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Session 1

1. Production and consumption


2. Renewable
3. Non renewable
4. Challenges

Energy Sources:
• Fossil fuels: Oil, coal, gas
• Nuclear
• Hydroelec, biomass, solar, wind, geothermal

Primary Energy: Already present in Nature without transformation


• Source renouwable: solare, eolica, hydro, Biomass, Geothermal
• Source exhaustible: combustible, ecc,
• Energia nucleare

Secondary Energy: After transformation, toujours plus petit que l’energie primare à cause des pertes
• Benzina, energia elettrica, idrogeno

Final Energy = Secondary Energy

Paesi OECD: Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico


• EU, USA, Australia
TPES: Total primary energy supply->Energia primaria che un paese ha a disposizione, incluso energia importata ed esportata

Dal 1971 al 2012 l’ASIA et la chine ont augmenté leur consumation d’energy primaire et secondaire
In proportion entre les Energie le Natural Gas vien consommé plus du double que dans le 1971.

World primary energy demand in the reference scenario : 1850-2030


2010-2030: La contribution to total energy growth plus importante sont renewable et gas
Lest trois plus important utilisé dans le ‘’world commercial’’ : Gas, Oil Coal
Energy: Sources-> Vecteur énergétique-> applications

Vecteur énergétique (energy carrier): méthode permettant de transporter de l’Energie d’un endroit à un autre
• Hydrogeno
• Electricité
• Chaleur
• Air comprimé (Enterprise)
• Huile minérale (machine)
• Liquide fuels
Coal
• Solid fossil fuel
• Utilisé in thermal power plant pour produire
électricité et chaleur
• Plus abondant combustible fossile
• Emission CO2
• 1200g/KWh -> le plus importante pour
l’effet de serre.
• China 45% et USA 11.6% producent de la
production totale.
• 80% utilisé dans l’industrie
Oil (Petroleum)
• Liquid fossil fuel
• 1/3 consume world Energy totale
• ~60 année
• Venezuela et Saudi Arabia : les plus grands détenteurs de pétrole bruit
Natural Gas
• Moine pollution d’aire mais explosive
• Oléoduc (pipeline) pour transport
• Beaucoup de production d’Energy
• Utilisé pour la plu partie électricité et
directement dans l’Industria
• Russie et Iran plus grands détenteurs

Nucléaire
• Utilisé pour électricité
• Coute de manutention très haute.
• Problèmes liés aux déchets
• USA 30%, France17%, (Japan 10.4% avant)
Russie6.5%-> plus grand producteur
Renewable resources

Intermittente il faut emmagasiner dans batterie

Water
• Plus utilisé d’Energie renouvelable
• À bonne marché (moment journée), no
pollution
• Les barrages sont négatives
• Baisse cout pour Kw/h
• Avantages ä Long terme
• On peut stocker
• China 248.9GW plus grande pays de
capacité d’eau

Wind

• No pollution
• Dépende de la location
• Vent il n’est pas prédictible
• Beaucoup des bruit

Solar

• Energy : Lumière et chaleur


• No pollution mais chère à construire
• 1.25% in Suisse
Biomasse
• Alcool fuel pour produire éthanol
• Peut-être Chère -> les coutes plus chère du pétrole-> baisse
efficience
• Quand il brule fait de la pollution
Geothermal
• Magma ->Eau chaud et vapeur -> électricité-> à bonne
marché, propre Energy
• Source illimité
• Pas beaucoup de lieu ou la croute terrestre est mince
pour faire d’extraction
• En suisse pour le moment n’est pas présent

