistic variables. Because linguistic
assessments approximate the subjective judgment of
DMs, we consider linear trapezoidal membership
x
functions adequate for capturing the vagueness of
these linguistic assessments. These linguistic 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
variables can be expressed in positive trapezoidal Fig. 2. Linguistic variables for importance weight
fuzzy numbers, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. In the of each criterion.
proposed integrated model, the DMs use the
linguistic variables to evaluate the importance of
y
criteria and the ratings of alternative suppliers with Very
Very Medium Medium
respect to each selection criterion. Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Good Good
Good
1

3. FUZZY GOAL PROGRAMMING

Goal programming (GP) is an analytical multiple


objectives decision making approach designed to x

address decision-marking problems in which targets 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

have been assigned to all attributes and where the


decision makers are interested in minimizing the Fig.3. Linguistic variables for ratings.
non-achievement of a particular goal (Liao, 2009).
The model can take into account many simultaneous Since the 1970s, a great deal of work has been done
objectives as a decision maker seeks the best solution on multiple objective linear programming (MOLP).
from among a set of feasible solutions. Application To date, research on how to solve MOLP problems
of GP to the real life problems may be faced with has been enormous (Ignizio 1985, Lai and Hwang
two important difficulties; expressing the decision 1994). The methods of MOLP can be classified into
maker's vague goals and/or constraints three categories: (1) a vector maximization approach,
mathematically and optimizing all goals (2) a utility maximization approach, and (3) an
simultaneously.
aspiration level approach (Lotfi et al. 1997).
Aspiration level approach requires DMs to specify
The original goal programming (GP) technique was the aspiration levels for problem objectives. Many
first introduced by Charnes and Cooper (1961) and
approaches in this category utilize the forms of Goal
further developed by Lee (1972), Ignizio (1985), Programming (GP). In addition, GP is the most
Tamiz et al. (1998), and Romero (2001), among
widely used technique for solving multi criteria
others. GP has been applied to many fields such as decision problems as well as multi objective decision
portfolio selection (Parra, M.A. et al. 2001), problems in finding a set of satisfying solutions. The
acquisitions allocation (Wise and Perushed, 2000), main reason for its popularity lies in its inherent

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flexibility that allows DMs to formulate multi- With the MAXMIN approach of Zimmermann
objective decision problems involving several (1978), the FGP can be expressed as follows:
criteria, incomplete information, many decision max 
variables and resources constraints (Uría et al.,
2002). subject to.
(5)
Fuzzy Set Theory in GP was first considered by
Narasimhan (1980). Hannan (1981), Narasimhan
  i ( f i ( X )) i  1,2,3,..., n
(1984), and Tiwari et al (1986) extended the fuzzy AX  b , X  0
theory to the field of GP. Ohta and Yamaguchi
(1996), Wang and Fu (1997), Mohammed (2000), El-
Where  , is an additional continuous variable.
Wahed and Abo-sinna (2001), and Anion and
Güng ِ r (2001) have investigated various aspects of
decision problems using FGP theoretically. If there 4. FUZZY TOPSIS
are no priorities and also no relative importance
assigned to objectives, formulation of the FGP model Since the preferred ratings usually refer to the
is same as in general Fuzzy Linear Programming subjective uncertainty, it is natural to extend TOPSIS
(FLP) model. The main difference between FGP and to consider the situation of fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy
FLP is that FLP uses the definite intervals TOPSIS can be intuitively extended by using the
determined from solutions of the LP models and so fuzzy arithmetic operations as follows. Assume that a
the solution does not change from decision maker to decision group has K DMs and the fuzzy ratings of
decision maker, whereas in FGP, aspiration levels are all decision maker preferences are trapezoidal fuzzy
specified by decision maker and reflect relative member, then the
flexibility. aggregated fuzzy rating can be defined as:
, (6)
The FGP has the advantage of allowing for the vague
aspirations of DMs, which can be qualified using
some natural language or vague phenomena. To where
represent the preference concept of DMs, the
preference-based membership functions are
introduced below.
for f i ( X )  gi
Let the fuzzy rating and importance weight of the kth
1, if f i ( X )  g i DM be , and

