Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 52


on Lighting Applications
Booklet 4

Good Lighting for Offices

and Office Buildings

Good Lighting for Offices

and Office Buildings 4

Subject to all regulations of European standard DIN EN 12464

Contents G o o d L i g h t i n g

Office work 2/3

Office space 4/5

Office lighting / types of lighting and lighting concepts 6/7

Cellular offices 8/9

Group offices 10 / 11

Combi offices 12 / 13

Open plan offices 14 / 15

Prestige offices 16 / 17

CAD offices 18 / 19

Conference rooms / training rooms /

video-conference rooms 20 / 21

Offices open to the public 22 / 23

Reception rooms and areas 24 / 25

Cafeterias / staff restaurants / rest rooms /

communication zones 26 / 27

Outdoor areas / façades 28 / 29

Lighting technology 30 – 35

Minimum lighting requirements 36 / 37

Lamps 38 / 39

Luminaires 40 – 43

Lighting management 44 – 46

Literature, standards and LiTG publications 47

Acknowledgements for photographs / Order forms 47

Imprint 48

Information from Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht 49

f o r O f f i c e s a n d O f f i c e B u i l d i n g s

Vision is the most important of all the five senses – and the one we
rely on most heavily at work. So correct workplace lighting is a
matter of particular importance. As numerous scientific studies
have shown, close links exist between the quality of lighting on the
one hand and productivity, motivation and well-being on the other.
In the modern working world, however, we need more than just the
right amount of light for workplace tasks. We need a succession of
stimulating and relaxing situations throughout the day.
So creating different lighting scenes in rooms with different func-
tions (workrooms, meeting rooms, recreation/regeneration zones)
helps boost motivation and promote a sense of well-being.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Dieter Lorenz
Giessen-Friedberg University of Applied Sciences
Office work

othing in the working tion centres, places for em-

N world has undergone

such a radical trans-
formation in recent years as
ployees to meet and ex-
change information. Key fa-
cilities here are conference
How will office design and office workplaces change in the
next five years?
office work. With rapid ad- zones, conference rooms and
vances in information and cafeterias – places where German executives’ answers to this question were as follows:
communication technologies, teams can come together for
corporate structures in a state formal or informal meetings.
of flux and totally new forms 71,9 %: Offices will be more variable.
of work emerging, today’s The “office building” system
world of work is a world of as a whole has thus clearly 66,1 %: Office space will be more intensively used.
computers and networks, become more complex. What 56,9 %: Offices will be modifiable.
workflow and data exchange. is more, employers increas-
Office work has become in- ingly insist on company build- 50,7 %: Rooms and workplaces will underline the value
formation and communica- ings being designed to make of personnel.
tion work. a cohesive visual statement
in tune with the organisation’s 45,6 %: There will be totally new types/forms of office.
But changes in the way we corporate design. From fa-
9,8 %: Not much will change.
work also impact on other çade to reception area, cellu-
areas of our private and lar office to combi office, ex-
Source: Deutsches Büromöbelforum, Düsseldorf, 2001;
working lives. The knowledge ecutive office to office areas target group survey by BBE-Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Cologne
society of the 21st Century open to the public, every ele-
needs different offices, differ- ment needs to suit the com-
ently designed buildings, even pany’s style.
different urban design. The
industrial kind of office work, The architect thus becomes How do you see office design and office work
where people streamed to an all-rounder, designing
in five years’ time?
their cellular offices in the colour schemes and furnish-
morning and streamed back ings, lighting and air-condi-
to their homes outside the tioning as elements of an in- German executives’ answers to this question were as follows:
town or city centre in the tegrated system. The primary
evening, is being replaced by gearing of that system, how-
71,8 %: The office will remain the principal location
new, flexible, personalised ever, is dictated by the need
working arrangements. to ensure efficient organisa- for work.
tion of labour. Above all, em- 60,5 %: Changes as a result of communication
The traditional form of office ployees need a motivating,
work, where each employee performance-enhancing at- technologies.
performs one operation at his mosphere, which is now 44,3 %: Seamless transition between home and
or her desk, has been super- widely known to be promoted
seded in many modern com- by an agreeable working en- office, work and private life.
panies and organisations by vironment. In short, the chal- 9,8 %: Not much will change.
more efficient forms of work lenge lies in creating an am-
such as project-oriented bience for work which is both
teamwork. Here, specialised functional and agreeable.
teamworkers meet at various Source: Deutsches Büromöbelforum, Düsseldorf, 2001;
locations in various constel- A major role here is played target group survey by BBE-Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Cologne
lations for limited sessions by correct lighting. This forms
of cooperation. Their office an important part of the office
equipment consists of mo- building system as a whole
bile phone, laptop computer because it paves the way for
and PDA (Personal Digital As- good visual performance and How will the pattern of demand for (special) office space
sistant) and they decide for comfort at work and signifi- change in the future?
themselves where, when and cantly affects the way we re-
with whom they work. spond to the architecture of
the building and the design GIM poll results:
Flexible working times and of the interiors.
flexible work locations, non- Today In future Change
territorial offices and mobile
workstations present new ar- Open plan office 6,6 % 5,1 % – 1,5 %
chitectural requirements for Group office 12,7 % 11,7 % – 1,0 %
the places where we work.
Individual work is done at Cellular office 80,7 % 37,6 % – 43,1 %
home in a home office or at
customers' premises, in com- Combi office 26,4 % 43,1 % + 16,7 %
bi offices or in a recreation Flexspace office 11,2 % 40,6 % + 29,4 %
zone. Company buildings are
thus becoming communica-
Source: GIM Grundwert Immobilien Management GmbH, Dresdner Bank Immobiliengruppe,

In modern forms of office,
rigid room and workplace
structures are being super-
seded by flexible and re-
quirement-oriented concepts
of use. In many cases, a kind
of nomadic culture prevails,
with employees able to use
any workplace. This calls for
new room architecture and
more flexible furnishings:
freely rearrangeable room
structures, individually ad-
justable desks and office
chairs, and variable lighting

On the following pages, we

look at modified types of of-
fice which meet these re-
quirements. The new lighting
concepts and lighting solu-
tions crafted for them – as
1 well as their realisation in line
with the new European stan-
dard DIN EN 12464 and E
DIN 5035-7 – are the focus of
this publication. A matrix on
the pages devoted to the in-
dividual types of office shows
the kind of lighting recom-
mended for the different ap-

2 4
One modern innovation
showing how the working
world has changed and how
many different forms offices
and office work can take is
the call centre.

The need for efficient sales

support and qualified cus-
tomer service worldwide
make call centres an indis-
pensable facility for many
companies today.

The activities performed in a

call centre are defined by new
information and communica-
tion technologies: the prima-
ry tools are computer net-
works, databases and head-
set telephones.

3 3
Office space

ust as the way we ing costs, promotes a greater

J work has been trans-

formed, so too has the
design of the rooms in which
sense of well-being and thus
heightens the motivation and
operational efficiency of per- 4
we work become more com- sonnel.
plex and diverse. The activi-
ties performed in offices today Artificial lighting is seen as an
range from graphic design architectural element. Lamps
work on a VDU to multimedia and luminaires are smaller
presentations for colleagues and more efficient, they blend
and clients. discreetly with the architec-
ture or they strengthen its
Regardless of the way offices statement through their own
are used, they can be divided design. Today, a variety of
into four basic types: the cel- types of lighting are available
lular office, the group office, to cater for every office ac-
the combi office and the open tivity and room situation. For
plan office. The most impor- example: direct/indirect lumi-
tant form of office at present naires with variable intensity
is the traditional cellular of- distribution curves for agree-
fice. According to a study able ceiling illumination and
conducted by the Dresdner glare-free workplace lighting,

Bank Property Group (see or flexible combinations of
page 2, table 3), 80.7% of all standard and desktop lumi-
offices conform to this type. naires which move with
In the years ahead, howev- desks.
er, we will see a dramatic de-
cline in its significance. New Lighting control is a core ele-
flexible forms of office, such ment of any building man- 9 2/ 71 GTS 5

as the combi office or the agement system. Central and

flexspace (flexibly adaptable) local regulation of communi-
office will be the norm in the cations, air-conditioning, day-
working world of the future. light control and artificial light-
ing systems makes building
Production processes and management more efficient
building design, work hierar- and boosts productivity. Mod-
chies and room layouts, re- ern lighting control systems This office building 1 CELLULAR OFFICES
sponsibilities and types of are designed for daylight-de- floor plan shows the
principal types of • room area 10 to 50 m2
room – in the future, virtually pendent and presence-de- office and room, their • room depth 4 to 5.5 m (single or
no aspect of office work or pendent regulation, permit salient features and double depth arrangement in build-
its architecture will remain as numerous lighting scenes and the main access ings 12 to 14 m deep)
it is today. Even the role of offer a high degree of opera- zones within the • room width approx. 2.5 to 4.5 m
building. (1 to 2-person room)
lighting will be reviewed. In tor convenience. • 1 to 6 employees per room
the past, the primary purpose • storey height up to 4 m
of office windows was to ad- To ensure the right standard • access to offices via corridor
• power/data cabling via window
mit natural light and provide a of lighting for a specific room ducts, cavity floor or underfloor duct
visual link with the outside use, the right balance needs systems
world; artificial lighting gen- to be struck between visual • window-ventilated rooms, poss.
partially air-conditioned (generally
erally consisted of fixed lumi- performance, visual comfort cooled)
naires arranged in line with and visual ambience. The • daylight-illuminated workplaces with
the axes of the building. This emphasis may need to be on occasional artificial lighting
arrangement then determined • visual performance, which is
the positioning of workplaces primarily defined by lighting
in the room – and a central level and glare limitation,
light switch permitted a • visual comfort, which de- 4 OPEN PLAN OFFICES
choice between light and pends mainly on colour ren-
darkness. dering and harmonious • room area 400 to 1200 m2
• room depth approx. 20 to 30 m
brightness distribution, • room width approx. 20 to 40 m
In recent years, the design of • visual ambience, which is • 25 to over 100 employees per room
all lighting components has essentially influenced by light • storey height approx. 3.8 to 4.5 m
• non-corridor systems for workplace
become much more sophis- colour, direction of light and access
ticated. Regulating the day- modelling. • power/data cabling via access floor
light that enters a room – e.g. or underfloor duct systems, some-
times suspended ceilings
through the use of façade el- • fully air-conditioned
ements or window blinds – • permanent artificial lighting in inner
makes for better air condi- zones
tioning, reduces artificial light-

7 8

• room area 100 to 300 m2 • room area 9 to 12 m2
• room depth up to 18 m (up to 15 m • room depth approx. 4 to 5 m per
where window-ventilated) room (with building depths 15 to
• room width approx. 12 to 24 m 17 m2)
• 8 to 25 employees per room • room width approx. 2.3 to 3 m for
• storey height approx. 3.7 to 4.0 m standard workroom
• power/data cabling via cavity floor or • 1 to 2 employees per room
underfloor duct systems • storey height approx. 3.0 to 4.0 m
• partial air-conditioning, ventilation, • offices accessed via communal
daylight-illuminated workplaces and zones
occasional artificial lighting in inner • power/data cabling via window
zones ducts, cavity floor or underfloor duct
systems 3
• window-ventilated rooms, poss.
partially air-conditioned (generally
• daylight-illuminated workplaces with
occasional artificial lighting
• workrooms arranged around an
internal communal area


