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Form 4: Chapter 1 (Functions)

SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 Based on the given ordered pairs 3

{(2, 1), (4, 3), (6, 5), (6, 7)}, an arrow diagram
can be drawn as shown below.

'3' and '7' are linked to

object(s) but '5' and '11' are
not linked to any object(s).
(a) The image of 2 is 1. Therefore, the range is {3, 7}.
(b) The object of 7 is 6.
(b) The above relation is a many-to-one
2 (a) Let g−1(7) = y
relation.
Thus, g(y) = 7
4y − 1 = 7
4y = 8
y=2 Element '7' in the codomain
∴ g−1(7) = 2 is linked to two elements,
i.e. '28' and '49' in the
(b) hg(x) domain. Therefore, it is a
= h(4x − 1) many-to-one relation.
= (4x − 1)2 − 3(4x − 1) + 5
= 16x2 − 8x + 1 − 12x + 3 + 5
= 16x2 − 20x + 9

1
4 h : x → 2x + m 7 (a) Let w −1(x) = z
h(x) = 2x + m w( z) = x
6
Let h−1(x) = y =x
3 − 2z
h(y) = x
2y + m = x
Change the subject of the
x−m
y= formula to z.
2
x − m x m 6 = x(3 − 2z)
∴ h−1(x) = = −
2 2 2 6 = 3x − 2xz
2xz = 3x − 6
3
But it is given that h−1(x) = 3kx + . 3x − 6
2 z=
Hence, by comparison, 2x
3x − 6
1
3k = ⇒ k =
1
and ∴ w −1( x) = , x≠0
2 6 2x
m 3
− = ⇒ m = −3 . ⎛ 5⎞
2 2 (b) w −1h⎜− ⎟
⎝ 2⎠
5 (a) hg(x) = 6x − 2 ⎡ ⎛ 5⎞ ⎤
= w −1⎢2⎜− ⎟ + 3⎥
h[g(x)] = 6x − 2 ⎣ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎦
3g(x) + 1 = 6x − 2 = w −1(−2)
3g(x) = 6x − 3
3(−2) − 6
g(x) = 2x − 1 =
2(−2)
=3
It is given that
h(x) = 3x + 1. Hence, 8 Let n−1(x) = y
h[g( x)] = 3g(x) + 1. n( y) = x
4y −1 = x
(b) gh(x) = g(3x + 1) = 2(3x + 1) − 1 = 6x + 1 4y = x +1
x +1
1 y=
When gh(x) = , 4
3 x +1
1 n−1(x) =
6x + 1 = 4
3
18x + 3 = 1 ⎛ x + 1⎞
mn−1(x) = m⎜ ⎟
18x = −2 ⎝ 4 ⎠
1 3
x=− =
9 ⎛ x + 1⎞
8⎜ ⎟−5
⎝ 4 ⎠
6 (a) From the given arrow diagram,
3 3
f (−2) = −5. Hence, f −1(−5) = −2 . = , x≠
2x − 3 2
(b) gf (−2) = 3

This is a composite
function gf(x) which maps
x directly onto z.

2
9 (a) The relation between set P and set Q is a 10 m(2) = 7
many-to-one relation. 2− h
=7
h
(b) The relation can be represented by
f ( x) = x4. 2 − h = 7h
Function notation 8h = 2
1
h=
4

3
Paper 2

1 (a) f : x → 2x − 3 (b) hg : x → 2x + 4
f (x) = 2x − 3 hg(x) = 2x + 4
Let f −1(x) = y ⎛x ⎞
h⎜ + 2⎟ = 2x + 4
f ( y) = x ⎝2 ⎠
2y − 3 = x x
Let +2= u
x+3 2
y= x
2 = u−2
x +3 2
∴ f −1(x) = x = 2u − 4
2
h(u) = 2(2u − 4) + 4
f −1 g( x) = 4u − 8 + 4
⎛x ⎞ = 4u − 4
= f −1⎜ + 2⎟
⎝2 ⎠ ∴ h : x → 4x − 4
⎛x ⎞
⎜ + 2⎟ + 3
⎝ 2 ⎠
=
2
x + 4+ 6
= 2
2
x + 10
=
4
x + 10
∴ f −1 g : x →
4

4
Form 4: Chapter 2 (Quadratic Equations)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 2x(x − 3) = (2 − x)(x + 1) 3 y = 5x − 2 …c
2x 2 − 6x = 2x + 2 − x 2 − x y = 3x + 3x + k … d
2

3x 2 − 7x − 2 = 0 Substituting d into c:
−(−7) ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(−2) 3x 2 + 3x + k = 5x − 2
x=
2(3) 3x 2 − 2x + k + 2 = 0
7 ± 49 + 24 a = 3, b = −2, c = k + 2
x=
6
7 ± 8.5440 In the case where a curve does not meet a
x= straight line, b2 − 4ac < 0 is applied.
6
x = 2.591 or −0.2573 b2 − 4ac < 0
(−2) − 4(3)(k + 2) < 0
2

2 5 4 − 12k − 24 < 0
2 The roots are and − .
3 2 −12k − 20 < 0
2 ⎛ 5⎞ 11 −12k < 20
Sum of roots = + ⎜− ⎟ = −
3 ⎝ 2⎠ 6 20
⎛ ⎞ k >
2 5
Product of roots = × ⎜− ⎟ = −
5 −12
3 ⎝ 2⎠ 3 2
k > −1
The quadratic equation is 3
11 5
x2 + x− =0
6 3 4 7 − 2(1+ x)2 = x(x + 5)
6 x 2 + 11x − 10 = 0 7 − 2(1+ 2x + x 2 ) = x 2 + 5x
7 − 2 − 4x − 2x 2 = x 2 + 5x
x 2 − (sum of roots)x +
(product of roots) = 0 3x 2 + 9x − 5 = 0
−b ± b2 − 4ac
x=
2a
−9 ± 92 − 4(3)(−5)
x=
2(3)
−9 ± 141
x=
6
x = 0.4791 or −3.479

5
5 9x 2 + qx + 1 = 4x
9x 2 + qx − 4x + 1 = 0
9x 2 + (q − 4)x + 1 = 0

a = 9, b = q − 4, c = 1

If the equation has equal roots, then

b2 − 4ac = 0
(q − 4)2 − 4(9)(1) = 0
q 2 − 8q + 16 − 36 = 0
q 2 − 8q − 20 = 0
(q + 2)(q − 10) = 0
q = −2 or 10

6
Form 4: Chapter 3 (Quadratic Functions)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 x(x + 2) = 3px − 4 3
x2 + 2x = 3px − 4
x2 + 2x − 3px + 4 = 0
x 2 + (2 − 3p)x + 4 = 0

a = 1, b = 2 − 3p, c = 4
For the case of two distinct roots,
b 2 − 4ac > 0 is applied.

(2 − 3p)2 − 4(1)(4) > 0

4 − 12p + 9p 2 − 16 > 0
9p 2 − 12p − 12 > 0 (a) The curve passes through the point (0, −4).
3p 2 − 4p − 4 > 0
y = −(x − k )2 − 3
(3p + 2)( p − 2) > 0
−4 = −(0 − k )2 − 3
−1 = − k 2
k2 = 1
k =1

(b) The equation of the curve is

y = −(x − 1)2 − 3.
Hence, the ranges of values of p are
2
p < − or p > 2 . Hence, the equation of the axis of
3 symmetry is x − 1 = 0 ⇒ x = 1 .
2 x(x − 1) > 12 (c) The coordinates of the maximum point are
x 2 − x > 12 (1, −3).
x 2 − x − 12 > 0
4 f (x) = −2(x + p)2 − 2
(x + 3)(x − 4) > 0
The maximum point of the graph of f (x) is
(−p, −2) .

But it is given that the maximum point of the

graph of f (x) is (−3, q) .

The ranges of values of x are Hence, by comparison,

x < −3 or x > 4 . (a) −p = −3 ⇒ p = 3
(b) q = −2
(c) the equation of the axis of symmetry of the
curve is x = −3 .

7
5 (a) The equation of the axis of symmetry is 6 (1 − 2x)(3 + x) > x + 3
−6 + (−2) 3 + x − 6x − 2x 2 > x + 3
x=
2 −2x 2 − 6x > 0
x = −4
2x 2 + 6x < 0
(b) The minimum point is (−4, −5) . Hence, 2x(x + 3) < 0
f (x) = ( x + 4) 2 − 5 .

−3 < x < 0 .

8
Paper 2

1 (a) f (x) = −x 2 + 4kx − 5k 2 − 1 (b) From f (x) = −( x − 2k )2 − k 2 − 1, the axis

= −( x 2 − 4kx + 5k 2 + 1) of symmetry is x = 2k .
= −( x 2 − 4kx + 4k 2 − 4k 2 + 5k 2 + 1) But it is given that the axis of symmetry is
x = r 2 − 1.
⎡1 ⎤2
Add and subtract ⎢ × (−4k )⎥ = 4k 2 By comparison, r 2 − 1 = 2k
⎣2 ⎦
Solve the following simultaneous
= −[(x − 2k )2 + k 2 + 1] equations:
= −(x − 2k )2 − k 2 − 1 r = k −1 … c
r 2 − 1 = 2k … d
Maximum value = − k 2 − 1
But it is given that the maximum value
Substitute c into d:
= −r 2 − 2k .
(k − 1)2 − 1 = 2k
By comparison, k 2 − 2k + 1 − 1 − 2k = 0
−r 2 − 2k = −k 2 − 1 k 2 − 4k = 0
r 2 = k 2 − 2k + 1 k(k − 4) = 0
r 2 = (k − 1)2 k = 0 or k = 4
r = k − 1 (shown) k = 0 is not accepted.
∴k = 4
When k = 4, r = 4 − 1 = 3

9
Form 4: Chapter 4 (Simultaneous Equations)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 2

1 4x + y = x 2 + x − y = −3 y
3 x+ =1 …c
4x + y = −3 …c 2
x + x − y = −3
2 …d 3xy − 7 y = 2 …d

From c: y = −3 − 4x … e From c:
Substitute e into d: 2x + y = 2
x 2 + x − (−3 − 4x) = −3 y = 2 − 2x … e
x 2 + x + 3 + 4x + 3 = 0
x 2 + 5x + 6 = 0 Substituting e into d:
( x + 2)(x + 3) = 0 3x(2 − 2x) − 7(2 − 2x) − 2 = 0
x = −2 or −3 6x − 6x 2 − 14 + 14x − 2 = 0
−6x 2 + 20x − 16 = 0
From e:
3x 2 − 10x + 8 = 0
When x = −2, y = −3 − 4(−2) = 5
(3x − 4)( x − 2) = 0
When x = −3, y = −3 − 4(−3) = 9
4
Hence, the solutions are x = −2, y = 5 x = or 2
3
or x = −3, y = 9 .
From e:
2 x− y =1 …c ⎛4⎞
4 2
x 2 + 3y = 6 …d When x = , y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = −
3 ⎝ 3⎠ 3
From c: x = 1+ y … e When x = 2 , y = 2 − 2(2) = −2

Substituting e into d, we have:

1 2
(1+ y)2 + 3y = 6 Hence, the solutions are x = 1 , y = − or
3 3
1+ 2 y + y 2 + 3y − 6 = 0 x = 2, y = −2 .
y 2 + 5y − 5 = 0
−b ± b2 − 4ac
y=
2a
−5 ± 52 − 4(1)(−5)
y=
2(1)
−5 ± 45
y=
2(1)
y = 0.854 or −5.854
From e:
When y = 0.854, x = 1+ 0.854 = 1.854
When y = −5.854, x = 1+ (−5.854) = −4.854
Hence, the solutions are x = 1.854 , y = 0.854
or x = −4.854, y = −5.854 (correct to
3 decimal places).

10
4 3x + y = 2 …c
x 2 + 2 y 2 + xy = 4 …d

From c: y = 2 − 3x … e

Substituting e into d:
x 2 + 2(2 − 3x)2 + x(2 − 3x) = 4
x 2 + 2(4 − 12x + 9x 2 ) + 2x − 3x 2 − 4 = 0
x 2 + 8 − 24x + 18x 2 + 2x − 3x 2 − 4 = 0
16x 2 − 22x + 4 = 0
8x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0
−(−11) ± (−11)2 − 4(8)(2)
x=
2(8)
11± 57
x=
16
x = 1.159 or 0.216

From e:
When x = 1.159, y = 2 − 3(1.159) = −1.477
When x = 0.216, y = 2 − 3(0.216) = 1.352

Hence, the solutions are x = 1.159,

y = −1.477 or x = 0.216, y = 1.352 (correct
to 3 decimal places).