 ( f ( X )  li ) (3)
i ( X )   i , if li  f i ( X )  g i ,
 g i  l i
0, if f i ( X )  li where respectively.
for f i ( X )  gi Therefore, the aggregated fuzzy ratings, of
1, if f i ( X )  g i alternatives with respect to each criterion can be
 calculated as (Chen et al., 2006):
 (u  f ( X )) (4)
i ( X )   i i , if g i  f i ( X )  ui i
 ui  g i (7)
0, if f i ( X )  ui
where
Where li and u i are, respectively, lower and upper
tolerance limit for goal i , g i is the aspiration level
of goal i

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TOPSIS AND MULTI-CHOICE GOAL PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO SUPPLIER SELECTION IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
El-baz and Mesalam

and the Where d *j  max d ij , a j  min aij

aggregated fuzzy weights, , of each criterion can A weighted normalized fuzzy-decision matrix can be
be calculated as (Chen et al., 2006): constructed according to the normalized fuzzy-
decision matrix as follows:
(8) ~ ~
V  vij  mxn
(13)

Where
Where v~ij  ~ ~ , i  1,2,..., m,
xij  w j j  1,2,.....n

After constructing a weighted normalized fuzzy


decision matrix, the fuzzy positive-ideal solution

As stated above, a supplier-selection problem can be (FPIS), S  and the fuzzy negative- ideal solution
concisely expressed in matrix format as follows: (FNIS), S  , can be calculated as follows:

~x11 ~
x12 ... ~
x1n  S   (v~1 , v~2 , v~3 ,....v~n ) , and (14)
~ ~ x 23 
~
~ x
x   21
x 22 ... , S   (v~  , v~  , v~  ,....v~  )
1 2 3 n
   ..  
~  (9)
Where v~j  max{ v~ij } , and v~j  min{v~ij }.
~ ~    
 x m1 xm 2 ... x mn 

~  w
w ~ ~2 
w ~ 
w The distance of each alternative from S  and S  can
1 n
be calculated as:
To avoid complexity of mathematical operations in a n
decision process, the linear scale transformation is d   d (v~ij , v~j ),
i

i  1,2,.., m , and (15)
used here to transform the various criteria scales into j 1

comparable scales. The set of criteria can be divided n

into benefit criteria (the larger the rating, the greater d i   d (v~ij , v~j ), i  1,2,.., m
j 1
the preference) and cost criteria (the smaller the
rating, the greater the preference). Therefore, the Where d( . , . ) represents the distance measurement
normalized fuzzy-decision matrix can be represented between two fuzzy numbers. Finally, the closeness
as: coefficients ( CCi ) of each supplier according to
~
R ~  
rij , i  1,2,..., m, j  1,2,....n (10) distance from the fuzzy positive ideal solution

(FPIS), S and the fuzzy negative ideal solution
Where the is the normalized value of 
(FNIS), S , can be calculated as:
, which be calculated as (16)
CCi  d i /( d i  d i ), i  1,2,..., m,
follows:
Where CCi range belongs to the closed interval [0, 1]
If the jth criterion is a benefit, then:
~
rij  (aij / d *j , bij / d *j , cij / d *j , d ij / d *j ) 5. FUZZY MULTI CHOICE GOAL
(11)
PROGRAMMING (FMCGP)
If the jth criterion is a cost, then
The MCGP method proposed by Chang (2007)
~
rij  (a j / d ij , a j / cij , a j / bij , a j / aij ) allows DMs to set multiple scalar aspiration levels
(12)
for each goal to avoid the underestimation of goal
setting in the initial stage of decision problem. In

