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Wimax 802.

16d
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Intuitive Approach

Nayan Gaywala 1
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Overview
• OFDM
• OFDM in Wireless Environment
• Preamble
• Impairments
• MAC processes
• SDU to Constellation points

Nayan Gaywala 2
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Frame Based Protocol

Nayan Gaywala 3
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Wimax by numbers
• 256 point FFT, i.e. 256 sub-carriers
– 192 data carriers + 8 pilot + 56 unused at both ends
• Maximum supported bandwidth = 20Mhz
• Carrier spacing = 144/125*20Mhz/256 = 90KHz
• Symbol period = 11.11µs
• Total symbol period = 0.34µs(Guard interval) + 11.11µs =
11.46µs
• With QAM ¾, 192 carriers x 6 bits/carrier x 3/4 coding
rate x 87.26KHz symbol rate = 75.4Mbps

Nayan Gaywala 4
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
FDM vs. OFDM
No restriction on
Spectrum shape as far as
within its allocated band

frequency
f1 f2 f3
Symbol rate = 1/T Carrier frequencies don’t have to
be related as far as adjoining
spectrums don’t overlap

• Intercarrier interference(ICI) where spectrum from


adjoining band spills over if carriers moved any closer or
less than perfect carrier recovery.
Nayan Gaywala 5
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
FDM vs. OFDM

Symbol rate 1/T

• In PAM we avoid ISI in time domain by keying next


symbol at zero crossing.

Nayan Gaywala 6
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
FDM vs. OFDM
Carrier spacing=1/T and
each carrier at multiple
of 1/T

Corresponding time-
domain pulses are
orthogonal

• OFDM applies a trick similar to that in PAM, but in


frequency domain. It uses Sinc like spectrums and places
them at zero crossings to avoid ICI. Now adjoining
spectrums can move closer than in FDM case without ICI.
Nayan Gaywala 7
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Orthogonal Modulation
k
j2 t
T
k (t ) e for k ... - 2,-1,0,1,2
T
is a orthogonal set over period T i.e i (t) *j (t) 0 if i j
0

In discrete domain
k kn
j2 nT j2
T s
- N ....0.... N since need two samples/cy cle and T
N
k ( n) e e k N
2 2 T
s
N -1
*
forms a orthogonal set i.e. i (n) j (n) 0 if i j
n 0

j j2
k
n
N
Since e for k - 1,-2... - N/2
π 0 j2
1
n j2
k
N
n
N
e is same as e for k (N - 1)...N/2
j2
( N 1)
n
we can use IFFT operation
N
e
Nayan Gaywala 8
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Orthogonal Modulation(cont)
0
j2 n
e
N Q
I
1
j2 n
N
e
2
j2 n
N
e
1
j2 n
N
e F
2
j2 n
N
e

Orthogonal
time limited
pulse set

Nayan Gaywala 9
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Fixed Wireless Environment
• Multi-path creates two phenomenon – Fading and Time
dispersion
d
d1 j 2 fc 1
j2 c j 2 fc 1
u(t 1) e e e

u (t 2 ) j2 f
c 2 different carrier phase
e

different path delays

Nayan Gaywala 11
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Fixed Wireless Environment
• Fading – Constructive/destructive addition because of
carrier phase changes.
• Time dispersion - because of differential delays on the
multi-path - translates to frequency selectivity.
• In fixed wireless environment, both fading and time
dispersion(frequency selectivity) are present but don’t
change much with time.

Nayan Gaywala 12
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Longer Symbol time
•Flat for each sub-carrier, but still
Multi-path channel
experiences fading
Delay spread
•Overall signal still experiences
frequency selectivity.
• Not all the sub-carrier get affected by
deep fades.
F

As compared to a wideband signal


smaller percentage of symbol time–
ISI is reduced
Nayan Gaywala 13
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Guard Band
Some ISI
Multi-path
OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2 OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2
Channel

Guard band No ISI

OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2


Multi-path OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2
Channel

Corrupted by Only this part


Cyclic Prefix
previous symbol fed to DFT
and thrown away
OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2
Multi-path OFDM Symbol#1 OFDM Symbol#2
Channel

Nayan Gaywala 14
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Cyclic Prefix to make
Convolution Circular

Symbol
Identical

Channel

Adding cyclic prefix Effect of channel can be modeled as


circular convolution after chopping
Nayan Gaywala off cyclic prefix 15
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Simplifies Equalizer
Using the Cyclic Prefix the Rx symbol can be interpreted as
a Circular convolution of Tx symbol and Multi-path channel
i.e. yn hn xn
DFT of the Circular convolution reduces to product of DFT’s
i.e. Yn Hn Xn Tx constellation
Effect of Multi-path channel
Rx constellation

Receiver Equalizer implementation is simplified since it


needs to scale each sub-carrier by 1/Hn to compensate.

