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EET 421

POWER ELECTRONIC DRIVES

Indra Nisja
• General Concept

• Speed Control

• SCR Drives

• Switched
Switched-mode
mode DC Drives
Advantages of DC motor :
¾ Ease of control
¾ Deliver high starting torque
¾ Near-linear performance

Disadvantages:
9 High
g maintenance
9 Large and expensive (compared to induction
motor)
9 Not suitable for high-speed operation due to
commutator and brushes
9 Not suitable in explosive or very clean environment
• The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap (compared to
induction motor drives). But DC motor itself is more expensive.
• Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor (especially
maintenance), it is getting less popular, particularly in high
power applications.
applications
• For low power applications the cost of DC motor plus drives
is still economical
economical.
• For servo application, DC drives is still popular because of
good dynamic response and ease of control.
• Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, especially in
high power drives.
• The field windings is used to excite the field flux.
• Armature current is supplied
pp to the rotor via brush
and commutator for the mechanical work.
• Interaction of field flux and armature current in the
rotor
t produces
d t
torque.
• When a separately excited motor is excited by a
field current of if and an armature current of ia flows in
the circuit, the motor develops a back emf and a
torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed.

• The if is independent of the ia .Each windings are


supplied
pp separately.
p y Any
y changeg in the armature
current has no effect on the field current.

• The
Th if is
i normally
ll much
h lless th
than th
the ia.
Field and armature equations
Instantaneous field current :

where Rf and Lf are the field resistor and inductor, respectively


Instantaneous armature current :

where Ra and La are the armature resistor and inductor,


respectively
The motor back emf,
emf which is also known as speed voltage
voltage,
is expressed :
eg = Kv ω if
Kv is the motor voltage constant (in V/A-rad/s)
and ω is the motor speed (in rad/sec)
Basic Torque Equation
The torque developed by the motor is :
Td = Kt if ia
Where (Kt = Kv) is the torque constant in V/A – rad/s
Sometimes it is written as :
Td = Kt Φ ia
For normal operation the developed torque must be equal to the load
torque plus the friction and inertia, i.e, :

where
B : viscous friction constant (N-m/rad/s)

TL : load torque (N-m)

J : inertia of the motor (kg.m2)


Under steady-state operation, time
derivatives is zero. Assuming the motor
is saturated

For field circuit,


Vf = If Rf
The back emf is g
given by:
y
Eg = Kv ω if

The armature circuit


Va = Ia Ra + Eg
Va = Ia Ra + Kv ω If
STEADY-STATE TORQUE AND SPEED
The
e motor
oto speed ca
can be eas
easily
y de
derived
ed :

If Ra is a small value (which is usual), or when the motor is slightly


loaded, i.e, Ia is small

That is if the field current is kept constant, the motor speed depends
only on the supply voltage.

The developed torque is :


Td = Kt If Ia = B ω + TL

The required power is :


Pd = Td ω
ƒ From the derivation, several important facts can be
deduced for steady-state operation of DC motor.

ƒ For a fixed field current, or flux (If) , the torque demand


can be satisfied by varying the armature current (Ia). )

ƒ The motor speed can be varied by:


– controlling Va (voltage control)
– controlling Vf (field control)

ƒ These observations leads to the application of


variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque
of DC motor.
Co s de a 500V,
Consider 500 , 10kW
0 , 20A
0 rated-
ated DCC motor
oto with
t a
armature
atu e resistance
es sta ce
of 1 ohm. When supplied at 500V, the unloaded motor runs at 1040
rev/min, drawing a current of 0.8A
– Estimate the full load speed
p at rated values
– Estimate the no-load speed at 250V.
Va = Ia Ra + Kv ω If
At full load and rated value,, Va − Ia Ra
Kv I f =
ω
500− 0.8(1)
Kv I f = = 0.48
At no lload
d and
d voltage
lt att 250 V 1040

(Note : in reality, this equation strictly rad/sec)


™ Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a range
of armature voltage can be drawn as above
above.
™ The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying
the correct voltage.
voltage
™ Note that speed variation from no-load to full load (rated) can
be quite small. It depends on the armature resistance.
V R V Ra
ωm = − a Ia ωm = − T
K eφ K eφ Or K eφ ( K eφ) 2

Shunt and Separately Excited Motor


With a constant field current, the flux can be assumed to be constant. Let
K eφ = K (Constant)
V R
ωm =
V R
− a Ia ωm = − a2 T
K K K K