11
Form 4: Chapter 5 (Indices and Logarithms)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 log 2 R − log 4 Q = 2 4 log 5 2.7

log 2 Q 7
log 2 R − =2 = log 5 2
log 2 4 10
log 2 Q 27
log 2 R − =2 = log 5
log 2 2 2 10
⎛ 33 ⎞
log 2 Q = log 5 ⎜ ⎟
log 2 R − =2 ⎝2 × 5⎠
2
2log 2 R − log 2 Q = 4 = log 5 33 − (log 5 2 + log 5 5)
log 2 R 2 − log 2 Q = 4 = 3log 5 3 − log 5 2 − log 5 5
R2 = 3p − m −1
log 2 =4
Q
2
R2 5 3s + 2 − 3s + 1 =
= 24 3
Q
2
R2 = 2 4 Q 3s (32 ) − 3s (31) =
3
R = 24 Q 2
9(3s ) − 3(3s ) =
R = 22 Q 3
R=4 Q 2
(9 − 3)(3s ) =
3
2 4 2x− 3 = 5x 2
6(3s ) =
log 4 2x− 3 = log 5x 3
(2x − 3) log 4 = x log 5 2 1
3s = ×
2x log 4 − 3log 4 = x log 5 3 6
2x log 4 − x log 5 = 3log 4 1
3s =
x(2log 4 − log 5) = 3log 4 9
3s = 3−2
3log 4
x= ∴ s = −2
2log 4 − log 5
x = 3.576 6 log 5 (2 y − 1) = 1 + log 5 ( y − 8)
3 2434 x = 98 x +6 log 5 (2 y − 1) − log 5 ( y − 8) = 1
(35 )4 x = (32 )8 x+6 ⎛2y −1⎞
log 5 ⎜ ⎟=1
320 x = 32(8 x+6) ⎝ y−8 ⎠
2y −1
Equating the powers, we have: = 51
y−8
20x = 2(8x + 6)
2 y − 1 = 5( y − 8)
20x = 16x + 12
2 y − 1 = 5y − 40
4x = 12
3y = 39
x=3
y = 13

12
7 2 = ms 3 = mt ⎛ x4 ⎞
9 log 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 log 3 x + log 3 y
log m 2 = s log m 3 = t ⎝ y ⎠
⎛ x4 ⎞
⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ ⎟ − 2 log 3 x − log 3 y = 2
log m ⎜ m ⎟ ⎝ y ⎠
⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ x4 ⎞
⎛ 1 ⎞ log 3 ⎜ ⎟ − log 3 x 2 − log 3 y = 2
⎜ m2 ⎟ ⎝ y ⎠
= log m ⎜
⎜ 2 × 3 ⎟⎟ ⎛ x4 ⎞
⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟
y
1 log 3 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2
= log m m 2 − log m 2 − log m 3 ⎜ x y⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
1
= −s−t ⎛ x 4 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞
2 log 3 ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2
⎝ y ⎠⎝ x y ⎠
1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
8 272 x −5 = log 3 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2
9 x +1 ⎝y ⎠
1
33(2 x−5) = x2
= 32
32( x+1) y2
1
33(2 x−5) = ⎛ x ⎞2
1
⎜ ⎟ = 32
[32( x+1) ] 2 ⎝ y⎠
1 x
33(2 x−5) = =3
3( x+1) y
33(2 x−5) = 3−( x +1) x
Equating the powers, y=
3
3(2x − 5) = −(x + 1)
6x − 15 = −x − 1 10 2 + 2 log 4 ( p − 6) = log 2 p
7x = 14 2log 4 ( p − 6) − log 2 p = −2
x=2 ⎡ log 2 ( p − 6) ⎤
2⎢ ⎥ − log 2 p = −2
⎣ log 2 4 ⎦
⎡ log ( p − 6) ⎤
2⎢ 2 ⎥ − log 2 p = −2
⎣ 2 ⎦

log 2 4 = log 2 2 2 = 2 log 2 2 = 2(1) = 2

log 2 ( p − 6) − log 2 p = −2
⎛ p−6⎞
log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = −2
⎝ p ⎠
p−6
= 2−2
p
p−6 1
=
p 4
4p − 24 = p
3p = 24
p=8

13
Form 4: Chapter 6 (Coordinate Geometry)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 y x
2 + =1
k 3
3y + kx
=1
3k
3y + kx = 3k
3y = −kx + 3k
k
y=− x+k
3
k
∴ m1 = −
3

B = (b, c) 5y = 3x + 25
⎛ 4(2a) + 3(2b) 4a + 3(3c) ⎞ 3
⎜ , ⎟ = (b, c) y= x+5
⎝ 3+ 4 3+ 4 ⎠ 5
⎛ 8a + 6b 4a + 9c ⎞ ∴ m2 =
3
⎜ , ⎟ = (b, c) 5
⎝ 7 7 ⎠
m1m2 = −1
Equating the x-coordinates:
⎛ k ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞
8a + 6b ⎜− ⎟⎜ ⎟ = −1
=b ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ 5 ⎠
7
8a + 6b = 7b −k
= −1
8a = b 5
b k =5
a= …
8

Equating the y-coordinates:

4a + 9c
=c
7
4a + 9c = 7c
4a + 2c = 0
2a + c = 0 …

Substitute into :
⎛b⎞
2⎜ ⎟ + c = 0
⎝8⎠
b
+c=0
4
b + 4c = 0
b = −4c

14
x y h k
3 + = 1 is an equation in the intercept form 5 AB : y = x+
3 4 2 2
where the x-intercept is 3 and the y-intercept is k +1 h
4. PQ : y = x+
∴ Q = (0, 4) 3 3
h
∴ P = (3, 0) m AB =
2
k +1
4− 0 4 mPQ =
mQP = =− 3
0−3 3
Gradient of the perpendicular line Since the straight lines AB and PQ are
1 3 perpendicular to each other,
=− =
⎛ 4⎞ 4 (m AB ) (mPQ ) = −1
⎜− ⎟
⎝ 3⎠ h ⎛ k + 1⎞
⎜ ⎟ = −1
2⎝ 3 ⎠
Hence, the equation of the straight line that is
perpendicular to PQ and passes through the −6
h=
point Q(0, 4) is k+1
y − y1 = m(x − x1 )
6 The equation of PQ is
3
y−4= ( x − 0) 2y = −x + 4
4
1
4( y − 4) = 3x y=− x+2
2
4y − 16 = 3x
1
4y = 3 x + 16 ∴ mPQ = −
2
1
4 A = (−2, −2), B = (3, 5) ∴ mQR = − =2
mPQ
Let P = (x, y)

PA : PB = 2 : 3 Hence, the equation of QR is y = 2x − 3.

PA 2
= Equation of PQ: 2y = −x + 4 …
PB 3
3PA = 2PB Equation of QR: y = 2x − 3 …
3 [x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 2 (x − 3) 2 + ( y − 5) 2
×2+ : 5y = 5
Squaring both sides, we have: y =1
32 [(x + 2)2 + ( y + 2)2 ] =
From : 2(1) = −x + 4
22 [(x − 3)2 + ( y − 5)2 ]
x=2
9( x 2 + 4x + 4 + y 2 + 4y + 4) =
4(x 2 − 6x + 9 + y 2 − 10y + 25) Hence, the coordinates of point Q are (2, 1) .
9x 2 + 36x + 36 + 9y 2 + 36y + 36 =
4x 2 − 24x + 36 + 4y 2 − 40y + 100
5x 2 + 5y 2 + 60x + 76y − 64 = 0

Hence, the equation of the locus of P is

5x 2 + 5y 2 + 60x + 76y − 64 = 0 .

15
Paper 2
0−3 3
1 (b) mMA = =
−3 − 1 4
1 1 4
∴ m AC =− =− =−
mMA 3 3
4

Equation of the straight line AC is

4
y − 0 = − [x − (−3)]
3
3y = −4(x + 3)
3y = −4x − 12
(a) (i) Radius of the circle
= MA At point C (y-axis), x = 0 .
= (−3 − 1)2 + (0 − 3)2 3y = −4(0) − 12 ⇒ y = −4
= 16 + 9 ∴ C = (0, − 4)
= 25
Area of ∆OAC
=5
1 0 −3 0 0
=
MR = MA 2 0 0 −4 0
(x − 1)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 5 1
= 12
(x − 1)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 52 2
x 2 − 2x + 1 + y 2 − 6y + 9 = 25 = 6 units 2

x 2 − 2x + y 2 − 6y − 15 = 0

Hence, the equation of the locus of the

point R(x, y) is
x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 6y − 15 = 0 .

(ii) Point B(4, k) lies on the circumference

of the circle.
42 − 2(4) + k 2 − 6k − 15 = 0
k 2 − 6k − 7 = 0
(k − 7)(k + 1) = 0
k = 7 or −1

16
2 (a) 0 − (−3) 1
(c) m AB = =
6−0 2
1 1
mCD =− =− = −2
m AB ⎛1⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2⎠

Hence, the equation of CD is

y − y1 = m(x − x1 )
y − (−2) = −2(x − 2)
y + 2 = −2x + 4
The equation of AB in the intercept form is
y = −2x + 2
x y
+ = 1. ∴ y-intercept = 2
6 (−3)

(b) 2 AD = DB
=
DB 2

⎛ 2(0) + 1(6) 2(−3) + 1(0) ⎞

D=⎜ , ⎟ = (2, −2)
⎝ 1+ 2 1+ 2 ⎠

17
3 (a) (i) The gradient of the straight line (b)
2x − y − 5 = 0 ⇒ y = 2x − 5 is 2.
∴ mBC = 2
1 1
∴ m AB = − =−
mBC 2

Hence, the equation of the straight line

AB is:
y − y1 = m(x − x1 )
1
y − (−3) = − [x − (−9)]
2
B = (−1, −7)
At the point A(−9, −3), ⎛ 3(−9) + 2h 3(−3) + 2k ⎞
x1 = −9, y1 = −3 . ⎜ , ⎟ = (−1, −7)
⎝ 2+3 2+3 ⎠
2( y + 3) = −(x + 9) ⎛ −27 + 2h −9 + 2k ⎞
2y + 6 = −x − 9 ⎜ , ⎟ = (−1, −7)
⎝ 5 5 ⎠
x + 2 y + 15 = 0 (general form)
Equating the x-coordinates:
(ii) Equation of BC: 2x − y − 5 = 0 … −27 + 2h
= −1
Equation of AB: x + 2 y + 15 = 0 … 5
2h = 22
4x − 2y − 10 = 0 K ×2 h = 11
+ x + 2y + 15 = 0 K
Equating the y-coordinates:
5x + 5 = 0
∴ x = −1 −9 + 2k
= −7
5
From : 2k = −26
2(−1) − y − 5 = 0 k = −13
∴ y = −7 ∴D is point (11, −13) .

1 −9 11 0 −9
=
2 −3 −13 0 −3
1
= 117 − (−33)
2
1
= 150
2
= 75 units 2

(c) Let P be point (x, y).

PA = 2
[x − (−9)]2 + [ y − (−3)]2 = 2
( x + 9)2 + ( y + 3)2 = 22
x2 + 18 x + 81+ y 2 + 6 y + 9 = 4
x 2 + 18x + y 2 + 6y + 86 = 0

18
4 (a) (i) Area of ∆OAB (b) (i) Let P = (x, y)
1 0 −3 6 0 PA = 2PB
=
2 0 −5 1 0 (PA)2 = (2PB)2
1 PA2 = 4PB 2
= −3 − (−30)
2 [x − (−3)]2 + [ y − (−5)]2 =
1
= 27 4[(x − 6)2 + ( y − 1)2 ]
2 (x + 3)2 + ( y + 5)2 =
= 13.5 units 2
4[(x − 6)2 + ( y − 1)2 ]
x 2 + 6x + 9 + y 2 + 10y + 25 =
(ii) AB = [6 − (−3)]2 + [1 − (−5)]2
4(x 2 − 12x + 36 + y 2 − 2y + 1)
= 92 + 62
x 2 + 6x + 9 + y 2 + 10y + 25 =
= 117
4x 2 − 48x + 144 + 4y 2 − 8y + 4
= 10.82 units
0 = 3x 2 − 54x + 3y 2 − 18y + 114
x 2 + y 2 − 18 x − 6y + 38 = 0

(ii) At the y-axis, x = 0 .

