Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 60

c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

The Constitutionality of Social Costc

Josh Blackman
c
c
c

c
c

Table of Contents
ð 

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 3c
ð 

I.c Liberty and Externalities ± A Coasean View of Freedom ................................................. 6c
ð 

II.c The Supreme Court Rediscovers the Second Amendment.............................................. 9c
ð 

° c  
     
 .............................................. 109c
ð 

u c Breyer¶s Balance Beam ................................................................................................... 11c
ð 


c Scalia¶s Devastating Dicta ........................................................................................... 1413c


ð 

III.c The Lonely Second Amendment ............................................................................... 1817c
ð 

° c Is the Second Amendment Unlike All Other Rights?................................................. 1917c
ð 

u c Faux-Restraint and Judicial Engagement .................................................................. 2120c
ð 


c Federalism and The Second Amendment¶s Geography Clause ................................. 2724c


ð 

1.c States not Laboratories for Experimentation of Constitutional Rights..................... 2925c
ð 

2.c The Second Amendment in High-Crime Urban Areas ............................................... 2926c
ð 

IV. c The Constitutionality of Social Cost and Equality of Rights.................................... 3429c
ð 

° c Category I - Imminent Harm ...................................................................................... 3630c
ð 

1.c Unlawful Incitement to Imminent Violence ................................................................ 3631c
ð 

2.c Fighting Words............................................................................................................. 3832c
ð 

3.c Public Safety Exception to Miranda and Exigent Circumstances.............................. 3933c
ð 

u c Category II - Latent Threat from a Dangerous Actor ............................................... 4034c
ð 

1.c Right to Bail.................................................................................................................. 4135c
ð 

2.c Right to a Speedy Trial ................................................................................................ 4336c
ð 


c Category III - Cognizable Threat That Is Not Imminent .......................................... 4437c


ð 

1.c The Exclusionary Rule and its Good Faith Exception................................................ 4438c
ð 

2.c Miranda v. Arizona ...................................................................................................... 4942c
ð 

V. c A Second Amendment Framework that Balances Social Costs and Liberty............ 5246c
ð 

° c Unprecedented Analysis .............................................................................................. 5346c
ð 

u c The What, Where, When, Who, and Why of the Second Amendment ..................... 5448c

c Bifurcating Second Amendment Challenges based on Social Cost and Propensity for
Harm ................................................................................................................................... 5649c ð 

ð 

 c Reject Longstanding Prohibitions that Conflict with   ..................................... 5951c
ð 

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 6052c

c
c

The Constitutionality of Social Cost

Josh Blackman*
c
c
INTRODUCTION
c c
c 
c 

cc c   cc
c
 c  cc
c 
c  c c

c 
cc c c

ccc
 c c
 c c c c  c c

cc c

c  c c
cc
  c
c
cc
c
c!

c
c c c c
 c  c c

cc c
c  c c District of Columbia v. Hellerc c McDonald v.
Chicagoc 
c
c "c c
c# cc

c
c
c   c#


c
c 
c  c  c c 

#c c 
c  c 
c 

c  c 
c 

 c 

c c

c 
c  c c  
c c 
 c c # c somec rolecc 
c   c   c
c c
c
c!

c c
c

c

$c c
c !c  c  c   c  c  
c

$c % c  c 
c  
 c c  
$ &c ! c  
c
'

c 
c 
c  c c  c $c $c $c 
c # c 
 (c 
c c  $ c 
c c # c

cc

c

c) c *c c
cc
c 
c c

c
c
cc c+
  c

c  c 
c 
c !

c c c

c    c  c  c  


c c
 
 c
c#
 c  c  c c#

c 
 
c
,
 
c c# 
c 
 #c
c 
 $ -c c  c c  c  c  c c # c #
c  c 
c 
c
  c c c 
c c 
c c +
c  c   $c .  c " c 
  c  c
 c c c 
c c c  c # c c 
c 
c  "
c  
c c 
c
!

c" #

$c
c / 
c
c
c!

c c

c 
ccc c
 
cc
c'cc0  c
cthe most dangerous right cc cc
cc 
 c $c.
c#

c1c c

#
c

c c
cc" #

cc
c c cc
c c
c
 
c
,
 
$c.
c
 c c #
c 

c  c   
c  c 
c # 
c c  c  c 
c c #
#
c#
 c

c

c
 
c c

c
c
$c.
c

cc
c#
c#
 c
c

 cc
#c c  
 c c c c  c
$c.
c

c c  c  c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
2
c.
 c3
c
   c 
c4
 c c cc5 $c5 c1
cc
c6 
c c$c
' c4
c 
c1cc!##
 cc
c, c1c 7&&8& $c5 c1
cc
c6 
c9c0$c% c
4$$c c1cc
c/