Bottleneck of energy: Demande d’Energie augmente-> il faut remplacer le nucléaire-> donc on a une très grand déficit (300 GW) d’Energie
dans le future.
Problèmes : Effet de serre, Emission Co2, Température de la terre
Co2 concentration et Température climatique sont corrélé.
Key paramètres : à partir de 1900, population, consommation Energie et émission Co2 sont augmenté exponentielle.
Energy flows in Suisse : >50% fossil
Perspectives énergétiques en suisse 2050: S1,important changes 80Twh demande augmente toujours-> Sortie nucléaire, plus
importations, centrale à gas et thermique ; S2, Significant changes 73 Twh augment et diminue-> Sortie nucléaire, augmentation solaire,
éolienne biomasse , baisse gas, petit partie importation (plus grand partie renouvelable); S3 Fundamental changes 68 Twh diminuer la
demande-> Sortie nucléaire, beaucoup d’Energie dans le renouvelable, grand augmentation solaire, pas d’importations, exportation, petit peu
de gas.
Stratégie énergétiques 2050 suisse : -> Sortie nucléaire, -> promotion Energie renouvelable.> économiser Energie et augmenter
l’efficacité
Session 2
1. System Definition
2. Form of Energy
3. Heat, Work and Internal Energy

Scenario for future electricity supply Scenario 3


fundamental changes:

Thermodinac state-> specifié par T,p,V,n

Path function: Work (W), Heat (Q)


• Extensive (depend on n) and intensive
Point Function: They depend on the state only,
and not on how a system reaches that state.
• Tous les propriété (T,p,v,n) sont point function.
Energy is the capacity to produce work, i.e. to change the matter to overcome opposite forces.
L'energia è la capacità di produrre lavoro, cioè di cambiare la materia per superare le forze opposte.

Electromagnetic Energy
• Light Energy (xray, uvrays, gamma rays)
Nuclear Energy
• Fission and fusion
• Stored in nucleus of an atom
• Energy in form of light and heat
Mechanical Energy
• Potential + kinetic = mechanical
Electrical Energy
• Movement of electrons and transported trough
power lines
Chemical Energy
• Chemical reactions-> Energy
Thermal Energy
• Heat energy
• Activité des atoms (Hot-> atoms excited, cooler -> atoms less movement)
Sound Energy
• Movement molecules in air-> vibration
Magnetic Energy
• Attraction des object en fer

Heat and work are 2 entities describing energy transfer.


Heat Q [J]: energy exchanged via disordered motions
Work W [Watt]: energy exchanged via ordered motions

Internal Energy U
• total energy of all the atoms and molecules in a sample, quantity energy contained inside sys boundary
• Property related to the internal energy->enthalpy, H
• Volume V constant (dV = 0) -> energy interne U
• Pression P constant (dp = 0) -> enthalpy H

Q = 0 -> Adiabatic ; Internal energy change dU positiv Specific Heat (c) depends on:
dV = 0 -> Constant Volume V -> W = 0 • The substance in the system
dT = 0 -> Temperature constante ; dU = 0 • The state involved
• The particular state of the system at the time o
transferring heat
Session 3
1. Conservation of Energy
2. Phase and phase change
3. Conservation of mass
4. Energy analyses for différent devices

Matter is substance, and energy is the mover of


substance.

Enthalpy (H)
• Volume V const (isochore)-> Donne chaleur
Q -> dU = Q
• Volume V NO const (isochore)->Sys donne
une partie de ca energie interne U à env. -> dU <
Q.
• Pression P const. (isobaric) -> Chaleur importé =
changement de enthalpie -> Q = dH

Exothermic (burn fossil) -> release Heat, dH < 0; ->


constant pressure
Endothermic (photosynthesis) -> absorb Heat, dH > 0 ; -
> constant pressure

The first Law of thermodynamics for Thermodynamic


Systems:

Pure Substance: fixed chemical composition


Phase: distinct molecular homogenous
separated from other phases by easily
identifiable boundary surface
Phase: 3, Gas, Liquid, Solid
Phase transition: 6
Critical point: -> FSC (Fluid super critic, meme
density et difficil à distinguer, gas+ liquid)
Point triple acqua -> 0°C -> vapore, solido
(neve), liquido

Latent Heat [J/Kg]: Energie pour changer la


phase de la substance : Q = m*L, Q[J], m[kg],
L[specific latent heat J/Kg]

Energy is transferred to or from a system by 3 forms : heat Q, work W et mass flow dm/dt.