∴0 2 − 18(0) + y 2 − 6y + 38 = 0
y 2 − 6y + 38 = 0

b 2 − 4ac
= (−6) 2 − 4(1)(38)
= 36 − 152
= −116
Since b 2 − 4ac < 0 , there are no real
roots and hence, the locus will not cut
Area of ∆OAB = 13.5 the y-axis.
1
× AB × h = 13.5
2
1
× 10.82 × h = 13.5
2
h = 2.50
Hence, the perpendicular distance
from O to AB is 2.50 units.

19
Form 4: Chapter 7 (Statistics)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 σ=k 2 Variance = 14

∑ x2 ⎛ ∑
x⎞
2

∑x ∑
2
⎛ x ⎞⎟ ⎜ ⎟
2
⎜ − = 14
−⎜ ⎟ =k ⎜ n ⎟
n ⎝ n ⎠ n
⎝ ⎠

2
⎛ x ⎞⎟ 12 + 42 + k 2 ⎛ 1 + 4 + k ⎞
2
m ⎜ −⎜ ⎟ = 14
−⎜ =k
5 ⎝ 5 ⎟⎠ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠
17 + k 2 ⎛ 5 + k ⎞
2

2
⎛ x ⎞⎟ −⎜ ⎟ = 14
m ⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠
−⎜ = k2 3
5 ⎝ 5 ⎟⎠
17 + k 2 (5 + k ) 2
− = 14
(∑ x)
2
3 9
m
− k2 = 3 (17 + k 2 ) − (5 + k ) 2 = 126
5 25
51 + 3k 2 − (25 + 10k + k 2 ) = 126
(∑ )
2
x = 5m − 25k 2 51 + 3k 2 − 25 − 10k − k 2 − 126 = 0
∑x = 5m − 25k 2 2k 2 − 10k − 100 = 0
k 2 − 5k − 50 = 0
(k + 5)(k − 10) = 0
k = −5 or 10
k = −5 is not accepted.
∴ k = 10

20
Paper 2

1 (a) (i) Given that x = 10 , 2 (a) Mean, x =

∑ x = 200 = 20
∑ x = 10
n 10

6
Variance, σ 2 =
∑x 2

∑ x = 60 n
− (x)2

4400
= − 202
(ii) Given that σ = 3 , 10
σ2 =9 = 40
∑x 2
− ( x) 2 = 9 (b) Assume that a number k is added to the
n first set of data.
∑x 2
− 10 2 = 9 (i) New mean = 20 + 2
6
∑ x + k = 22
∑x 2 = 654
11
200 + k
(b) If each mark is multiplied by 4 and then 5 = 22
is added to it: 11
(i) New mean k = 42
= (4 × original mean) + 5
(ii) New standard deviation
= (4 ×10) + 5
= 45
=
∑x 2 + 422
− 222
11
(ii) New standard deviation
4400 + 422
= (4 × original standard deviation) = − 222
11
= 4×3 = 8.739
= 12

Hence, the new variance

= 122
= 144

21
3 (a) The frequency table which represents the (b)
given histogram is as follows. Marks f Midpoint fx fx2
(x)
Marks Frequency Cumulative 10 − 24 2 17 34 578
frequency 25 − 39 6 32 192 6144
10 − 24 2 2 40 − 54 8 47 376 17 672
25 − 39 6 8 55 − 69 13 62 806 49 972
40 − 54 8 16 70 − 84 5 77 385 29 645
85 − 99 2 92 184 16 928
55 − 69 13 29
70 − 84 5 34 ∑f ∑ fx ∑ fx 2

∑ fx ⎛
∑ fx ⎞⎟
2
2

The median class is given by = −⎜

T n = T 36 = T18 . ∑f ⎜
⎝ ∑ f ⎟⎠
2 2
120 939 ⎛ 1977 ⎞
2
Thus, the median class is 55 − 69. = −⎜ ⎟
36 ⎝ 36 ⎠
Median = 18.54
⎛n ⎞
⎜ −F ⎟
= L+⎜ 2 ⎟c
⎜ fm ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ 36 ⎞
⎜ − 16 ⎟
= 54.5 + ⎜ 2 ⎟(15)
⎜ 13 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
= 56.81

22
4 (a) (b)
Cumulative
Marks Frequency
frequency
20 − 29 2 2
30 − 39 4 6
40 − 49 6 (12)
50 − 59 (12) 24
60 − 69 k 24 + k
70 − 79 2 26 + k
∑ f = 26 + k
Median class
If the median is 52, then the median class
is 50 − 59. Modal mark = 53.75
Median = 52
⎛n ⎞ (c) New mode = Original mode − 3
⎜ −F ⎟ = 53.75 − 3
L+⎜ 2 ⎟c = 52
⎜ fm ⎟ = 50.75
⎝ ⎠
⎛ 26 + k ⎞
⎜ − 12 ⎟
49.5 + ⎜ 2 ⎟(10) = 52
⎜ 12 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ 26 + k − 24 ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ 2 ⎟(10) = 52 − 49.5
⎜ 12 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ 2+ k ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ 2 ⎟(10) = 2.5
⎜ 12 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
2+k
(10) = 2.5
24
2+ k = 6
k =4

23
Form 4: Chapter 8 (Circular Measures)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 Let OR = r cm 3 (a) Area of sector = 20 cm2

Perimeter of the sector ROS = 40 cm 1 2
r (0.4) = 20
r + r + 8 = 40 2
2r = 32 r 2 = 100
r = 16 r = 10

s 8 Length of the arc AB

θ= = = 0.5 rad. = 10 × 0.4
r 16
= 4 cm
2
(b) Reflex angle AOB
= 2π − 0.4
= (2 × 3.142) − 0.4
180
= 5.884 ×
3.142
= 337° 5′

8 2
4 ∠AOB = = rad.
12 3
Area of the shaded region
Length of the major arc AB = 46.64 cm = Area of sector OAB − Area of sector AMN
r(2π − 0.454) = 46.64 1 ⎛ 2⎞ 1
= (12)2 ⎜ ⎟ − (6)2 (0.7)
r[(2 × 3.142) − 0.454] = 46.64 2 ⎝ 3⎠ 2
r(5.83) = 46.64 = 48 − 12.6
r=8 = 35.4 cm 2
∴ Radius = 8 cm

24
Paper 2

1 (b) Area of the shaded region

3 = Area of sector OAB − Area of ∆OPB
OP = × 15 1 1
5 = (15)2 (0.9273) − × 9 × 12
= 9 cm 2 2
= 104.32125 − 54
= 50.32 cm 2

9 3
cos θ = =
15 5
θ = 0.9273 rad.

Make sure that

mode.

25
2 (a) (b) Based on ∆ JOQ ,
OQ
cos ∠JOQ =
OJ
8
cos 60° =
OJ
8
OJ =
cos 60°
OJ = 16 cm
Length of the arc JLK
= OJ × ∠JOK
Insert a line OQ in the diagram. 2
• Since OPQR is a rhombus, = 16 × π
3
OP = PQ = QR = RO .
= 33.51 cm
• Since the radius of a circle is a constant,
OP = OQ = OR. (c) Area of the shaded segment
1
¾ It can now be concluded that ∆OPQ is = r 2 (α − sin α )
2
an equilateral triangle because ⎛2 ⎞
1
OP = PQ = OQ . = (16)2 ⎜ π − sin 120°⎟
¾ It can also be concluded that ∆ORQ is
2 ⎝3 ⎠
an equilateral triangle because = 157.23 cm 2
OR = RQ = OQ .

Therefore, ∠POQ = ∠ROQ = 60°.

Hence, ∠POR = α
= 120°
π
= 120 ×
180
2
3

26
3 (a) In ∆OQR , (b) Area of ∆OQR
⎛π ⎞ r 1
7 = × 7 × 12.1244
cos ⎜ ⎟ = 2
⎝3⎠ OR
= 42.4354 cm 2
7
cos 60° =
OR Area of the sector ORS
7 1 3.142
OR = = × 142 ×
cos 60° 2 3
OR = 14 cm = 102.6387 cm 2

In ∆OQR , Hence, the area of the shaded region B

QR = Area of sector ORS − Area of ∆OQR
tan 60° = = 102.6387 − 42.4354
7
QR = 7 × tan 60° = 60.20 cm2
QR = 12.1244 cm

PR = OR − OP
= 14 − 7
= 7 cm

Length of arc PQ
π
= 7×
3
3.142
= 7×
3
= 7.3313 cm

Hence, the perimeter of the shaded region

A
= PR + QR + Length of arc PQ
= 7 + 12.1244 + 7.3313
= 26.46 cm

27
4 (a) (c) MC = CO 2 − MO 2
= 102 − 42
= 84 cm

Area of shaded region

= Area of sector ARQ − Area of ∆ACO
− Area of sector COQ
1 1 1
= (18)2 (1.16) − × 8 × 84 − (10)2 (1.982)
2 2 2
= 52.16 cm 2
∆CAO is an isosceles triangle.
∴ ∠CAO = ∠COA
= π − 1.982
= 3.142 − 1.982

(b)

Perimeter of the shaded region

= CR + Length of arc CQ + Length of
arc RQ
= 8 + (10 × 1.982) + (18 × 1.16)
= 48.7 cm

28
Form 4: Chapter 9 (Differentiation)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 (a) y = 15x(3 − x) = 45x − 15x 2 4

4 y = 4x + = 4x + 4x −1
dy x
= 45 − 30x
dx dy 4
= 4 − 4x −2 = 4 − 2
dx x
dy dx 1 1
When = 0, ∴ = =
dx dy dy ⎛ 4 ⎞
45 − 30x = 0, ⎜4 − 2 ⎟
dx ⎝ x ⎠
x = 1.5
Rate of change of x:
(b) When x = 1.5, y = 15(1.5)(3 − 1.5) = 33.75 dx dx dy
d2 y = ×
= −30 (negative) dt dy dt
dx 2 1 Rate of
Therefore, y is a maximum. = ×2
⎛ 4⎞ change of
⎜4 − 2 ⎟ y = 2 units
δy dy ⎝ x ⎠
2 ≈
δx dx =
1
×2
dy ⎛ 4⎞
δy ≈ × δx ⎜ 4 − ⎟
dx ⎝ 32 ⎠
= (2x + 3) × (2.01− 2) 9
= units s−1
= (2 × 2 + 3) × 0.01 16
= 0.07
1
5 g(x) =
3 y= 3x 3 (2x − 1)3 6(3x − 4) 2
1
= (3x − 4)−2
Let u = 3x 3 and v = (2x − 1)3 6
du
= 9x 2
dv
= 3(2x − 1)2 (2) −2
g ′(x) = (3x − 4)−3 (3)
dx dx 6
= 6(2x − 1)2 = −(3x − 4)−3

dy dv du g ′′(x) = 3(3x − 4)−4 (3)

=u +v = 9(3x − 4)−4
dx dx dx
= 3x [6(2x − 1)2 ] + (2x − 1)3 (9x 2 )
3
=
9
= 18x 3 (2x − 1)2 + 9x 2 (2x − 1)3 (3x − 4)4
= 9x 2 (2x − 1)2 [2x + (2x − 1)] ⎛1⎞ 9 1
∴ g ′′⎜ ⎟ = =
= 9x 2 (2 x − 1) 2 (4 x − 1) ⎝ 3⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 4 9
⎜ 3 × − 4⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠

29
1 2 1 6
6 V = π h (21− h) 8 y= u
3 3
1 1
V = 7π h 2 − π h 3 y = (3x − 6)6
3 3
dV dy 6
= 14π h − π h2 = (3x − 6)5 (3)
dh dx 3
dh 1 = 6(3x − 6)5
=
dV 14π h − π h2
9 (a) y = 3 + 14x − 2x 3
Rate of change of depth of water dy
= 14 − 6x 2
dh dx
=
dt dy
When x = 2, = 14 − 6(2)2 = −10
dh dV dx
= ×
dV dt
1 dy
= ×9 (b) δy ≈ × δx
14π h − π h2 dx
= (−10) × [(2 + k ) − 2]
1
= ×9 = −10k
14π (3) − π (3)2
3
= cm s −1
11π

7 y = (x + 3)2 = x 2 + 6x + 9
dy
= 2x + 6
dx

1
If the gradient of the normal is − , then the
6
gradient of the tangent is 6.

dy
∴ =6
dx
2x + 6 = 6
x=0

When x = 0, y = (0 + 3)2 = 9

Hence, the coordinates of point Q are (0, 9) .

