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# Applied Mathematics and Computation 150 (2004) 543–554

www.elsevier.com/locate/amc

## Logistic parameters estimation using

simple random sampling and ranked
set sampling data
Walid A. Abu-Dayyeh a, Sameer A. Al-Subh a,
Hassen A. Muttlak b,*
a
Department of Statistics, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
b
Department of Mathematical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
P.O. Box 1676, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Logistic distribution is very widely used in modeling real life problems in diﬀerent
ﬁelds of study, particularly in the area of reliability. In this study, we propose diﬀerent
estimators for the location and scale parameters using simple random sampling and
ranked set sampling (RSS) or some modiﬁcations of RSS. The estimators are proposed
in the cases of either one or both parameters are unknown. The estimators are compared
with each other for the cases considered via their mean square error. Finally most of the
estimators considered in this study are compared using real life example.
Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Location parameter; Maximum; Median; Minimum; Relative precision; Scale parameter

1. Introduction

McIntyre  was the ﬁrst to propose the method of ranked set sampling
(RSS) to estimate the population mean. Takahasi and Wakimoto  inde-
pendently described the same sampling method and presented the mathemat-
ical theory, which supports McIntyreÕs intuitive assertion. Dell and Clutter 

*
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: hamstat@kfupm.edu.sa (H.A. Muttlak).

0096-3003/\$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S0096-3003(03)00290-X
544 W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

showed that the RSS mean remains unbiased and more eﬃcient than the SRS
mean even if ranking is imperfect.
Even though RSS method is nonparametric in nature, several authors
considered the use of RSS data to estimate the parameters of well-known
distributions. Lam et al.  considered the estimation of the parameters of two-
parameter exponential distribution. Ni Chuiv et al.  studied the estimation
of the location parameter of the Cauchy distribution. Fei et al.  explored the
estimation of the parameters for the two-parameter Weibull and extreme-value
distributions using RSS. Sinha et al.  considered the estimation of the
gamma mean based on RSS.
Lam et al.  considered the estimation of the location and scale parameter
of the logistic distribution using RSS. They proposed the best linear unbiased
estimators (BLUEs) for the location and scale parameters using RSS and some
modiﬁcations of the RSS method.
Bhoj and Ahsanullah  considered estimation of the parameters of the
generalized geometric distribution using RSS. They obtained the minimum
variance linear unbiased estimators (MVLUE) of the parameters l and r for
the generalized geometric distribution. Sinha et al.  proposed the BLUEs of
the parameters of the normal and exponential distributions under RSS and
some modiﬁcations of RSS. Bhoj  obtained the minimum variance unbiased
estimator (MVUE) of the location and scale parameters of the extreme value
distribution using RSS. Bhoj  proposed a modiﬁcation to the RSS and called
it new ranked set sampling (NRSS). He used this method to estimate the lo-
cation and scale parameters of the rectangular and logistic distributions. Bhoj
 proposed another modiﬁcation of the RSS, called modiﬁed ranked set
sampling (MRSS). He used this method to estimate the parameters of the
uniform and logistic distributions.
Tam et al.  investigated the sensitivity of the BLUEs to the misspe-
ciﬁcation of the underlying distribution. Most of the work has been de-
voted to the estimation of the population mean l. Stokes  treated the
variance estimation using RSS and suggested an estimator for the variance
r2 which is asymptotically unbiased and more eﬃcient than the usual SRS
unbiased estimator for r2 . Yu et al.  addressed the issue of variance
estimation using RSS for the normal distribution. They suggested sev-
eral unbiased estimators for r2 based on the balanced and unbalanced RSS
data.
In this paper, several estimators are proposed for the location and scale
parameters of the logistic distribution. In Section 2, the estimation of the lo-
cation and scale parameters are considered using SRS and RSS data. The cases
of known scale and unknown location parameter are discussed in Section 2.1.
The case when both parameters are unknown is considered in Section 2.2.
Finally in Section 3, a real life data set is used to illustrate and compare most of
the estimators proposed in this paper.
W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554 545