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order to solve the above mentioned problem, the achievement goal deviation. Equations (18)-(21) are
revised MCGP approach has recently been adopted from revised MCGP (Chang, 2008).
introduced by Chang (2008). The revised MCGP Equation (18) represents the linear function of the
represents a linear form of program which can be goal i in the model which derided to reach the
easily solved using common linear programming required aspiration level gi . Equation (19, 20)
packages, not requiring the use of integer represents the relation between the required
programming packages. The fuzzy multi choice goal aspiration level and maximum and minimum bound
programming mathematical model for the supplier of aspiration level in case of maximize and minimize
selection is obtained as follows: respectively. Equation (21) represents the aspiration
n n (17) level limits (boundary). Equation (22, 23) represents
Min  ( i d i   i d i )   (ei  ei )
i 1 i
the achievement ratio (rate) of goal in maximizes and
minimizes case. Equation (24), a DM can determine
Subject to the satisfaction level of fuzzy relations between goal
f i ( X )  d i  d i  g i , i  1,2,..., n (18) i and goal j , where the preemptive priority level of
goal i is higher than the preemptive priority level of
g i  e i  e i  g i,max , i  1,2,..., n (19)
goal j . Kij represents the deviation between goal i
For maximization and goal j. The solution procedure starts by inputting
g i  e i  e i  g i,min , i  1,2,..., n (20) DM’s supplier selection goals with satisfactory levels
For minimization and criteria, and then developing a FMCGP model to
get the ideal order quantity from suppliers.
g i,min  g i  g i,max , i  1,2,..., n (21)
g i ,max  f i ( x) (22) 6. THE PROPOSED MODEL
yi 
g i ,max  g i ,min
For maximization The proposed model is an integrated approach of
f i ( x)  g i ,min (23) fuzzy TOPSIS and FMCGP for supplier selection.
yi  The proposed model considers DM’s preference and
g i ,max  g i ,min experience for supplier selection criteria, also
For minimization includes various tangible constraints, for example,
yi  y j  K ij (Goal i is (24) the buyer’s budget, suppliers’ capacity and delivery
time. On the other hand, fuzzy TOPSIS approach
more important than goal j.)
helps to convert DMs’ preference and experience to
d i , d i , e i , ei  0, i  1,2,..., n (25) meaningful results by applying linguistic values to
X  F (F is a feasible set) (26) assess each criterion and alternative suppliers.
Integration with FMCGP enables to assign order
quantities to each supplier by considering the total
Where αi,, βi is the weight for over and under
value created from the procurement. According to
achievement of i goal, di+ is the over-achievements
Chang (2007, 2008), Dutta and Murthy (2010), and
of the i th goal, di- is the under-achievements of the i
Bankian-T et al. (2011) FMCGP allows DMs to set
th goal, ei+ is the over-achievement of the highest
multi choice aspiration levels (MCAL) for each goal
(lowest) possible value of membership function, ei-
(i.e., one goal mapping multiple aspiration levels) to
is the under-achievement of the highest (lowest)
avoid underestimation or overestimation of decision
possible value of membership function, fi(x) the
making.
linear function of the i th goal, gi the aspiration level
of the i th goal in FMCGP, gi,min the lower bound The algorithm of the multi-person multi-criteria
aspiration for the i th goal, gi,max the upper bound decision-marking with fuzzy TOPSIS and FMCGP
aspiration for the i th goal, and yi is the ratio of the method for dealing with the supplier selection is
achievement in the i th goal given as follows:
Step 1. Choose the appropriate linguistic variables
Equation (17) represents the goal of the proposed for the importance weight of selection criteria and the
model which is minimizing the over and under linguistic ratings for suppliers.

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Step 2. Aggregate the weigh of criterion Cj and procurement level of less than 5000 units, and
pool the DMs’ ratings to get the aggregated fuzzy available budget more than $46000. In addition, the
rating of supplier Si under criterion Cj. coefficients of variables in model are given by
FWCL’s database calculated from the last 5 years
Step 3. Construct the fuzzy-decision matrix and record. The unit material cost for suppliers S1, S2,
normalize the matrix. S3, and S4 are $12, $9, $15, and $6, respectively, and
Step 4. Construct weighted normalized fuzzy- the capacities of the four candidate suppliers S1, S2,
decision matrix. S3, and S4 are 2700, 3500, 2300, and 3100 units,
Step 5. Determine FPIS and FNIS. respectively. Furthermore, the delivery time levels of
Step 6. Calculate the distance of each supplier from the four candidate suppliers are 2.5, 4, 6, and 3 days,
FPIS and FNIS, respectively. respectively. The integrated fuzzy TOPSIS and
Step 7. Calculate the closeness coefficient (CCi) of FMCGP method is applied to solve this problem, and
each supplier. the computational procedure is summarized as
Step 8. According to the closeness coefficients follows
obtained from Step 7 for each supplier, build the
integrated model to find the best suppliers and their Selection the Supplier

optimum order quantities. In order to find the best


order quantities, the total value created from the
procurement (TVP) should be maximized.
C1 C2 C3 C5
C4
Relationship Quality of Delivery
7. CASE STUDY Closeness product Capabilities
Warranty level Experience time