30
Paper 2

1 2 y = 2x 3 − 3x 2 − 12x + 11
dy
= 6x 2 − 6x − 12
dx
d2 y
= 12x − 6
dx 2
(a) At turning point,
dy
=0
dx
Using the concept of similar triangles, 6x 2 − 6x − 12 = 0
r
=
h x2 − x − 2 = 0
0.5 0.7 (x + 1)(x − 2) = 0
h x = −1 or 2
r= × 0.5
0.7
5 When x = −1 ,
r= h y = 2(−1)3 − 3(−1)2 − 12(−1) + 11 = 18
7
∴ (−1, 18) is a turning point.
1 2
V = πr h When x = −1 ,
3 d2 y
= 12(−1) − 6 = −18 (negative)
1 ⎛5 ⎞
2
V = π ⎜ h⎟ h dx 2
3 ⎝7 ⎠ ∴ (−1, 18) is a maximum point.
25 When x = 2 ,
V = π h3
147 y = 2(2)3 − 3(2)2 − 12(2) + 11 = −9
∴ (2, −9) is a turning point.
dV 25
= π (3h2 ) When x = 2 ,
dh 147
dV 25 d2 y
= π h2 = 12(2) − 6 = 18 (positive)
dh 49 dx 2
dh 49 ∴ (2, − 9) is a minimum point.
=
dV 25π h2 (b) At point (3, 2),
dy
= 6(3)2 − 6(3) − 12 = 24
dx
Rate of change of the height of the water level:
dh dh dV
= × Rate of increase of 1
dt dV dt the volume of water: ∴ mnormal = −
dh 49 24
= × 0.1 dV
= 0.1 m 3 s −1
dt 25π h2 dh The equation of normal is
1
y−2=− ( x − 3)
24
dh
=
49
× 0.1 24( y − 2) = −( x − 3)
dt 25π (0.3)2 24 y − 48 = − x + 3
dh
=
49
× 0.1 24 y = − x + 51
dt 25(3.142)(0.3)2
At the x-axis, y = 0 .
= 0.6931 m s −1
24(0) = −x + 51
x = 51
∴ P is point (51, 0).

31
Form 4: Chapter 10 (Solution of Triangles)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 2

1 (a) The angle between the inclined plane VQR

and the base PQR is 55° . Therefore,
∠VMP = 55° .

Step 3 (Find VM)

From ∆VRM , using the Pythagoras'
Theorem, VM = 22 − 1.56152
Area of ∆PRQ = 4 m 2 = 1.2497 m
1
(3)(3)sin ∠RPQ = 4 Step 4 (Calculate PV)
2
8
sin ∠RPQ =
9
∠RPQ = 62.73°

Using the cosine rule,

RQ 2 = 32 + 32 − 2(3)(3) cos 62.73°
RQ 2 = 9.75268 Using the cosine rule,
VP2 = 2.56162 + 1.24972 −
RQ = 3.123 m (correct to 4
2(2.5616)(1.2497) cos 55°
significant figures)
VP = 2.110 m (correct to 4
(b) Step 1 (Find PM where M is the midpoint significant figures)
of QR)
(c) Step 1 (Find ∠VQP )

Area of ∆PRQ = 4 m 2
1
× RQ × PM = 4
2 22 + 32 − 2.1102
cos ∠VQP =
1 2(2)(3)
× 3.123 × PM = 4
2 cos ∠VQP = 0.712325
PM = 2.5616 m
cos ∠VQP = 44.58°
Step 2 (Determine ∠VMP )
Step 2 (Find the area of ∆VPQ )
Area of ∆VPQ
1
= × 2 × 3 × sin 44.58°
2
= 2.106 m 2

32
2 (a) (b) (i) Based on ∆ABC , since the length of
BC is shorter than the length of AC
and ∠BAC is an acute non-included
angle, the ambiguous case will occur.

Another triangle (∆AB′C) that can be

drawn is as shown below.

(i) Based on ∆ABC , using the sine rule,

sin ∠ABC sin 30°
=
15 9
sin 30°
sin ∠ABC = ×15
9
sin ∠ABC = 0.83333 (ii) ∠AB′C = 180° − 56.44°
∠ABC = 56.44° = 123.56°
(ii) Based on ∆ADC , using the cosine 3 (a) In ∆PQR , using the cosine rule,
rule,
PR2 = 102 + 72 − 2(10)(7) cos 75°
152 = 102 + 82 − 2(10)(8)
= 112.76533
PR = 10.62 cm
102 + 82 − 152
2(10)(8) (b)
cos ∠ADC = −0.38125

(iii) Based on ∆ABC ,

∠ACB = 180° − 30° − 56.44°
= 93.56°

In ∆PSR , using the sine rule,

Area of the quadrilateral ABCD
sin ∠PSR sin 40°
= Area of ∆ADC + Area of ∆ABC =
10.62 8
1
= (10)(8) sin 112.41° + sin ∠PSR = 0.85330
2
∠PSR = 58.57° or 121.43°
1
(15)(9) sin 93.56°
2
= 36.9792 + 67.3697 ∠PS2 R ∠PS1 R
= 104.35 cm 2

33
4 (a) Area of ∆DBC = 29 cm2
1
× 6 × 10 × sin ∠DCB = 29
2
sin ∠DCB = 0.96667
Basic ∠ = 75.16°
∠DCB = 180° − 75.16°
∠DCB = 104.84° (obtuse)

BD 2 = 166.73448
BD = 12.91 cm

(c)

(c) (i) The obtuse ∠PSR is represented by

∠PS1 R .

In ∆PS1 R ,
∠PRS1 = 180° − 40° − 121.43°
= 18.57°

In ∆PS1 R , using the sine rule,

PS1 10.62
=
sin 18.57° sin 121.43° In ∆ABD,
10.62 sin ∠A sin 45°
PS1 = × sin 18.57° =
sin 121.43° 12.91 9.5
PS1 = 3.964 cm sin 45°
sin ∠A = × 12.91
9.5
(ii) Area of quadrilateral PQRS sin ∠A = 0.96092 First
= Area of ∆PQR + Area of ∆PS1 R ∠A = 73.93°
1 ∴ ∠DAB = 73.93°
= × 10 × 7 × sin 75° +
2 and ∠DA′B = 180° − 73.93°
1
× 3.964 × 10.62 × sin 40° = 106.07°
Second
2
= 47.34 cm 2
Thus, ∠ABD = 180° − 45° − ∠DAB
= 180° − 45° − 73.93°
= 61.07°

Thus, ∠A′BD = 180° − 45° − ∠DA′B

= 180° − 45° − 106.07°
= 28.93°

34
Form 4: Chapter 11 (Index Numbers)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 2

1
Item Price Price Price Weekly Iw (b) I =
∑ Iw = 12 150 = 121.5
in 2000 in 2002 index
for
expenses
(weigh- ∑ w 100
2002 tage, w)
based on
P2002
2000 (I) (c) I= × 100
P RMp RM1.75 140 12 1680 P2000
Q RM2.00 RM2.30 115 28 3220
q = 120 P2002
R RM4.00 RM4.80 20 2400
121.5 = × 100
S RM6.00 RM7.50 125 30 3750 RM500
T RM2.50 RMr 110 10 1100
P2002 = RM607.50
∑ w = ∑ Iw =
100 12 150 Hence, the corresponding total monthly
expenses in the year 2002 was RM607.50.
(a) (i) For item P,
P (d)
I2002 = 2002 ×100 + 21.5% + 20%
P2000 Year 2000 Year 2002 Year 2004
1.75
140 = ×100 Hence, I 2004 (based on the year 2000)
p
100 + 20
p = 1.25 = × I 2002
100
120
(ii) For item R, = × 121.5
P 100
I2002 = 2002 ×100 = 145.8
P2000
4.80
q= ×100
4.00
q = 120

(iii) For item T,

P
I2002 = 2002 × 100
P2000
r
110 = × 100
2.50
r = 2.75

35
2 (a) (i) For item S, (b) (i) I = 110
P
I2004 = 2004 × 100
P2002
∑ Iw
= 110

110 =
1.50
× 100
∑ w
P2002 (115 × 20) + (10x) + (105 × 40) + (110 × 30)
= 110
1.50 20 + 10 + 40 + 30
P2002 = × 100
110 9800 + 10x
= 110
P2002 = RM1.36 100
9800 + 10x = 11 000
Hence, the price of item S in the 10x = 1200
year 2002 was RM1.30.
x = 120
(ii) For item P,
It is given that: P2004
(ii) I 2004 = × 100
I2002 (based on 2000) = 105 P2002
22
P2002
×100 = 105 110 = × 100
P2000 P2002

P2002 × 100 22
∴ P2000 = …c P2002 = × 100
105 110
P2002 = 20.00
From the table, we can see that:
I2004 (based on 2002) = 115 Hence, the price of a box of icecream
in the year 2002 was RM20.00.
P2004
× 100 = 115
P2002
115 × P2002
∴ P2004 = …d
100

P2004
= ×100
P2000

From d
115 × P2002
= 100 × 100
P2002 ×100
105
From c
115 105
= × ×100
100 100
= 120.75

Hence, the price index of item P for

the year 2004 based on the year 2000
is 120.75.

36
3 (a) I2004 (based on 2002) (ii) I 2004 (based on 2002) = 122.99
P P2004
= 2004 × 100 × 100 = 122.99
P2002 P2002
RM9
For material K, × 100 = 122.99
P2002
1.75 RM9 × 100
p= × 100 = 125 P2002 =
1.40 122.99
For material M, = RM7.32
q + 22.99% + 20%
× 100 = 140
2 (c) I 2002 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ I 2004 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯→ I 2006
(100) (122.99) (?)
140 × 2
q=
100
I 2006 (based on 2002)
q = 2.80 100 + 20
= × 122.99
100
For material N,
= 147.59
2.40
× 100 = 80
r
2.40 × 100
r=
80
r = 3.00

(b) (i)
Material I 2004 Angle of w
(based pie chart
on the (degrees)
year
2002)
K 125 75 15
L 150 40 8
M 140 155 31
N 80 90 18

I 2004 (based on 2002)

=
∑ Iw
∑w
(125 × 15) + (150 × 8) + (140 × 31) + (80 × 18)
=
15 + 8 + 31 + 18
8855
=
72
= 122.99

37
4 (a) For component U, (c) (i) I = 132
I2006 = 120 P2006
×100 = 132
P2006 P2004
× 100 = 120
P2004 1716
×100 = 132
h P2004
× 100 = 120
50 P2004 = RM1300
h = 60
(ii)
(b) For component S, Component I 2006 w
I2006 = 125 U 120 1
P2006 40
× 100 = 125 R ×100 = 160 3
P2004 25
m S 125 4
× 100 = 125
k 44
100m = 125k T × 100 = 110 p
40
4m = 5k … c
I = 132
P2006 = 20 + P2004
(120 × 1) + (160 × 3) + (125 × 4) + 110 p
m = 20 + k …d = 132
1+ 3 + 4 + p
1100 + 110 p
Substituting d into c: = 132
8+ p
4(20 + k ) = 5k
1100 + 110 p = 1056 + 132 p
80 + 4k = 5k
44 = 22 p
k = 80
p=2
From d:
m = 20 + 80 = 100

38
Form 5: Chapter 12 (Progressions)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 (a) k + 1, k + 5, 2k + 6 , … arithmetic progression 4 The arithmetic progression 5, 9, 13, … has a

common difference of 4.
d = T2 − T1 = k + 5 − (k + 1) = 4 These three terms
d = T3 − T2 = 2k + 6 − (k + 5) = k + 1 are not the first
S 3 = 57 three terms but
Since common difference is always the 3 any three
[2a + (3 − 1)(4)] = 57
same, k + 1 = 4 ⇒ k = 3 2 consecutive terms
with a common
(b) When k = 3, we have 4, 8, 12, … difference of 4.
8 3 Therefore, a new
S8 = [2(4) + 7(4)] = 144 (2a + 8) = 57 value of a (first
2 2
term) has to be
3a + 12 = 57
determined.
2 (a) T4 = 24 a = 15
ar 3 = 24
Hence, the three consecutive terms which sum
81r 3 = 24
up to 57 are 15, 19 and 23.
24 8
r3 = = +4 +4
81 27
2
r= 5 Volumes of water in litres:
3 410, 425, 440, …

a 81 Volume of water at the end of the 8th day

(b) S∞ = = = 243
1− r
1−
2 = T8
3 = a + 7d
= 410 + 7(15)
9
3 Since k, 3,
k
, m are four consecutive terms = 515 litres
of a geometric progression,
6 0.848484K
3 m
= = 0.84 + 0.0084 + 0.000084 + K
k 9
0.84
k = a
1 − 0.01 S∞ =
3 mk −
= 0.84 1 r
k 9 =
0.99
mk 2 = 27
84
27 =
m= 99
k2 28
=
33