c cc
   c 77:8&&$c 

c6  c  
$c;c
c c

c   
c c #<== $=  >?-7@:-$c.
c  cc
cc c0 c!
c
# c'
c c
1 
c1
c1 #

c0
c5
c;+ c;   c3 cA
 c5c1 cA
cB c0 c c
  c  c #c  cc cC

cD $c c
 
c  c 
cc0 c1
$cEc c'  c 7&&$c
&
c c  c 
c cc 
carguendoc c
#
cc
 #c c#
c
c  c
 
c c
 
c

cc
c 
cc
 c 
c c 
cc#
c#c 
c c
 
c
 
c

,
 
$c ccc

c

c

c#  cc 
c
c

cc  
c c
c  c
c
c  cc  c  $c c
 cc c

cc
c
,
 
ccc
 
c c

 c cc cc
 #cc F c+
 c#
c
c  c

 $c
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& 7cG 7&7HcG'

c$c
H$c

cId.c c& @cGc4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI:cIJJcG&:?IHH$c
-
cSeecC

cD cImplementing The Right To Keep And Bear Arms For Self-Defense: An Analytical Framework
And A Research AgendacJ@c415!c5$0CD $c&--c&--cG 77:HcGc c
cc
cc

c 

cc
"   cc
c
c cc

#c c
c  c c
c 
c
c"   c  c
c
c
c c c 
c#  c
,

cc
c c c c  c 
 c cc c" c
c
c
 H$c

c
c

#
#
c c 
 
c c  
c c 
 c #
c c 

$c .
c 

c c 
c

c c

( c #
  c 
c # #
 c c

 c   c 
 
c

c c
+
c #
 c
#
#
c c #
c 
c  c c  
 
c c 
c  c #$c # c


c

+
c c  c c   c  c  c 

 c   
c c  c #
c 
c c c
#
$c 5

c c  c c c#
 ( c Mirandac  c

 c c 
 K

c
c

c# c
K  
$cc
c 
 c  cc
c c Kc
c cc c"c
c

c  c   c
F c 
c  c   c 
c "
# c 
c  c c # c
#
c 
c  c c  c 
c  c c c #

c c #c  c 


c  c c  c c
"K c  
c 
c #
c c # 
c 

  c  c 
$c .
c 
c #
c
 
c  c#
c  cc c

c  c# 
c
c
cc#c
c c

 
ccc
c#
$c.
c ccF
,

c c c
 
c
c 
cc


c c  #
 c c c # c c #
 c c #
 # c  c 
c c  c


c  $c .
c  c   c 
c c   c # 
 c 

c 
 c  c c

cc
c
cc
c  
c

cc
c cc# c 
ccc
c c 
$c .
c  c c 
c # c
 
c  c c #
 K 

c  
 K c 
c


c 
 
c  c##
c#

$c5
( c cc 
c 
c  c K
c " c c 
c
,

c c 
c

 c c 

#c c 
c  $ Jc .

c #


 c c |  !c 
c
#c cc c
c 
c 1c   
c 

c c 
c c  c  c 
c c  c
,

$c / 
c c cc $c
cc c 
c c
c 
 
c
# c
cc

c

c) c *c c
cc
c 
c c

c
c
cc c
+
 @c  c
c cc  c  $cc
c .  c 
c
,#
c 
c   c 
  c c 
c  c   c c
,
 c

$c / 
c 
c 
c 

c  c  c c c c 
c 3 c !

c c

#
  c 
cc
c
c!

c c##
c c
c  c ##  Kc
c
c

c 'c c 0  $c 5
c 

 c 
 c  c c#
cc
c 1( c#


 c
  c  
c 

 c   c 
( c 

c c 
c c
c  

c c 

c
  $c'c

# +c
c cc

#c c
c  c  c
c
 cc  c cc
 c c 
c c 
c c #

c 1c " #

c 
c  c

c  c 
#
c  c  
 c
#
 c
c
c!

c cc c

cc c
c  Lc cc c
c 
c 

c 

$c ! c c c 1 c c 

#c 
c  c c c c c 
c 
$c

cc  cc c
c$c;c ccc  c 
c cc
c
 cc
 
c 
c 
c !

c c c 

c  c  c 
c #
 c    c c c
# c 
c cc$c!c  c 
c "
cc
 c
 

c c  c
 $cB
c

c  
c
cc  
c
c
c!

c c
c  
c  cc  
c 
c
c 
c
c  $cc
c .  c 
c #

 c c 
c #  $c c c
,#
c c 1
c 
c c 

c  c
  
c

c c
,
 
c c 
c
c 
#c c
c constitutionality of social
cost$cC,
c c##
cc0 c1
( c  c 
cThe Problem of Social Cost  Ic
  c 
#c 
+
c  c
,
 c c  c c 
c 
 c  c # 
c c 
 
c
 c  $c3c
c c
c
c1c c
,#c cc c
c#c  
c
  c 
# c 
  #c 
c #
c  c 

c c 
c c  $c C
c |  .
c1c
(c#
c
  $c c#
 c 
cc  $c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
J
cCf.cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c&&7cG

 c$c
HcG.
c

 ( c
c

c c  
ccG c
 c
c c  cHc
c " c#
$cc.
cc


c c
 #c c#c 
c c c
 
$c.
c c c
c ccc
Lc
c ( c
 c 
c
c

$H$c
@
cId. c& @cGc4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$c$cI:cIJJcG&:?IHH$c
I
c0$6$c1
cThe Problem of Social CostccM40A!5cM3c5!/c!AcC1MAM; 1c&cG&:@7H$c