Refer to case study in an integrated fuzzy TOPSIS


and MCGP approach to supplier selection in supply
chain management by Liao and Kao (2011). The
company Formosa Watch Co., Ltd. (FWCL) is a Supplier 1 Supplier 2 Supplier 3 Supplier 4
large, well-known manufacturer that sells watches in
its own chain stores in Asia. For developing new
products, its board of directors wishes to select
Fig. 4. Hierarchy structure of decision problem
material suppliers to purchase key components in
order to achieve the competitive advantage in the 1. Three DMs use the linguistic variables shown in
market. A decision committee including three DMs Fig. 2 to assess the importance weight of each
(D1, D2, D3) has been formed to select a supplier supplier criterion; the results of the weights are
from four qualified suppliers ً (S1; S2; S3; S4). presented in Table 1 .
From a complete set of criteria, FWCL chooses five 2. Three DMs use the linguistic variables shown in
supplier selection criteria for the present case: Fig. 3 to rate suppliers with respect to each criterion;
Relationship closeness (C1), Quality of product (C2), the results of the ratings are shown in Table 2.
Delivery capabilities (C3), Warranty level (C4), and 3. The linguistic evaluations shown in Tables 1 and 2
Experience time (C5). In this study, the hierarchy are converted into trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to
structure of the decision problem is shown in Fig. 4. construct a fuzzy-decision matrix and determine the
According to the sales record in the last 5 years and fuzzy weight of each criterion, as shown in Table 3
the sales forecast by FWCL, the CEO and top 4. Table 4 is a normalized fuzzy-decision matrix,
managers of FWCL have established that, which used to construct a weighted normalized fuzzy
the total value of procurement (TVP) at least 3500 decision matrix as shown in Table 5.
units from procurement; and the more the better, the 5. FPIS and FNIS are determined as shown in table 6.
total cost of procurement of less than 53,200 6. Calculate the distance of each supplier from FPIS
thousand dollars; and the less the better, for and FNIS with respect to each criterion, respectively,
achieving the procurement levels, the delivery time as shown in Tables 7, 8.
(per batch) from supplier is set between 4 and 7 days; 7. Calculate the closeness coefficients of each
the less the better, for seeking differentiation strategy supplier, as shown in Table 9
(i.e., quality leadership), maintain the current 8. According to the closeness coefficients (CCi; i =
1; 2; 3; 4) obtained from Step 7 for each supplier,

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build the FMCGP model to identify the best suppliers Criteria Supplier D1 D2 D3
and optimum order qualities. Similar to Ghodsypour C1 S1 G G G
and O’Brien (2001) and Guneri, Yucel, and Ayyildiz S2 MG MG G
(2009), supplier weights (or priority values) are used S3 VG VG G
as closeness coefficients in an objective function to S4 G G G
allocate order quantities among suppliers such that C2 S1 G G VG
the TVP is maximized. S2 G G G
S3 VG VG VG
Table 1. Importance weights of criteria for DMs S4 G MG VG
Criteria D1 D2 D3 C3 S1 VG VG MG
C1 H H H S2 G G G
C2 H H H S3 MG MG MG
C3 VH VH VH S4 MG MG G
C4 VH VH H C4 S1 VG VG VG
C5 H H H S2 G MG VG
S3 VG G G
S4 G G G
C5 S1 VG VG G
S2 G G G
S3 MG MG G
S4 MG MG G
Table 2. Ratings of four candidates by DMs
according to five criteria

Table 3. Fuzzy decision-matrix and fuzzy weights of four candidates.


C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
S1 (7,8,8,9) (5,7,8,10) (5,8,9,10) (8,9,10,10) (7,8.7,9.3,10)
S2 (5,6.7,7.3,9) (7,8,8,9) (7,8,8,9) (7,8,8,9) (7,8,8,9)
S3 (8,8.7,9.3,10) (8,9,10,10) (5,6,7,8) (7,8.3,8.7,10) (5,6,7,8)
S4 (7,8,8,9) (5,7.7,8.3,10) 5,6.7,7.3,9) (7,8,8,9) (5,6.7,7.3,9)
Weight (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.7,0.9,1.0,1.0) (0.7,0.87,0.93,1.0) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9)

Table 4. Normalized fuzzy decision-matrix.


C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
S1 (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.5,0.7,0.8,1) (0.5,0.8,0.9,1) (0.8,0.9,1,1) (0.7,0.87,0.93,1)
S2 (0.5,0.67,0.73,0.9) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9)
S3 (0.8,0.87,0.93,1) (0.8,0.9,1,1) (0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8) (0.7,0.83,0.87,1) (0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8)
S4 (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.5,0.77,0.83,1) (0.5,0.67,0.73,0.9) (0.7,0.8,0.8,0.9) (0.5,0.67,0.73,0.9)

Table 5. Weighted normalized fuzzy decision-matrix.