A steady-flow process is characterized by :


• No properties within the control volume change with time: mcv = 0<->Ecv = 0;
• No properties change at the boundaries with time
• The heat and work interactions between a steady-flow system and its
surroundings do not change with time
Steady-flow Devices
• Turbine, Compressors and pumps
• Heat Exchangers
• Throttling Devices
• Pipe and Duct Flow
The Unsteady-flow Process
The mass in the control volume changes with time, filling or discharging a tank.
Session 4
1. The 2nd law of thermodynamics
2. Application of entropy
3. Heat engines and pumps
4. Thermodynamic cycles

Entropy (S):
• Quantifies the state of ‘’disorder’’ of a system
[J/K]
• State function
• Variation entropy: dSe+dSi (external + internal)

dSe external entropy -> lié à heat transfer et mass transfer et can be positive, negative or zero
dSi internal entropy -> Dissipation, internal heat transfer, various (diffusion) it can be only positive or
zero.
• dSi Positive-> Real process, irreversible
• dSi Zero -> Ideale, Reversible process

Clausius’ statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and whose sole effect is to transfer heat from a
cooler body to a hotter body. HEta cannot be transf to cold to hot.
Kelvin-Planck statement: It is impossible to construct a device that
operates in a cycle and produces no other effect than the performance of work
and the exchange of heat from a single reservoir.
Carnot statement: pump et engine, No heat engine operating in a cycle can
convert all of its heat input completely to work!! The max thermal efficiency
depends only on the difference between the source and sink temperature.
Work producing (engine): A work-producing device which employs quasi-
equilibrium or reversible processes produces the maximum amount of work theoretically possible.
Work consuming (pump): A work-consuming device which employs quasi-equilibrium or reversible processes requires the minimum
amount of work theoretically possible.
1st Law: quantity of energy
2nd Law: quality of energy
Thermodinamic Cycles: convert heat into work and evaluate
the path of heat and work.

Power cycle, engine

Refrigeration or heat pump


cycle
Session 5
• Repetition
• Thermodynamic cycles theory
• Combustion
• Engine cycles

Proprety-> State-> Process-> Cycle

Heat engine
• Rankine cycle power Plant
• Gas Turbine power plant
• Reciprocating internal combustion engines
Heat pump / refrigerator
• Refrigerator
• Heat pumps

Plus grand emissionfactor


• Electricity: 174.5 tCo2/Tj
• Erdgas: 56 tCo2/Tj
• Energie renouvable: 0 tCo2/Tj

The Carnot Cycle, Idealized Heat eninge


• NO friction
• NO changes in gas properties due to changes in composition
• Reversible process
• Adiabatic-> Q = 0-> dS = 0 parce que dS = dQ/dT -> REVERSIBLE
• Reale-> decale vers la droite a et b -> irreversible
Engine classification
• Combustion
• Ignition
• Number of strokes
• Cylindes design
• Shaft orientation
• Cooling system

Rankine / Hirn Cycle


• Application
o Solar thermal
o Biomass
o Coal
o Nuclear power plants
• Avantages Hirn -> eviter l’erosion des lames
des turbine
Otto cycle -> Igniton
Diesel cycle -> compression of air and combustion.
• Differs from Otto cycle in that temperature at end
of compression is high enough to cause ignition

Thermal Rendement otto cycle > Thermal Rendement


diesel cicle

Brigthon cycle -> Gas Turbine


Stirling Cycle ->Temperature plus baisse
Session 6
• Gas turbines
• Steam turbines
• Combined cycles
• Nuclear power plant

Comprehend gas cycles, vapor cycles applied in the current


industry, means of increasing efficiency by combining them
and application of this combination in nuclear power plants.

Gas Turbine

• Air/fuel intake
• Compression
• Combustion
• Exhaust

Component of a Turbomachinery
• Radial compressor
o +simple design
o -less efficient
• Axial compressor
o + good for high compression ratios
• Turbine
o Radial
o Axial

Component of a gas turbine


• Cooled turbine blade
• Combustion chamber

Regenerative Gas turbines


• Nth = 60% to 80%

Comparison of Gas Turbine to


other processes
• Advantages of GT compared
to steam turbine
o No water
preparation
o Simple
construction
o Low specific Area
needs
o Low specific Invest.
Cost
o Low Startup time –
high flexibility
o Short construction
time
o Low personal cost
• Disadvantages of Gt
o Low efficiency
<40%
DFC/Turbine 70%
o High quality fuel (gas,oil)
Direct Fuel Cell 50%
o Low power units (max 280 MW)
Combined fuel cell 50%
PA/PEM FC 35%
Engines 30%
Gas Turbine 28%-40%
Coal/Steam 30%
Microturbines 20%
Application Gas Turbine
• Aereo
• Ship
• Locomotive
• Decentralized electric power generation