39
7 (a) If 3, k, 48 are in an arithmetic progression, 10 T8 = 3k + 1
then a + 7d = 3k + 1
k − 3 = 48 − k
a + 7(4) = 3k + 1
2 k = 51
a = 3k − 27 …
k = 25.5

(b) If 3, k, 48 are in a geometric progression, S 8 = 13k + 6

then 8
k 48 (2a + 7d ) = 13k + 6
= 2
3 k 8a + 28d = 13k + 6
k 2 = 144 8a + 28(4) = 13k + 6
k = 12 8a = 13k − 106 …
8 (a) The common difference of the arithmetic
progression 2, 5, 8, … is 5 − 2 = 3 . Substituting into ,
8(3k − 27) = 13k − 106
(b) The sum of all the terms from the 4th term 24k − 216 = 13k − 106
to the 23rd term
11k = 110
= S23 − S 3
k = 10
23 3
= [2(2) + (23 − 1)(3)] − [2(2) + (3 − 1)(3)]
2 2 11 (a) T3 = 10
= 805 − 15
ar 2 = 10 …
= 790
T3 + T4 = 15
9 (a) The common ratio of the geometric
6 10 + T4 = 15
progression 2, 6, 18, K is = 3 . T4 = 5
2
ar 3 = 5 …
(b) S n = 6560
a( r n − 1)
= 6560 :
ar 3
=
5
r −1 ar 2 10
2(3n − 1)
= 6560 r=
1
3−1 2
3n − 1 = 6560
3n = 6561 From :
3n = 38 ⎛1⎞ 2
a⎜ ⎟ = 10
∴n = 8 ⎝2⎠
⎛1⎞
a⎜ ⎟ = 10
⎝4⎠
a = 40

40
(b) S∞ = = 80
1
1−
2

40
Paper 2
1
1 (a) (b) (i) T1 = (160)(80) = 6400
2
1
T2 = (160)(80) = 1600
8
1
T3 = (160)(80) = 400
32

Tn = 25
T1 = Area of the first triangle ar n−1 = 25

=
1
bh ⎛ 1 ⎞n−1
2 6400⎜ ⎟ = 25
⎝4⎠
T2 = Area of the second triangle
⎛ 1 ⎞n−1 1
1 ⎛ b ⎞⎛ h ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎟ =
= ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = bh ⎝4⎠ 256
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ 8
T3 = Area of the third triangle ⎛ 1 ⎞n−1 ⎛ 1 ⎞4
⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟
1 ⎛ b ⎞⎛ h ⎞ 1 ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠
= ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = bh
2 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ 32 n −1= 4
n=5
1
bh Hence, the 5th triangle has an area of
T2 1
= 8 = 25 cm2.
T1 1 4
bh
2 (ii) Sum to infinity,
1 a
bh S∞ =
T3 32 1
= = 1− r
T2 1 4
bh 6400
8 =
1
1−
T2 T3 1 4
Since = = (a constant), the 1
T1 T2 4 = 8533 cm2
areas of the triangles form a geometric 3
1
progression with a common ratio of .
4

41
2 (a) The number of cubes in each storey forms 3 (a) T5 = 320
a geometric progression 1, 4, 16, 64, …, a + 4d = 320
where a = 1 and r = 4 . h + 4k = 320 …

Tn = 4096
S8 = 2440
ar n−1 = 4096
8
1(4) n−1 = 4096 (2a + 7d ) = 2440
2
4 n−1 = 46 4(2h + 7k) = 2440
n −1= 6 2h + 7k = 610 …
n=7
×2− : k = 30
Hence, the height of the model is
7 × 4 = 28 cm .
From : h + 4(30) = 320
− 1)
1(47 h = 200
(b) S7 =
4−1
(b) Tn (of Epsilon) = Tn (of Sigma)
= 5461
200 + (n − 1)(30) = 160 + (n − 1)(35)
Hence, the total price of cubes used 200 + 30n − 30 = 160 + 35n − 35
= 5461× 80 45 = 5n
= 436 880 sen n=9
= RM4368.80

42
Form 5: Chapter 13 (Linear Law)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 y = px 2 + qx 3 (a) y = mx 2
y
= px + q log10 y = log10 mx 2
x log10 y = log10 m + log10 x 2
log10 y = log10 m + 2 log10 x
y
For the point (2, 6), x = 2 and = 6. log 10 y = 2 log 10 x + log 10 m
x
∴ 6 = p(2) + q … c
y
For the point (10, 2), x = 10 and = 2.
x (b) (i) Y-intercept = −1
∴ 2 = p(10) + q … d log10 m = −1
m = 10−1
1
d − c: −4 = 8 p ⇒ p = −
2 m=
1
10
⎛ 1⎞
From c: 6 = ⎜− ⎟(2) + q ⇒ q = 7 (ii) Gradient = 2
⎝ 2⎠ k − (−1)
=2
2− 0
2 y = 7x 2 − x 3
k +1 = 4
y
= 7− x k=3
x2
4 y = −3x 3 + 4
The straight line passes through the
y 4
y = −3 + 3 Divide throughout by x3.
point (2, h). Thus, x = 2 and 2 = h . x3 x
x ⎛1⎞
y
y = 4⎜ 3 ⎟ − 3 Rearrange
= 7− x x 3
⎝x ⎠
x2
h = 7− 2 (Y = 4 X + c)
h=5
y 1
By comparison, Y = 3
and X = 3 .
The straight line passes through the x x
y
point (k, 3). Thus, x = k and 2 = 3 .
x
y
= 7− x
x2
3= 7− k
k=4

43
Paper 2

1 (a) y = ab x2 Non-linear
(b)
x 1 2 3 4 5 log10 y = log10 a + x 2 log10 b
y 1.32 1.76 2.83 5.51 13.00
→ x2 1 4 9 16 25 (i) Y-intercept = 0.08 Linear
↑ log 10 y 0.121 0.246 0.452 0.741 1.114 log10 a = 0.08
The graph of log10 y against x2 is as shown a = antilog 0.08
below. a = 1.2

0.74 − 0.12
16 − 1
0.62
log10 b = = 0.04133
15
b = antilog 0.04133
b = 1.1

44
2 (a) (b) (i) log10 p = Y-intercept
→ x 2 4 6 8 10 12 log10 p = 0.36
y 5.18 11.64 26.20 58.95 132.63 298.42
p = 2.29
↑ log10 y 0.71 1.07 1.42 1.77 2.12 2.47
(ii) log10 k = gradient
y = pk x
2.12 − 1.42
log10 y = log10 p + x log10 k log10 k =
10 − 6
0.7
The graph of log10 y against x is a straight- log10 k =
line graph, as shown below: 4
log10 k = 0.175
k = 1.5

45
3 (a) (b) (i) From the graph, the value of y which
x 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 is incorrectly recorded is 9.9.
y 7.0 7.7 8.4 9.9 10.1 11.0
→ xy 17.5 23.1 29.4 39.6 45.5 55.0 The actual value of y is given by:
↑ x
2
6.3 9.0 12.3 16.0 20.3 25.0 xyactual = 37
4( yactual) = 37
The graph of xy against x2 is as shown
yactual = 9.25
below.
p
(ii) y = qx +
qx
p
xy = qx 2 +
q

55 − 5
q=
25 − 0
q=2

p
= Y-intercept
q
p
=5
q
p
=5
2
p = 10

46
4 (a) (b) y = hq x + 1
x 1 3 5 7 9 11 log10 y = log10 h + (x + 1) log10 q
y 5 20 80 318 1270 5050
→ x+1 2 4 6 8 10 12 log10 y = (x + 1) log10 q + log10 h
↑ log10 y 0.70 1.30 1.90 2.50 3.10 3.70 Gradient Y-intercept
The graph of log10 y against (x + 1) is as Y-intercept = 0.1
shown below.
log10 h = 0.1
h = 1.26

3.7 − 0.7
12 − 2
log10 q = 0.3
q=2

47
Form 5: Chapter 14 (Integration)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

∫ (1+ 32x) dx ∫
k
1 3 (4x − 1) dx = 3
4 −1

⎡ 4x 2 ⎤k
= ∫ 3(1 + 2x) dx −4
⎢ − x⎥ = 3
⎣ 2 ⎦−1
⎛ (1 + 2x)−3 ⎞
= 3⎜ ⎟+ c [2x 2 − x]−1
k
=3
⎝ −3(2) ⎠
2k 2 − k − [2(−1)2 − (−1)] = 3
1
= − (1 + 2x)−3 + c 2k 2 − k − 3 = 3
2
2k 2 − k − 6 = 0
But it is given that (2k + 3)(k − 2) = 0

∫ 3
(1+ 2x)4
dx = k(1+ 2x) n + c , thus by
3
k = − or 2
2
1 3
comparison, k = − and n = −3. k = − is not accepted
2 2
∴k = 2
2 Area of the shaded region = 54 units2

k

∫ ∫
2 3
y dx = 54 4 f (x) dx + [ f ( x) + cx] dx = 30
0 1 2

k
6x 2 dx = 54
∫ ∫ ∫
2 3 3
0 f (x) dx + f (x) dx + cx dx = 30
1 2 2
⎡ ⎛ x 3 ⎞⎤ k
⎡ x 2 ⎤3
⎢6⎜ ⎟⎥ = 54 ∫
3
⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎦0 f (x) dx + c⎢ ⎥ = 30
1 ⎣ 2 ⎦2
[2x 3 ]0k = 54 ⎛ 3 − 22 ⎞
2
5 + c⎜ ⎟ = 30
2(k 3 − 03 ) = 54 ⎝ 2 ⎠
k3 = 27 5
c = 25
k=3 2
c = 10

∫ ∫
b 1 1 b 1
5 f (x) dx = f (x) dx = (−6) = −3
a 2 2 a 2

The area of the region

below the x-axis has a
negative sign.

48

4
6 [nx − g(x)] dx = 9
1

∫ ∫
4 4
nx dx − g(x) dx = 9
1 1

⎡ x 2 ⎤4

1
n⎢ ⎥ + g(x) dx = 9
⎣ 2 ⎦1 4

∫ ∫
b a
g(x) dx = − g(x) dx
a b

⎛ 42 12 ⎞
n⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 9
⎝ 2 2⎠
15
n−6 = 9
2
15
n = 15
2
n=2

49
Paper 2

dy
1 (a) = 2x + 4
dx
y= ∫ (2x + 4) dx
2x 2
y= + 4x + c
2
y = x 2 + 4x + c

y = 7 when x = 1 :
Volume of the solid generated when the
7 = 12 + 4(1) + c shaded region is revolved through 360° about
c=2 the y-axis
= Volume of the cone generated by the line
∴ y = x2 + 4x + 2 segment OA − Volume of the solid
generated by the curve x = y2 − 1 from y = 1
d2 y dy to y = 3
(b) x2 + (x − 1) + y+3= 0
1

3
dx 2 dx = πr 2 h − π x 2 dy
x 2 (2) + ( x − 1)(2x + 4) + (x 2 + 4x + 2) + 3 = 0 3 1

1

3
2x 2 + 2x 2 + 2x − 4 + x 2 + 4x + 2 + 3 = 0 = π (8)2 (3) − π ( y 2 − 1)2 dy
5x 2 + 6x + 1 = 0 3 1

3
(5x + 1)(x + 1) = 0 = 64π − π ( y 4 − 2 y 2 + 1) dy
1
1 ⎡ y5 2 y3 ⎤3
x = − or −1
5 = 64π − π ⎢ − + y⎥
⎣ 5 3 ⎦1
2 8 y = 3x ⎡ 35 2(3)3 ⎛ 1 2 ⎞⎤
= 64π − π ⎢ − + 3 − ⎜ − + 1⎟⎥
8 ⎣5 3 ⎝ 5 3 ⎠⎦
x= y …c
3 ⎛ 243 1 2 ⎞
= 64π − π ⎜ − 18 + 3 − + − 1⎟
x = y2 − 1 … d ⎝ 5 5 3 ⎠
496
Substitute c into d: = 64π − π
15
8 14
y = y2 − 1 = 30 π units 3
3 15
8 y = 3y 2 − 3
3y 2 − 8 y − 3 = 0
(3y + 1)( y − 3) = 0
1
y=− or 3
3

It is obvious that for point A, y = 3.