## Let X1 ; X2 ; . . . ; Xn be a random sample from the logistic probability distri-

bution function with location and scale parameters h and k respectively with
pdf:
1 eððxi hÞ=kÞ
f ðxi ; h; kÞ ¼ ð1Þ
k ½1 þ eððxi hÞ=kÞ 2

## 2.1.1. Estimation using SRS

We will assume that w log that k ¼ 1. We will consider some famous esti-
mators of h based on SRS including the sample mean X , the sample median
b
h MedS and the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Note that X and b h MedS
are both unbiased estimators of h, with VarðX Þ ¼ ðP2 =3nÞ and
Varðbh MedS Þ ¼ r2ððnþ1Þ=2ÞÞ for odd sample size, and
      
r2 n2 þ r2 nþ2
2
þ 2Cov XðnÞ ; Xðnþ2Þ
Varðb h MedS Þ ¼ 2 2

4
for even sample size, where r2ðiÞ is the variance of the ith order statistic of a
random sample of size m from standard logistic distribution (h ¼ 0).
The MLE b
h MleS for h cannot be obtained in a closed form and it is a solution
of:
X
n
eðxi hÞ n
 ¼0 ð2Þ
i¼1
1 þ eðxi hÞ 2

## To study the properties of b h MleS , a simulation is carried out to see whether

b
h MleS is unbiased or not, and to estimate itÕs mean square error (MSE). The
simulation is done for sample sizes n ¼ 10, 30, 50 and for h ¼ 0:01, 0.1, 0.50,
0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, and 10 in Table 1. The results of the simulation trial showed that
the bias is very small in all the situations. For example, the largest value for the
bias was found to be )0.008656 for the case n ¼ 10 and h ¼ 1:0. Also, we
notice from the simulation study that the value of MSE does not depend on h
and is decreasing as the sample size n increases.

## 2.1.2. Estimation using RSS

Let Xði:mÞj denote the i-th ordered statistic, (i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m) from the ith set of
size m in the jth cycle of size r, (j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; r). Notice that EðXði:mÞj Þ ¼ h þ Mi:m
and VarðXði:mÞj Þ ¼ Vi:m , where Mi:m and Vi:m are respectively, the expected value
546 W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

Table 1
The values of the MSE and the bias for the MOME and MLE estimators for diﬀerent values of and
sample sizes using SRS data when k ¼ 1
h 0.01 0.1 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 10
n ¼ 10, k ¼ 10 000
b
h 0.0087 0.0982 0.5101 0.7471 0.9913 1.4986 2.0029 9.9921
biasðb
hÞ )0.0013 )0.0019 0.0101 )0.0029 )0.0866 )0.00144 0.0030 )0.0079
MSEðb hÞ 0.3033 0.3047 0.3017 0.2972 0.2990 0.30012 0.3080 0.3072

n ¼ 30, k ¼ 10 000
b
h 0.0102 0.0984 0.4964 0.7574 0.9975 1.5019 2.001 10.0002
biasðb
hÞ 0.0002 )0.0017 )0.0036 0.0074 )0.0025 0.0019 0.0010 0.0002
MSEðb hÞ 0.0994 0.0994 0.0999 0.1032 0.1025 0.1010 0.1003 0.1001

n ¼ 50, k ¼ 10 000
b
h 0.0156 0.0951 0.4981 0.7492 1.0004 1.5014 2.0026 10.0018
biasðb
hÞ 0.0056 )0.0048 )0.0019 )0.0008 0.0607 0.0609 0.0605 0.0616
MSEðb hÞ 0.0602 0.0609 0.0601 0.0624 0.0607 0.0609 0.0605 0.0616

and the variance of the ith order statistic of a SRS of size m from standard
logistic distribution.
In this subsection, we discuss the problem of estimating the location pa-
rameter h using RSS and some modiﬁcations of RSS when the scale parameter
k is known which will be assumed without loss of generality to be one. The
estimation will be based on samples of sizes rm ¼ n where n is the sample size in
the case of SRS. The following estimators will be used