-c
c

  c 
c 
c  
 c 

c  c   c  
c c c   c 
 c c


c
 c" c#
Kc 
c#

c" c
 c c
c
 
c

,
 
c   c 
  
c  c c 
c  c c  c 
$c D
c 
c

c !

c c 

c 1
c 
 c
# c c  
c 
c  
c c  c 

c 
c
#

c1c c 
cc  c $c.  c# c
c
ccc
c  c
c  c c c
+
c c
c1c  
c
c c  c  $c
c c c #
c c 

c c 
c #
c 
 c c  c  c c District of
Columbia v. Hellerc c McDonald v. Chicagoc c c 
c '

( c  c
c c
 
c  ( c#  c $c cHellerc 
c  c 
c  
)
*cc
c#
cc |  !
cc 
cc cc
c 

c c   c c c c  c 
c
 

c c   c   c   
+
cc  c c

 cc
c
 c
c c

 c   c  c
#$c


c  
c 
 c #c  
c c )c 

c 
 c *c 
c  
$?c c McDonaldc
|   c 

$c cc
 
c !c c  c 
c
c 


c !

c 
c ) *c c 
c 
  
+
c$cc
  c#  c c#
c
 cc c


c cc
c#
cc

c $c $c $c c 
  c #c 
c #  $:c / 
c 

c # c  
 c
 c 
c 
c  c c 

c c # c c  c 
c 
c !

c 
c
c c 
 c  c c 

c 
c 

c  c 
c  
c 
c c   
#  c

 c #c c   c c 
c   
c  c 
c 
c !

c 
c c
  
c  c c 
c  
c 
c c  
c 
c   $c C
c   c 
c 1c 
"
 c
 
c'

( c

c  c ##  c
c c  c# ccHellercc
c
c
 c

c
cc
c 
c#  K cc  K 
 cc

c  c
  c c
  
ccc
 #$c.  c#   c c
c 
c
c c  

c
 
c '

( c 
$c .
c 


c 


c 
c c # c  c 
c c 


c c c c


$c
c c c  
 c 
c 

c c 
c 
c !

c c 
c 'c c 0  c c
 c cc
c 
 cc
c
c 
c c
c; "ccc

$c/ 
c

c "c#
 
c c
#
cc
c   c  
cc
  cc
c

c

c
c
1( c  FcumF#   c c 
c 

( c #   K  c  c 
c
c 
c


Kc#
 cc
c
c $c3 c c 
cc
c
c

) *c#

cc

c
c !

c 
c  cc 
c)
c1c *c
+
cc c # cc


c 
c
c c 
 &7c !
c 
c 
c 
c  c c   
c 
c
)
 
*c 
c  c c  c $c $c $c 
c # c 
 c 
c c  &&c / 
c 
c 
c
!

c
 c#

 c  c#
,c 
c c
 c  
 
c
 c
c  c"
c c#  
c
,#

c
c1c c#
c 
#c c
c  c
 c# cc  c
c1  c
, $& cC
c 
#c 
c'

( c    c
c

cc
c
 #ccMcDonald c 
c 
c
c
c!

c c
c
c
c
c cc   
c
$&cA
,c c
,#
c c 
c
c#
cc c

c "c c
c# K c
c!

c  c
c
c
cc c
  
c  c c  c 
c c c  c 
$c 
c 
c 
c !

c 
c c

 # c 
c c c locational c  c c
c

c  cc

c# 
c |   c 
c#c  cc

c
$1$ $c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
?
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@@cG 77?H$c
:
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c7-J$c
&7
cId.c c&&7$c
&&
cId. c& 7cG'

c$c
H$c
&
c.
c
c 
cc'

 (c
c# $c
&
cMcDonaldcId. c& 7$c

Jc
c

c c Dc
 c
c
c !

c  c
c
 cc
c  c c  c
 c c  
 c 
c 
c  
c c   c 
, c )c   c 
c 1*c c )*c
#F 
c
 c 
c
cc" c
 cc c

$&-c.

c
#


 c c

 c
 c c  
c c
c c  c  c 
c  c

c
c c  
 c c c # c   K
c 

c c 
c c 
c ##
 c c 
c
c c c c c 
c 
c   c
c c  
c c 
c ### 
c 

c c
" c $c.