• room area 25 to 100 m2 • room area 80 to 500 m2
• room depth 5 to 10 m • room depth 8 to 20 m • room area 50 to 400 m 2 • room area 100 to 800 m 2
• room width 5 to 10 m • room width 10 to 25 m • room depth 5 to 15 m • room depth 10 to 20 m
• 1 employee per room • 6 to 30 employees per room • room width 8 to 20 m • room width 10 to 40 m
• storey height 2.5 to 4 m • storey height 3.5 to 4.5 m • storey height 2.5 to 4.5 m • 6 to 40 employees per room
access via corridor or anteroom • non-corridor access to workplaces • power/data cabling via cavity floor or • storey height 3.5 to 4.5 m
• power/data cabling via cavity floor, • power/data cabling via cavity floor or underfloor duct systems • non-corridor systems for workplace
underfloor duct systems and/or underfloor duct systems • partially air-conditioned, poss. fully access
window duct • partially air-conditioned, from 15 m air-conditioned
• window-ventilated rooms, poss. room depth fully air-conditioned • daylight-illuminated workplaces
partially air-conditioned • permanent artificial lighting with with occasional artificial lighting and
• daylight-illuminated workplaces occasional reduced daylight supplementary lighting for multi-
with occasional artificial lighting and media presentations
additional accent lighting

Office lighting
Types of lighting
and lighting concepts

ighting illuminates

L rooms and sets the

scene for room use;
the different types of lighting
B1, B2, B3 and B4
4 types of lighting for
office space and office
available provide the tools for
doing this. Aside from meet-
ing the requirements of tech-
nical and functional regula-
Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4
tions, standards and guide-
lines, good lighting also cre- 4 types of lighting for
ates an aesthetically pleasing illuminating vertical
environment, generates pos- surfaces – especially
itive moods and promotes a those of cabinets and
sense of well-being. shelving systems –
and communication
The modern working world zones.
with its mobile teamwork,
recreation zones and flat-
screen monitors permits and
requires new lighting solu- B1
tions. Designing a lighting direct and reflected glare lim- Direct lighting
system for optimum func- itation, direction of light, mod- (ceiling luminaires)
tionality and aesthetic appeal elling, light colour and colour
calls for a knowledge of the rendering required for the rel-
different types of modern evant office activity.
lighting available and the kind
of impact they have. For office lighting applications,
there are three lighting con-
Today, numerous luminaire cepts. These concepts can
systems with different light- be realised by lighting types
ing characteristics are avail- B1, B2, B3, B4, Z1, Z2, Z3
able for providing good light- and Z4. The table on page 7
ing in office and administrative shows the types of lighting
buildings: from the traditional recommended – B1 to B4 –
recessed luminaire for direct for each lighting concept.
lighting through direct/indirect Additional recommendations
surface-mounted, pendant or for lighting types Z1 to Z4 are
standard luminaires for vari- shown in a matrix on the
able light distribution to com- pages devoted to the individ-
puterised lighting systems. ual types of office.

Major advances in compo- Designing a lighting system

nent design have brought calls for detailed specialist
about considerable improve- knowledge. The expertise B3
ments in all luminaire systems and experience of lighting de- Task lighting with special optical control
in recent years. New elec- signers and lighting engineers (pendant luminaires)
tronic ballasts and control are essential for good results.
systems, reflector materials
and lamps make for higher More information about the
luminous efficacy, precise op- components of the different
tical control, better glare sup- types of lighting is provided
pression and lower internal on pages 38 to 46 of this
power losses. Greater cost- booklet.
efficiency is achieved due to
the higher light output ratios
of modern types of lighting
and marked improvements
have been made in conve-
nience and safety.

Selecting the right type of

lighting entails striking the
right balance between visual
performance, visual comfort 3 lighting concepts
and visual ambience. It also
means meeting the require- for offices:
ments of the technical and room-related ■
statutory regulations govern- task area ■
ing the lighting levels, harmo- work surface ■
nious brightness distribution, lighting

6 5
B2 Z1 Z2
Direct/indirect lighting Spot for illuminating vertical Wallwasher for illuminating
(pendant luminaires) surfaces vertical surfaces

B4 Z3 Z4
Indirect lighting with direct workplace lighting Wall luminaires Downlights for illuminating
(standard and desktop luminaires) for illuminating walls communication zones

Lighting concepts Types of lighting

B1 B2 B3 B4
Room-related lighting
Uniform lighting throughout the room creating roughly the same visual conditions
at all points. This is recommended where the arrangement of task areas is unknown
during the planning phase or where the arrangement of task areas needs to be

Task area lighting

Different lighting for task areas and the space around them. This is recommended
where a room contains several task areas which are used to address different visual
tasks and thus have different lighting requirements. It is also an option where visual
divisions are needed to identify different workplace clusters.

Work surface lighting

Workplace luminaires can be used to supplement “basic lighting” – which can be
either room-related or task area lighting – to achieve a level of lighting finely tuned
to the requirements of the visual task or to personal needs. DIN 5035-8 sets out
requirements/recommendations for workplace luminaires.

Cellular offices

he cellular office is the direct lighting are used. By

T type of office tradition-

ally used to accom-
modate a maximum of six of-
illuminating the ceiling, these
avoid a “cave effect” even in
small offices, achieve a more
fice workers – and it is still natural distribution of bright-
the best solution for person- ness and give the room a
nel who predominantly per- more homely appearance.
form tasks which require con- For meetings especially, di-
centration, a personal archive rect/indirect lighting systems
of files and books or the generate a better visual am-
privacy needed for confiden- bience because light and
tial conversations with clients shade are more balanced
or staff. It is also ideal for and faces look more natural.
small groups of two to three
people who work together as Standard luminaires add a
a team and constantly need prestigious note to cellular of-
to exchange information fices. As direct/indirect lighting
about their work. systems, they offer all the ad-
vantages mentioned above
Despite its structural limita- but can additionally enhance
tions, the cellular office is very the room architecture through
popular with most office their design. In conjunction
workers. For many, the high with desktop luminaires, the
degree of privacy, the prox- room and the work surface
imity of windows and the on the desk are equally well
possibility of tailoring the illuminated. Another impor-
room, its climate and its light- tant advantage is flexibility,
ing to personal tastes out- because even today one in
weigh the disadvantages. four company employees
The lack of interaction with a changes offices at least once 6
larger group needs to be a year. A lighting system con- Preferred types of lighting
made up in other ways here, sisting of standard and desk- Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones
e.g. in meetings. top luminaires can move with
a relocating employee with-
Cellular offices are put to out ceiling and electrical in-
many different uses. They stallations having to be
accommodate scientists and touched.
section leaders, secretaries
and designers; they are used For vertical surfaces where
for VDU work and team reading tasks are performed,
meetings, concentrated study e.g. at cabinets, shelving sys-
and appointments with tems, wall charts, maps, sup-
clients. The diversity of room plementary lighting is need-
use is reflected accordingly ed.
in a wide range of room
shapes, furnishings, colour Even though light switches
schemes, etc. are normally within easy reach
in cellular offices, lighting con-
The type of lighting required trol systems have distinct ad-
depends on the structure of vantages. Conferences and
the room, the use or uses to group communication often
which it is put and the at- take place outside the cellular
mosphere that needs to be office, which then stands
created. In most cellular of- empty, so presence-depen-
fices, louvered recessed lu- dent control is a practical and

minaires are the option most convenient addition to the

widely preferred. Louvered lighting system. Other eco-
luminaires suitably glare- nomic and logistical advan-
suppressed for direct lighting tages are provided by cen-
are an economical solution tral control systems which
for many applications, also check if office lights have
providing good conditions for been switched off in the
VDU work. evening and whether lamps
need to be replaced.
A more agreeable and more
motivating impression is
made by a room where pen-
dant luminaires for direct/in-

8 7


• Standard cellular office (fixed room structures) and superior cellular

office (flexible repositionable walls, higher costs for requisite flexibility
of façade, interior work and building systems)

• 1-person room for work requiring intense concentration behind a

closed door

• 2 to 3-person room for intensive cooperation and communication

within a very small unit

• Multi-person room for intensive cooperation and communication in a

team or small unit

• Prestige 1-person office with interview facilities for corporate executive

9 9
Group offices

he group office window wall to provide effec-

T emerged as an initial
response to the new
forms of work that heralded
tive task area illumination.

Other lighting concepts per-

the age of communication. It mit a free and flexible
made its appearance in the arrangement of workplaces.
late 1970s and early 1980s For workplace clusters – i.e.
when offices started to be- relatively small groups of
come computerised and of- desks – pendant luminaires
fice work was transformed as for direct/indirect lighting gen-
a result. The rigid depart- erally yield better results. Ow-
mental groupings of the open ing to the brightness of the
plan office were replaced by ceiling, the lighting looks more
smaller units which could natural, dazzling reflections
work more closely and effec- on work materials and screen
tively as teams. are reduced, and the better
modelling makes faces and
In the 1990s, architects objects look more appealing.
looked at the down-scaled For a more flexible workplace
open plan offices again and arrangement, direct/indirect
developed new ideas for standard luminaires can be
group or team offices. Mo- used in combination with
notonous arrangements of desktop luminaires. Vertical
desks designed solely to surfaces where reading tasks
make efficient use of space are performed – at cabinets,
were superseded by zonal shelving systems, wall charts,
concepts. maps, etc. – call for adequate
supplementary lighting.
Owing to its comfortable size,
flexible design and effective To give a group office an en-
communication structure, the ergising, motivating atmos-
group office is still a popular phere without compromising
office and work concept even on clarity of structure, the
today. It avoids the anony- lighting should emphasise
mity of the open plan office the zonal layout of the room.
and provides good conditions Downlights, for example, can 10
for direct personal teamwork be used to provide agreeable,
in established groups of 8 to non-directional lighting for
25 employees. service centres, where docu-
ments are faxed or copied.
One central issue in the con- Where these facilities are lo-
text of group office lighting is cated at the perimeter of the
daylight control. Where rooms room, indirect wall luminaires
are seven to eight metres are another option. In con-
deep, special light-reflecting ference zones, direct/indirect
window blinds can usefully luminaires should be used
direct available daylight to wherever possible to ensure
the parts of the room farthest natural modelling for faces
from windows. and work materials. In regen-
eration zones, light colours
But adequate daylight is not should be warm, e.g. provid-
always available, so work- ed by luminaires in an indi-
places located deep in the rect trunking system supple-
room still need to be illu- mented by table luminaires
minated by artificial light for reading tasks.
sources. In the classic set-
up, desks are positioned one
behind the other at right an-
gles to the window wall. Day-
light then falls on desktops
and workstations from the
side, with window glare elim-
inated by blinds. The artificial
lighting units – e.g. louvered
luminaires for direct lighting
– are mounted parallel to the

10 11


• Enclosed open-plan group rooms with few room-dividing elements

(screen or cabinet partitions) or rooms with a combination of open and
closed structures defined by room-dividing systems (room-in-room
systems) or elements.

• Open office space with open group zones which can be separated
from one another – e.g. by assignment to different levels – yet which
still permit inter-zonal visual communication and generate a sense of
security through their architecture and workplace clusters.

