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c 

 
introduction of whole blood or blood components into the venous circulation.
Purposes Of Blood Transfusions
To restore blood volume
To restore the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
To administer required blood component by the patient.

c  
1. î  c 
 3ost commonly used in instances of acute massive blood loss or extreme cases of acute hemorrhage.
 Jeplaces blood volume and all blood products such as Jc,  ,   ,    ,
and     .
Jc  
3ake up the blood product remaining after up to 80% of the plasma is removed from the whole blood.
Used to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in anemias, surgery, and disorders with slow bleeding.
One unit of PJBCs has the same amount of oxygen carrying capacity as a unit of whole blood.
 Jc  
3ay be used when the patient is at risk for circulatory overload but needs hemoglobin level for its oxygen
carrying capacity.
Usually infused over 2-3 hrs w/ NSS.
Necessitates typing and crossmatching.
Π
 
Jc  
Are those in which the patient is infused with his or her own blood, which was donated in advance.
Used for blood replacement following planned elective surgery.
Client donates blood for autologous transfusion 4-5 weeks prior to surgery.
Self-donation.
º   
Jeplaces platelets in clients with bleeding disorders or platelet deficiency.
Indicted for treatment of potential life-threatening hemorrhage.
Each unit should increase the average adult client͛s platelet count by about 5,000 platelets/ microliter.
 - - 
Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood remaining after the JBC, platelets, and leukocytes has been removed.
Fresh frozen plasma can be stored for 12 mos but must be used w/in 24 hrs of defrosting.
[ - - 
Provides blood volume, protein and clotting factors.
Does not need to be typed and crossmatched (contains no JBCs).
Each unit will increase the level of any clotting factor by 2% to 3% in the average adult.
½  
 
Blood volume expander.
Provides plasma proteins.
Does not need to be typed and crossmatched (contains no JBCs).
Administered for shock, burns, and hypoproteinemia.
·    
Contains large amount of the clotting factor VII ʹ the factor lacking in hemophiliacs.
Contains a small number of JBC, w/c makes crossmatching unnecessary.
Cryoprecipitate also contains fibrinogen.
j    -
Portion of the plasma remaining after fibrinogen, a protein important in blood clotting, and globulin, a simple
protein found in blood serum, have been removed.
This component is used when the replacement of intravascular volume is necessary.


 c 
 
1. Verify doctor͛s order. Inform client and explain the purpose of the procedure.
2. Check for Cross-matching and blood typing. To ensure compatibility.
3. Obtain and record baseline VS.
4. Practice strict Asepsis.
5. At least 
check the label of the blood transfusion.
 Check the following:
 Serial Number
 Blood Component
 Blood Type
 Jh factor
 Expiration date
 Screening tests
This is to ensure that the blood is free from blood ʹcarried diseases and therefore, safe for transfusion.
6. Warm blood at room temparature before transfusion. To prevent chills.
7. Identify the client properly. Jcheck the client͛s identification.
8. Use needle gauge 18 or 19. This allows easy flow of blood.
9. Use Blood Transfusion set with filter. To prevent administration of blood clots and other particulates.
10. Start infusion slowly at 10 gtts/min. Jemain at bedside for 15 ʹ 30 minutes. Adverse reaction usually occurs
during the first 15 ʹ 20 minutes.
11. 3onitor VS. Altered VS indicates adverse reaction.
12. Do not mix medications with blood transfusions. To prevent adverse effects.
Do not incorporate medication into the blood transfusion.
Do not use the blood transfusion line for IV push of medications.
13. Administer · before, during, and after BT. Never administer IV fluids with dextrose. Dextrose causes
  
14. Administer Blood Transfusion for Π
( , 
 For plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate,
transfuse quickly (20 min) clotting factors can easily be destroyed.
15. Observe potential complications. Notify Physician.

   c 
 
1.   J 
It is caused by sensitivity to plasma protein or donor antibody, which reacts with recipient antigen.
-  
Caused by hypersensitivity of the client͛s blood to WBC, platelets or plasma proteins.
3ost symptomatic complication of BT.
  J 
It is caused by the transfusion of blood or components contaminated by bacteria.
Π 
   
Caused by administration of blood volume at a rate greater than the circulatory system can accommodate.
5.   J 
Caused by infusion of incompatible blood products.
Clinical Signs:
1. Xow back pain (first sign)
2. Chills, Feeling of fullness
3. Tachycardia, Tachypnea
4. Hypotension
5. Bleeding
6. Vascular collapse

!"   
 c 
 
1. Stop the blood transfusion immediately.
2. Start an IV line (0.9% NaCl).
3. Collect urine specimen. To detect presence of bacteria, which may be causing the adverse reaction to blood
transfusion.
4. 3onitor VS.
Nursing Intervention when Complication Occurs in Blood Transfusion
5. Send unused blood and BT set to the blood bank for laboratory examination.
6. Administer antihistamine, diuretics and bronchodilators as ordered.
7. 3ake relevant documentation.
1. Jecord starting the blood, VS
2. Type of blood, Blood unit #
3. Sequence #, Site of venipuncture
4. Size of needle
5. Sample Documentation
1/21/08 12:30 pm 1 unit of PJBC (#65234) hung to be infused over 3 hours. IV site in X forearm with 19 g angiocath. VS
taken and recorded. Informed to contact nurse if begins to experience any discomfort during transfusion. Stated he
would use the call lights.
C. Jones, J.N.