c#


 c   c
cc 

c 

$cc
c 3 c
c c + 
c cc 
cc 
c c
c
c  c#
c

c |  .
c
c c
c 
cc


 c c  c 
c  c  c c c " c 
  $c 
c 
c c 
c#

c1c  c
c c
G Hcc 
c#


 c c c c c
 
c  c c 
c + 

c c c #
 ( c #
 c  c 

 c c ##
 c 
cc #c c $cc
  c 
c 

c 
c  c #
c c 

c c  c 

c c   
c |  !
cc

cc
c

 c  c c " c 
  $c . c 
c c  
c  c + 
c c c 

c #

c1cc
c cc

 c

c

 c 
c#

c c

c" c $c6

c
c
c 
c c |  !
cc

cc
c


c+ 
cc
c c 
c 
c c#

 cc##
 cc 
cc 
c #

c1cc
c cc

 c
##
c c c
c#
c c ex ante

 c
c c
# c  c c c  c c
 cc ##
c c 
c

c#

c
c    c
cc c

 
c cc |   cc
 c-c c

c 

c c


c  c 
c  c  c c c c 
c   c  
c c #
c Jcccc
c c #
cc
(c
 
c $cc


c 

 Kc $c / c 
c 
c c 
c !

c " #

c
cHellerc
c#

c1c c

cc c c 
$c.

c c c# c c
 
 c  
c 


c Hellerc c  c 


c #


 K
c 
# c c 
c
 c

c c  c c 
 +
$c.  c 
c c#



$c
c 'c c  c 8 Dc c Dc #
c c   #c c 
c 

#
c c 
c
!

c" #

cc $c c  c
c c##
c c 
c c#
c c
" c  

c   cc ccc 
c

c 
$c3 c
c c
+
c c |   cc" c
c

 c

c    c 
c 1c #

c c Hellerc  c #



c c 
c c  c c c c 
c  c
 

c 

c 
c supra$c
cc 
cc

c
c cc

#c c
c  c |  B
c c
c cc


 c  cc
c

c 
cc
 c c
 
cc
c'c c 0  c c  c
c
 c

cc cc 
K c  
c
 c1M.4c


c 
c  c c  $c .
c  
 c c 

c 
 c 
 
c c 
c  
c c
##
<c
c!

c 

c c
c 
c
cc
c  c  c
c
c 
c ( c ##
 c c 

$c 3c 
c 
# c c 
c 
c c #
#
c  c c
##
 c c 

c 
c 
c c #
  c c 
 c  c 
c  
c c 
c
" c c c   
$c3c 
c  c 
c
  
c c##
 c c 

c c

c 
c c c c c 
c 
c  c c 
c 
 c
c 
c c 
c  c 
c
 c c
c
, c" c c c ### 
$c4
c  c c ##  c  c c
c  
c c Heller( c c 
c 
c !

c  c 

#c c 
c  c
 c
 c cc c

c1  c  $cc
c
I.  Liberty and Externalities ± A Coasean View of Freedom
c 5
c c cc
 c
c c
c

c
c $c c  c  c 
c
The Problem of Social Cost cc cc
,#c
c
c c
 c
cc c  c
  cA
c +
Fc
 c0 c 1
c
+
c cc
c  c c !cc
#
c 'c 

c c#
c c c
# c  
$&Jc1
( c c c 
c c#
c
   c c 
c c c 
c 
c !

$c 1 
c  
c   c 

 c
#
c
c
c c c!( cc c'c c
c c
c c c'( cc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&-
cHellercJJ-c4$$c c@?:$c
&J
c1
csupra 
c@c c $c

@c
c

c !c !c c 


c #

c c
 
c c 
c $c 3c
, #
c !( c  c
 c

c c
 c'$c'c

 c c"c cc cc !( c $c c  c


c
c
 c c !( c c c 'c G c #
c  c  c
 c , c 
Hc  c 
c
 c  c '( c 

c c c !c G c c c

c  c  c c

 
c" c c

cc#H$cc
c 6

c
c
c c c!( cc c  c'c c

c c
c c c
'( c c  c  c !c 
c c  c c  
c c 
c  c   
c  c c c 
c
 
$ &@c4 c
c#
 c
, #
c 
c c

cc cc!( c c'c

 c
c
   cc
 
c
,#
 
c 
F
c

$c c  c
c!( cc c
'cG
c 
Hc cc 

c c'( c

cc c!cG
c
c#
c
c
,#
 
c
 H$c.  c c 

c 
c $cB
c 1
c
c c cc
  c ##  K)* c cc
c

c c

c
c cc#

c
c c c

c
 c 
c  c   c c 
c 

c



c c c 
c c ##c 
c c   c
#
c
c $cc
c / 
c 1
c 
c c  c c  
c  c  c    c ##c
 c c
  c $c1
c
<c
c
.
c
c cc  cc c
cc  c!c c cc'c c c cc
c

c <c
c c 
c 
 c !c 'c   c  c $c /
c 
c 
c  c c #
c c c 
# c  
$c .c
c 
c c c 'c c c c c !$c .
c 
c 
 c  c c c 
c 

c  <c c !c 
c

cc c'cc c'c
c 
cc c!c
c
c c
#cc
# 
c  c 
cc
 cc
c
c!