Preferred types of lighting
Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones

Combi offices

n the office buildings of In the workrooms in particular,

I the information society,

the efficiency and success
of employees depends to a
it must be remembered that
“production work” is very di-
verse, ranging from reading
large extent on communica- project papers to performing
tion. In many cases, employ- graphic design work at a
ees work on successive pro- VDU, to holding small informal
jects in a team, with each meetings at the workplace.
team member addressing a
special assignment relating A bright, agreeable atmos-
to the project. The concen- phere is created by direct/
trated work of the individual is indirect pendant luminaires
thus performed in constant or standard luminaires. Dim-
consultation with the team. mable luminaires, supple-
mented by desktop lumi-
The combi office is an archi- naires at the workplace, per-
tectural response to this way mit individual lighting scenes.
of working. It permits a con- As most offices have relative-
nection between the open ly large windows, the use of
communication of the team lighting control systems per-
and the individual work of the mitting daylight-dependent
team members. The combi regulation of the general light-
office thus combines team ing is recommended.
spirit and communication,
transparency and flexibility. For vertical surfaces where
reading tasks are performed –
Structurally, a combi office is e.g. at cabinets, shelving sys-
like a marketplace: a com- tems, wall charts and maps
munal space surrounded by – adequate supplementary
individual “houses”. A mar- lighting is required. 14
ketplace provides a platform Preferred types of lighting
for the public exchange of In the communal room, the Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones
information and trade in lighting should be designed
goods. The houses around it to enhance spatial clarity by
are where the information is differentiating between zones.
processed and the products This helps identify the vari-
manufactured. ous function zones of the
“marketplace” and enables
In the same way, the individ- lighting to be tailored to the
ual workrooms of a combi of- relevant visual tasks.
fice can also be seen as pro-
duction sites. They are where Direct/indirect pendant lumi-
parts of the project are craft- naires over conference zones
ed in concentrated individual create an agreeable ambi-
work. The fruit of that labour ence in which faces and work
is taken to the adjacent com- materials can be clearly iden-
munal zone, where the vari- tified. For temporary work-
ous parts of the project are places and reading areas in
put together by the team. But the communal room, direct/
the communal zone performs indirect standard luminaires
other vital functions as well. It – possibly regulable models –
is both a communication and are a flexible solution. For op-
a supply centre – accommo- tical emphasis and differen-
dating not just the zones for tiation of the individual zones,
team meetings but also pho- downlights are a suitable
tocopiers and fax machines, choice. They also provide ef-
files, records and shared in- fective guidance through the
formation resources, such as room.
periodicals and reference
works. For the general lighting in the
communal room, economical
Lighting for a combi office louvered luminaires with good
should also be modelled on glare suppression offer a high
the concept of the market- degree of visual comfort.
place and provide zonal light-
ing wired for individual control.

12 15 16

• Standard workroom for one person, with

glass wall to the central zone, partially glazed
walls to neighbouring offices (above 1.8 to
2 m above floor level) and glass fin window

• Two-person workroom with block or wall-

facing arrangement of workplaces created
by removal of a partition wall; features other-
wise the same as those of the standard

• Executive office: multi-axial room created by


removal of one or more partition walls.



18 13
Open plan offices

or quite some time, Where these sources of dis-

F open plan offices have

been experiencing a re-
naissance. The functional and
turbance are not adequately
limited, fatigue, underperfor-
mance and personnel health
flexible structuring they permit problems result. It is import-
makes them an attractive op- ant, therefore, that VDUs
tion for many company op- should be arranged in rela-
erations where efficient room tion to windows or shielded
use is a must. Their popular- by curtains or blinds in such a
ity has been boosted, in par- way that glare is avoided.
ticular, by the rapid spread of Room-dividers or cabinet par-
call centres. Nearly 200,000 titions can help make glare
people in Germany work in suppression measures more
this sector alone. effective.

Modern open plan offices are For the lighting designer, this
still very much geared to VDU means meeting a number of
work; most of the activities specific requirements. First,
performed in them consist of account needs to be taken
computerised tasks requiring of the insular character of the
concentration. Communica- team clusters. A variety of
tion in an open plan office is modern direct/indirect pen-
mostly telecommunication, dant luminaires specially de-
i.e. telephone communication veloped for VDU work are
with customers or outfield available for workgroup light-
colleagues. ing in open plan offices. For
vertical surfaces where read-
In today's open plan offices, ing tasks are performed, e.g.
one finds many “clusters” of at cabinets, shelving systems,
workplaces, where teams wall charts or maps, ade-
work together. Workplace quate supplementary lighting
arrangements here can vary is required.
considerably, from strict geo-
metrical patterns to circular The challenge does not end
office landscapes. with work zone lighting, how-
ever. Communication and 19
With computer workplaces, perimeter zones also require
it is essential to ensure that attention. Conference and re-
the strain on the eyes from ception zones lend structure
switching constantly back to the room and call for varied
and forth between screen, lighting to emphasise their
work materials and sur- special character and facili-
roundings is kept to a mini- tate orientation in the room
mum and that the need for as a whole. Bright perimeter
strenuous accommodation zones, e.g. walls illuminated
and adaptation is avoided. by wallwashers, make the
So monitors and any papers room look larger.
the operator needs to con-
sult should be the same dis- In open plan offices in par-
tance from the eye, 40 to 80 ticular, user comfort can be
cm. significantly enhanced by
lighting control systems. And
It is also important to avoid as such offices frequently
direct and reflected glare. Di- have long rows of windows,
rect glare occurs as a result considerable room depths
of excessively high luminance and various types of lighting,
contrast, e.g. where a VDU daylight-dependent regulation
is positioned directly in front of window blinds and individ-
of a window. Reflected glare ual room lighting elements
results from bright surfaces, may also be considered.
such as windows or lumi-
naires, being reflected on


• Large office unit with mostly

open workplace structure and
few subdividing partitions and
cabinets. Pronounced hierarchi-
cal layout: prestige offices near
windows, preferably in corners
of the room (corner offices).

• Office landscape with various

team zone clusters with variable
arrangements of partitions. More
private areas for managerial
workplaces. Integrated confer-
ence, technical and regeneration

• Room-in-room systems with the

high degree of flexibility needed
to cater to different organisation-
al and staff requirements.

Preferred types of lighting
Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones

21 15
Prestige offices

s the name indicates, For vertical surfaces where

A a prestige office un-

derlines the stature of
the company and the individ-
reading tasks are performed
– e.g. at cabinets, shelving
systems, wall charts or maps
ual to whom it is assigned. – adequate supplementary
Its interior design should re- lighting is required.
flect the identity of the com-
pany or the personality of the In the conference zone, light-
occupant. This is where pres- ing should be low-key to per-
tige offices get their atmos- mit full concentration on the
phere, which can range from persons present. Balanced
cool and businesslike to light modelling and warm light
and experimental, to uncom- colours help give faces a
promisingly sumptuous. more natural and agreeable
appearance. Direct/indirect
Most prestige offices consist luminaires fitted with warm-
of three zones, each with a tone lamps provide the high
clear purpose: first the work- vertical illuminance required
place, where a variety of and cast a soft, pleasant light.
tasks are performed and VDU Glare due to direct lighting or
work plays only a minor role; reflections needs to be avoid-
secondly a conference zone, ed, as does a marked con-
designed to cater for small trast in brightness with the
group meetings; and thirdly surroundings. Both are dis-
a “presentation zone”, where tracting and cause visual fa-
the company presents its cor- tigue; concentration and mo-
porate culture and its work. tivation suffer.

The three room zones share a In the third room zone, the
uniform atmosphere, although presentation zone, attention
each zone has its own func- needs to be directed to ob-
tion and mood. The atmos- jects or images. At the same
phere needs to be appropri- time, the presentation zone
ate for the statement which must be neither too bright nor
the room is supposed to too dark in relation to the rest
make; in most cases, a of the room; direction of light
cheerful homely atmosphere and modelling must be de-

is required. In offices with a signed to ensure that three-

relatively dark colour scheme dimensional objects are iden-
and lots of wood finishes, this tifiable as such. Downlights,
is best supported by soft in- wallwashers and a variety of
direct lighting and warm light spots can be an effective ac- 22
colours. centuating lighting solution
At the workplace, there is
normally no need for purely In view of the many different
functional lighting. On the types of lighting used in most

contrary, the lighting should prestige offices, a program-

be part of the architecture mable lighting control system
and designed to cater for a makes good sense. Pre-de-
variety of visual tasks. Stan- fined lighting scenes for con-
dard and desktop luminaires centrated work at the desk,
or pendant luminaires of dec- meetings with colleagues or
orative, futuristic or purist de- the reception of guests help
sign are suitable options. ensure balanced lighting in
What is important is that the the room and permit a com-
lighting is bright enough for fortable lighting atmosphere
all visual tasks, glare due to for the situation required.
windows and luminaires is
avoided and the distribution
of light at the workplace and
throughout the room is har-
monious. Marked differences
in brightness along different
lines of sight make it harder
for the eye to adapt and give
rise to fatigue.

16 23


• Multi-axial room with very open room structure, little or no subdivision

by room partitioning systems

• Open conference zone distinguished from the workplace by its interior

and lighting design

• Direct connection to adjoining conference rooms or secretarial offices

Preferred types of lighting

Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones

25 17
CAD offices

rom a lighting view- Adequate daylight is not al-

F point, computer-aided
design is one of the
most demanding office activ-
ways available, so luminaires
should be positioned to the
left and right of the desks.
ities of all. Characters and The direction of light and
symbols, super-fine lines and modelling thus achieved per-
patches of varying contrast mits paperwork and objects
and colour call for intense to be viewed without undue
concentration and perfect risk of fatigue.
visual clarity of screen dis-
plays, work materials and As for types of lighting, di-
other objects. So special at- rect/indirect luminaires offer
tention needs to be paid in the highest degree of com-
CAD offices to ergonomic fort. A bright ceiling makes
workplace design. for balanced luminance dis-
tribution, giving the room
Room and workplace light- lighting a more natural and
ing plays an important role in more motivating impact. Sup-
ergonomic design. Lighting plementary desktop lumi-
levels need to be chosen to naires enable the lighting to
ensure a balance between be tailored to individual work
the brightness of VDU screen, situations. In aisles, louvered
task area and surroundings. luminaires, downlights or di-
Changing visual tasks – i.e. rect/indirect wall luminaires
working on screen, execut- are a suitable option.
ing sketches on light-coloured
paper and making visual con- What is particularly important
tact with colleagues in the in CAD offices is modern
room – call for harmonious lighting control. For one thing,
luminance distribution. the lighting level at each indi- 26
vidual workplace needs to be

Direct and reflected glare adjustable for different tasks
needs to be limited. Direct because while a great deal
glare is caused by bright sur- of light is needed for studying
faces, such as windows, or technical drawings on paper,
unshielded lamps; reflected VDU work often calls for dim-
glare is caused by light re- ming. Secondly, uniformity of
flections on glossy paper or lighting needs to be right at all
screens. Direct and reflected times of day. Where incident
glare cause extreme differ- daylight at desks is intense,
ences in luminance and im- both the German national or-
pair visual conditions, thus dinance protecting employ-
undermining office workers’ ees working at VDUs and EU
sense of well-being and abil- Directive 90/270 stipulate that
ity to concentrate on the task window-blinds must be pro-
in hand. vided for screening and sup-
plemented, if necessary, by
To ensure good visual perfor- artificial lighting.
mance, a classic arrange-
ment of workplaces at right For vertical surfaces where
angles to the window wall is reading tasks are performed
recommended, with desks for – e.g. at cabinets, shelving
ancillary design operations systems, wall charts or maps
positioned near the window – adequate supplementary 27
and CAD workstations locat- lighting is required.
ed nearer the middle of the
room. Daylight then falls on
desks from the side and glare
is largely eliminated. Lumi-
naires should be installed par-
allel to the window wall. High-
grade specular louver lumi-
naires with specially designed
louvers ensure glare-free light-
ing at the workplace.

18 28

• Large office unit with mostly open workplace structure and few

subdividing partitions and cabinets.

