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SEMINAR REPORT

ON

FACTS AND THEIR CONTROL


(Flexible AC Transmission System and Their Control)

BY
SATPUTE SANTOSH RAOSAHEB
EXAM. NO: T3212550 ROLL NO: 3450

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


MR. V.V.KULKARNI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


ALL INDIA SHRI SHIVAJI MEMORIAL SOCIETY’S
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.
KENNEDY ROAD, PUNE-411001

* [2005-2006] *
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Santosh R. Satpute of T.E. (Electrical) has


successfully completed his necessary seminar work and prepared a report on
“FACTS AND THEIR CONTROL” in satisfactory manner at AISSMS COE
as partial fulfillment of Degree course in academic year 2005-06 as
prescribed by University Of Pune.

Date:

Place:

____________________ ____________________
Mr. V.V. Kulkarni Prof. S.K.Biradar
Guide Head of Dept.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me proud privilege to complete this seminar work on “FACTS AND


THEIR CONTROL” under valuable guidance of Mr. V.V.Kulkarni at
AISSMS COE, Pune.

I would also like to thank all staff members of Electrical


Dept. for timely help and encouragement for fulfillment of seminar work. At
last I would like to thank all colleagues for providing help.

SANTOSH R. SATPUTE
Roll No: 3450
T.E. (ELECTRICAL)
Abstract

Energy is the basic necessity for the economic development of the country. The rate of
growth of electricity usage thought out the world is increasingly high in the last ten years.
in recent years ecological concerns and high installation costs have put constraints over
construction of new plants and overhead lines in many countries; thereby forcing existing
system to be used more efficiently. AC transmission systems are thought of as being
'inflexible’. Power flow in AC networks simply follows ohms law and ordinarily cannot
be made to flow from the source to load is in inverse proportion to the relative impedance
path take the largest fraction of flow; but all lines in the interconnection are a part of the
flow path.
With these number of operating constraints in terms of voltage profile, power
flow, stability and sub synchronic resonance (SSR) are figured. Conventional means such
as circuit breakers, isolators, shunt and series compensators along with synchronous
condensers help a lot to deal with these problems. But the overall control is slow and at
times may result in loss of synchronism and serious over voltages on load buses.
Development of flexible A.C transmission systems (FACTS) technologies has
made it possible the control of power flow on AC transmission lines and utilizes the
existing facilities all the way to its thermal limit without degrading reliability. FACTS
include the use of high power electronics, advanced control centers and communications
links.
This paper covers the modern trends in flexible A.C transmission system,
envisaging the FACTS controllers with present and future applications.
INDEX

SR.NO. CHAPTER Page No.

1 Introduction 1

2 Use of FACTS 3

3 Development and control of FACTS 4

4 The Constraints to transmission 5


4.1 Old and New concepts

5 FACTS Controllers 7

6 FACTS Devices 8
6.1 Transmission System FACTS Devices 9
6.2 Non Transmission System FACTS Devices 13
6.3 Today’s FACTS controllers 17

7 General Assessments 19

8 Function Analysis
8.1 Power flow control 21
8.2 Transient stability enhancement 21

9 Conclusion 23

References 24