$c .
c
c c 
c
 

c
c 
c !

K# c Hellerc c McDonaldK
c
c  c c

c  c c 

#c c 
c  c c 
 c cc 
c c   c !c G
c c 
Hc c
c c 'c G
c c c 
c c 
H$c 5
c 1
c c  c   c c c 
 c c 
c
$c c 
c 
c  c ##
c c )
c 
c !

c  *c
F


&Ic # c

 c #
c c c c   c c c 
c c c ')*c c c c c )
c
  c  c c

c*c!$c.
c
  #c


c  c c
c c
# c
c 
$c.
c
c
c c cc
c

c <c c!c
c 
cc c'cc c
'c
c 
cc c!cc
c c 
c  c c 'c c 
c 

c c 
c c c 

c  c 
c
,

c c !( c
  c cc

#c c
c  c.  c c
c
cc
c constitutionality of social
cost$c .  c  c c 
c  c  c c  
c  c c c c 
c c c 
c
  c c c c
 $c3c 
c c 
c
c 1c c
,#c cc
 c
c#c  
c  c
# c
  #c
c#
c c

$c
B
c
c Heller  
c c

c c cc c F
c    c
cc
c
  c  $c
c .
c #
c c  c   c 
 c  c   c c c
c 
c

 
c
,
 
$c
c
c c

c## cc
c#
cc
c  
cc
c

$c.
c
c c
c#
#
c 
c
c 
cc cc
c

cc  c

c
 c 
c c
 
cc
c  
$c.
c
c# c c
c c
c

cc c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&@
cId.c c&:ccG.  cc
c 
cc. c c#
 c cN 
c
cc  cc##
cc$c$c$cc  cc
  c c
c
,#

cc 
c cc  c
  $c6
c c#
 
c c c 
c
c c 
c 
c 
c
 cc
 c cc c
c

# c c
 
c $c c cc
c  cc c
 e, in
the light of its utility and the harm which results c)  c 
*c cc

c c 
c$c$c$c$(H$c
&I
cHellercJJ-c4$$c cJI&c@7$c

Ic
c

c
c  
ccc cc
$cC
c  c
c 
c 
 c
c
c
c c#

cc

c1 c

c  c  c 
cc c  c
 c c

c
 c
" c#
Kc
c#

c" c
 cc
c
 
c
,
 
$c1 cc
c#
c
c

cc  c #c
 
c
c
,

cc c c c
c cc

$cc
c / 
c 
c  c c!c ,
c

c c
c 
 c 
cc

c
  c
c  
c


c
c ##  c c 
c'

( c c 
c c
c c
+
$&?c
1
c 
+
c  c 1 c  
c   c c   c c  c 
c 
c  
c   c c
  c c c 
c
,#c  c c #  c 


c  c c 
c  
c c  c c
#

c  c  c 
c c

 $cHeller  McDonald #c# 
c c
c 
c  
c c 
c 
 #c c 
c c  c  c 
c c #

c   c
 cc
 #$cc
c D
c
c
c!

cc1
c
 c
# cc 
c
c 
cc c


c
c#

c1c c 
cc  c $c1 
cc
 #c c c 
c
 c c
c 
c
 
cc c
cc c c$cc c
c
c!

c cc
 c c c   c c
cc cc
c

c ccc

c c 
c c
 c
c
c 


c"
c cc c 
 $c Ac 
c   c c c
cc
 c c  c   $c ! c 
  
c infrac c  
c c c 
c   c c  c
 cc
c
, cc
c3 c3 c c3 c!

c

 c c
c1 c 
c c

c
cc 
c
c# 
c c!c c 
c'c
c c

c'c cc

c  cc!$cc
c / 
c 1 c 
c 

c c 
c F c   c 
 c c 
 c  c  c c F
  c 
, K c c 
c #
c 

 c c 
 
c  
c c



cc cc
cc  c
c

cc c#
,cC0 !c 
Kc
c 
,c c
1  c  c
c 
 c 
c

$c c
c
,cc
c#
c  
c
 c
c c
#ccc
c ### 
c
c c c# 
cc
c  
cc
cc
c

c 
c c 
c  $c c 
c 
,c c 

c #

 c    c 
c c #c 
 c
 
c c 

 c # 
c   c c c 
c 

c  c c 
c 

c c
#

 $c c
c
,cc c#

c  c  c   cc
c
,  c
c c
Mirandac  cc
c  cc


c 
c  c1  c  $c
c 6

c c 
c 
,c c 
c 
c !

c F  c #  c c c
c   K

c  
c   c #
c 

c 
c 
c !

c  c   c

+
c c c c K 
c#
#
c  c c
c  
c c


c

c c c 
c c  c c 
 
c # 
$c .  c  
 c ##  c  c
#  
c c
 c c 
c #
c c c 
c   c  $ &:c 3
c 
c

c #
c c

c c c#

c c
cc+c
c  c c c##
cc ,+c
c
 c
c

 cc
c
c!