• Screened areas for integrated conference and technical zones

Preferred types of lighting

Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones


29 19
Conference rooms /
training rooms /
video-conference rooms

ultifunctional pre- Many mood variants can be

M sentation rooms
play a central role in
many companies. They are
achieved for multifunctional
rooms by combining different
lighting systems, e.g. pen-
used to receive visitors, ad- dant luminaires with down-
dress clients and staff and lights or recessed or surface-
provide a place where col- mounted ceiling luminaires
leagues can confer amongst with power track and spots.
themselves. They need to re-
flect the company’s image General lighting must always
and corporate culture, pro- be supplemented by accent
mote lively discussion and in- lighting because certain room
depth consultation and pro- zones require different illumi-
vide access to multimedia nation, depending on the use

facilities. to which they are put. For
presentations, accent light-
So these rooms need to per- ing provides the vertical illu-
form a wide variety of func- mination needed at rostrum
tions and create a wide vari- or stage to cast speakers in
ety of moods. Receptions for the right light; for video-con-
clients, for example, call for ferences or beamer presen-
an air of openness, whereas tations, it ensures basic light-
intensive consultation requires ing for safety in the room and
a more secluded atmos- smoothes out extreme differ-

phere. So the prime require- ences in luminance. For the

ment that conference and audience, safe glare-free ori-
training rooms need to meet entation in the room must be
is flexibility of room use – guaranteed at all times.
something which is achieved
by a variable room layout cre- The bandwidth of options for 30
ated by movable partitions accentuating lighting is ex- Preferred types of lighting
and versatile furniture. This tremely wide: it ranges from Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones
variability needs to be reflect- downlight wallwashers and
ed by the lighting, which must power track spots for illumi-
also be able to cater for dif- nating rostrums and walls to
ferent functions and create decorative recessed wall lu-
different moods. minaires and recessed floor
luminaires. What is very im-
Attaining this goal calls for a portant for accent lighting is a
differentiated lighting design balance between functionali-
permitting a variety of light- ty and creativity. The charac-
ing scenes. For the general ter of the room should be un-
lighting, two basic scenes are derlined and the architecture
particularly important: a or selected room zones em-
bright, illuminated ceiling cou- phasised. Variations in the lu-
pled with harmonious bright- minaires used, different light
ness distribution for convey- colours and switches from
ing an impression of open- wide to narrow-beam lumi-
ness in the room, and highly naires offer many opportuni-
accentuating lighting in cer- ties to inject life into the room
tain zones for conveying an through lighting.
impression of seclusion.
Using differentiated lighting
For the first lighting scene, like this in practice calls for
direct/indirect pendant lumi- modern lighting control.
naires can make for balanced Where several lighting sys-
room lighting with an agree- tems are present and multiple
able basic brightness. For the room users involved, the light-
second, the “private” lighting ing needs to be programma-
atmosphere required can be ble, enabling a predefined
provided by downlights or by lighting scene to be activated
spots mounted on power when a particular lighting at-
track. Vertical surfaces where mosphere is required. This is
reading tasks are performed – the only way the lighting de-
at cabinets, shelving systems, signer can craft the right light
wall charts, maps, etc. – call to make the right statement 31
for adequate supplementary for receptions and presenta-
lighting. tions, training sessions and

Video-conference room

• Multi-axial room with very open

room structure, no subdivision
by room partitioning systems.

• Open hall, no subdivision or

flexible subdivision by means
of partitions for room-in-room

• Variable arrangement of
individual and team desks



33 34

Offices open to the public

espite Internet and e- In interview niches and at

D mail, personal contact

is more important
than ever for many compa-
consultants’ desks, the light-
ing needs to be suitable for
both communication situa-
nies and organisations today. tions and VDU work. Where
Customers, clients and mem- room layouts frequently
bers of the public want per- change, the lighting needs to
sonalised advice and wish to be equally flexible. Desktop
meet the people they deal luminaires and standard lu-
with face to face. In much of minaires for direct/indirect
the private sector, an invita- lighting can be repositioned
tion to visit the company in at any time and, where ceil-
person is an important part ings are bright and a normal
of customer bonding and a height, create lighting con-
good opportunity to promote ditions which permit high vi-
image and product range. sual comfort for interviews
and good visual performance
Classic service halls, with their for VDU work.
cold stone floors and high
ceilings, are being relegat- For vertical surfaces where
ed to the past. The prefer- reading tasks are performed –
ence today is for a more at cabinets, shelving systems,
homely atmosphere, with wall charts, maps, etc. – ad-
warm colours, small room equate supplementary lighting
units and a consulting zone is required.
that has shifted from the
counter to niches or desks. Offices which are open to the
public also perform a repre-
As in all relatively large interi- sentative function, so atten-
ors, the lighting concept here tion needs to be paid not on-
needs to reflect the structure ly to the functional design of
of the room, with its various the lighting but also to its
zones for different tasks. Vis- visual appeal and aesthetic
itors entering the room want impact. Even with the most
to be able to identify clearly impressive architecture, how-
where they need to go. Bright ever, that impact can only be 35
reception areas and illumi- achieved if the right light is
nated information panels fa- provided at the right place.
cilitate initial orientation and Recessed floor luminaires and
direct visitors’ attention. downlights vividly emphasise
pillars; spots cast selected
To avoid cave effects in an zones in a dramatic light or
entrance area, room lighting imbue presentation areas for
and ceiling illumination need images and artworks with vi-
to be adequately bright. An sual tension. For the public,
interesting effect is achieved good and exciting lighting de-
with louvered luminaires or sign brings a room and its ar-
downlights in the ceiling and chitecture to life.
indirect ceiling floodlights
mounted on walls or pillars.
Large luminous ceilings or di-
rect/indirect pendant lumi-
naires also create an agree-
able and natural atmosphere.

22 36


• Multi-axial room with open room structure, little subdivision by room

partitioning systems

• Large open room subdivided by partitions or cabinet systems into

consulting, technical and workplace zones.

Preferred types of lighting

Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones

Reception rooms /
reception areas

ntrance areas make a The lobby area is a place

E first and crucial im-

pression on visitors.
Architecture and dimensions,
for communication, a place
where visitors are greeted.
The purpose of lighting here
materials and furniture, light- is to create a visual ambience
ing and acoustics – they all where people – and espe-
combine to form an “image” cially people’s faces – can be
the moment the visitor enters clearly recognised. Highly di-
the room. For every visitor, rectional lighting should be
the entrance area is the point avoided because it casts un-
of initial contact, the begin- favourable shadows. Direct/
ning of all communication indirect lighting with warm
with their host. light colours ensures a bal-
anced distribution of light and
Entrance areas generally con- helps create a positive at-
sist of four zones: the actual mosphere for communication.
entrance, the reception area,
the lobby and the areas lead- Corridors, staircases or lifts
ing into the building. So the connect the entrance area
primary task for architect and with the interior of the build-
lighting designer is to identify ing. Here, too, lighting can
these zones and provide clear facilitate visitor orientation,
aids to orientation for the vis- e.g. in route guidance sys-
itor. tems incorporating coloured
LED luminaires. A clear light
The entrance links the out- guidance system points visi-
door areas with the interior tors in the right direction and
of the building. This is where bright display panels or back-
the visitor steps out of the lit signs provide information.
daylight into the building. As 39
the human eye takes time to Corridors and staircases can
adapt from the bright daylight appear intimidating if they are
outdoors to the lower light- much darker than the en-
ing indoors, entrances need trance area. To avoid this tun- Preferred types of lighting
to be particularly bright. nel effect, care must be taken Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones
Adaptation is facilitated by to ensure uniform or gradual-
large windows and glare-free ly decreasing brightness.
lighting of high luminous in-
tensity in this area. A day- For staircases especially,

light-dependent lighting con- glare-free lighting is essential

trol system should adjust the on the stairs. Safety can be
artificial lighting in line with heightened by modern LED
the level of available daylight. modules integrated into the
Steps or stairs in this area stairs or recessed wall lumi-
need to be particularly well naires illuminating the treads.
identified and illuminated.
In entrance areas with large
Most visitors first make their windows, a daylight-depen-
way to the reception desk, dent lighting control system
so this needs to be clearly for the artificial lighting is a
identifiable as such. Supple- sound proposition, as are op-
mentary lighting provided tical control blinds designed
for a reception area and any to direct daylight deep into
vertical information panels the room. Both systems
makes these stand out make the lighting more at-
against the surroundings and tractive, heighten user com-
helps visitors find their way. A fort and improve the econo-
cheerful, inviting atmosphere my of the entire system.
is generated by harmonious
brightness distribution with
anti-glare lighting for coun-
ters and signs as well as
warm light colours.





44 25
Cafeterias / staff restaurants /
rest rooms / communication zones

new office culture is or new discharge lamps cast

A transforming the tra-

ditional structures of
our working world. Work to-
a brilliant warm light. Used in
conjunction with small lumi-
naires, they can make for dis-
day is seen as an efficient creet, design-driven lighting
team-oriented communica- systems which integrate
tion and information process, smoothly into the architec-
which includes informal meet- ture of the room.
ings over breakfast, team
talks over lunch and occa- Whether the luminaires of
sional spells listening to choice for providing agree-
soothing music in a recreation able catering zone lighting are
zone. Work is part of life and mini-spots, swivellable down-
life’s experiences. lights or decorative pendant
luminaires, the important thing
Cafeterias, staff restaurants is that light must be provided
and rest zones play an im- at the right place. Glare from
portant role in modern com- unshielded general-diffuse
panies. The works canteen lamps in lines of sight or dis-
for blue-collar workers with a turbing reflections on shiny
separate section for man- tabletops need to be avoided.
agement has largely disap- Faces must be identifiable
peared. Today, comfortable without excessive modelling
catering areas or bistro ta- and the colours of food and
bles are available for consul- drinks need to be natural. For
tations between colleagues; anyone looking across or
armchairs with reading matter around the room, differences
invite staff to switch off and in luminance levels should not
unwind. be marked.

The point of these “task ar- Food presentation areas, e.g.

eas” is to give employees a buffets, should be brighter
sense of well-being. Modern than the rest of the room to
companies long ago realised make them stand out from
that contented staff work the surroundings. Lamps
much more efficiently and feel should be selected for low 45
more committed to the com- heat generation and good
pany than employees who colour rendering properties,
are dissatisfied. The challenge so compact fluorescent
for architect and lighting de- lamps, for example, are a
signer is to create the atmos- good choice. Good glare
phere needed to attain that suppression is also a vital
goal of “well-being”. feature for luminaires used
The architecture of modern
catering and regeneration In rest zones, lighting needs
zones has become more to be dimmable to meet dif-
“homely”. Smaller rooms ferent requirements. Lighting
make for more intimate sur- systems must also be flexi-
roundings, lots of wood and ble and, if possible, non-di-
warm colours create an rectional so that any changes
agreeable atmosphere. The in the room can be accom-
interior design is modelled on modated without major mod-
that of fine restaurants and ifications to the lighting. For
bistros. reading and conversation,
suitable lighting can be pro-
For the lighting designer, there vided by direct/indirect table
is lots of scope for creativity luminaires beside armchairs.
here. Various types of light- They should be dimmable
ing are available for crafting and, if possible, permit ad-
decorative lighting systems justment of the way they dis-
and lighting landscapes with tribute their light: for reading,
atmosphere and emotional most of the lighting in the
appeal. Modern lamps such seating area should normally
as high-voltage tungsten- be direct; for conversation, a
halogen lamps, low-voltage bright room and more indi-
tungsten-halogen lamps with rect lighting are required.
cool beam specular reflector

26 46




Preferred types of lighting

Office workplaces/Office space Vertical surfaces/Communication zones

51 27
Outdoor areas /

he visual impact of a and shade gives a building a

T company building
plays a signal role in
corporate culture. The façade
vivid presence during the
evening and at night. The
contours and colours of a
of a headquarter building façade can be made to
makes a crucial first impres- stand out by narrow- or
sion on visitors and generally wide-angled floods while
appears on or near the front details such as pillars or de-
of image brochures. The corative elements can be
emotional impact of a building emphasised by recessed
exterior can range from invit- ground luminaires and down-
ing to intimidating, the differ- lights.
ence often depending on nu-
ances in proportions or light- The other prime task per-
ing at night. formed by exterior lighting is
to facilitate orientation. Signs
In recent years, the illumina- and car-parks, communica-
tion of buildings for aesthetic tion routes and staircases as
reasons has become a major well as the building entrance
element of urban design. The need to be clearly identified.
artificial lighting of adminis- All the relevant areas must
trative buildings, fountains also be adequately bright be-
and bridges is increasingly cause dark patches and unlit
used to make the face of a corners give visitors a sense
town or city more attractive of insecurity. Good glare sup-
and offer bright cheerful sur- pression for luminaires is par-
roundings for people shop- ticularly important for outdoor
ping or taking a stroll in the lighting.
Lighting should provide se-
One of the first things that curity, especially where there
needs to be decided when is a risk of accident. Bright,
designing exterior lighting for uniform lighting for car-parks
a building is light colour. The affords protection for mo-
white light generally emitted torists and pedestrians alike.
by fluorescent lamps is suit- Decorative bollard luminaires

able for modern architecture form part of the external ar-

with clear contours. Lumi- chitecture and provide lighting
naires with tungsten-halogen for peripheral zones, paths
lamps or high-pressure so- and steps.
dium vapour lamps have a
warmer light colour more Interesting light effects, en-
appropriate for classical hanced visual comfort and
architecture with stucco or- power savings can also be
namentation. To achieve the achieved in exterior lighting

desired effect and not over- by the use of a lighting control

load the façade and its sur- system. Modern systems ad-
roundings, combinations of just the brightness of the 52
different light colours need to lighting as daylight fades or
be precisely planned. deactivate individual groups
of luminaires where paths and
For effective illumination of car-parks are not used at
individual trees or groups of night or at weekends.
trees, high-pressure sodium
vapour lamps are the pre- More information on this sub-
ferred solution for trees with ject is provided in Booklet 16
light-green leaves or needles “Urban image lighting” of the
whereas metal halide lamps FGL series “Information on
are recommended for trees Lighting Applications”. See
with dark or bluish-green fo- also Page 49.
liage. This produces a par-
ticularly interesting multi-
coloured effect.