From c, when y = 3,
8 8
x = y = (3) = 8
3 3
∴ A = (8, 3)

50
dy dy
3 (a) = 3x 2 − 4x (b) At turning points, = 0.
dx dx
y= ∫ (3x 2 − 4x) dx dy
dx
=0
3x 3 4x 2 3x 2 − 4x = 0
y= − +c
3 2 x(3x − 4) = 0
y = x 3 − 2x 2 + c
1
x = 0 or 1
The curve passes through the 3
point A(1, −9).
d2 y
−9 = 13 − 2(1)2 + c = 6x − 4
dx 2
c = −8
When x = 0,
Hence, the equation of the curve is
y = (0)3 − 2(0)2 − 8 = −8
y = x3 − 2x2 − 8.
∴ (0, −8) is a turning point.
d2 y
= 6(0) − 4 = −4 (negative)
dx 2

Hence, (0, −8) is a maximum point.

1
When x = 1 ,
3
⎛ 4 ⎞3 ⎛ 4 ⎞2 5
y = ⎜ ⎟ − 2⎜ ⎟ − 8 = −9
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 27
⎛ 1 5 ⎞
∴ ⎜1 , −9 ⎟ is a turning point.
⎝ 3 27 ⎠
d2 y ⎛4⎞
= 6⎜ ⎟ − 4 = 4 (positive)
dx 2 ⎝ 3⎠

⎛ 1 5 ⎞
Hence, ⎜1 , −9 ⎟ is a minimum point.
⎝ 3 27 ⎠

51
4 (ii) Volume generated, Vx
4 (a) y = = 4(2x − 1)−2
(2x − 1)2

3
=π y 2 dx
dy 2
= −8(2x − 1)−3 (2)
⎛ ⎞2
dx
∫ 4
3
=π ⎜ ⎟ dx
16 2 ⎝ (2x − 1)2 ⎠
=−
(2x − 1)3
∫ 16
3
=π dx
2 (2x − 1)4
At the point A(1, 4),

3
dy 16 =π 16(2x − 1)−4 dx
m= =− = −16 2
dx [2(1) − 1]3
⎡ 16(2x − 1)−3 ⎤3
= π⎢ ⎥
Hence, the equation of the tangent at the ⎣ −3(2) ⎦2
point A(1, 4) is ⎡ ⎤3
8
y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = π⎢ ⎥
⎣ −3(2x − 1)3 ⎦2
y − 4 = −16(x − 1)
y − 4 = −16x + 16 8 ⎡ 1 ⎤3
=− π⎢ ⎥
y = −16x + 20 3 ⎣ (2x − 1)3 ⎦2
8 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
= − π⎜ − ⎟
(b) 3 ⎝ [2(3) − 1]3 [2(2) − 1] ⎠
3

8 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
= − π⎜ − ⎟
3 ⎝ 125 27 ⎠
784
= π units 3
10125

(i) Area of the shaded region

3
= y dx
2

= ∫
3 4
dx
2 (2x − 1)2

3
= 4(2x − 1)−2 dx
2

⎡ 4(2x − 1)−1 ⎤3
=⎢ ⎥
⎣ −1(2) ⎦2
⎡ 2 ⎤
3
= ⎢− ⎥
⎣ 2x − 1⎦2
2 ⎛ 2 ⎞
=− − ⎜− ⎟
2(3) − 1 ⎝ 2(2) − 1 ⎠
2 ⎛ 2⎞
= − − ⎜− ⎟
5 ⎝ 3⎠
4
= units 2
15

52
5 (a) The gradient of the straight line 6 (a) Equation of RAQ: 2y = −x + 10
x + y − 8 = 0 ⇒ y = −x + 8 is −1. At point Q (on the x-axis), y = 0.
2(0) = −x + 10
dy x = 10
The gradient function is = px 3 + x 2 .
dx ∴ Q = (10, 0)
At the point (−1, 0), x = −1.

dy
= −1
dx
px 3 + x 2 = −1
p(−1)3 + (−1)2 = −1
−p + 1 = −1
p=2

dy Area of the shaded region

(b) = px 3 + x 2 = 2x 3 + x 2
dx = Area under the curve from x = 0 to
x = 2 + Area under the straight line AQ
y= ∫ (2x 3 + x 2 ) dx
2 ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞
y=
2x 4 x 3
+ +c
= ∫ ⎜
0 ⎝ 2
+ 2⎟ dx + ⎜ × 8 × 4⎟
⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
4 3
⎡ x3 ⎤2
y=
x4 x3
+ +c = ⎢ + 2x⎥ + 16
2 3 ⎣6 ⎦0
23
At the point (−1, 0), = + 2(2) − 0 + 16
6
x = −1, y = 0 1
(−1)4 (−1)3 = 21 units 2
∴0 = + +c 3
2 3
1 1 (b)
0 = − +c
2 3 x2
1 = y−2
c =− 2
6 x2 = 2 y − 4
Hence, the equation of the curve is
x4 x 3 1
y= + −
2 3 6

Volume generated
= Volume generated by the curve from
y = 2 to y = 4

4
=π (2 y − 4) dy
2

= π [ y 2 − 4 y]42
= π [42 − 4(4) − (22 − 4(2))]
= 4π units 3

53
7 (a) y = x − 4 … c

2
(c) V y = π x 2 dy
x = ( y − 2)2 … d 0

= π∫
2
( y − 2)4 dy
Substituting d into c: 0

y = ( y − 2)2 − 4 ⎡ ( y − 2)5 ⎤2
= π⎢ ⎥
y = y 2 − 4y + 4 − 4 ⎣ 5(1) ⎦0
y = y 2 − 4y ⎛ (2 − 2)5 (0 − 2)5 ⎞
= π⎜ − ⎟
0 = y 2 − 5y ⎝ 5 5 ⎠
⎡ ⎛ 32 ⎞⎤
0 = y( y − 5) = π ⎢0 − ⎜− ⎟⎥
y = 0 or 5 ⎣ ⎝ 5 ⎠⎦
2
=6 π units 3
From d: 5
When y = 0,
x = (0 − 2)2 = 4
∴ B = (4, 0)

When y = 5,
x = (5 − 2)2 = 9
∴ A = (9, 5)

(b)

Area of the shaded region P

= Area of trapezium − Area under the
curve
1

5
= (4 + 9)(5) − x dy
2 0

5
= 32.5 − ( y − 2)2 dx
0

⎡ ( y − 2)3 ⎤5
= 32.5 − ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 3(1) ⎦0
⎛ (5 − 2)3 (0 − 2)3 ⎞
= 32.5 − ⎜ − ⎟
⎝ 3 3 ⎠
5
= 20 units 2
6

54
Form 5: Chapter 15 (Vectors)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

⎛ 4⎞ 4 (a) AB = OB − OA
1 (a) Since P = (4, 2), OP = ⎜ ⎟ .
⎝ 2⎠ = 3i + 17 j − (−2i + 5 j )
= 5i + 12 j
(b) Since Q = (−6, 3), OQ = −6i + 3 j .
Hence, QO = −OQ = 6i − 3 j .
(b) AB = 52 + 122 = 169 = 13

2 r = 2 p − 3q
Unit vector in the direction of AB
r = 2(3a + 2b) − 3(3a − b)
1
r = 6a + 4b − 9a + 3b = ( AB)
AB
r = −3a + 7b
1
= (5i + 12 j)
But it is given that r = ha + (h + k )b . 13
5 12
By comparison, = i+ j
13 13
h = −3 and h+ k = 7
−3 + k = 7
5 AB + 2BC = 11i − 13 j
k = 10
(OB − OA) + 2(OC − OB) = 11i − 13 j
3 ⎛ 5⎞ ⎛−1⎞ ⎡⎛ m⎞ ⎛5⎞⎤ ⎛ 11 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ + 2⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟⎥ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎣⎝ p ⎠ ⎝ 3⎠⎦ ⎝−13⎠
⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ m − 5⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟
⎝−4⎠ ⎝ p − 3⎠ ⎝−13⎠
⎛ 6 + 2m − 10⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞
⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟
⎝ −4 + 2 p − 6⎠ ⎝−13⎠
⎛ 2m − 4 ⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞
⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 p − 10⎠ ⎝−13⎠
(a) BD = BA + AD
= −12 p + 6q Equating the x-components:
2m − 4 = 11
(b) EC = EB + BC 1
m= 7
1 2
= DB + BC
3
1 Equating the y-components:
= (−BD ) + BC 2 p − 10 = −13
3
1 1
= (12 p − 6q ) + 6q p = −1
3 2
= 4 p − 2q + 6q
= 4 p + 4q

55
⎛ 9 ⎞ 9 (a) Since the point X, Y and Z are collinear,
6 (a) OQ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ −12⎠ XY = kYZ
2a + 4b = k(3a + mb)
(b) OQ = 92 + (−12)2 = 15 2a + 4b = 3ka + kmb

Hence, the unit vector in the direction of Equating the coefficients of a ,

⎛ 3 ⎞ 3k = 2
1 ⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎜ 5 ⎟
OQ = ⎜ ⎟= .
15 ⎝ −12⎠ ⎜⎜− 4 ⎟⎟
2
k=
⎝ 5⎠ 3

Equating the coefficients of b ,

7 BM = BA + AM
km = 4
1
= CO + AO 2
2 m=4
1 3
= (4i − 2 j) + (−2i − 6 j) m=6
2
= 4i − 2 j − i − 3 j 2
k=
= 3i − 5 j 3

⎛ 6⎞ 2
XY =
8 (a) A(6, 3) ⇒ OA = ⎜ ⎟ (b) YZ
⎝ 3⎠ 3
⎛0⎞ 2
XY = YZ
B(0, −5) ⇒ OB = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ −5⎠ 3
AB = OB − OA XY 2
=
⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎛ 6⎞ YZ 3
= ⎜ ⎟−⎜ ⎟
⎝ −5⎠ ⎝ 3⎠
⎛ −6⎞ XY : YZ = 2 : 3
=⎜ ⎟
⎝ −8⎠

Unit vector in the direction of AB

1
= ( AB)
AB
1 ⎛−6⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
10 ⎝−8⎠
⎛ 3⎞
⎜− ⎟
= ⎜ 5⎟
⎜− 4 ⎟
⎝ 5⎠

56
Paper 2

1 (a) Using the concept of position vectors: (c) Since CD is parallel to AB, CD = k AB
⎛10⎞ (k is a constant).
AB = ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ m⎞ ⎛10⎞
⎝14⎠ ⎜ ⎟ = k⎜ ⎟
⎛10⎞ ⎝7⎠ ⎝14⎠
OB − OA = ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ m⎞ ⎛10k ⎞
⎝14⎠ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟
⎛ 4⎞ ⎛10⎞ ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝14k ⎠
⎜ ⎟ − OA = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 6⎠ ⎝14⎠
Equating the x-components:
⎛ 4⎞ ⎛10⎞
OA = ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ m = 10k …
⎝ 6⎠ ⎝14⎠
⎛−6⎞
OA = ⎜ ⎟ Equating the y-components:
⎝−8⎠
7 = 14k
∴ A = (−6, − 8)
1
k=
2
(b) OA = (−6)2 + (−8)2 = 100 = 10
1
From , when k = ,
Unit vector in the direction of OA 2
⎛1⎞
=
1
(OA) m = 10⎜ ⎟ = 5
⎝2⎠
OA
1 ⎛−6⎞
= ⎜ ⎟
10 ⎝−8⎠
⎛− 3 ⎞
= ⎜ 54 ⎟
⎝− 5 ⎠

57
2 (c) AQ = AR + RQ
−a + 3p = −4ha + 4hp + 3ka + 3k p
−a + 3p = (−4h + 3k )a + (4h + 3k )p

AQ = −a + 3p

Equating the coefficients of a and of b

(a) (i) AP = AO + OP respectively, we have:
AP = −4a + 4 p
−4h + 3k = −1 K
+ 4h + 3k = 3 K
(ii) OQ = OA + AQ 6k = 2
1 1
OQ = OA + AB k=
4 3
1 ⎛1⎞
Given AQ = AB
4 From : −4h + 3⎜ ⎟ = −1
⎝ 3⎠
1 −4h = −2
OQ = OA + ( AO + OB)
4 1
h=
1 2
OQ = OA + ( AO + 3OP)
4

Given that
1
OP = OB ,
3
∴ OB = 3OP .