Series Motor
Base Speed and Field-weakening

• Base speed: ωbase


the speed which correspond to the rated Va, rated Ia and
rated If.
• Constant Torque region ( w > wbase)
Ia and If are maintained constant to met torque demand.
Va is varied to control the speed. Power increases with speed.
• Constant Power region ( w > wbase)
Va is maintained at the rated value and if is reduced to increase speed.
p
However, the power developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains
constant. Known as field weakening.
DC Shunt Motor
Motor efficiency
Pmech
ηR =
Pelec + Pcontrol
l = Vin
Pelec i xIaR
R

Pcontrol = Vin xI f
Example
A 500-V, 60-hp, 600-rev/min d.c. shunt motor has a full-load efficiency of 90%. The
resistance of the field itself is 200 ohm and rated field current is 2 A. Ra = 0.2 ohm.
Calculate die full-load (rated) current IaR and in subsequent calculations, maintain this
value. Determine the loss torque.

The speed is to be increased upp to 1000 re


rev/min
/min bby field weakening.
eakening Calc
Calculate
late the
Extra resistance, over and above the field winding itself to cover the range 600-1000
rev/min. Determine the output torque and power at the top speed, assuming that the
loss torque
q varies in pproportion
p to speed.
p For the magnetisation
g curve use the empirical
p
expression below, which is an approximation to the curve shape.

where the flux ratio is that between a particular operating flux and rated flux .
The field-current ratio is that of the corresponding field currents.
• Say the motor running at position A. Suddenly va is reduced (below eg).
The current ia will reverse direction. Operating point is shifted to B.
• Since ia is negative, torque Te is negative.
• Power is also negative, which implies power is “generated”
generated back to
the supply.
• In other words, during the deceleration phase, kinetic energy from the
motor and load inertia is returned to the supply
supply.

• This is known as regenerative braking-an efficient way to brake a motor.


Widely y employ
p y in electric vehicle and electric trains. If we wish the motor
to operate continuously at position B, the machine have to be driven by
mechanical source.

• The mechanical source is a “prime


prime mover
mover”.

• We must force the prime mover it to run faster so that the generated eg
will be g
greater than va.
Braking circuits
Example 3.20
A 250V
250V, 500rev/min d d.c.
c separately excited motor has an armature
resistance of 0.13 ohm and takes an armature current
of 60A when delivering rated torque at rated flux. If flux is
maintained constant throughout
throughout, calculate the speed at which a
braking torque equal in magnitude to the full-load torque is
developed when:
(a) regeneratively braking at normal terminal voltage;
(b) plugging, with extra resistance to limit the peak torque on
changeover to 3 per unit;
(c) dynamically braking, with resistance to limit the current to
2 per unit;
(d) regeneratively braking at half rated terminal voltage
voltage.
(e) What terminal voltage would be required to run the motor in
reverse rotation at rated torque and half rated speed?
• SCR “phase-angle
phase angle controlled”
controlled drive
- By changing the firing angle, variable DC output voltage can be
obtained.
– Single phase (lo
(low po
power)
er) and three phase (high and very
er high po
power)
er)
supply can be used

– The line current is unidirectional,, but the output


p voltage
g can reverse
polarity. Hence 2- quadrant operation is inherently possible.
– 4-quadrant is also possible using “two sets” of controlled rectifiers.

• Switched-mode drive
– Using switched mode DC-DC converter. Dc voltage is varied by
d t cycle.
duty l
– Mainly used for low to medium power range.
– Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1- quadrant
– Half bridge: 2-quadrant
– Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation
• Mains operated.

• Variable DC voltages are obtained from SCR firing angle control


control.
• Slow response.

• Normally
N ll fifield
ld rectifier
tifi have
h much h llower ratings
ti th
than th
the armature
t
rectifier. It is only used to establish the flux.
Continuous/Discontinuous current
• The key reason for successful DC drive operation is due to the large
armature inductance La.

• Large La allows for almost constant armature current (with small ripple)
due to “current filtering effect of L”. (Refer to notes on Rectifier).
• Average value of the ripple current is zero. No significant effect on the
q
torque.

• If La is not large enough, or when the motor is lightly loaded, or if


supply is single phase (halfwave), discontinuous current may occur.

• Effect of discontinuous current: Output voltage of rectifier rises; motor


speed goes higher. In open loop operation the speed is poorly regulated.