One of the primary purposes

of façade lighting is to em-
phasise architectural state-
ment. Controlled use of light

28 53


56 29
Lighting technology

Part 1 | 2 | 3

he right quality of light- In an office, the lighting level

T ing and visual design

of the working envi-
ronment are fundamental re-
needs to allow us to read and
make out information on both
screen and paper without dif-
Limitation of Brightness/
quirements for the efficient, ficulty. It must also permit
direct and luminance
fatigue-free performance of visual communication with reflected glare distribution
visual tasks. They also make people around us and the
for a sense of well-being and working environment and
Direction of light
boost motivation. Quality of help promote a general sense Modelling
Colour rendering Light colour
lighting is defined by a num- of well-being, motivation and
ber of quality features. dynamism. This calls for a
These must not be consid- balanced distribution of Lighting climate
ered in isolation, however, be- brightness in the visual field, Lighting level
cause most of them interact i.e. the surroundings of the
with one another. Where no actual visual task. Brightness
attention is paid to glare limi- distribution depends on the
tation, for example, a high uniformity of illuminance –
lighting level can cause visual primarily on the vertical sur- 57
discomfort and give rise to faces of walls, cabinets and The quality features of lighting
annoying reflections on VDU partitions – as well as the re-
screens. flectance of such surfaces
and the brightness (lumi-
But lighting quality features nance) of windows.
are not the only factors that
need to be considered. Visu- Recommended
al comfort and the visual am- reflectance in offices: 100
bience of a room depend on
ceiling 0.7 to 0.9
an adequate supply of day- 2
light, the design and colour walls 0.5 to 0.8
scheme of the interior and floor 0.2 to 0.4
daylight-dependent control work surfaces,
of the quantity (lighting level) furniture,
and quality (light colour, uni- equipment 0.2 to 0.7
formity) of the lighting. (57)
The illuminance values rec-
Fault-free, and fatigue-free ommended for various visual
performance of a visual task tasks are shown in the table
is crucially dependent on on pages 36/37. The values
lighting level, which in turn stated are the minimum phys- 1 2
is defined by illuminance iological requirements for a 30 100 300 1000 3000 10000
(expressed in lux/lx). The Illuminance (lx)
measure of visual satisfac-
higher the lighting level, the tion. Higher values are fre- 58
better the visual performance, quently preferred, however, Subjective appraisal of what constitutes a “good” lighting level
i.e. the faster and more ac- especially by older people, for reading at an office workplace:
1 Half of respondents happy with illuminance values of 500 lx
curately we register visual in- because the average 60-year- or more
formation. The kind of illumi- old needs around “twice as 2 A majority prefer illuminance values between 1000 and
nance levels found outdoors much light” as a 20-year-old. 3000 lx
– where values range from Higher values are also found
10,000 lux on a cloudy day to useful during the darker
over 100,000 lux in bright months of the year, when
sunshine – cannot be realised they help maintain concen-
+ 90°
in a room. Studies show, tration and motivation.
however, that around 50%
of respondents reckon that Illuminance must never fall
500 lx illuminance is a good below the recommended val-
lighting level for reading. Hav- ues. These are service val-
ing said that, the other 50% ues, designed to take ac- – 90°
find it too low. (58) count of the fact that with
increasing length of service,
For accurate identification of illuminance decreases as Ev
faces and other vertical sur- lamps and luminaires age and
faces and objects in a room, become soiled and the re-
the relevant yardstick is cy- flectance of surfaces in the
lindrical illuminance. (59) room declines. (60)
Cylindrical illuminance is the mean vertical illuminance on the
surface of a cylinder

To compensate for this de- DIN 4543 defines a “desk”
crease, new lighting systems task area as a work surface
need to be designed for high- (desktop) plus a user area,
New value er illuminance (new value). the two together measuring
The decrease is then taken at least 1600 mm x 1800
into consideration in planning mm. (63)
Mean illuminance E

Nominal value
by the application of a ser-
Service value vice factor: service factor x Cabinet and shelving system
assuming 3-year
cleaning interval new value = service value. task areas extend from
System value 0.5 m to 2.0 m above floor
without service
The service factor depends level.
on the types of lamps and
luminaires used, exposure to Outside these task areas,
0 dust and soiling in the room, a lower lighting level is per-
Startup ➞ Period of service service method and service mitted because the sur-
intervals. In most cases, not rounding space is not used
enough is known at the light- for the performance of de-
60 ing design stage about the manding visual tasks.
New value, nominal value and service value are local mean values factors that will define the
at different points in a lighting system’s life rate of decrease in illumin- The following table shows the
ance, so a service factor of illuminance values required for
0.67 is applied for clean task and surrounding areas
room conditions and 0.50 for and the minimum uniformity
dirty room conditions (e.g. of illuminance expressed as
rooms for smokers), assum- the quotient of minimum and
ing a three-year service inter- mean values:
val and the use of modern
lamps, electrical components Task Surrounding
and luminaires. area area

The illuminance values rec- ≥ 750 lx 500 lx

ommended apply to the task 500 lx 300 lx
area in which the visual task 300 lx 200 lx
is performed. The task area up to 200 lx up to 200 lx
can be a horizontal (e.g. m m
table), a vertical (e.g. map) E min / E E min / E
or an inclined surface (e.g. min. 0.7 min. 0.5
drawing table). Task areas
typically found in an office are
desks, conference tables/
areas, the vertical surfaces of
61 cabinets and shelving sys-
Horizontal task areas in an office: tems, and stations for office
“VDU work” (green), “conference” (red) and “surrounding area” machinery such as copiers
Illuminance value reference height: 0.75 m above floor level and fax machines. (61, 62)

62 63
Vertical task areas in an office: Areas defined by DIN 4543:
e.g. “cabinet and shelving system surfaces” (blue) The VDU task area (green) consists of a work surface
Illuminance value reference height: starting at 0.5 m rising to 2 m (white desktop) and a user area (red).
above floor level, width according to objects

Lighting technology

Part 1 | 2 | 3

lare is one of the glare. Glare is then rated by

G most discomforting of
all visual problems. An
unshielded general-diffuse
reference to the formula-
based UGR tables provided
by lighting manufacturers.
γ = 45°

γ = 85° Quality class for nominal illuminance (lx)

lamp or the bright reflection of (65) A 1000 750 500 < 300
a window on a VDU screen 1
2000 1500 1000 750 500 < 300
2000 1000 500 < 300
places considerable strain on 3 2000 1000 500 < 300

our eyes. Glare can have 85°

physiological consequences, 75°
A 6
e.g. impairment of visual acu- The two methods – the one 3
ity. A bright reflection on a set out in DIN 5035 and the γ 2 a
screen can obscure informa- one defined in DIN EN 12464 55°

tion and render it indecipher- – produce comparable re- 45° 1

able. In most cases, glare has sults. 8 103 2 3 4 5 6 8 104 2 3 4
at least a psychological im-
Luminance L in cd/m2
pact, causing fatigue and loss Reflected glare on shiny
of concentration. Visual per- horizontal surfaces (read-
formance suffers and we ing matter and paper for writ- 64
make mistakes. ing) is assessed by using the The currently used luminance limiting curve method defined in
contrast rendering factor DIN 5035 assesses the mean luminance of luminaires in a zone
of radiation from 45° to 85°.
A distinction is made bet- (CRF), which can be calcu- The new European standard sets UGR = 19 as a maximum per-
ween direct glare and reflect- lated by special software. For missible value for offices, which is equivalent to the luminance
ed glare. Direct glare occurs normal office work, a mean limiting curve for 500 lx in Quality Class 1.
where a very bright point of value of CRF = 0.7 is high
light, e.g. the lamp of a lumi- enough; only work involving
naire, is located in the visual high-gloss materials calls for a
field. Direct glare can be higher value. (66)
avoided by the use of appro-
priate luminaires and correct Reflected glare on VDU
positioning of luminaires and screens is the most com-
workplaces. mon cause of complaints. It is
effectively avoided where
Reflected glare occurs as a monitors are arranged in such
result of disturbing reflections a way that bright surfaces
on shiny or reflective surfaces. such as windows, luminaires
These surfaces can be VDU and bright walls cannot be
screens, items of furniture or reflected on screens. Where
glossy paper. So to avoid re- such an arrangement is not
flected glare, it is necessary to possible, the luminance of the
look at not only the type and surfaces reflected on screens
arrangement of luminaires in needs to be reduced. For lu-
the room but also the materi- minaires, DIN EN 12464 sets 65
als and finishes of the office out luminance limits (68), The UGR method takes account of all the luminaires in the
furniture and the positioning which depend on the type system which contribute to the glare sensation as well as the
brightness of walls and ceilings. It produces a UGR index.
of monitors. and anti-glare design of the
computer screen used and
Direct glare from luminaires apply to all emission angles
in the past was appraised by over 65° to the vertical all
the luminance limiting curve around the vertical axis. (67)
method described in DIN Contrast rendering factors CRF
5035. (64) and workplace requirements
Under the new European
standard for interior work- Grade Mean values Minimum value Application example
place lighting DIN EN 12464,
(psychological) glare is as- 1 over 1,0 0,95 Work involving predominantly
sessed by the unified glare glossy materials, e.g. in graphic
rating method (UGR), which is design offices
based on a formula for glare. 2 0,85 to 1,0 0,70 Work where glossy materials
It takes account of all the lu- are occasionally used, e.g. in
minaires in a system con- offices and schools
tributing to the sensation of
3 0,70 to 0,85 0,50 Tasks involving predominantly
matt materials

Recommended CRF values for different materials used in
office work

A positive (negative) display light – e.g. from indirect light-
shows dark (light) characters ing components – to direc-
on a light (dark) background. tional light – e.g. from lou-
For a person to be able to vered luminaires or down-
register screen information lights – produces agreeable
65° without disturbance, VDUs shadowing. The direction of
with a lower-grade anti-re- light is generally determined
flective system require a by the daylight entering the
greater reduction in luminaire room from a particular direc-
luminance than high-grade tion through the windows.
anti-reflective screens. The Artificial lighting is used to
table shows the maximum prevent the excessive model-
permissible mean luminance ling that can result, for exam-
of luminaires which could ple, in disturbing shadows
be reflected on a screen (in being cast ahead of our hand
accordance with DIN EN as we write.
12464). (68)
67 Where luminaires are arrang-
Depending on the class of VDU, the mean luminance of luminaires Without light, we cannot see ed parallel to a window wall,
which could be reflected on the screen needs to be limited to three-dimensional objects. the rear row of luminaires can
200 cd/m2 or 1000 cd/m2 above a threshold angle of radiation of
γ ≥ 65° (calculated at 15° intervals all around the vertical axis) to Without shadows, we see lighten any dark shadows that
avoid disturbing reflections. them only as two-dimension- might occur during the day.
al images. The parameters As daylight fades, the front
that define the depth and row of luminaires near the
body of an object are direc- windows can be partially or
mean luminance of
tion of light and modelling fully activated to replace the
VDUs luminaires and surfaces – because light and shadow natural lighting.
which reflect on screens play a vital role in enabling us
to make out shapes, surfaces
and structures. A bright room
Positive display VDUs
with only diffuse non-model-
ling light makes a monoto-
≤ 1000 cd/m2
nous impression; the lack of
visual guidance and the diffi-
Negative display VDUs with
high-grade anti-reflective system
culty in identifying objects and
Evidence of test certificate required gauging distances cause dis-

Negative display VDUs with lower-grade

≤ 200 cd/m2
Direction of light and model-
anti-reflective system ling help define visual ambi-
ence. A good ratio of diffuse
Classification of VDUs on the basis of anti-reflective systems and
type of display. The cd/m2 values indicate the maximum permis-
sible mean luminance of luminaires which could be reflected on
the screen (in accordance with DIN EN 12464)

Unfavourable light dis-

tribution with disturbing
shadows obscuring what
has been “written”.
The lower graphic shows
the correct incidence of
light and shadowing for a
right-handed person: the
light falls on the desk from
top left and the hand does
not cast a shadow over
the writing area.