## 1. McIntyreÕs  estimator:

1 Xr X m
YR ¼ Xði:mÞj ð3Þ
rm j¼1 i¼1

2. The BLUE estimator, which was suggested by Lam et al.  and Sinha et al.
:

1 Xr X m
Xði:mÞj
b
h blueR ðm; rÞ ¼ P   ð4Þ
m 1
j¼1 i¼1
Vi:m
i¼1 Vi:m

3. The Median RSS estimator, which was suggested by, was Muttlak  to es-
timate the population mean:

b 1 X mr
h MedR ðm; rÞ ¼ XðMedÞj ð5Þ
mr j¼1
W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554 547

It was used to estimate the location parameters for logistic and normal
distributions by Lam et al.  and Sinha et al.  respectively.
4. The ERSS estimator, which was suggested by Samawi et al. , which can
be written in the case of even set size as:
" #
1 Xr X
m=2 X
m=2
b
h ERSS ðm; rÞ ¼ Xð1Þij þ XðmÞij ð6Þ
mr j¼1 i¼1 i¼1

where Xð1Þij and XðmÞij are the smallest and the largest of the ith set of size m in
the jth cycle respectively.
We propose the following two estimators for h based on the largest and the
smallest of random samples of size m.
5. The maximum RSS estimator:
" #
b 1 X r Xm
h MaxR ðm; rÞ ¼ XðmÞij  Mm:m ð7Þ
mr j¼1 i¼1

## 6. The minimum RSS estimator:

" #
b 1 X r X
m
h MinR ðm; rÞ ¼ Xð1Þij  M1:m ð8Þ
mr j¼1 i¼1

Note that all the estimators given in Eqs. (3)–(8) are unbiased for h with
variances:

1 X m
VarðY R Þ ¼ Vi:m ð9Þ
rm2 i¼1

## where Vi:m ¼ VarðXði:mÞj Þ ¼ w0 ðiÞ þ w0 ðm  i þ 1Þ and w0ðiÞ is the digamma func-

tion, for more details about the digamma function, see Abramowitz .
  k2
Var bh blueR ðm; rÞ ¼ Pm 1
ð10Þ
i¼1 Vi:m

  1 1
Var bh MedR ðm; rÞ ¼ Var½XðMedÞi  ¼ VMed:m ð11Þ
mr mr
We notice that the variances for the estimators in Eqs. (6)–(8) are the same,
which is
  1
Var bh MinR ðm; rÞ ¼ V1:m ð12Þ
mr
548 W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

## So, we will consider only the estimator b h MinR ðm; rÞ. b

h MaxR ðm; rÞ will not be
considered for odd set size, since it is dominated by b h MedR . For more detail see
Samawi et al. .
We calculated the variances for the estimators given in equations (3)–(5) and
(8). Table 2 gives the variances of those estimators. We notice from Table 2
that bh MedR has the smallest variance among the other estimators except in case
m ¼ 2.
The estimators given in Eqs. (6)–(8) have the same and the highest value of
variance among the estimators considered. The reason why we suggested these
estimators is from practical point view. The sampling methods are very easy to
implement in the ﬁeld of study and will reduce errors in ranking. As a matter of
fact, some times we have only to observe the largest or the smallest element of
the set. In these cases, we can only use one of these estimators.

## 2.2. Estimation of the location and scale parameters

In this subsection, we will study the properties of some estimators for the
location and scale parameters for the logistic distribution when both are un-
known using SRS and RSS data.