• Worthwhile to add extra inductance in series with the armature


inductance.
Armature Field
For continuous current, armature voltage is :

Armature (DC) current is :

Field voltage
1. Single-Phase Half-Wave Converter Drives

V =
Vm
(1 + cos α ) for 0≤α ≤π

2. Single-Phase Semiconverter Drives
Vm
V= (1 + cos α ) for 0≤α ≤π
π
3. Single-Phase Full-Converter Drives
2V m
V = cos α for 0≤α ≤π
π
4. Single-Phase Dual-Converter Drives

V =
2V m
cos α for 0≤α ≤π
π
Armature voltage :

Armature (DC) current is :

If single phase is used for field is :


1. Three-Phase Half-Wave Converter Drives
3 3V m
V = cos α for 0≤α ≤π

2. Three-Phase Semiconverter Drives
3 3V m
V = (1 + cos α ) for 0≤α ≤π

3. Three-Phase Full-Converter Drives
3 3V m
V = cos α for 0≤α ≤π
π
4. Three-Phase Dual-Converter Drives

V =
3 3V m
cos α for 0≤α ≤π
π
A separately excited DC motor has a constant torque load of 60 Nm. The
motor is driven by a full-wave converter connected to a 240 V ac supply.
The field constant of the motor KIf = 2.5 and the armature resistance is 2
ohm. Calculate the triggering angle for the motor to operate at 200 rpm.
Assume the current is continuous.
For continuous current,
current 2V m
Va = cos α a
and Va = Eg + Ia Ra π
Wh
Where Eg is
i the
h back
b k emf,i.e
fi E g = KI f ω = 2.5I f
and 2Vm ⎡⎛ T ⎞ ⎤
T = KIf Ia cosα a = ⎢⎜ Ra + KI f ω ⎥
π ⎜
⎢⎣⎝ KI f ⎠ ⎥⎦
A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase, full controlled SCR
bridge 240Vrms/50Hz per-phase. The field is supplied by a single-phase 240V
rms/50Hz, with uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier. The field current is set as
maximum
i as possible.
ibl
The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as follows :
Armature resistance:Ra = 0.3 ohm
Fi ld resistance:
Field i t Rf =175
175 ohm
h
Motor constant: KV =1.5 V/A-rad/s
Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large enough to ensure
continuous and ripple-free currents. If the delay angle of the armature converter (αa) is
45 degrees and the required armature current is 30A,
• a) Calculate the developed torque, Td.
• b) Speed of the motor, ω (rad/s)
• c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed, the motor back emf will reverse.
o tthe
For e sa
sameeaarmature
atu e current
cu e t of
o 30A,
30 , dete
determine
e tthe
e required
equ ed de
delay
ay a
angle
geo of tthe
e
armature converter.
Since
S ce field
e d cu
current
e iss maximum,
a u ,α=0
0.

(b) Motor speed

The armature is supplied by three


three-phase
phase with αa = 45o,
N
Now th
the polarity
l it off fi
field
ld iis reversed,
d th
then

and

also
• DC motor in inherently bi-directional. Hence no problem to reverse
the direction. It can be a motor or generator.

• But the rectifier is unidirectional, because the SCR are unidirectional


devices.
• However, if the rectifier is fully controlled, it can be operated to become
negative DC voltage, by making firing angle greater than 90 degrees,

• Reversal
R l can b
be achieved
hi dbby:

– armature reversal using contactors (2 quadrant)

– field reversal using contactors (2-quadrant)

– double converter ((full 4-quadrants)


q )
Reversal using armature or field contactors
DRIVE REVERSING USING ARMATURE OR FIELD CONTACTORS

CONTACTOR AT THE ARMATURE SIDE


(SINGLE
(S G PHASE
S SYSTEM)
S S )
Reversing using double converters

Principle of reversal

Practical circuit
• Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC, or some other DC sources).
• DC-DC converters (choppers) are used.
• suitable
it bl for
f applications
li ti requiring
i i position
iti control
t l or ffastt response, ffor
example in servo applications, robotics, etc.
• Normally operate at high frequency
– the average output voltage response is significantly faster
– the armature current ripple is relatively less than the controlled rectifier

• In terms of quadrant of operations, 3 possible configurations are possible:


– single quadrant,
– two–quadrant
– and four–quadrant
four quadrant
• Unidirectional speed. Braking not required.