Disturbing reflection of
luminaires on a screen
and negative impact of
reflected glare on the
legibility of glossy docu-
ments. Both need to
be avoided by careful
positioning of luminaires
or by limiting luminance.
69 70 33
Lighting technology

Part 1 | 2 | 3

he light colour of a same colour as the light

T lamp is described in
terms of the colour
temperature Tf and units
source being measured is the
most similar colour temper-
ature of that light source.
Kelvin (K).
The Kelvin temperature scale Lamps with the same light
begins at absolute zero colour can emit light of com-
(0 Kelvin ≈ –273 °C) pletely different spectral com-
The colour temperature of a position and therefore quite
light source is defined by different colour rendering
comparison with the colour properties. It is not possible to
of a “black-body radiator”. A draw conclusions about the Light colour dw daylight white 72 Light colour nw neutral white 73
“black-body radiator” is an quality of colour rendering
“idealised” solid body – e.g. from the light colour.
made of platinum – which ab-
sorbs all light hitting it and The light colour of lamps:
therefore has a reflective ra-
Colour tempe-
diance of zero.
Light colour rature in Kelvin
When a “black body” is heat- warm white < 3300
ed slowly, it passes through neutral white 3300 – 5000
gradations of colour from daylight white > 5000
dark red, red, orange, yellow
and white to blue light. The Light colour ww warm white 74 Light colour incandescent lamp 75
higher the temperature, the Fluorescent lamps have a In contrast, the incandes-
whiter the colour. The tem- line or band spectrum. cent lamp exhibits a con-
Shown here as examples are tinuous spectrum.
perature in K of a “black body the spectra of fluorescent
radiator” at which it has the lamps in each of the three
groups dw, nw and ww.







71 76
The International Commission (which represents the spectral Despite identical light colour, the different colour rendering
on Illumination CIE has devised colours of sunlight) lie the properties of lamps lead to variations in colour perception.
a triangle in which the colours colours of the same hue but Where, for instance, the spectrum of a lamp contains only a
of light sources and surface differing degrees of saturation. little red light (right), red surface colours are only imperfectly
colours can be classified. The saturation increases to- rendered.
Achromatic light, i.e. white, wards the limiting curve. The
grey or black, is found at x = y colour triangle contains all real
= 0.333, depending on bright- colours. The curve describes
ness. All the other colours lie the colours of the “black-body
around this point. Along the radiator” for the temperatures
straight line from the achromat- given (in Kelvin).
ic position to the limiting curve

Colours have a significant Lamps are divided for con-
bearing on the way we ex- venience into colour rendering
perience our surroundings. categories. Most lamps have
Whether a room has a warm a colour rendering index of
or cold atmosphere is deter- over 80 and thus render
mined by the materials in it colours well enough for us to
and their colours. The way perceive them as natural. In-
the colours of objects are candescent lamps, tungsten-
perceived, however, depends halogen lamps, certain metal
also on the colour render- halide lamps and a number of
ing properties of the lighting. fluorescent lamps have a
colour rendering index of over
The colour rendering index 90, which means they render
Ra indicates how well colours all colours very accurately.
are rendered by lamps.
Where lamps have a high in-
dex of 90 or more, all colours
are rendered very accurately;
where the index is lower, the
colours we perceive are
corrupted. Reds then look
orange, greens appear yel-
Owing to stored “visual standards”, skin
colour is perceived as natural even where
colour rendering departs from the daylight
norm. Colour rendering needs to be good.

78 79
Artificial lighting using lamps with very
good colour rendering (colour rendering
index Ra > 90) reproduces all surface
colours accurately.

80 35
Minimum lighting

Minimum lighting requirements

recommended by E DIN 5035-7

Type of Lighting concept Horizontal Cylin- Vertical UGR L Ra Remarks

interior and visual task illumin- drical illumin-
ance illumin- ance

 h,m
E  z,m
E  v,m
lx lx lx

Offices and Room-related lighting 500 175

similar rooms – throughout the room, 19 80  h,m: g1= 0.6
E  z,m: g1= 0.5
less a 0.5 m fringe
– cabinet and shelving system surfaces 175 19 80 g1= 0.5

Task area lighting 500 175

– VDU work 500 175 19 80  h,m: g1= 0.6
E  z,m: g1= 0.5
– conference 19 80  h,m: g1= 0.6
E  z,m: g1= 0.5
– cabinet and shelving system surfaces 300 175 19 80 g1= 0.5
– surrounding area 19 80 g1= 0.5

Work surface lighting 750

– work surface 600 x 600 mm 500 175 19 80 g1= 0.7
– task area VDU work 19 80  h min ≥ 300 lx
E  z,m: g1= 0.5
incl. work surface 500 175
– conference 19 80  h,m: g1= 0.6
E  z,m: g1= 0.5
– cabinet and shelving system surfaces 300 100 175 19 80 g1= 0.5
– surrounding area 19 80  h,m: g1= 0.5
E  z,m: g1= 0.5

Individual VDU Task area lighting 500

workplaces – VDU work g1= 0.6

Work surface lighting 750

– work surface 600 x 600 mm 500 g1= 0.7
– task area VDU work  h min ≥ 300 lx
incl. work surface

Room-related lighting Task area lighting

81 82
Room-related lighting
Uniform lighting throughout the room creating roughly the same visual con-
ditions at all points. This is recommended where the arrangement of task
areas is unknown during the planning phase or where the arrangement of
task areas needs to be flexible.

Task area lighting

Different lighting for task areas and the space around them. This is recom-
mended where a room contains several task areas which are used to address
different visual tasks and thus have different lighting requirements. It is also
an option where visual divisions are needed to identify different workplace

Work surface lighting

Workplace luminaires can be used to supplement “basic lighting” – which can
be either room-related or task area lighting – to achieve a level of lighting fine-
ly tuned to the requirements of the visual task or personal needs. DIN 5035-8
sets out requirements and recommendations for workplace luminaires.

Work surface lighting

36 83
Minimum lighting requirements
recommended by DIN EN 12464

Type of Illuminance on UGR L Ra Remarks

visual task visual task plane


Office work filing, copying 300 19 80

communication zones in work rooms 300 19 80
writing, typewriting 500 19 80
reading, data processing 500 19 80
CAD workplaces 500 19 80
conference and meeting rooms 500 19 80 lighting adjustable
reception desk 300 22 80
archives 200 25 80

Public areas, entrance halls 100 22 80 UGR L only where applicable

service halls cloakrooms 200 25 80
waiting rooms 200 22 80
cashdesks and service points 300 22 80

Conventional drafting rooms 500 19 80

design and art school drawing rooms 750 19 90 colour temperature ≥ 5000 K
drafting offices rooms for technical drawing 750 16 80

Ancillary rooms transport and communication routes

– not for persons 20 – 40
– for persons 100 28 40
– for persons and vehicles 150 28 40
staircases, escalators, moving walkways 150 25 40
canteens 200 22 80
counter 300 22 80
rest rooms 100 22 80
physical exercise rooms 300 22 80
tearooms 200 22 80
kitchen 500 22 80
changing rooms, washrooms and toilets 200 25 80
first aid rooms 500 19 80 colour temperature ≥ 4000 K
medical service rooms 500 16 90
building service management rooms, control rooms 200 25 60
telex and mail rooms, telephone exchange workplaces 500 19 80 200 lx, where permanently manned
storage rooms and warehouse facilities 100 25 60
despatch and packaging areas 300 25 60

Outdoor facilities Gates 50 g1 = 0.5

works roads 10 g1 = 0.4
with max 30 km/h speed limit
pathways 5 g2 ≥ 0.08
cycle paths E min ≥ 3 g2 ≥ 0.3
car-parks with low traffic load 7 g1 = 0.2
garages without daylight
– transport routes 75 25 20
– parking spaces 75 – 20
– vehicle entrances and exits at night 75 25 20
– vehicle entrances and exits during the day 300 25 20
– ticket windows 300 19 80

Notes on the tables  v,m

E is the service value of vertical illuminance on cabinet and shelving system
walls which is needed for the performance of visual tasks, e.g. reading file
 h,m
E is the service value of illuminance at the visual task, which is generally on a and book spines.
horizontal plane and, in the case of desks, 0.75 m above floor level. In the
case of communication routes, this assessment value is max. 0.2 m above g1; g2  m; g2 = E min / E max
uniformity of illuminance: g1 = E min / E
floor level.
UGR L limiting glare index according to the unified glare rating system
 z,m
E is the service value of cylindrical illuminance 1.2 m above floor level. It defines
how well we identify three-dimensional objects such as figures, faces, etc., Ra general colour rendering index
and is particularly important for visual communication.