$c
c !c  cc
c

c
,
 
K c# 
c c
 
c  c   cc

c  c  c c 

c 
c #
#
c 
c

c
$c
#
c 

c  c
c
 c cc#
c

c

c  c 
$c.
c c 
cc c1  c
 c # 
c c c c 

c # 
c  c 
#
c c  F

c  
$c c 
c 
,c c
#c c   c #
#c c 

c  
c ;  c 
c )*c  c c  c
 c c  c c c  c 
c 
  c c 
c 
c 

c 

c 
c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&?
c

cinfrac c c
&:
c
# c'
cCategoricalism and Balancing in First and Second Amendment Analysis c?-cA$B$4$c5$c0CD$cIJc
G 77:H$c

?c
c


 
c c c 
c 
c #
#
$ 6c 
c #
#c c 

c  c 
c
Lc 

c 
c  c # c    c  c   c c c 
c c c 
c c 
c
 
c 
c
#
$ 7c !c   c  c  c c c  
c  c c 
c 

c 
 
c

c c 
c c 
$c c c c c c#  cc
c c c
c

 
$c
c .  c 
ccc#

c
c 
cc
 cc c c 
c
 c
c
#
cc McDonaldc c Heller$c/ 
c c
 c 
 c 
c#
c

c


) *c c     )*c 
 ) # *c c $c $c $c 

c 

 c 

c 
 c  
c

c  c 
c 

$ &c .
c 1( c 
c c 
c  
c 

c 
c  c c



c

c c
c c c c
c    c

cc
cc 
 c

c

c 
cc c
c
,

c c
c c cc  c c c#c  c
c 
cc
c c
c    c
cc

c

c
c 
$ c.  c c
c
cc
c
  cc  c c c c cc 
$c
c .
c
  #c


c
c   c c c c c c c c
c  c
 c  c  c  c c c c  
c 

c 
c c 
c 
 
$c ; c 
c  c

c c
c  c cc c c c
c
c c c

 cc c  c    $c
.  c

cc   c
c
$c 0 
c
c 
c c#
c 
#  c c
c
c c  c
  ccc c $c .
c 1 c
cc
 c 
c c
c  c  c c
c

,

cc c $c 

c
c1 c cc c 
c# $c6

c
c  c  cc c
 c

cc
c
c 
cc

c# c

 cc
c  cc
c
,

cc
c $c .  c 
c
c
cc c
c   c c  c  c c
+
c
c
c1c  
c
c c
 
c
,
 
$cc
c
II.  The Supreme Court and the Second Amendment
c A
cc 
c 
 c 
c c  c
c#

c1cc c
c
c
!

c #
 c c 
c  c  c c 

#c c 
c  $c c District of Columbia v.
Hellerc c 

cc McDonald v. Chicago c
c#

c1c
+
c c
c#
#
c
c   c  c  c   c 

c c 
c 3

 c %

c c 
c  
$c .
c
c c 

c # c 
c   c 
 
c c 
c  c 
 c c 
c 
c
!

c c 
c 3

 c !

$c / 
c 
c 
 
c c 

c # c 
c c 
c


c c
#
cc
c  cc  c c

c 
 c 
c c   c

$c c  c  
c c 
c 1( c c 
c 

 (c   <c   c c  c

c c
 
c
,
 
$cc
c C
c   c  
c '

c 
c c 

c  c  
c   ( c   c c  c

c
c!

c c c
 c#
 c c c) c*c
F


c

c 
carguendo c c

cc c!

c c
#

c c#
c c c
#  
c
)
*c 

c c  c
F


c 
c  ( c c  c  c c   $ c
3c 
c ##
c c   c 
c c c 
K c 
c  
c '

 -K c 
c 
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
7
c4
c 
$c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI:cI@IcG&:?IHcG;  c$c
HcGc4
c 
c$c0 +c
:c4$$cJ@c@:cG&:J7HcG3 
c$c
HH$c
&
cD c suprac
cc c&-@&$c
cId.c

c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@?&cG 77?HcG.  c
#

cc c 
c

 c 
K

c

ccccc
c c
#

c

cc
F


K
c "O c
c c
c
c
cc c
c c
c O c
 c c
 
cc ### 
cc
c!

c
 $c.  c
c "c
 c$H$c
-
cId. c@?cI cG c c c c c 
c c
c "c c
c!

cc cc
c c
 F
 
c##
c  c
 c c

cc#
c cc##
cc
F


c c
cc 
c

:c
c

!

c #
 c c  c  c c 

#c c 
c  $c .
c ,c c 
c 
c c
Heller c McDonaldc c c 
c 
c c # c  c 
c c c  c c c
  c 
c
,
 
c c 
c 

 c c 
c 
c !