Nayan Gaywala 16
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
What is Preamble used for?
A known nature of the signal and the periodicity in it are used
for:
• Frame synchronization - Start of frame/Symbol boundary
• AGC to increase dynamic range
• Carrier and Timing recovery – are one process because
Wimax requires that carrier & sampling be derived from
the same reference.
• Channel estimate to tackle ISI

Nayan Gaywala 17
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Preamble Periodicity

64 pt

IFFT
Insert 3
zeros for
every 1
sample
256 pt

IFFT

Nayan Gaywala 18
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
802.16d Long Preamble Structure

CP P64 P64 P64 P64 CP P128 P128

Nayan Gaywala 19
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Up Conversion
baseband
FT
s (t ) S(F )

After frequency shift


s (t ) e j 2 Fct FT
S (F Fc )

Bandpass real valued signal


2 Re s(t )e j 2 Fc t FT
S*( F Fc ) S ( F Fc )

complex real
waveform waveform
s(t ) 2 Re{.}
exp(j2 Fct)

Nayan Gaywala 20
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Why I & Q
Re s(t )e j 2 Fc t

Re s (t )(cos(2 Fc t ) j sin( 2 Fc t ))
Re{s (t )} cos 2 Fc t Im{s(t )}sin 2 Fc t
Re{ s(t ) e j (t )
} cos 2 Fc t Im{ s(t ) e j (t )
} sin 2 Fc t It is difficult to precisely
s (t ) cos( (t )) cos 2 Fc t s(t ) sin( (t )) sin 2 Fc t vary the phase of a high
frequency carrier
s (t ) cos 2 Fc t (t )
cos(2 Fct)
QAM We know
I (t )

Re I (t ) jQ(t )e j 2 Fct RF

Q (t )
I (t ) cos 2 Fct Q(t ) sin 2 Fc t
I (t ) cos 2 Fct Q(t ) cos 2 Fc t 90 -sin(2 Fct)

Nayan Gaywala 21
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Impairments
• Noise
• Channel distortion
• Carrier frequency offset
• Sampling clock mismatch
• Frame Time offset
• I/Q imbalance
• Non-linear distortion

Nayan Gaywala 22
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Noise - SER, BER & PER

4 M 1 3 N
SER Q SNR
M M 1 N u

Nayan Gaywala 23
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Noise - SER, BER & PER
A symbol error translates to at least one bit error or at most
log2M bit errors.
# of symbol error # of bit errors # of symbol error log2 M
If # of bits transmitted is N
# of symbol errors # of bit errors # of symbol errors log 2 M
N N N
# of symbol errors # of symbol errors log 2 M
BER(p b )
# of symbols log2 M # of symbols log2 M
SER
BER(Pb ) SER
log2 M

Nayan Gaywala 24
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Noise - SER, BER & PER
In practice the lower bound is very tight when BER is low.
Therefore Pre-FEC BER can be taken as
SER
BER(Pb )
log2 M

The inner(CC) and outer(RS) FEC scheme gives a coding


gain of 6dB.

Nayan Gaywala 25
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Noise - SER, BER & PER
For BSC with uncorrelated noise, the probability that n bits
go across the channel without error = 1 pb n
The probability of getting a n bit packet with one or more
n
errors is PER np 1 1 p b

If we transmit N packets the probability to get k packets in


error is binomially distributed N pn k 1 pn N k
k

Probability that out of the total N packets transmitted M or


less are in error is k M N p k 1 p N k
n n
k 1 k

Nayan Gaywala 28
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Synchronization
• Wimax requires that the carrier center frequency and
symbol/sample clock frequency be derived from the same
reference. This ties the topics of the frequency offset and
the sampling clock offset together.
• Because the BS and SS oscillators are not identical
– Carrier Frequency & Phase
– Symbol/Sampling clock
on both ends are also not identical.
• This less than perfect synchronization introduces its own
set of impairments.