1
OQ = 4a + [−4a + 3(4 p)]
4
OQ = 4a − a + 3p
OQ = 3a + 3 p

AR = −4ha + 4h p

(ii) RQ = kOQ = k(3a + 3p)

RQ = 3ka + 3k p

58
3 (a) (b) If the points A, E and C are collinear, then
3 8
Given that OB = OC , thus OC = OB . AC = k AE
8 3
8 8 −6a + 8b = k( AO + OB + BE)
Therefore, OC = OB = (3b) = 8b .
3 3 −6a + 8b = k(−6a + 3b + hBD)
This gives BC = 8b − 3b = 5b . −6a + 8b = k[−6a + 3b + h(8a)]
−6a + 8b = −6ka + 3kb + 8hka
−6a + 8b = (−6k + 8hk )a + 3kb

3k = 8
8
k=
3

Equating the coefficients of a :

−6 = −6k + 8hk
⎛8⎞ ⎛8⎞
−6 = −6⎜ ⎟ + 8h⎜ ⎟
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠
−18 = −48 + 64h
(i) AC = AO + OC
30 = 64h
= −6a + 8b
15
h=
32
(ii) BD = BC + CD
= 5b + (8a − 5b) (c) OC = 8b = 8 b = 8(2) = 16
= 8a
OA = 6a = 6 a = 6(2) = 12
2 2
AC = OC + OA

= 162 + 122
= 20

59
4 (b) (i) TX = mPQ
= m(4u)
= 4mu

(ii) P, X and R are collinear.

PX = k PR
PT + TX = k(4u + 18v)
3
PS + 4mu = 4ku + 18k v
4

Given From (b) (i)

3
(a) PR = PQ + QR Given that (12v) + 4mu = 4ku + 18k v
4
2
3 PS = QR , 9v + 4mu = 4ku + 18k v
= 4u + PS 3
2
thus
3 Equating the coefficients of v ,
= 4u + (12v) 3
2 QR = PS . 9 = 18k
2
= 4u + 18v 1
k=
2

Equating the coefficients of u ,

4m = 4k
⎛1⎞
4m = 4⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
1
m=
2

60
Form 5: Chapter 16 (Trigonometric Functions)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 3 2 sin 2 x + cos x = 1
2(1− cos 2 x) + cos x − 1 = 0
tan θ = t 2 − 2 cos 2 x + cos x − 1 = 0
−2 cos 2 x + cos x + 1 = 0
2 cos 2 x − cos x − 1 = 0
(a) cot (−θ ) (2 cos x + 1)(cos x − 1) = 0
1 1
= cos x = − or cos x = 1
tan (−θ ) 2
1
= 1
−tan θ When cos x = − ,
2
1 x = 120°, 240°
=−
t
When cos x = 1,
(b) cos (90° − θ )
x = 0°, 360°
= sin θ

=
t ∴ x = 0°, 120°, 240°, 360°
1+ t2
4 cos 2θ − 3 sin θ = 2
2 6 sec2 θ − 20 tan θ = 0 1 − 2 sin 2 θ − 3 sin θ − 2 = 0
6(1 + θ ) − 20 tan θ = 0
tan 2 −2 sin 2 θ − 3 sin θ − 1 = 0
6+ 6 θ − 20 tan θ = 0
tan 2 2 sin 2 θ + 3 sin θ + 1 = 0
6 tan 2 θ − 20 tan θ + 6 = 0 (2 sin θ + 1)(sin θ + 1) = 0
3 tan 2 θ − 10 tan θ + 3 = 0 1
sin θ = − or sin θ = −1
(3 tan θ − 1)(tan θ − 3) = 0 2
1
tan θ = or 3 1
3 When sin θ = − ,
2
1 Basic ∠ = 30°
When tan θ = ,
3 θ = 210°, 330°
θ = 18.43°, 198.43°
When sin θ = −1,
When tan θ = 3, θ = 270°
θ = 71.57°, 251.57°
∴ θ = 210°, 270°, 330°
∴ θ = 18.43°, 71.57°, 198.43°, 251.57°

61
5 15 cos2 x − 7 cos x = 4 cos 60°
15 cos 2 x − 7 cos x = 4(0.5)
15 cos 2 x − 7 cos x = 2
15 cos 2 x − 7 cos x − 2 = 0
(3 cos x − 2)(5 cos x + 1) = 0
2 1
cos x = or cos x = −
3 5

2
When cos x =
3
Basic ∠ = 48.19°
∴ x = 48.19°, 311.81°

1
When cos x = −
5
Basic ∠ = 78.46°
∴ x = 101.54°, 258.46°

62
Paper 2

1 (a) LHS (b) (i)

x x This is a y = sin θ graph
= tan + cot 1
2 2 with 1 cycles
x x 2
sin cos 1
= 2 + 2 because θ = 1 x.
x x 2
cos sin
2 2
x x
sin 2 + cos2
= 2 2
x x
sin cos
2 2
1
=
x x
sin cos
2 2
2
=
x x
2 sin cos
2 2 3 3
(ii) sin x= x −1
2 2 4π
=
sin x 3 3
2 sin x = x−2
= 2 cosec x 2 2π
= RHS The solutions to the equation
3 3
2 sin x = x − 2 are given by the
2 2π
x-coordinates of the intersection
3
points of the graphs of y = 2 sin x
2
3
and y = x − 2.

Hence, the equation of the straight line

for solving the equation
3 3 3
sin x = x − 1 is y = x − 2.
2 4π 2π

x 0 2π
y −2 1

Number of solutions
= Number of intersection points
=3

63
2 (a) The sketch of the graph of y = cos 2x for 3 (a) LHS = −2 cos 2 x + cosec 2 x − cot 2 x
0 ≤ x ≤ π is as shown below: = −2 cos 2 x + 1

If cot 2 x + 1 = cosec2 x ,
then cosec2 x − cot 2 x = 1.

= −(2 cos 2 x − 1)
= −cos 2x
= RHS
x
(b) 2 sin 2 x = 2 − (b) (i) The sketch of the graph of
π y = −cos 2x is as shown below.

cos 2x = 1 − 2 sin 2 x
∴ 2 sin 2 x = 1 − cos 2x

x
1 − cos 2x = 2 −
π
x
−cos 2x = 1 −
π
x
cos 2x = −1
π
x
(ii) 2(−2 cos 2 x + cosec 2 x − cot 2 x) = −1
The straight line that has to be drawn is π
x x
y = − 1. 2(−cos 2x) = −1
π π
x 1
−cos 2x = −
x 0 π 2π 2
y −1 0
The straight line that has to be
x 1
sketched is y = − .
2π 2

x 0 2π
1 1
y −
2 2

Number of solutions
Hence, the number of solutions to the = Number of intersection points
x =4
equation 2 sin 2 x = 2 − for 0 ≤ x ≤ π
π
= Number of intersection points
=2

64
4 (a), (b)

sin 2x + 2 cos x = 0
sin 2x = −2 cos x

Number of solutions
= Number of intersection points
=2

65
Form 5: Chapter 17 (Permutations and Combinations)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 Number of codes that can be formed Step 3

= 6P3 × 4P2 = 120 ×12 = 1440. Hence, using the rs multiplication
principle, the number of arrangements of
2 (a) Number of teams that can be formed if all the letters of the word 'POWER ' in
each team consists of 3 boys (and 5 girls) which the letters O and E have to be side
= 7C3 × 6C5 by side
= 4! × 2! = 24 × 2 = 48
= 35 × 6
= 210 4 (a) If there is no restriction, the number of
ways the dancing groups can be formed
(b) Available: 7 boys and 6 girls
Needed: 7 boys and 1 girl or 7 Form Four +
8 boys and 0 girls 5 Form Five +
= 16C6
4 Form Six students
= 8008
7C
7 × 6C1 Impossible
(b) If the group of dancers must consist of 1
Hence, the number of teams that can be Form Five student and exactly 2 Form Six
formed if each team consists of not more students, the number of Form Four
than 1 girl students required is 3.
= 7C7 × 6C1 = 6 Hence, the number of ways the dancing
groups can be formed
3 (a) Number of arrangements = 5! = 120 = 7C3 × 5C1 × 4C2
= 1050
(b) Step 1
If the letter 'O ' and 'E ' have to be side by 5 Number of arrangements
side, they will be counted as 1 item.
Together with the letters 'P ', 'W ' and 'R ', N 7P
3
there are altogether 4 items, as illustrated
T 7P
below: 3

G 7P
3

R 7P
3

Number of arrangements = 4! L 7P
3

Step 2
Hence, the total number of arrangements
But the letters 'O ' and 'E ' can also be
arranged among themselves in their group. = 7P3 × 5 = 1050

Number of arrangements = 2!

66
Form 5: Chapter 18 (Probability)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

2 3 Let A − Azean
1 P(Blue) =
5 D − Dalilah
k 2 N − Nurur
=
6+ k 5 P(only one of them will qualify)
5k = 12 + 2k
= P( A D N ) + P( A D N ) + P( A D N )
3k = 12
⎛1 2 4⎞ ⎛ 2 3 4⎞ ⎛ 2 2 3⎞
k=4 = ⎜ × × ⎟+⎜ × × ⎟+⎜ × × ⎟
⎝3 5 7⎠ ⎝ 3 5 7⎠ ⎝ 3 5 7⎠
2 P(both students participate in the same game) 8 8 4
= + +
= P(TT or BB or HH ) 105 35 35
= P(TT ) + P(BB) + P( HH ) =
44
105

Initially, there are 5 After 1 student is

students playing chosen, it is left with 4
table tennis out of students playing table
14 students. tennis out of 13 students.

⎛5 4⎞ ⎛6 5⎞ ⎛ 3 2⎞
= ⎜ × ⎟+⎜ × ⎟+⎜ × ⎟
⎝ 14 13 ⎠ ⎝ 14 13 ⎠ ⎝ 14 13 ⎠
4
=
13

67
Form 5: Chapter 19 (Probability Distributions)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 1

1 4 X − Volume, in ml
X ~ N(650, 252)

2
(a) Z=
5
X − 650 2
=
25 5
P(Z > k ) = 0.5 − 0.2580 = 0.2420
X − 650 = 10
2 X − Number of students who passed X = 660
X ~ B(7, 0.6) Hence, the volume which is equivalent to
2
P( X = 5) the standard score of is 660 ml .
5
= 7C5 (0.6)5 (0.4)2
(b) P( X > 620)
= 0.2613
⎛ 620 − 650 ⎞
= P⎜ Z > ⎟
3 (a) X ~ N (4.8, 1.22 ) ⎝ 25 ⎠
X −µ = P(Z > −1.2)
Z=
σ = 1 − 0.1151
4.2 − 4.8
Z= = 0.8849
1.2
Z = −0.5

(b) P(4.8 < X < 5.2)

⎛ 4.8 − 4.8 5.2 − 4.8 ⎞
= P⎜ <Z< ⎟
⎝ 1.2 1.2 ⎠ Hence, the percentage of bottles of soy
sauce that have volumes of more than
= P(0 < Z < 0.333)
620 ml
= 0.5 − 0.3696 = (0.8849 × 100)%
= 0.1304 = 88.49%

5 P( Z > m) = 0.5 − 0.1985

P( Z > m) = 0.3015

∴ m = 0.52

68
Paper 2

1 (a) X − Number of children 2 (a) X − Number of goals

X ~ B(8, 0.4) X − B(8, p)

(i) P( X ≥ 2) (i) Mean = 6.4

= 1− P( X = 0) − P( X = 1) np = 6.4
= 1− 8C0 (0.4)0 (0.6)8 − 8C1 (0.4)1 (0.6)7 8p = 6.4
= 1− 0.01680 − 0.08958 p = 0.8
= 0.8936
(ii) P( X ≥ 3)
(ii) Variance = 192 = 1 − P( X = 0) − P( X = 1) − P( X = 2)
npq = 192 = 1 − 8C0 (0.8)0 (0.2)8 − 8C1 (0.8)1 (0.2)7
n(0.4)(0.6) = 192 − 8C 2 (0.8)2 (0.2)6
n = 800 = 0.9988
Hence, the population of the housing (b) X − Body-mass of a student
estate is 800. X ~ N(52, 122)

(b) X − Mass of a worker (i) P( X < 40)

X ~ N(65, 62)
⎛ 40 − 52 ⎞
= P⎜ Z < ⎟
P(58 < X < 70) ⎝ 12 ⎠
⎛ 58 − 65 70 − 65 ⎞ = P(Z < −1)
= P⎜ <Z< ⎟
⎝ 6 6 ⎠ = 0.1587
= P(−1.167 < Z < 0.833)

(ii) P( X > m) = 8%
⎛ m − 52 ⎞
P⎜ Z > ⎟ = 0.08
= 1− Q(1.167) − Q(0.833) ⎝ 12 ⎠
= 1− 0.1216 − 0.2025
= 0.6759

Number of workers whose masses are

between 58 kg and 70 kg = 142
P(−1.167 < Z < 0.833) × N = 142
0.6759 × N = 142 m − 52
= 1.406
12
142
N= m = 68.872
0.6759
N = 210

Hence, the total number of workers = 210.