$c c   c # c c c
 cc
cc#  ccHellerc c McDonaldc c #
c
cc  c  
K 
c
'

( c  c c  
c  ( c#  c $c c
c
c5 c 
c#

 cc |  

c
 c 
c

c
c c c 
 c 
c 

 c c c   
c  
$c .
c  
c  c c |  .
c
c  c  c

"
c  c
 c
 c 
 c  c c"  c
 
c

c  
$c  c c
c

cccc
cc
(c

#c
$c
c
°c  
     
 |  1

c#
 # $c (c


ccccc c

cc c c cc


c c c  c 77?c #c District of Columbia v. Heller,c
c #

c 1cc 
 c

$cc
 c
c
c!

c#
 c c ( c cc

#c c
c  c

cc


c c c  $ Jc .
c 1c c c c $1$c  
c  c 
c 

#c c
 c c
c

#c c c c


 c  c
c 
$c.
c Hellerc
 c c


 c c 
c !

c ##
c c 
  c 
c #
c  @c c c 
c


c  $c .
c 
c c 
c c c  

c c
c  c c 
c 

 c  # c 
c
1c  
c c 
 c 
c 
c c 

c c c  c
,
c 
c  c c 

#c c 
c
 c ##
c c 
c  
c c 
c  c c  c 

$c  
c   ( c #c c 
c
1c c 

c 

c  c  c &: F
c #


c 
c c ##c 
c 
c
!

c  c   c 
c  
c   c c  c 
c 3 c !

c c c ##c   c

c 
c ccc
 
cc
c cc3

 c!

cc

ccc 
c

$ Ic
c / c 
c c 
c #

c 1( c 
 c c Heller,

 ?c c  c c


c McDonald v. City of Chicagoc  c c  
c 
c ( c c  c c


 c 
 
c 

c c  c c 
  c  
$ :c .
c c  c 
c A  c
0
c !  c 
c  c  
c 
c 1  c  
c c 
c c  
c c 
c
ccM c $c
c .
c#

c1c


c
c

 c1c c
cc c-F&F-c #c c
c cc


#c c
c  c c# 
K c
c1cc

c c c
c
c# 
$c 
c
!c c c 
c # c c 
c c 1 
c  
c 0
 c  
c   c c  
c
9

c
c c
c 
c !

c c# 
c  c
c 
c 
c 1 
c c

c3

 c!

$c 
c  c
c c
c# c c
c
#  
cc
 #
c cc 
c

 (c
$c 
c.  c

cc"c 
c!( c#c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c



$c$c$c$c! 
cc 
( c 
c c
c3 
 cc
c
c!

cc
c c


cc
F



c#
$H$c
J
Id.c c@& $c3c c  c c  c cc
c  c c c
cDistrict of Columbia v.
Hellerc

c1 cA
cDistrict of Columbia v. Heller: The Second Amendment Is Back, Baby c 77?c1!.Mc 4 $ c1.$c
0CD$c& IcG 77?H$cA
c c c! c% c c'c5
c c
cc
ccHeller$ccSee alsoc c
'  cOriginalism for Dummies, Pragmatic Unoriginalism, and Passive Liberty: An Originalist Critique of the
Heller Dissents and Judges Posner's and Wilkinson's Un originalist Assault on the Liberty to Keep and Bear Arms c
G
$c&:c 77?Hc #<==# #
 $ $= =# #
 $   P>&&??I$c
@
cA
csupra 
c c c&-I$c
I
cHellercJJ-c4$$c c@ 7c$ $c
?
c3c##
ccc  
c cF  
c c 
c c! c% c
c
cc0
#
ccDistrict of
Columbia v. Hellerc cc

ccMcDonald v. Chicago$c
:
c3c c
 
c ccMcDonald v. Chicagoc

c

   c'  cQc  c #cKeeping Pandora¶s
Box Sealed: Privileges or Immunities, The Constitution in 2020, and Properly Extending the Right to Keep and Bear
Arms to the Statesc?c%CM$c$5$cQc 4'$c M5( Bc&cG 7&7HLc! c% c  c #cQc c'  cThe Tell-Tale
Privileges or Immunities Clause c 7&7c1!.Mc4 $c1.$ c0CD$c&@cG 7&7H$c

&7c
c

c 
c c "
c $c / 
c .  c 

c  c 
c  c c 

#c c 
c  c
c
c ##
cc
c  
c c 

c c
c c c 
 c
cc c
c c
 c ##
c
,

c   c 
c 

c c 
c 1 
$c  
c 

 c 

c
c c 
c

c "
c  c #$c 

 c c  c 
c 
c !

c c c 
c
# 
c c

ccc cc

cc#
c c c#
cc#
#
cc
c  
c c
c#
cc#
#
cc

 c
 
$c 
c'

c

c"
cc 
c% c c
 
c  c c 
c c Hellerc  c c

cc c c  c
c 
c
!