## 2.2.1. Estimation based on SRS

Based on SRS, we will use the MOME and MLE estimators of h and k. The
MOME estimators of h and k respectively are given by

1 X
n
b
h MOMS ¼ X ¼ Xi ð13Þ
n i¼1

and
vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
!
u
b 1ut
X n
2 2
k MOMS ¼ 3 Xi =n  X ð14Þ
p i¼1

Table 2
The variances of the RSS estimators of h for diﬀerent values of m and r when k ¼ 1
Estimators m¼2 m¼2 m¼3 m¼3 m¼5 m¼5 m¼6 m¼6
r¼5 r ¼ 10 r¼5 r ¼ 10 r¼5 r ¼ 10 r¼5 r ¼ 10
b
h blueR ðm; rÞ 0.2291 0.1145 0.1139 0.0570 0.0445 0.0223 0.0315 0.0158
YR 0.2290 0.1145 0.1193 0.0597 0.0510 0.0255 0.0375 0.0187
b
h MinR ðm; rÞ 0.2290 0.1145 0.1360 0.0680 0.0747 0.0373 0.0609 0.0304
b
h MedR ðm; rÞ 0.3015 0.1507 0.0860 0.0430 0.0316 0.0158 0.0260 0.0130
W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554 549

## The MLE estimators for h and are the solutions of:

oLðh; kÞ n Xn
eZi
¼  ¼0 ð15Þ
oh 2 i¼1 ð1 þ eZi Þ

oLðh; kÞ n 1 Xn Xn
Zi eZi
¼  Zi þ ¼0 ð16Þ
ok 2 2 i¼1 i¼1
ð1 þ eZi Þ

We used the sample sizes of n ¼ 20, 30, 50 to study the bias and MSE of the
above estimators. Table 5 gives the MSE, and the bias for the four estimators
given in Eqs. (13)–(16). We conclude from Table 3 the bias is very small. The
MSE is decreasing in n for ﬁxed h and k and increasing in h and k when of them
is ﬁxed for ﬁxed n.

## 2.2.2. Estimation based on RSS

The MOME like estimators of the location and scale parameters using RSS
are give respectively as

b 1 X r X m
h MOMR ¼ Y R ¼ XðiÞj ð17Þ
mr j¼1 i¼1

and
vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
!
u
b 1ut 1X r X m
2 2
k MOMR ¼ 3 X  YR ð18Þ
p n j¼1 i¼1 ðiÞj

The MLE estimators for h and k based on RSS can be obtain by solving the
following two equations
Xr X m Xr X m
ZðiÞj eZðiÞj
ðm  i þ 1ÞZðiÞj  ðm þ iÞ þ ðm þ 1Þ ¼0 ð19Þ
j¼1 i¼1 j¼1 i¼1
ð1 þ eZðiÞj Þ

mr X r X m
eZðiÞj
 ¼0 ð20Þ
2 j¼1 i¼1
ð1 þ eZðiÞj Þ

Table 6 gives the MSE and the bias for the four estimators obtained by using
Eqs. (17)–(20) for diﬀerent values of h and k, r ¼ 10 and m ¼ 2, 3, 5. The results
of Table 4 indicate that the bias of the estimators is very small. The MSEs are
decreasing in m for ﬁxed h and k and increasing in h and k when one of them is
ﬁxed for ﬁxed m and r.
Finally comparing the results in Table 3 for the SRS data and the RSS
results in Table 4 we can see that the RSS estimators dominate the SRS esti-
mators for both parameters h and for the cases considered in this paper.
550
Table 3
The values of the MSE and the bias for the MOME and MLE estimators for diﬀerent values of h and k and sample sizes using SRS data when both h
and k are unknown

## W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

MOME MLE
n h ¼ 0:1 h ¼ 0:5 h¼1 h ¼ 10 h ¼ 0:1 h ¼ 0:5 h¼1 h ¼ 10
k ¼ 0:5 k¼1 k¼2 k¼5 k ¼ 0:5 k¼1 k¼2 k¼5
20 b
h 0.1013 0.4995 0.9998 9.9681 0.1021 0.4913 10.015 10.034
biasðb
hÞ 0.0013 )0.0005 )0.0002 )0.0322 0.0021 )0.0087 0.0146 0.0340
MSEðb hÞ 0.0408 0.1655 0.6721 4.1625 0.0449 0.1702 0.6697 4.0482
b
k 0.4775 0.9589 1.912 4.7432 0.4879 0.9857 1.957 4.8663
biasðb
kÞ )0.0225 )0.0411 )0.0884 )0.2572 )0.0121 )0.0144 )0.0431 )0.1345
MSEðb kÞ 0.0095 0.0389 0.1571 0.9237 0.0095 0.0365 0.1545 0.9799