No. Lamp type

elow are the most im- nous flux remains constant

Linear three-band fluorescent lamps
portant types of lamp throughout the life of the lamp 1 T5; 16 mm dia. – high luminous efficacy 1)
for office applications. (no bulb blackening).
2 T5; 16 mm dia. – high luminous flux 1)
1, 2, 3 14, 15 3 T5; 26 mm dia.
Linear three-band Low-voltage halogen
Compact fluorescent lamps
fluorescent lamps lamps
26 mm (T8) and 16 mm (T5) To operate these lamps, a 4 2-, 4-, 6-tube lamp
dia. three-band fluorescent transformer is needed to re- 5 2-tube lamp
lamps have a high luminous duce the voltage to 12 V. 6 4-tube lamp
efficacy, good colour render- Low-voltage halogen lamps
ing properties and a long ser- have a UV shield, which elim- 7 2D lamp
vice life. They are available in inates undesirable UV rays Energy-saving lamps
the light colours warm white from the light they radiate.
8 Miniature
(ww), neutral white (nw) and
daylight white (dw). Operated 16, 17 9 Candle
by electronic ballasts (EBs), Metal halide lamps 10 Incandescent-shape
they achieve an even higher These lamps are noted for
luminous efficacy and longer their high luminous efficacy 230 V halogen lamps
service life. T5 lamps are de- and excellent colour rendering 11 with jacket
signed for EB operation only. properties. Because of the 12 with reflector
Dimming control of three- small dimensions of their
band fluorescent luminaires burner, they make particular- 13 with base at both ends
is possible with appropriate ly good sources of direction- Low voltage 12 V halogen lamps
EBs. al light. The ceramic burner
14 pin-based lamps
produces light of a constant
4, 5, 6, 7 colour throughout its service 15 with reflector
Compact fluorescent life. An inductive ballast and
Metal halide lamps
lamps starter or EB are needed to
Compact fluorescent lamps operate metal halide lamps. 16 with base at one end
generate light in the same 17 with base at both ends
way as linear fluorescent 18
lamps. They have thin inter- Light-emitting diodes Light emitting diodes
connected fluorescent tubes (LEDs) 18 LEDs on flexible printed-circuit board
positioned side by side and LEDs have a very long ser- 1) for EB operation only 2) luminous flux at 25°C
require a ballast and starter vice life, so they rarely need to
for operation. Starters are be replaced. They are ex-
generally integrated in the tremely small, very powerful 1 2 3 4 5
lamps. Dimming and starter- considering the voltage and
less operation are possible currents they operate on,
with EBs, which also make have a high resistance to im-
for higher luminous efficacy pact and emit neither IR nor
and longer service life. UV radiation. They are de-
signed for 24 Volt d.c. opera-
8, 9, 10 tion. LEDs are available in
Energy-saving lamps many colours, e.g. blue,
Energy-saving lamps are green, yellow and red. The
compact fluorescent lamps special fluorescent coating in
with an integrated electronic blue LEDs produces daylight
ballast. They have either a white light (6,000 K) with
screw base (E14/E27) or a good colour rendering prop-
bayonet base (GX53). Ener- erties (Ra = 80). Important
gy-saving lamps consume lighting applications for LEDs
80% less power and have a are orientation and decora-
considerably longer life than tive lighting.
incandescent lamps with the The illustration on the right
same power rating. shows LEDs on a flexible
printed-circuit board.
11, 12, 13
230 V halogen lamps
These lamps are designed for
direct line operation. They
produce an agreeable, fresh 11 11
white light and lend them-
selves readily to dimming.
Halogen lamps have a longer
life than incandescent lamps
and generate more light from
the same power. Thanks to
the halogen process, lumi-

Power rating Luminous flux Luminous Light colour Ra Base
W lm efficacy

14 – 35 1200 – 3300 2) 86 – 94 ww, nw, dw 80 < 90 G5

24 – 80 1750 – 6150 2) 73 – 77 ww, nw, dw 80 < 90 G5
18 – 58 1350 – 5200 75 – 90 3) ww, nw, dw 80 < 90 G13

5 – 57 250 – 4300 50 – 75 ww, nw 80 < 90 GX24, G23/24, 2G7

18 – 80 1200 – 6000 67 – 75 ww, nw, dw 80 < 90 2G11
18 – 36 1100 – 2800 61 – 78 ww, nw 80 < 90 2G10
10 – 55 650 – 3900 65 – 71 ww, nw, dw 80 < 90 GR8, GR10q, GRY10q-3

7 220 31 ww, nw 80 < 90 GX53

5 – 12 150 – 600 30 – 50 ww 80 < 90 E14
5 – 23 150 – 1350 30 – 59 ww 80 < 90 E27

25 – 250 260 – 4300 10 – 17 ww ≥ 90 E14, E27

40 – 100 – – ww ≥ 90 E14, E27, GZ10, GU10
60 – 2000 840 – 44000 14 – 22 ww ≥ 90 R7s

5 – 100 60 – 2200 12 – 22 ww ≥ 90 G4, GY6,35,

20 – 50 – – ww ≥ 90 GU5,3

35 – 150 3300 – 14000 85 – 95 ww, nw 80 < 90, ≥ 90 G12, G8,5

70 – 400 6500 – 14000 90 ww,nw 80 < 90, ≥ 90 RX7s, Fc2

0,7 – 1,5 18 – 27 13 – 23 – – special

3) luminous efficacy increases to 81 – 100 lm/W with EB operation

6 7 8 9 10

14 14 14 15

12 12 13 16 17

18 39

Part 1 | 2

ifferent types of lumi- 1 Recessed luminaire

D naire are needed for

office lighting, their se-
lection depending on the
with prismatic diffuser 1

nature of the building, the

kind of visual activity per-
formed, room dimensions, 2 Recessed luminaire
daylight incidence and interi- with specular louvers
or decoration and furnishings.
Together, as individual ele-
ments or as lighting groups,
they form the building's light-
ing systems – developed in 3 Recessed wallwasher
consultation with all the dif-
ferent specialists involved in
office design. The range of
lighting tools available spans
surface-mounted, recessed,
pendant, wall, desktop, table
and standard luminaires as
well as spots in a wide variety
of power ratings and designs.

From this range of available

luminaires, selection can be 4 Square recessed louvered
based on lighting, electrical luminaire 4
and design characteristics.

Lighting characteristics

Information on the lighting 5 Surface-mounted luminaire

characteristics of a luminaire with specular louvers
is provided by its intensity dis-
tribution curve (IDC). This
shows the pattern of illumi-
nance the luminaire creates
and is used for assessing 6 Square surface-mounted
glare. louvered luminaire

Another important lighting cri-

terion for luminaires is light
output ratio, which indicates
the proportion of lamp lumi-
nous flux available in the
room. The higher the ratio,
the greater the efficiency and
economy with which the lu-
minaire harnesses the lumi-
nous flux of its lamps. 7 Pendant luminaire with
specular louvers for 7
direct/indirect lighting
The decision for or against a
luminaire for a particular ap-
plication can also be swayed
by the standard of glare limi-
tation the luminaire achieves. 8 Pendant luminaire with
optical control panels for
direct/indirect lighting
Glare limitation means effec-
tive shielding of lamps at crit-
ical angles, which significant-
ly enhances the quality of
lighting. 9 Tubetrack system with
three-phase power track
and spots

2 3

5 6

8 9


Part 1 | 2

Electrical characteristics 10 Surface-mounted reflector

luminaires 10
The electrical characteristics
of a luminaire depend, in part,
on the kind of electrical com-
ponents it features for safe,
fault-free lamp operation. 11 Recessed downlight
With fluorescent lamps, for
example, greater energy ef-
ficiency – i.e. lower system
power consumption – can be
achieved by the use of elec-
tronic ballasts (EBs). EBs also 12 Surface-mounted downlight
double as starters and p.f.
correction capacitors and dis-
continue starting attempts if
the lamp is defective.
To meet lighting safety re-
quirements, luminaires and
integrated electrical control
gear must comply with IEC
598 regulations and display
the ENEC symbol.

Design characteristics 13 Standard luminaires for

indirect or direct/indirect 13
Design characteristics are al-
so, of course, an important
factor to consider when
choosing luminaires. The na-
ture of the ceilings in a build- 14 Workplace or desktop
ing, for example, may pre- luminaires
scribe or preclude the use of
surface-mounted, recessed
or pendant luminaires. As-
sembly and maintenance are
another significant aspect, 15 Wall luminaires
and a touchstone of luminaire
construction. Well-designed
assembly aids or practical in-
stallation accessories can
simplify considerably the task
of installing luminaires.

The appearance of a lumi-

naire – i.e. shape of housing,
finishes and colours – greatly
affects the visual impact of
an interior and, along with re- 16 Decorative recessed spots
liability, economy and stability 16
of value, is becoming an in-
creasingly important criterion
for luminaire selection.
17 Recessed floor and
wall luminaires

18 Escape sign luminaire

11 12

14 15

17 18

Lighting management

ight has an emotional flicker-free lighting and lower

L impact. The right light

at the right place in the
right quantity stimulates and
maintenance costs due to
longer intervals between re-
fosters a sense of well-being.
In office and administrative Daylight- and presence-de-
buildings in particular, light- pendent lighting control sys-
ing management plays a cen- tems make for significant en-
tral role, providing the regula- ergy savings in many parts
tion needed to produce light of office and administrative
that activates, motivates and buildings. In most corridors
helps maintain contentment and stairwells, and in many
and concentration. It also en- offices as well, lighting is
sures the optimal visual com- switched on in the morning
fort and maximum visual per- and off in evening regardless
formance that most activities of fluctuations in daylight in-
require for effective work, es- cidence or the fact that the
pecially at VDU workplaces. corridor or office might not 84
be used for several hours. Lighting regulation and control today are a task for
Aside from that, lighting man- computers. Special hardware and software permit full
lighting management and economical use of artificial
agement means generating Lighting in individual rooms lighting.
dynamic lighting for differen- or small building units can be
tiated lighting landscapes. simply, flexibly and conve-
One important function it per- niently regulated by DALI
forms is to adjust lighting lev- components. DALI (Digital
els in line with fluctuations in Addressable Lighting Inter-
daylight, another is to avoid face) is a digital interface for
the uniform lighting levels that electronic ballasts (EBs) op-
lead to visual fatigue. So the erating discharge lamps.
objective of good lighting
management is to achieve a DALI is an independent sys-
dynamic combination of day- tem which controls all the
light and artificial lighting lighting system components
which harnesses the stimu- in a room and also offers the
lating differences and inter- possibility of exchanging in-
action between the two. formation though a gateway
with a higher-level building
With more and more areas services management sys-
of office and administrative tem. This permits central
buildings performing not just switching and scanning, e.g.
a productive but also a rep- for defective lamps.
resentative function, lighting
management is also needed The working group AG DALI,
to help cast rooms in the right which operates under the
light. Pre-programmed or wing of the German electri-
variable lighting scenes de- cal and electronics associa-
fine mood and direct atten- tion Zentralverband Elek-
tion, picking out focal points trotechnik- und Elektronikin-
and creating the right visual dustrie e.V. (ZVEI), numbers
ambience. For seminars and Europe’s leading electronic
conferences involving multi- lighting component manu-
media presentations in par- facturers among its members.
ticular, effective and individ- The ZVEI also provides infor-
ual lighting management is mation on the subject of light-
an essential element of interi- ing management and DALI.
or design.

Another important aspect is

economy. Lighting manage-
ment systems save as much
as 60% of the energy costs
of operating artificial lighting;
electronic ballasts make for
not only significantly higher
luminous efficacy but also
short lamp starting times for 85
Daylight is still the best form of lighting around. Intelli-
gent computerised lighting systems use artificial light-
ing as a daylight supplement.

86 87 88
In the morning, incident daylight is generally At mid-day, the room is illuminated by In the evening, the artificial lighting takes over.
enough for tasks performed at a desk. The bright daylight. Both rows of luminaires are The two rows of luminaires are equally bright
row of luminaires near the window is dim- deactivated. On a cloudy day, the sensor- and ensure a harmonious distribution of bright-
med down, the row behind it illuminates the controlled rows of luminaires maintain the ness throughout the room. As soon as the
entrance area and makes for a uniform dis- illuminance throughout the room at an room is vacated, presence detectors reduce
tribution of brightness in the room. agreeably high level. the illuminance or deactivate the lighting.

In rooms which need to cater to various sets of lighting require- grammed lighting scenes to be fine-tuned to requirements and
ments, such as conference rooms or lecture halls, regulation and stored for re-use at any time. For lectures and receptions, confer-
control of the different types of lighting required are facilitated by ences and video presentations, the best possible room lighting is
computerised lighting management systems. These permit pro- thus available at the push of a button.

Lighting management

ighting is an important

L cost factor in the con-

struction and operation
of an office and administrative
building. However, artificial
lighting accounts for only
1– 2% of the investment
costs of equipping and fur-
nishing a workplace. The
building, furniture and com-
puter equipment costs are a
great deal higher. 80% of the In lecture halls, lighting man-
total bill relates to personnel agement systems enable the
expenses, 16% to operating right lighting situation for the
expenses and 4% to con- occasion to be selected at any
time. For service operations, for
struction expenses. Lighting example, computerised control
can account for as much as a allows the level of brightness in
third of operating costs. the room to be reduced to the
minimum required for the task.
So it is all the more impor- For lectures, certain spots and
specific parts of the accent
tant that employees should lighting system can be activat-
work efficiently. Good light- ed alone at the push of a but-
ing is not only important for ton.
visibility at desks and in the 90
room: it also plays a key role
in fostering a sense of well-
being and thus enhancing
staff performance. According
to a study, 57% of employees
find their office lighting a
source of disturbance. After
dry air and noise, poor light-
ing is the third most frequent
With modern, power-saving
Two cost factors need to be fluorescent lamps, daylight
considered when selecting a domes at night can be turned
lighting system for a new or into luminous ceilings. Only a
refurbished building: capital few luminaires are needed to
provide bright agreeable room
costs (i.e. the cost of acqui- lighting and create an inviting
sition and assembly) and op- atmosphere. The lighting man-
erating costs (electricity, re- agement system regulates the
placement lamps, mainte- artificial lighting and produces
nance). An efficient modern light similar to daylight, even
of a similar light colour, if re-
lighting system reduces an- quired. Options range from
nual operating costs and daylight white through neutral
pays for itself within the space white to warm white.
of a few years, even where 91
acquisition costs are relative-
ly high.