Gas turbine -> Brighton


Steam -> Rankine

Steam Power Plants

Steam turbine
• Impulse stage
• Reaction stage

Nuclear Power Plants

36.4% electricity generation in CH


30% efficiency

On use uranium to create energy sous forme chaleur


Nuclear Power central
• Presurized water reactor (PWR)
• Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
• Candu
• RBMK (High Power Channel Reactor)
• Gas-cooled Reactors (GCR)
Session 7

• Hydro Power
• Other Alternatives Water Power

Hydropower
• Hydropower impoundment – 31.7 %
(stocage avec barriere et pump)
• Pump Storage
• Hydropower run-of-river systems –
24.7 % (sans stocage de l’eau)
• Total~ 56.4%

Composition Energy
Pic de production de 6h 00 à midi -> été moin
production d’energie que l’Hiver consommation
suit la production
• Hydro (fil de l’ea et stocage)
• Nucleaire
• Thermiques et divers
Hiver-> importation
Été -> exportation

Other Alternatives Water Power


• Tidal Power
• Wave power
• Ocean Thermal Energy
• Osmotic energy
Session 8
1. Wind Power
2. Solar Power
3. Biomass Power

Energies renouvelable diverses 3.89%


• Eolienne 0.15%
• Biomasse 0.54%
• Solaire 1.25%
• Biogas 0.19%

Wind Power
0,14% wind energy CH 2013 88Gw/h

Kinetic E -> Mechanical E -> Electrical E -> Storage, Distribution network,


Isolated loads

Distribution of wind described by Weibull distribution.

Noise Level of wind turbine: env 50dB. (Airplane 150 dB, office 70 dB)

Wind Power Offshore Farms


• Danemark 400 MW 111 turbines
• London 630 MW 175 turbines
Solar Power
Solar water heating
• Active System uses antifreeze so that the liquid does not freeze if outside temp. drops below freezing
• Tested technology
• Realised at any latitude
• Application possible in new and existing
• Moderate costs of operation and possible maintenance
• Protection against freezing necessary
Solar space heating and ventilation
• Tested technology
• Needs south-facing windows (> 15 m²) and appropriate landscaping
• Current applications: industrial, commercial, institutional, large residential buildings
• Particularly adapted to the new building
• Low costs of operation and maintenance
• Normally not need for specialized personnel

US -> 579 MW
France -> 300MW

Photovoltaic Energy
• Photovoltaic cells are capable of directly converting
sunlight into electricity.
• Battery needed as storage
• No moving parts  do no wear out, but because
they are exposed to the weather, their lifespan is about
20 years.
Biomass Energy

Definition: Any plant derived organic matter available on a renewable basis

Generates energy by:


• Burning biomass to heat the steam used in turbines
• Converting biomass into liquid fuel
• Capturing methane to power turbines or converting methane to heat for different uses
Session 9

• Geothermal
• Fuel cells
• Nuclear Fusion

Geothermal
Geothermal energy is energy stored in the form of heat beneath the surface of the solid earth2
Hottest regions -> USA, Philippines, Indonesia, Italy
Geothermal uses
• Hydrothermal
• Deep Geothermal systems
• Geothermal Heat pumps
• Cooling mode -> heat dispersion in the ground -> air cold supply
• Heating mode -> heat absorption in the ground -> air hot supply
Generation of Electricity
• Wet rock technology efficieny ~10% -> direct avec vapeur dans le power plant
• Hot dry rock technology ~ 10 % -> eau chaud dans le plant et après vaporisé et utilisé dans la turbine

Geothermal Flux = 0.06 W/m^2 << solar, wind, biomass, …

Types of Geothermal Heat pumps


• Ground-coupled heat pumps
o Vertical and horizonatl closed-loop
• Ground water heat pumps
• Hybrid heat pumps
Fuel Cell

A device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, water, and heat through electrochemical reactions.
Voltage generate by single Cell < 1volt.