Nayan Gaywala 30
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Carrier Synchronization
Frequency offset

j ( 2 ( Fc f )t ( t ))
e j (2 Fct (t ))
e
Phase noise
BS LO SS LO
Phase offset

Freq & phase offset


• Need to track the BS drift and not the jitter on BS.
• SS needs to track BS within 2% of subcarrier spacing
i.e. 312.5Hz for 3.5Mhz

Phase noise
Nayan Gaywala 31
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Frequency Offset in 802.16d

• Sub-carrier spacing decreases with bandwidth. Hence tighter


margin at lower bandwidth.
• For 3.5Mhz BW, sub-carrier spacing = 4Mhz/256=15.625Khz. That
means normalized offset of 0.0039 kills the orthogonality.
Nayan Gaywala 32
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Frequency Offset(cont)
• BS tells the SS by how much to adjust the frequency offset
in RNG-RSP during initial ranging.
• BS continues to tell SS by how much to adjust the
frequency offset using periodic ranging(RNG-RSP).
• SS might need frequency adjustment during scanning and
sync to the DL.

Nayan Gaywala 33
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Carrier Phase offset
• Carrier phase offset is not a problem in OFDM since it
appears as a multiplier of e j in both the time and
frequency domain. It is taken care off by the channel
equalization process.
• Even worse than the constant phase offset is the residual
frequency offset.

Nayan Gaywala 34
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Symbol/Sampling clock
mismatch
• There will be some sampling clock offset because of
residual frequency offset and latency in the application of
the frequency correction.
• Sampling clock offset shows up as both sub-carrier and
symbol indexed phase rotation in frequency domain.

Nayan Gaywala 35
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Frame/Symbol Time Offset
• Frame/Symbol timing error is caused by assuming the
wrong starting position of the OFDM symbol or start of the
frame.
• Noisy preamble can make the receiver assume wrong
symbol boundary
• This time offset shows up as phase rotation which linearly
changes with carrier’s order.

Nayan Gaywala 36
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Frame/Symbol Time Offset(cont)
In time domain Rx symbol y(n) will be time shifted version of
Tx symbol x(n). Therefore
N 1 k
1 j2
N
(n )
y ( n) x(n ) X (k )e
N k 0

Recovered symbol Y(k) is the DFT of y(n) therefore


N 1 N 1 l k k
1 j2
N
(n ) j2
N
n j2
N
Y k X (l )e e X ( k )e
n 0 N l 0

As expected time shift shows up as a linear(sub-carrier


indexed) phase rotation on the Rx spectrum.

Nayan Gaywala 37
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
I/Q Imbalance
Happens in I-Q Mixer during Up or Down conversion
Four I-Q related impairments: cos(2 Fct)
•Gain Imbalance
•Phase imbalance I (t ) dc
•D.C offset RF

•Differential Delay Q(t )

Compensation on I/Q path


-(1+ )sin(2 Fct+ )

Re ( I (t ) j (1 1 ) Q(t )e j
)e j 2 Fc t

I/Q Phase offset


1
I (t ) cos 2 Fct (1 ) Q(t ) sin 2 Fc t different than 90

Nayan Gaywala 38
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
I/Q Imbalance(cont)

Nayan Gaywala 39
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Why I/Q Imbalance a Problem
for Multiple Carrier System

Carrier at +5 creates an error image at –5


Carrier at –5 affects the one at +5

Nayan Gaywala 40
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Non-linear Distortion
For large signals, the transfer characteristics of a amplifier
looks like y G1x G2 x 2 G3 x3 .....
instead of a straight line with a constant slope i.e. y G1x.

Nonlinear Transfer Function of Amplifier Input and Output of Non-Linear Amplifier


4 2

3.5 1.5

3 1

2.5 0.5

2 0

1.5 -0.5
1-dB Compression Point
1 -1

0.5 -1.5

0 -2
0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8 10

Nayan Gaywala 41
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Non-linear Distortion(cont)
Spectrum of Two Input Sinusoids
10

If the input consists of two frequencies f1 & 0

f2 around the carrier frequency fc. -10

-20

-30

The output contains inter-modulation terms -40

-50

k1f1±k2f2. where k1 and k2 are arbitrary -60


-0.5 0 0.5
Normalized Frequency
integers. Some of the terms 2f1-f2, 3f2-2f1 10
Spectrum of Two Output Sinusoids

fall in-band. 0

-10

-20

This creates both in-band and out-band -30

-40

distortion. -50

-60
-0.5 0 0.5
Normalized Frequency

Nayan Gaywala 42
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Non-linear Distortion in 802.16d
• Wimax signal is susceptible to Tx & Rx chain non-
linearity because of high peak to average power
ratio(PAPR).
• In-band distortion affects the BER performance.
• Out-band harmonics and inter-modulation terms are
filtered out but deteriorate the Adjacent Channel Power
Ratio(ACPR).
• PAPR increases with higher modulation format, relative
phase between sub-carriers(data dependent).