30 b
h 0.1013 0.5069 0.9989 9.9470 0.0981 0.5011 0.9946 10.099
biasðb
hÞ 0.0013 0.0069 )0.0011 )0.0528 )0.0019 0.0011 )0.0054 0.0995
MSEðb hÞ 0.0276 0.1121 0.4288 2.705 0.0284 0.1127 0.4419 3.457
b
k 0.4847 0.96993 1.942 4.847 0.4913 0.9821 1.9726 4.913
biasðb
kÞ )0.0153 )0.0300 )0.0582 )0.1528 )0.0087 )0.0179 )0.0275 )0.0875
MSEðb kÞ 0.0065 0.0254 0.1006 0.6459 0.0061 0.0248 0.1026 0.8575

50 b
h 0.1039 0.4999 0.9839 9.973 0.0984 0.4930 0.9911 10.036
biasðb
hÞ 0.0039 )0.0001 )0.0161 )0.0271 )0.0017 )0.0069 )0.0089 0.0357
MSEðb hÞ 0.0164 0.0677 0.2714 1.6154 0.0216 0.0622 0.2461 1.6432
b
k 0.4914 0.9812 1.9670 4.908 0.4933 0.9872 1.9761 4.9351
biasðb
kÞ )0.0096 )0.0881 )0.0335 )0.0919 )0.0068 )0.0128 )0.0237 )0.0651
MSEðb kÞ 0.0040 0.0145 0.0604 0.3784 0.0063 0.0159 0.0612 0.3874
Table 4
The values of the MSE and the bias for the MOME and MLE estimators for diﬀerent values of h and k and set sizes m and for r ¼ 10 using RSS data
when both h and k are unknown

## W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

MOME MLE
m h ¼ 0:1 h ¼ 0:5 h¼1 h ¼ 10 h ¼ 0:1 h ¼ 0:5 h¼1 h ¼ 10
k ¼ 0:5 k¼1 k¼2 k¼5 k ¼ 0:5 k¼1 k¼2 k¼5
2 b
h 0.0967 0.5060 0.9946 9.9843 0.1029 0.5026 0.9899 9.9542
biasðb
hÞ )0.0033 0.0060 )0.0054 )0.0165 0.00259 0.0026 )0.0101 )0.0458
MSEðb hÞ 0.0286 0.1147 0.4465 2.8532 0.0261 0.1067 0.4427 2.6939
b
k 0.4812 0.9649 1.9324 4.8102 0.4876 0.9748 1.9462 4.9055
biasðb
kÞ )0.0188 )0.0351 )0.0684 )0.1897 )0.0124 )0.0252 )0.0545 )0.0945
MSEðb kÞ 0.0093 0.0383 0.1483 0.9369 0.0079 0.0323 0.1229 0.78301

3 b
h 0.0988 0.4996 1.0091 10.0083 0.1044 0.5063 0.9913 10.012
biasðb
hÞ )0.0012 )0.0005 )0.0098 0.0077 0.0044 0.0063 )0.0087 0.0124
MSEðb hÞ 0.0143 0.0601 0.2369 1.5341 0.0132 0.0509 0.2077 10.2247
b
k 0.4899 0.9794 1.958 4.8863 0.4916 0.9785 1.9628 4.9171
biasðb
kÞ )0.0101 )0.0206 )0.0421 )0.1142 )0.0084 )0.0215 )0.0372 )0.0829
MSEðb kÞ 0.0061 0.0242 0.0965 0.6049 0.0045 0.01851 0.0737 0.4468