For 0 < t < T


t
The armature voltage at steady state : 1 on t
Va = ∫V .dt = on V = DV
T 0 T
Armature (DC) current is : Va − E g
Ia =
Ra
Va
And speed can be approximated as : ω=
Kv I f
‰ FORWARD MOTORING ((T1 and D2 operate)
p )
– T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal.
– T1 off: The armature current freewheels through D2.
– Va (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio.
‰ REGENERATION (T2 and D1 operate)
– T2 on: motor acts as a generator
– T2 off: the motor acting as a generator returns
energy to the supply through D2.
A full-bridge
full bridge DC
DC-DC
DC converter is used
used.

Vo,dc

2 1
Io,dc
,

3 4
‰ T1 and T2 operate; T3 and T4 off.

‰ T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear across the motor
terminal Armature current rises.
terminal. rises

‰ T1 and T2 turn off: the armature current decay through D3 and D4


¾ T1, T2 and T3 turned off.

¾ When T4 is turned on, the armature current rises through T4 and D2.

¾ When T4 is turned off, the motor, acting as a generator, returns energy


to the supply through D1 and D2.
™ T3 and T4 operate; T1 and T2 off.

™ When T3 and T4 are on together, the armature current rises and flows
in reverse direction
direction.
™ Hence the motor rotates in reverse direction.

™ When T3 and T4 turn off


off, the armature current decays through D1 and D2
D2.
9 T1, T3 and T4 are off.

9 When T1 is on, the armature current rises through T2 and D4.

9 When T2 is turned off, the armature current falls and the motor returns
energy to the supply through D3 and D4
D4.
Quadrant First Second Third Fourth

E ≥0 >0 ≤0 <0

T1 0, 1 0 0 0

T2 1 0 0 0,, 1

T3 0 0 0, 1 0

T4 0 0, 1 1 0

Circuit ON T1, T2 T4, D2 T3, T4 T2, D4

Circuit OFF T2, D4 D1, D2 T4, D2 D3, D4


When IGBT is turning ON:

di2
V = Ri2 + L + Eg
dt
which
hi h initial
i iti l currentt i1 (t = 0) = I1 gives the load current as:

−t
V − Eg −t

i2 (t) = I1e τ + (1− e τ )


R
This mode valid for 0 ≤ t ≥ t1 at the end of this mode load current becomes:

i1 (t = t1 ) = I 2

The load current for mode 2 can be found from:

di 2
0 = Ri 2 + L + Eg
dt
with initial current i2 (t = 0) = I 2 and redefining the time origin (i.e t=0) at the beginning of mode 2, we have:

−t −t
Eg
i1 (t) = I 2e τ − (1 − e τ )
R
This mod is valid for t1 ≤ t ≥ t2
At the end of this mode the load current becomes:

i2 (t = t2 ) = I1
Example:
An electric train is powered by four 750-V d.c. series motors. The motor resistance
and
d iinductance
d t are respectively
ti l 0 25 Ω and
0.25 d6
6mH.
H A ttotal
t l line
li inductance
i d t off 10 mH
H and
d
resistance of 0.1 Ωis in series with the supply. The fixed voltage from the traction
supply is regulated by the chopper of Figure 1 below, operating at 200 Hz. When the
machine is running g at 800 rev/min,, the generated
g e.m.f. pper ampere
p can be taken
as an average value of 0.79 V/A. If the modulation factor (D) is 80%,

a. calculate the maximum and minimum currents, allowing 2V for semiconductor loss,
and find the average torque of each motor
motor.
b. The mass of the fully loaded train is 120 tonnes and its resistance to
motion on level track is 500N. Each motor is geared to the wheel of the motor
coach by a 3:1 ratio and the coach wheel tread diameter is 1.0m. Estimate the
train's rate of acceleration under the above conditions.
Fi
Figure 1:
1 SSeparately
l excited
i d DC motor
Solution:

Mode 1 (switch ON)

dia
V = Ria + L + Eg + 2
dt
di a
750 = 0.79i a + 0.35i a + 0.016 +2
dt
Rearranging:

di a
748 = 1 . 14 i a + 0 . 016
dt
For steady state condition:
di a
L = 0
dt
So, i
a = 656.14Amp
L
Time constant ( τ = ))=0
0.0457
0457
R
−t −t

i2 (t ) = i1e 0.0457
+ 656.14(1 − e 0.0457
)
At 200Hz chopping frequency with D=0.8
So, tON = 4ms