69
3 (a) X − Number of students who scored a 4 X − Mass of a pineapple, in kg
distinction in Mathematics X ~ N(1.3, 0.22)
X ~ B(n, p)
X ~ B(8, 0.7) (a) P(grade A)
= P( X > 1.4)
(i) P( X = 3) = 8C3 (0.7)3 (0.3)5 ⎛ 1.4 − 1.3 ⎞
= P⎜ Z > ⎟
= 0.04668 ⎝ 0.2 ⎠
= P(Z > 0.5)
(ii) P( X < 3)
= 0.3085
= P( X = 0) + P( X = 1) + P( X = 2)
= 8C0 (0.7)0 (0.3)8 + 8C1 (0.7)1 (0.3)7
+ 8C2 (0.7)2 (0.3)6
= 0.0113

(b) X − Volume of milk, in ml

X ~ N(µ, σ 2)
X ~ N(1000, 202) = P(1.2 < x < 1.4)
⎛ 1.2 − 1.3 1.4 − 1.3 ⎞
= P⎜ <Z< ⎟
(i) P( X < 1050) ⎝ 0.2 0.2 ⎠
⎛ 1050 − 1000 ⎞ = P(−0.5 < Z < 0.5)
= P⎜ Z < ⎟
⎝ 20 ⎠ = 1 − 0.3085 − 0.3085
= P(Z < 2.5) = 0.383
= 1− 0.00621
= 0.9938

Hence, the number of grade B pineapples

= 0.383 × 1000
= 383
(ii) P( X > v) = 0.7
⎛ v − 1000 ⎞ (c) P( X > m) = 93.32%
P⎜ Z > ⎟ = 0.7
⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎛ m − 1.3 ⎞
P⎜ Z > ⎟ = 0.9332
⎝ 0.2 ⎠

v − 1000
= −0.524
20
v = 989.52 ml
m − 1.3
v = 0.9895 l = −1.5
0.2
m = 1.0

70
Form 5: Chapter 20 (Motion Along a Straight Line)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 2

1 (a) (i) v = ∫ a dt (b)

v = ∫ (8 − 2t) dt
2t 2
v = 8t − +c
2
v = 8t − t 2 + c

When t = 0, v = 20 m s−1. Thus, c = 20.

∴ v = 8t − t 2 + 20

At the maximum velocity, Total distance travelled during the period

dv of 0 ≤ t ≤ 10
=0
dt = Area below the v − t graph
8 − 2t = 0

10
= v dt
t=4 0

= ∫
10
d 2v
= −2 (negative) (8t − t 2 + 20) dt
0
dt 2
⎡ 8t 2 t 3 ⎤10
=⎢ − + 20t ⎥
Therefore, v is a maximum. ⎣ 2 3 ⎦0

When t = 4, ⎡ t3 ⎤10
= ⎢4t 2 − + 20t ⎥
v(max.) = 8(4) − 42 + 20 ⎣ 3 ⎦0
= 36 m s−1 103
= 4(10)2 − + 20(10) − 0
3
(ii) When v = 0,
2
8t − t 2 + 20 = 0, = 266 m
3
t 2 − 8t − 20 =0
(t + 2)(t − 10) =0
t = −2 or 10
t = −2 is not accepted
∴ t = 10
∴ n = 10

71
2 (a) v = 3t(4 − t ) = 12t − 3t 2 (c) When the particle passes through point O
dv again, s = 0.
= 12 − 6t
dt
When s = 0,
At maximum velocity, 6t 2 − t 3 =0
dv t 2 (6 − t) =0
=0
dt t = 0 or 6
12 − 6t = 0 t = 0 is not accepted
t=2 ∴t = 6
2
d v
= −6 (negative)
dt 2 (d) When a particle reverses its direction, it is
at instantaneous rest, i.e. v = 0.
Hence, v is a maximum.
∴ v max = 12(2) − 3(2)2 = 12 m s −1 When v = 0,
3t(4 − t ) = 0
(b) s = ∫ v dt t = 0 or 4
s = ∫ (12t − 3t 2) dt t = 0 is not accepted
∴t = 4
12t 2 3t 3
s= − +c
2 3
s = 6t 2 − t 3 + c

When t = 0, s = 0. Thus, c = 0.
∴ s = 6t 2 − t 3

Distance travelled during the 3rd second

= s3 − s2
= [6(3)2 − 33 ] − [6(2)2 − 23 ]
= 27 − 16
= 11
= 11 m

72
3 (a) v P = 4 + 2t − 2t 2 For object Q,
When object P travels at a maximum sQ = (v Q × t) + 24
dv P
velocity, = 0.
dt
Displacement = Uniform velocity
dv P × Time
When = 0,
dt
sQ = −7t + 24
2 − 4t = 0
When t = 2,
1 We have to
t= sQ = −7(2) + 24
2 "plus 24" here
= 10 m because at the
beginning of the
d 2v P
= −4 (negative) motion, object
dt 2 Q is at 24 m to
the right of
Hence, the velocity of object P is a point A.
maximum.
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞2
∴ v P (max) = 4 + 2⎜ ⎟ − 2⎜ ⎟ Hence, the distance between object P and
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
2 1
1 object Q is 10 − 6 = 3 m
=4 m s −1 3 3
2
(c) When object P and object Q meet,
(b) At point C, vP = 0.
s P = sQ
4 + 2t − 2t 2 = 0
2t 3
2 + t − t2 = 0 4t + t 2 − = −7t + 24
3
t2 − t − 2 = 0 12t + 3t 2 − 2t 3 = −21t + 72
(t − 2)(t + 1) = 0 2t 3 − 3t 2 − 33t + 72 = 0 (shown)
t = 2 or −1
t = −1 is not accepted.
∴t = 2

For object P,
sP = ∫ v dt P

sP = ∫ (4 + 2t − 2t 2) dt
2t 3
s P = 4t + t 2 − +c
3

When t = 0, sP = 0. Thus, c = 0.
2t 3
∴ s P = 4t + t 2 −
3

When t = 2,
2(2)3
s P = 4(2) + 22 −
3
2
sP = 6 m
3

This displacement is measured

from point A.

73
4 (a) (i) v = t 2 − 6t + k (b) (i)
When t = 0, v = 8 t (s) 0 1 2 3 4
v (m s−1) 8 3 0 −1 0
8 = 02 − 6(0) + k
k=8

(ii) When v < 0,

t 2 − 6t + 8 < 0
(t − 2)(t − 4) < 0

Hence, the range of values of t when

the particle moves to the left is (ii) Total distance travelled in the first 4 s
2 < t < 4. = Area under the v − t graph

∫ ∫
2 4
dv = v dt + v dt
(iii) a = = 2t − 6 0 2
dt
∫ ∫
2 4
= (t 2 − 6t + 8) dt + (t 2 − 6t + 8) dt
When a < 0, 0 2

2t − 6 < 0 ⎡ t3 ⎤2 ⎡ t 3 ⎤4
= ⎢ − 3t 2 + 8t ⎥ + ⎢ − 3t 2 + 8t ⎥
2t < 6 ⎣3 ⎦0 ⎣ 3 ⎦2
t <3 23
= − 3(2) 2 + 8(2) − 0 +
3
Hence, the range of values of t when ⎛ 23 ⎞
43
the particle decelerates is 0 ≤ t < 3 . − 3(4) 2 + 8(4) − ⎜ − 3(2) 2 + 8(2) ⎟
3 ⎝ 3 ⎠
20 16 20
= + −
3 3 3
20 4
= +−
3 3
20 4
= +
3 3
=8m

74
Form 5: Chapter 21 (Linear Programming)
SPM Flashback
Fully-Worked Solutions

Paper 2

1 (a) The total mass of seafood is not less than (b)

20 kg.
The inequality is x + y ≥ 20 .
x 0 20
y 20 0

The mass of prawns is at most three times

that of squids.
The inequality is x ≤ 3 y .
x 0 30
y 0 10

The allocation is RM250.

The inequality is 10x + 5 y ≤ 250 ⇒
2 x + y ≤ 50
x 0 25
y 50 0

y = 15 .

From the graph, when y = 15 , the

minimum value of x = 5 .

Therefore, if the restaurant buys 15 kg of

squids, the minimum mass of prawns it
can buy is 5 kg.

Total expenditure = 10x + 5y

When x = 5 and y = 15 , the total
expenditure = 10(5) + 5(15)
= RM125

Hence, the maximum amount of money

that could remain from its allocation is
RM250 − RM125 = RM125.

75
2 (a) The total number of participants is at least (c) (i) When y = 12 , from the graph,
30. x min = 18 and x max = 36 .
The inequality is x + y ≥ 30 .
x 0 30 Hence, when the number of
Mathematics participants is 12, the
y 30 0
minimum and maximum number of
Science participants are 18 and 36
The number of Mathematics participants is
respectively.
at most twice that of Science.
The inequality is y ≤ 2 x .
(ii) Cost = 80x + 60y
x 0 30
y 0 60 Draw the straight line 80x + 60 y = 480
x 0 6
The expenditure for a Science participant
y 8 0
and a Mathematics participant are RM80
and RM60 respectively. The maximum
For minimum cost, from the graph,
allocation is RM3600.
The inequality is 80x + 60 y ≤ 3600 ⇒ x min = 10 and y min = 20 .
4 x + 3 y ≤ 180 .
Hence, the minimum cost
x 0 45 = 80x + 60y
y 60 0 = 80(10) + 60(20)
= RM2000
(b)

76
3 (a) For the constraint "the total number of (c) (i) From the graph, if the number of
balls bought should not be more than 80", volleyballs bought is 25 (x = 25), the
the inequality is x + y ≤ 80 . range of the number of footballs
bought is 40 ≤ y ≤ 55 .
x 0 80
y 80 0
(ii) Cost = 60x + 80y
For the constraint "the number of footballs
Draw the straight line 60x + 80 y = 4800 .
bought should not be more than 4 times
the number of volleyballs bought", the x 0 80
inequality is y ≤ 4 x . y 60 0
x 0 20
From the graph, the optimal point is
y 0 80
(16, 64).
For the constraint "the number of footballs
Hence the maximum cost
bought should exceed the number of
volleyballs bought by at least 15", the = 60(16) + 80(64) = RM6080.
inequality is y − x ≥ 15 .
x 0 40
y 15 55

(b)

77
4 (a) The maximum time for the use of machine (b)
P is 12 hours:
60x + 20y ≤ 12 × 60
3x + y ≤ 36
x 0 12 6
y 36 0 18

(0, 36) is out of the graph

paper. So, another point
(6, 18) has to be determined.

The use of machine Q is at least 8 hours:

30x + 40 y ≥ 8 × 60
3x + 4 y ≥ 48
x 0 16
y 12 0
(c) (i) From the graph, if y = 12, x max = 8
The ratio of the number of 'Premier'
pewter plates produced to the number of (ii) Profits = 100x + 140y
'Royal' pewter plates produced is at least
1 : 3: Draw the straight line 100x + 140y = 1400
x 1
≥ x 0 14
y 3 y 10 0
3x ≥ y
y ≤ 3x From the graph, the optimal
point = (6, 18)
x 0 6
y 0 18 Hence, the maximum profit
= 100(6) + 140(18) = RM3120

78