Nayan Gaywala 43
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SS Critical Times
• FCH & DL-MAP needs to be decoded within a certain
time limit to receive the rest of the DL sub-frame.
• UL-MAP needs to be decoded and the UL traffic needs to
lined up before the transmission opportunity.
• Worst case happens when bandwidth=20Mhz, frame
length=5ms, CP=8 and DL/UL traffic QAM ¾.

Nayan Gaywala 44
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Channel Delay

DL sub-frame TX TTG UL sub-frame RX BS


Delay on DL path Delay on UL path
DL sub-frame Rx TTG UL sub-frame TX SS

T UL TX ahead by RTD SS
Time at BS
Nayan Gaywala 45
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Channel Delay(cont)
• Timing adjust in RNG-RSP moves SS UL transmission
ahead by round trip delay.
• TTG gap has to account for both the SS Rx-Tx switch and
round trip delay.
• The time period scheduled for initial ranging is the size of
RNG-REQ message plus the round-trip propagation delay.
For a 50Km cell radius, round-trip delay turns out to be
333µS.

Nayan Gaywala 46
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Carrier
Power Control
Ref Interference+Noise

RSSI BS SS#3
SS#1

SS#2

SS#3

Adjust Tx power
Ref
RSSI
SS#1

SS#2

SS#3

Carrier
Interference+Noise
Nayan Gaywala 47
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Authentication
BS SS
X.509 Certificate
contains SS’s Public key and
signed with CA’s Private key

BS authenticates with
CA’s Public Key Authorization Key(AK)
RSA encrypted with SS’s Public key

Only the SS can


decrypt with its
Private key

Both BS and SS use Authorization key to generate Key Encryption


keys (KEK) and HMAC Key

Nayan Gaywala 48
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Key exchange
BS SS
TEK request authenticated
with HMAC

TEK key encrypted with KEK using


3-DES, AES or RSA and
authenticated with HMAC

TEK used for both TEK used for both


DL Tx and UL Rx Data encrypted with DES-CBC or AES-CCM UL Tx and DL Rx

Nayan Gaywala 49
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
Tx Power Requirements
• Max Tx power depends on the transmit power class
profile(table-399) Wimax equipment is trying to certify.
Typical value=+20dBm.
• SS Tx power control range supporting sub-
channelization=50db. Typical range is +20dBm to –
40dBm.
• Minimum resolution=1dB.
• Power level adjust in RNG-RSP provides for adjustments
of ±32dB with resolution of 0.25dB.

Nayan Gaywala 50
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
RSSI and CINR

• On UL, RSSI is used to adjust power so that all SS’s come


in at the same power level.
• On DL, RSSI is used for reporting in REP-RSP.
Determines Tx power during initial ranging.
• On UL, CINR used by BS to decide which UIUC to use.
• On DL, the SS uses CINR to request change in
DIUC(DBPC-REQ) and reporting to BS through REP-
RSP.

Nayan Gaywala 51
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation pts
Fragmentation & Packing – TO is not exactly equal to the
SDU size.

SDU#1 Last fragment SDU#2 SDU#3 First fragment SDU#4


SDU traffic of SDU#1 of SDU#4
for same CID

MPDU

Nayan Gaywala 52
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation pts
Concatenation - Multiple MPDUs in a single PHY burst
MPDU(CID#A) MPDU(CID#B) MPDU(CID#C)
Different CIDs Management PDU User PDU User PDU
but same SS

FEC Block#1 FEC Block#2 FEC Block#3 FEC Block#4


DL/UL Burst
to/from same SS

Nayan Gaywala 53
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)
Plain text
00402200000EPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

DES-CBC Encryption – GMH not encrypted(30 bytes in hex)


00402200000ECCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

Insert CRC if enabled(34 bytes in hex)


00402200000ECCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCF91B273B

Nayan Gaywala 54
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)
Uncoded
Block Size Coded Block Overall Coding CC Code
Modulation (bytes) Size (bytes) Rate RS Code Rate

QPSK 36 48 (384bits) 3/4 (40, 36, 2) 5/6

Example of a RS-CC encoded QPSK ¾ Burst(34 bytes in hex)


00402200000E010203040506070801020304050607080102030405060708F91B273B

Pad 0xFF to make it multiple of FEC block(35 bytes in hex)


00402200000E010203040506070801020304050607080102030405060708F91B273BFF
Note: For RS-CC number of padding bytes one less than the amount of data allocated.