5 b
h 0.0972 0.5018 0.9927 10.013 0.1005 0.5019 1.0017 9.9967
biasðb
hÞ )0.0028 0.0018 )0.0073 )0.0133 0.0005 0.0015 0.0017 )0.0033
MSEðb hÞ 0.0062 0.0258 0.0655 0.6634 0.0067 0.0208 0.0832 0.4842
b
k 0.4938 0.9909 1.9761 4.9520 0.4925 0.9939 1.9826 4.9583
biasðb
kÞ )0.0062 )0.0091 )0.0244 )0.0481 )0.0075 )0.0061 )0.0174 )0.0422
MSEðb kÞ 0.0032 0.0127 0.0236 0.3171 0.0035 0.0095 0.0343 0.2409

551
552 W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

3. Example

Samawi and Abu-Dayyeh  drew the data of this illustration from the
Iowa 65+ Rural Health study (RHS). RHS is a longitudinal cohort study of
3673 individuals (1420 men and 2253 women) aged 65 or older living in
Washington and Iowa, see Brock et al. .
Iowa 65+ RHS blood data has 601 men aged 65+ reported the Erythrocytes
counts (RBC) million/mm3 blood, Hemoglobin level gm/100 ml (HGB) and
other blood measurements. In this data, records of the HGB levels are ignored
and SRS samples of size 15 each (m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5) based on the ignored level
records are drawn and then the associated HGB levels are measured. Hence,
ranking is preformed by the mean of the concomitant variable RBC levels
(normal range for adult male is 14–18). This is because in practice, the as-
sessment of RBC level in blood serum is faster and inexpensive.
To illustrate the estimators obtained in Sections 2, we will assume in this
example that h and k are both unknown and our aim to estimate them using the
unbiased estimators considered in this paper.
We applied the Kolmogorov–Smirnov one-sample goodness-of-ﬁt test on
the data used in this study. The logistic distribution seems to ﬁt the data very
well.
The values of the empirical expectation, bias, and MSE for most of the
estimators considered in Sections 2 were calculated using m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5 in
the case of RSS and for sample of size n ¼ 15 in the case of SRS. Note that the
exact value for h and k using the whole data set are 14.814 and 0.8145 re-
spectively. The results of our calculation are given in Table 5 and 6. Using the
exact results and the results in Tables 5 and 6, the following remarks can be
made.

1. The values of most of estimators of h and k are very close to the exact values.
2. The bias of most of the estimators is negligible.

Table 5
The values of the empirical expectation, bias, MSE for the estimators given in Section 2.2.1 for
m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5 in the case of RSS and n ¼ 15 for in the case of SRS
Estimators b b
Eð hÞ b^iasðb
hÞ SEðb
Mb hÞ
YR 14.8188 0.0048 0.0770
b
h MedR ðm; rÞ 14.8536 0.0396 0.0621
b
h MinR ðm; rÞ 15.0668 0.2528 0.1584
b
h MaxR ðm; rÞ 14.5179 )0.2961 0.1631
b
h ERSS ðm; rÞ 14.7984 )0.01560 0.0834
b
h blueR ðm; rÞ 14.8218 0.0078 0.0764
b
h MeanS ðnÞ ¼ X 14.8146 0.0006 0.1442
b
h MedS ðnÞ 14.8167 0.0027 2.1981
W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554 553

Table 6
The values of the empirical expectation, bias, MSE for the estimators of h and k given in Section 2.2
for m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5 in the case of RSS and n ¼ 15 for in the case of SRS
SRS RSS
MOME MLE MOME MLE
b b
Eð hÞ 14.8135 14.8705 14.8165 14.8595
b^iasðbhÞ )0.0005 0.0565 0.0025 0.0456
^ b
MSEð hÞ 0.1469 0.1639 0.0788 0.0810
b b
Eð kÞ 0.7716 0.8107 0.7819 0.8022
tb^iasðbkÞ )0.0430 0.0038 )0.0326 0.0123
^ b
MSEð kÞ 0.0309 0.0375 0.0285 0.0235

3. The values of the MSE calculated using our data set for most of the estima-
tors are very close to the exact values found in Sections 2 and 3.
4. The RSS median estimator of h has the smallest MSE that conﬁrms the re-
sults of Section 2.

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