New lamp and luminaire tech-

nologies permit more eco-
nomical lighting system op-
eration and a better quality
of lighting than even a few
years ago. Newly developed
lamps, such as T5 fluores-
cent lamps and compact flu-
orescent lamps, make for
higher luminous efficacy. Elec- Lots of glass in façades consid-
tronic ballasts reduce inter- erably reduces the need for arti-
nal losses and offer flicker- ficial lighting during the day and
gives the building a more open,
free lighting and better lamp more inviting appearance at
starting performance. New night. Illuminated architectural
reflector materials and de- elements or entrance zones
signs heighten the light out- bring the image to life and
put ratio and degree of glare guide the visitor into the build-
ing. Powerful modern flood-
suppression of luminaires. lights with metal halide lamps
permit economical dramatic
46 92
Literature, standards

and LiTG publications/
acknowledgements for photographs

60591 Frankfurt am Main


Postfach 70 12 61
Literature, standards and LiTG publications
The texts for the sections “Office design” (pages 4 and 5) and
“Features” (pages 9 to 23) of this booklet are based on:
Lorentz, D: “Büro nach Maß, aktuelle Büroformen im Vergleich” (The

Gutes Licht
customised office – A comparison of contemporary office types), in
Knirsch, J.: “Büroräume . Bürohäuser” (Offices · Office buildings),

published by Verlagsanstalt Alexander Koch, Leinfelden-Echterdingen,

2nd enlarged and updated edition 2002; pp 58 – 70.

FGL Information on Lighting Applications

For more information on issues addressed in Booklet 4,
see booklets 1, 3, 10, 12 and 16

Publication 12.2: 1996 “Messung und Beurteilung von Lichtimmissio-
nen künstlicher Lichtquellen” (Measurement and assessment of light
immissions from artificial light sources)
Publication 13: 1991 “Der Kontrastwiedergabefaktor CEF – ein Güte-
merkmal der Innenraumbeleuchtung” (Contrast rendering factor CRF –
an interior lighting quality factor)
Publication 16: 1998 “Energiesparlampen – ein Kompendium zu
Kompaktleuchtstofflampen mit integrierten Vorschaltgeräten” (Energy-
saving lamps – a compendium of compact fluorescent lamps with
integrated ballasts)
Publication 18: 1999 “Verfahren zur Berechnung von horizontalen Be-
leuchtungsstärken in Innenräumen” (Methods for calculating horizontal

Name, Company, Office

illuminance in interiors)

Address or P.O. Box

Publication ##: “Das UGR-Verfahren zur Bewertung der Direktblen-

City, Postal Code

dung der künstlichen Beleuchtung in Innenräumen” (The UGR method
of assessing direct glare from artificial lighting in interiors) (in preparation)

3/03/00/4 IVE

DALI-Handbuch (DALI manual), Fachverband Elektroleuchten im ZVEI,


VBG BGI 650 Bildschirm- und Büroarbeitsplätze (VDU and office

VBG BGI 827 Sonnenschutz im Büro (Sunscreening in offices)
Please tick booklet(s) required. Prices given include postage. (G = available only in German; P = available only as pdf file, download at www.licht.de):

VBG BGI 856 Beleuchtung im Büro (Office lighting)

DIN EN 12464-1 Light and lighting – Lighting of work places – Part 1:

Indoor work places (due for publication mid-2003)
DIN 5035 Artificial lighting. Some of the contents of Parts 1, 2, 3 and 4

of DIN 5035 are superseded by DIN EN 12464, others remain

operative. Part 5 has been replaced by DIN EN 1838.
DIN 5035-6 Measurement and evaluation

free of charge

E DIN 5035-7 Lighting for rooms with VDU work stations or VDU-
R 9,–
R 9,–
R 9,–

R 9,–

R 9,–

R 9,–
R 9,–
R 9,–
R 9,–

R 9,–


assisted workplaces
DIN 5035-8 Special requirements for the lighting of single work-places
in offices and similar rooms
DIN 4543-1 Office work place, Part 1 Space for the arrangement and
use of office furniture ; safety requirements, testing
DIN EN ISO 9241-6 Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual
display terminals (VDTs). Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
DIN EN 1838 Emergency lighting


DIN 5044 Permanent traffic lighting


ASR 7/3 Workplace guideline on “Lighting”

02 Good Lighting for Schools and Educational Establishments(1/94)*
03 Good Lighting for Safety on Roads, Paths and Squares (3/00)

1 2 Economical Lighting Comfort with Lighting Electronics (8/96)*

06 Good Lighting for Sales Premises and Shop Windows (2/02)

Acknowledgements for photographs

04 Good Lighting for Offices and Office Buildings (1/03)

Top left and bottom left: König+Neurath, 61184 Karben;

11 Good Lighting for Hotels and Restaurants (4/00)
07 Good Lighting for Health Care Premises (7/94)*

1 0 Notbeleuchtung, Sicherheitsbeleuchtung (4/00)

right: Steelcase-Werndl, 83026 Rosenheim

05 Good Lighting for Trade and Industry (4/99)

1 5 Gutes Licht am Haus und im Garten (9/94)

4, 9, 13, 15, 20, 25, 28, 34, 37, 43, 49 and middle of back cover
1 4 Ideen für Gutes Licht zum Wohnen (9/99)
08 Good Lighting for Sports Facilities (9/01)

Image Source AG, 50939 Köln

Please fill in address on back of postcard.

22, 40, 78, 79

0 1 Lighting with Artificial Light (5/00)

Kress & Adams, Atelier für Lichtplanung, 50735 Köln

1 6 Urban image lighting (4/02)
Order form

Valentin Wormbs, 70180 Stuttgart

* New edition in preparation
09 Prestige Lighting (8/97)

All other photos, 3D visualisations and graphics

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht (FGL)
1 3 – out of print –
Booklet No./Title

For documentary assistance with the work for this booklet, we wish to thank:
plus+bauplanung GmbH, Hübner-Forster-Hübner Freie Architekten, 72654

Neckartenzlingen and Electric Exclusiv, 50667 Köln

the booklets in this series are

pdf format, while Booklets 4,

The titles and numbers of all

given on the opposite page.

All the German booklets are

contain references to current

pdf files for downloading at
provide information on good
published by Fördergemein-

with Booklets 3, 4, 6, 8 and

published in both print and

version of Booklet 3 is also
16 additionally available as

Beuth-Verlag, 10787 Berlin,

available as print versions,

6, 8 and 16 are available in

English for download only.
schaft Gutes Licht (FGL) to

www.licht.de. The English

phone ++49 (0)69 63 02-0

This booklet is No. 4 in the

VDE-Verlag, 10625 Berlin,

The booklets in this series
fax ++49 (0)69 63 02-317
60596 Frankfurt am Main
lighting with artificial light.

DIN standards and VDE

Lighting Applications
series Information on

DIN-VDE standards:


With the permission

Stresemannallee 19

e-mail fgl@zvei.org


westermann druck
Gutes Licht (FGL)

of the publishers.
3-926 193-20-04
Donner & Nagel

DIN standards:

3/03/00/4 IVE
JARO Medien

Gutes Licht


Technical consultant:

3D visualisations:
Overall design:

Printed by:

Lith film:

Order form
Please tick booklet(s) required. Prices given include postage. (G = available only in German; P = available only as pdf file, download at www.licht.de):
Booklet No./Title Qty From Postcard Postage
0 1 Lighting with Artificial Light (5/00) R 9,–
02 Good Lighting for Schools and Educational Establishments(1/94)* R 9,–
03 Good Lighting for Safety on Roads, Paths and Squares (3/00) R 9,– Name, Company, Office
04 Good Lighting for Offices and Office Buildings (1/03) P
05 Good Lighting for Trade and Industry (4/99) R 9,–
06 Good Lighting for Sales Premises and Shop Windows (2/02) P
07 Good Lighting for Health Care Premises (7/94)* R 9,– Department
08 Good Lighting for Sports Facilities (9/01) P
09 Prestige Lighting (8/97) R 9,–
1 0 Notbeleuchtung, Sicherheitsbeleuchtung (4/00) G R 9,–
11 Good Lighting for Hotels and Restaurants (4/00) R 9,–
Address or P.O. Box
1 2 Economical Lighting Comfort with Lighting Electronics (8/96)* R 9,– Fördergemeinschaft
1 3 – out of print – G – Gutes Licht
1 4 Ideen für Gutes Licht zum Wohnen (9/99) G R 9,–
1 5 Gutes Licht am Haus und im Garten (9/94) G –
City, Postal Code Postfach 70 12 61
1 6 Urban image lighting (4/02) P
Lichtforum free of charge 60591 Frankfurt am Main
* New edition in preparation
Place Date Signature/stamp
Please fill in address on back of postcard. 3/03/00/4 IVE
Information from Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht


F Gutes Licht (FGL)

provides information
on the advantages of good
Die Beleuchtung
mit künstlichem Licht 1 Gutes Licht für Schulen und
Bildungsstätten 2 Gutes Licht für Sicherheit auf
Straßen, Wegen und Plätzen 3 Gutes Licht für Büros
und Verwaltungsgebäude 4
lighting and offers exten-
sive material dealing with
every aspect of artificial
lighting and its correct us-
age. FGL information is im-
partial and based on cur-
rent DIN standards and
VDE stipulations.

Information on Lighting
The booklets 1 to 16 in this
series of publications are
designed to help anyone
Gutes Licht für
Handwerk und Industrie 5 Gutes Licht für Verkauf
und Präsentation 6 Gutes Licht
im Gesundheitswesen 7 Gutes Licht
für Sport und Freizeit 8
who becomes involved with
lighting – planners, deci-
sion-makers, investors – to
acquire a basic knowledge
of the subject. This facili-
tates cooperation with light-
ing and electrical special-
ists. The lighting informa-
tion contained in all these
booklets is of a general na-

Lichtforum Repräsentative
Lichtgestaltung 9 Notbeleuchtung
Sicherheitsbeleuchtung 10 Gutes Licht für Hotellerie
und Gastronomie 11 Wirtschaftlicher Lichtkomfort
mit Beleuchtungselektronik 12
Lichtforum is a specialist
periodical devoted to to-
pical lighting issues and
trends. It is published at
irregular intervals.

FGL is also on the Internet.
Its website
offers tips on correct light-
ing for a variety of domestic
and commercial “lighting Gutes Licht für kommunale
Bauten und Anlagen 13 Ideen für Gutes Licht
zum Wohnen 14 Gutes Licht
am Haus und im Garten 15 Stadtmarketing mit Licht 16
situations”. Explanations of
technical terms are avail-
able at a click of the
mouse. Product groups
which figure in the lighting
situations are linked to
a “product/manufacturer”
matrix, where they are fur-
ther linked to FGL mem-
bers. Other site features
include specimen pages
of FGL print publications,
hotlinks and a discussion

on Lighting Applications
Booklet 4

Good Lighting for Offices

and Office Buildings

Good Lighting for Offices

and Office Buildings 4

Subject to all regulations of European standard DIN EN 12464