Nayan Gaywala 55
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)
Randomize(280 bits). Starting seed determined by
DIUC/UIUC, BSID & Frame number.
01110011111100110000101110101010111101011111000000111101
0000011010001011000111110011010101011100101001101101011
1110001011100001010011001100001110101101000001101110001
0100110000100011011001000100101000011011101111111001111
0000001110000001100101000110000001011111011011011110011
0110

Append Tail byte(36 bytes in decimal)


115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145, 40, 110, 254,
120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0
Note: applicable only for RS-CC

Nayan Gaywala 56
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)
RS Encoding– When block shortened prefix (239-36) zeros (239 bytes in
decimal).
203zeros, 115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145, 40,
110, 254, 120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0

Reed Solomon Encoding - 239 bytes followed by 16 parity bytes (255


bytes in decimal)
203zeros, 115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145, 40,
110, 254, 120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0, 239, 3, 217, 163, 158, 161, 209, 109, 117, 232, 30, 171, 35, 95, 201, 111

Parity bytes before coded data and throw away the (239-36) zero bytes
(40 bytes in decimal)
239, 3, 217, 163, 115, 243, 11, 170, 245, 240, 61, 6, 139, 31, 53, 92, 166, 215, 197, 194, 153, 135, 90, 13, 197, 48, 141, 145,
40, 110, 254, 120, 28, 12, 163, 2, 251, 111, 54, 0

Nayan Gaywala
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)
Convolutional ½ rate encoding(640bits)
11011010111100110101011010111101100110100011101100110001100100001011
10110011011100100100001010111111110101010010101100001011110011110100
01101110000100101110011010111101100110101101011101000101110110010011
11100101001011010101111010111100010111110011110111110100101011011000
00100001100100010010111001010011101011111010010100011101100011000011
11110101101010110010001010101001110100010111101100111001001101110110
00111101010111111100101110001011110100111100001001101110111010011110
11000011001110001100101011001010010110101111011010001010101111010100
00111010111000001000110110111110001010001011010011010100010111110101
1011110010001000011011000000

Puncturing to allow the same CC implementation for variable


rates(384bits). Rate 5/6
11110111011001011101000100111011000000011111011100000010011111101010010010110111101111001010111110111101011001100001 dfree 4
10000011000101100111011110101110110111101001110001001010101011100011011101100011110010011110111001010001010110000111
10110001011000111010111101110001111011000111110101011110001011001001110100010111010101100110010011101100100111111101
X 10101
100110001010011110010110100100101000 Y 11010
XY X1Y1Y2X3Y4X5
Nayan Gaywala 58
Email:nayan@pacbell.net
SDUs to Constellation Pts(cont)
Interleaving – raise immunity to burst errors(384bits)
100001111000111001000111010011011100010101011000010111110111001010100110111110111101111010000010111
100101011010110110101011011110111010110001110110100101001111011010010100111011110011110111000101111
110001001101011100001110011111001011111001001111010100101000000011010110101010100110011101100111011
010111101000011011110101001101110111011000010110110011001011011000000001101011011001000

Mapping – Convert bits to constellation points(192 pts)


-1+1i 1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i 1+1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i 1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1+1i 1-1i 1-1i 1-1i 1-
1i -1+1i 1+1i 1-1i 1-1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i
-1-1i -1+1i -1+1i 1+1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -
1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i 1+1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i 2 0
-1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -1+1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i -1-1i 1+1i 1-1i 1+1i -
1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1-1i 1+1i 1+1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i -1+1i 1-1i 1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i
1-1i 1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1+1i 1+1i 1+1i -1-1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -
1+1i 1-1i -1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1+1i -1-1i -1-1i 1-1i 1+1i 1+1i -1-1i 1-1i -1-1i -1+1i -1+1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i -
1+1i -1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1+1i 1+1i -1+1i -1-1i 1-1i -1+1i 1-1i -1+1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1+1i 1+1i 1+1i 1+1i -1- 3 1
1i 1-1i 1-1i -1+1i -1-1i 1+1i -1+1i 1+1i

Nayan Gaywala 59
Email:nayan@pacbell.net