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# DC to DC converters

DC-DC Converter

## Functional block diagram

Stepping Down a DC Voltage

## Avg. output voltage is controlled by controlling the switch on-off duration. If

constant switching freq. is employed, the output voltage can be varied by
varying switch ‘on’ duration. The method is termed as PWM switching and
duty ratio, D is defined as ton/ Tswitching

## A simple approach that shows the evolution

Pulse-Width Modulation in DC-DC Converters
Step-Down/Buck DC-DC Converter

## Pulsating input to the low-pass filter

Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Waveforms

Switch closed
Switch open

## Steady state; inductor current flows continuously, CCM

Note: D’ = 1 – D = 1 - ton/Ts = turn off duration/switching time
CCM, continuous conduction mode; DCM, discontinuous conduction mode
Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Waveforms at the boundary of
Cont./Discont. Conduction

## Assuming ideal ckt., Po= Pin, Therefore, Vo/Vd = Id/Io = 1/D

ILB = ½ (Vd-Vo).DTs/L = ½ (1-D)Ts.Vo/L = D.D’.Ts.Vd/2L & ILBmax = Ts.Vd/8L
At, D= 0.5
Critical current below which inductor current becomes discontinuous
Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Discontinuous Conduction Mode

(Vd-Vo).DTs + (-Vo)Δ1Ts = 0,
Therefore, Vo/Vd = D/(D+Δ1);
where, D+Δ1 < 1
iLpk = (Vo/L).Δ1Ts, Therefore,
Io = iLpk.(½ .D+Δ1)
= ½Vo.Ts (D+Δ1).Δ1/L
= ½Vd.Ts D.Δ1/L
= 4ILBmax.D.Δ1, Therefore,
Δ1 = Io/(4.ILBmax.D)
Vo/Vd = D2/[D2 +Io/(4.ILBmax)]
Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Limits of CCM/DCM

Note:
Vd = Vg = Vin

The duty-ratio of 0.5 has the highest value of the critical current
Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Limits of CCM/DCM

ILB = (1-D).Ts.Vo/2L
ILBmax = Ts.Vo/2L , at D=0
ILB = (1-D). ILBmax
D=(Vo/Vd )[(Io/ILBmax)/(1-Vo/Vd )]1/2

## Output voltage is kept constant

Step-Down Converter: Output Voltage Ripple

## Pk to pk voltage ripple is given by

ΔV0 = ΔQ/C = ½ .1/C. ΔIL/2. Ts/2
During toff
ΔIL = (1-D).Ts. Vo/L
ΔVo = ΔIL .Ts/8C
ΔVo/Vo = Ts2.(1-D)/8LC
= [π2.(1-D)/2] .(fc/fs)2

## Where, fs = 1/Ts & fc = 1/(2π√LC)

fc<< fs
ESR is assumed to be zero
Step-Up DC-DC Converter

Vd.ton + (Vd-Vo).toff = 0
dividing both sides by Ts
Vo/Vd = 1/(1-D)

## Output voltage must be greater than the input

Step-Up DC-DC Converter Waveforms

## Continuous current conduction mode, CCM

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction
(CCM/DCM)
The output voltage is held constant

## ILB = ½ iLpk = ½ (Vd/L).ton = ½ [(Ts.Vo)/L ].D.(1-D)

IoB = ½ [(Ts.Vo)/L ].D.(1-D)2 & ILBmax = Ts.Vo/8L
IoBmax at D=1/3, IoBmax (2/27).(Ts.Vo/L)
Step-Up DC-DC Converter: DCM

## Vd.DTs + (Vd-Vo). Δ1Ts) = 0,

Therefore, Vo/Vd = (D+Δ1)/ Δ1;
where, D+Δ1 < 1
iLpk = (Vo/L).Δ1Ts, Therefore,
Io/Id = Δ1/(D+Δ1), (since Po=Pd)
Id = (Vd/2L).DTs(D+Δ1)
Io=Ts (Vd/2L)D. Δ1

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Limits of CCM/DCM

## The output voltage Vo is held constant

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Effect of Parasitics

## The duty-ratio is generally limited before the parasitic effects become

significant
Step-Up DC-DC Converter Output Ripple

Assuming constant Io
ΔV0 = ΔQ/C = Io.D.Ts/C
= (V0/R).(D.Ts/C)
ΔVo/Vo = D.Ts/RC
= D.Ts/τ
Where, τ = RC time constant

## ESR is assumed to be zero

Step-Down/Up DC-DC Converter (Buck-Boost)

Vd.DTs + (-Vo).(1-D).Ts = 0,
Therefore, Vo/Vd = D/ (1-D);
Io/Id = (1-D)/D, (since Po=Pd)

The output voltage can be higher or lower than the input voltage
Step-Up/down DC-DC Converter: CCM Waveforms

With Vo as constant
ILB = ½ ILpeak = Ts.Vd.D/2L
Io = IL- Id
Therefore, ILB = Ts.Vo.(1-D)/2L
and IoB = Ts.Vo.(1-D)2/2L
ILBmax = Ts.Vo/2L and
IoBmax = Ts.Vo/2L
Therefore,
ILB = ILBamx (1-D) and
IoB = IoBmax (1-D)2
Step-Up/Down DC-DC Converter: Limits of CCM/DCM

## Vd.DTs+(-Vo). Δ1Ts = 0, Therefore,

Vo/Vd = D/Δ1
Io/Id = Δ1/D, (since Po=Pd)
IL = (Vd/2L).DTs(D+Δ1)

## The output voltage is held constant

Step-Up/Down dc-dc Converter: Limits of CCM/DCM conduction

## The output voltage Vo is held constant

Step-Up/Down dc-dc Converter: Effect of Parasitics

The duty-ratio is limited to avoid these parasitic effects from becoming significant
Step-Up/Down DC-DC Converter: Output Voltage Ripple

## ESR is assumed to be zero

Cük DC-DC Converter

The output voltage can be higher or lower than the input voltage
Cük DC-DC Converter:
Waveforms, CCM
Assuming Vc1 to be constant
L1: Vd.DTs + (Vd - Vc1)(1-D)Ts = 0,
Therefore,
Vc1 = (1/1-D).Vd
L2: (Vc1-Vo).DTs + (-Vo)(1-D)Ts = 0,
Therefore,
Vc1 = Vo/D
So, Vo/Vd = D/(1-D) & Io/Id = (1-D)/D
IL1(1-D)Ts =IL2.DTs
or IL2/IL1 = (1-D)/D = Io/Id
and , Vo/Vd = D/(1-D)