C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
S1 (0.49,0.64,0.64,0.81) (0.35,0.56,0.64,0.9) (0.35,0.72,0.9,1) (0.56,0.78,0.93,1) (0.49,0.69,0.75,0.9)
S2 (0.35,0.35,0.59,0.81) (0.49,0.64,0.64,0.81) (0.49,0.72,0.8,0.9) (0.49,0.69,0.75,0.9) (0.49,0.64,0.64,0.81)
S3 (0.65,0.69,0.75,0.9) (0.56,0.72,0.8,0.9) (0.35,0.54,0.7,0.8) (0.49,0.72,0.81,1) (0.35,0.48,0.56,0.72)
S4 (0.49,0.64,0.64,0.81) (0.35,0.61,0.67,0.9) (0.35,0.6,0.73,0.9) (0.49,0.69,0.75,0.9) (0.35,0.53,0.59,0.81)

Table 6. FPIS and FNIS


+
S= (0.9,0.9,0.9,0.9) (0.9,0.9,0.9,0.9) (1,1,1,1) (1,1,1,1) (0.9,0.9,0.9,0.9)
S- = (0.35,0.35,0.35,0.35) (0.35,0.35,0.35,0.35) (0.35,0.35,0.35,0.35) (0.49,0.49,0.49,0.49) (0.35,0.35,0.35,0.35)

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Table 7. Distances between FPIS and supplier 12 x1  9 x2  15x3  6 x4  d 2  d 2  y1
ratings.
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 y1  e1  e1  46000
d(S1,S+) 0.28 0.35 0.36 0.25 0.24 y1  46000
d(S2,S+) 0.37 0.28 0.31 0.33 0.28 y1  53200
d(S3,S+) 0.21 0.2 0.44 0.31 0.40
d(S4,S+) 0.28 0.33 0.41 0.33 0.37 2.5x1  4 x2  6 x3  3x4  d 3  d 3  y2
y2  e 2  e 2  4
Table 8. Distances between FNIS and supplier y2  4
ratings.
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 y2  7
d(S1,S-)
0.32 0.33 0.46 0.37 0.39 x1  x2  x3  x4  d 4  d 4  500
d(S2,S-) 0.27 0.32 0.41 0.26 0.32 x1  2700
d(S3,S-) 0.39 0.41 0.30 0.32 0.22
d(S4,S-) 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.26 0.27 x2  3500
x3  2300
Table 9. Computation of di+ , di- and CCi . x  3100
di+ di- di++ di- CCi
-) f1 ( x)  46000
d(S1,S 1.86 1.48 3.34 0.558 y1 
d(S2,S-) 1.58 1.57 3.14 0.502 53200  46000
d(S3,S-) 1.65 1.55 3.20 0.516 f ( x)  4
d(S4,S-) 1.55 1.71 3.27 0.476 y2  2
74
d i , d i , e i , ei  0, i  1,2,..., n
 
Using an integrated fuzzy TOPSIS and FMCGP
approach, this problem can be formulated as follows: X  F (F is a feasible set)
n Solve the above case study using an integrated fuzzy
min  d1  d1  d 2  d 2  d 3  d 3  d 4  TOPSIS and FMCGP approach, FGP and an
i 1
integrated Fuzzy TOPSIS and MCGP approach using
d  e1  e1  e2  e2

4 Lingo Software. The obtained results are summarized
Subject to in table 10, and table11.
0.558 x1  0.502 x2  0.516 x3  0.476 x4 
d1  d1  3500
Table 10. The maximize and minimize of case study
Proposed Model FGP
Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 1 Goal 2
Max value 53200 46000 66900 24600
Min Value 35000 20000 22200 9150
Quantity in Max X1=2700, x3=2300 X2=2700, x3=2300
Quantity in Min X2=400, x4=3100 X1=2700, x4= 800

Table 11. Comparison between different approaches


Method Proposed Model FGP Liao and Kao (2011)
Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 1 Goal 2
Obtained result 4600 4 58800 24600 46005 4.39
Quantity X2=3500; x3=966 X2=2700, x3=2300 X1=2700,x3=907
Achievement of each goals 1.00 1.00 0.8187919 1.00 1.00 0.87

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