− 0 . 004 − 0 . 004

i 2 ( t ) = i1 e 0 . 0457
+ 656 . 14 (1 − e 0 . 0457
)
i 2 (t ) = 0.9162 i1 + 656 .14 (1 − 0.9162 )
i 2 ( t ) = 0 . 9162 i1 + 55 (1)
Mode 2 (switch OFF)

ddi
0 = Ri 2 + L 2
+ E g
dt
di a
0 = 0 . 79 i a + 0 . 25 i a + 0 . 006 + 2
dt
di a
0 = 1 . 04 i a 0 . 006 +2
dt
For steady state condition:

di a
L = 0
dt
So, i a = − 1 . 923 Amp
Time constant (τ =
L )=0.024
R
−t −t

ia (t ) = i2 e 0 . 024
− 1 . 923 ( 1 − e 0 . 024
)

At 200Hz chopping frequency with D=0.8


So, tOFF = 1ms
− 0 . 001 − 0 . 001
ia (t ) = i2 e 0 . 024
− 1 . 923 ( 1 − e 0 . 024
)

i1 ( t ) = 0 . 959 i 2 − 0 . 0788 (2)

Eliminate i1, substitute eq (2) into eq (1):

i 2 ( t ) = 0 . 9162 ( 0 . 959 i 2 − 0 . 0788 ) + 55

i 2 = 452 .45 Amp


A
i1 = 433 . 82 Amp
0.79ia xia
For a series motor, torque = k q xia = Kq=Kv x If
ωm
In this case
case, the average torque will be proportional to the average value of (ia)2, i.e.
i e the
mean-square current. As the electrical L/R time constant is considerably larger than tON or
toff, it is reasonable to assume that the graph of current against time roughly follows straight
lines.

The area under the current squared curve for tON:

t ON ( i12 + ( i1 xi 2 ) + i 22 ) / 3
0.004 ( 433 .82 2 + ( 433 .82 x 452 .45) + 452 .45 2 ) / 3 = 785 .59 A
The area under the current squared curve for tOFF:

t OFF (i12 + (i1 xi 2 ) + i 22 ) / 3


0 .001 ( 433 .82 2 + ( 433 .82 x 452 .45 ) + 452 .45 2 ) / 3 = 196 .4 A
The mean current squared is then,

758.59 + 196.4
= 196397 .51
0.005
0 .79 x196397 .51
Torque = = 1,853 N − m

800 x
60
torquexgea rratio 1,853 x 3
Tractive force at wheel = = = 11,118 N
hheelradiu s 0 .5
For four motors, total tractive force = 44,472N. With 500 N rolling resistance, the tractive force available for acceleration is 43972N.
The train mass is 120 tonnes
tonnes.

43 .972 m
Acceleration: = 0 .36643 2
120 s
A separately excited DC motor has rating 220 hp, 230Vdc and 2000 rpm.
Armature
atu e voltage
o tage supp
supplied
ed by full
u b bridge
dge co
control
t o rectifier
ect e with
t input
put voltage
o tage
v s = 346 .5 sin 314 tVolts Field voltage supplied by diode rectifier with input
v s = 346 .5 sin 314 tVolts

- constant
t t voltage
lt Kv = 0.8
0 8 V/A
- armature resistance Ra = 5 Ohm
- field resistanced Rf = 150 Ohm
a. Calculate
C l l t ththe lload i i ttorque if α a = 0 0
d requiring

b. If armature voltage reduced such that the motor run at a speed of 1200 rpm,
calculate the value of α a and developed torque. Armature current is 10 A
Solution
Output
p of control rectifier for α=0:

2V m
Va = cos α
π
a

2 x346.5
Va = cos 0
π
V a = 220 V
Output of diode rectifier:
2V m
Va =
π
2 x 346 . 5
Va =
π
V a = 220 V
Equation of armature separately excitation DC motor:

Va = Eg + I a Ra
Eg = Va − I a Ra (1)

E g = K vω I f (2)

Substitute (2) into (1):


K vωI f = Va − I a Ra
Equation of field winding of DC motor:

V f = I f R f

Vf 220
If = = = 1.467 Amp
Rf 150
So,
Va − I a Ra 220 − 5 I a
ω= ω=
1 .1736
Kv I f
− 1.1736 ω + 220
Ia =
5

I a = −0.23472ω + 44

Torque requiring by the load is:

TL = 1.1736(−0.23472ω + 44) N − m

b.
from equation (2)

E g = 1 . 1736 x 1200
60
E g = 147 . 4

Va = 147 .4 + 50

Va = 197 . 4 Volt
Firing angle (αa) is:

197 . 4
α a = Cos −1

220

α a = 26.20