Large contact area


• Small distance between electrodes
Increase of the reaction rates by:
• Use of catalysts
• Raising the temperature
• Increasing the electrode areas
Application
• Stationary sys
o Submarine
• Space sys
• Power plants
Type
• Alkaline AFC
• Proton exchance membrane PEMFC
• Phosphoric Acid PAFC
• Molten Carbonate MCFC
• Solid oxide Fuel cells SOFC
Efficiency
• High performance with low fuel ,
hydrogen
• Easiliy adapted for CO2 sequestration (>90%)
• Negligible Impact on Cost of Electricity
• Meet environmental regulation
Advantages
1. High Efficiency (> 50-60%)
2. Simplicity – very few moving parts; can be highly
reliable and long lasting systems.
3. Low emission – the by-product of hydrogen fuel
cell is pure water.
4. Silence – fuel cells are quiet, even those with
extensive extra fuel processing.
Disadvantages
• There is no hydrogen infrastructure to supply coast-to-coast delivery of hydrogen fuel.
• MCFCs and PAFCs are too large for home and transportation use
• SOFCs still have years in development.
• PEMs and AFCs can use fuel reformers to convert hydrocarbons, into hydrogen, but it can lower the overall efficiency of the
fuel cell by 1/4 and can release small amounts of pollutants.
• Onboard fuel storage and conversion solutions in development

Nuclear Power

Fission: the process of splitting an atomic nucleus in to fission fragments


Fusion: nuclear reaction whereby two light atomic nuclei fuse or combine to form a single larger, heavier nucleus

Nuclear Fusion
• In nature -> heavy Hydrogen isotopes to produce Helium

Fusion waste:
Fusion radioactive waste volumes are more than fission but much less than coal for power plant to equal size
Session 10

1. Cogeneration (Cold,) Heat and Power


2. Greenhouse effect
3. Carbon footprint – energy consumption

CHP for waste combustion = waste to Energy


• In CH in most cases in combination with waste
• 80% of waste is combusted
• 58 furnaces
• Excellent fuel gas cleaning
Combined Cooling, Heating & power CCHP -> Trigeneration
• Purpose: cooling by an absorption cooling machine the same for heating and power
Electrical generation efficiency:
• Trigeneration: >80%
• Cogenation ~62-70%
• Combined cycle cogenation 50-62%

Chiller baisse durée de vie est c’es compliqö

What are we worried abour ?


• Sans effet de serre le planet va etre trop froid
• Methane
• Nitrous oxide
• Carbon dioxide (biomasse, fossilfuel)

Signs associated with global warming:


• Winters have become shorter
• Ice cover is shrinking fast
• Rising sea waters
• Increased precipitation
• Extreme weather such as tropical
storms
• Mosquito borne diseases at
higher altitudes

To meet The needs of the present without compromising the ability of future to meet thei own needs
Suisse depense 5-6 KW/jour/person
2000W moyenne du mond mais nous sommes 5/6, USA 12000W.
• Limite effet de serre
• Limite consomption
Session 11
1. Energy consumption
2. Sustainable ‘’energy efficieny’’

In suisse le 40% de l’energie primaire utilisö pour chauffer les maison.


Marron : Bois/charbon
Rouge : petrole brut
Orange : produit petroliere
Jaune : Gas
Vert, combustibles nucleaire
Blue : energie idrolique
Four widely used devices that waste energy (4 dispositivi che utilizzano più energia)
• Incandescent light bulb
• Motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine
• Nuclear power plant
• Coal-fired power plant$

Save energy in industry:


• Cogeneration or combined heat and power

Uranium -> 14%


Soleil -> 90%

Transition to a more sustainable energy


Future
• Sustainable next-generation energy
technologies
• Corbon sequestration
• Nuclear electricity
• Replace conventional oil
• Electricity Transportation
• Enabling technologies: Storing
Energy
• Sustainability in energy and material
flow
• High tech materials
• Decentralized power system
Solution: making the transition to a more