c c c 
c # 
c c  c   c #c c 
c c 
c 
c c


$cc
c 3c ##
c c   c 
c Hellerc c McDonaldc c 

 c 
c  
c

 
$c.
c
 cc# c  c
c 
 cc c   c
c
  c c 
c 1  c  
c  c 
#
c c  c   c  
c c  
c c 
c
 ( c  
$c / 
c  
c 

 c #

c c 
 c c   c 
 c c  
c
  ( c " #

c c McDonaldc c 
c

c "
c  c #$7c 4
c  
c 9  c

# c  c
K  c
  cc
c


K c
c c c $c!c
cc c  c
, 
cc 
c  ( c "c#c c 
c'

( c
c
c Hellerc c 
c!( c# c c 
c'

( c
ccMcDonald$ &cc
c
uc Breyer¶s Balancing Test
c C
c   c  
c '

 (c 
 c 
c c c 
c c c 
c   
c c
#c 
 c
$c3 c
cc
c cc #
 cc 
c  ( cHellerc#c

c
c
 c c c

c c#
#c c   cc c
ccc
c  c c  c 
cc
c cc 
c'

( c#  F
c"
 $c
c

 
c  c 
c 
c c 
c  "c c 
c # c c c   c 
c
 c  c c 
c 
c c  
c   c  c   c 
c c Hellerc c
McDonaldMcDonald( c   c  c  
c #c   c 

 c c 
c  
c
 
c '

c  $c c . c c #
 # c  c # c 
c  
c 
c  c c 

c |  !
$c

 cJF-c # c
#
 c c c c 1c  c c
cc ,$c !
c

c
# c
c#
c c

 cc
c

 c#
  
c 
 $cc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
7
c c'  c  cc c'  cc c'  ( c'cStevens Solo Dissent Exits With a Whimper,
Hands the Torch to Breyerc c'  ( c'cG
c ?c 7&7c < c ;Hc
#<=="   $==#>-I-:cG
$c ?c 7&7c&-< cC.H$c
&
c3c
cc 
c.  (cc#ccMcDonaldcseec% c #cQc'  csuprac
c @c c
&?I8:$c

cHellercJJ-c4$$c c@ I G!  c
ccc
 
c c
,  
c   c    c cc
cc #
c
c
c
c!

c ccc#c c
c 
cc ccc  c#  cc
c
#
cc
 cc
 c c
c
 ccc  cc
c cc
 cc
 
c# 
c
 c c   c c

c cc  c# c c c   cc
c
 c 
cc
 c$c$c$c/
c
c

c#
#
c c
 c

cc c
, #
Lcc c
cc##cc

c
,  
$H$c

cSee e.g.,4
c 
c$c;   cG- c1$c= -=&&HcG!
c
cc c   c
c
" c c
#

c
#
 
c
cc
c
c!

c
,c cc c 
c
cc&?-@ccSkoienc

c1c 
c c  c
c c 
cc c
c 
cc c#
 ( c
c!

c

c
c

,
cc  c 
c

 c 
c

cc

c
 c c
c 
 cc
c

( c
"   cc
c
 $Hc.

c 
c
c
, c  c
 c
cHellerc1c##
cc
"
cc
#c#

$cCf.c6

cG'

c$HcG.  c c 
#cc
cc ##c c ccc
  c
cc# 
ccc c

F  cc c
c

 c#

cc
c
c!

cc
c

c c
c

 c#F 
c
 cc
c
c
cc
c
c

c
c
 c c
 
c#
 c
 c
c
cc
c
cc  c
c 
$H$c

&&c
c

c / 
c 
c'

( c
 c
 c cc c
cc 
c 
c
cc
c c   c 
c #Kc 
 c  c 
c)*c 
$-c '

c 
 c  c c 
c 1c

cccc  
c)* 
c c
cc c 
c#
c
 c
c c
 
c c  c 
c #  c c  $Jc '

c 
c c  c c  c c  
c
  c c 
c #c # 
c  
c c 
c #

c "c c 
c 
c
c 
c c 
  
c "
c

c c c " c 



$@c .  c 
  
c

#
c  c #
 
c 
 
c c  c c 
#
c c c
 c 

c 
F 

c
#
$Ic
c '

c  c  c 
c  #c c c 
c F c   c c
  c c

  c c
c# 
$c c c c
c c c  c

c Fc
 c
c

cc  
cG c
c
c

c
Hc cN# c
cc

c

K c
c
c
c 
c c

c
c
cc c+
 $(?c 

c
c%

O c

 c

c
c#

c
c c#
$:cc c 
c'

c ccc# c
c ( c c
1  ( c  
K c 
c  c   c c 
c  Kc  c 
c  c 
 c


cc c
c cc  $c.
c#

c cc
c c  
c '

c


c


c   c 
c  c  c c 

#c c 
c  c c c
c #

c c

c  
c
c c c
c

$c
c / 
c'

( c  c
c# 
c
c

 c#

cc
c
c!

c
c 
c 
c c 
c 

 c #F 
c 
 c c 
c 
c 
c c c  
c  
c
'

c  
 c c  c c 
c c c   c  $c !c 
c c  c c 

c
" c cc
c ( c c1  ( c# $c c Hellerc 
c'

c  c

c )
*c


c )c 
 #c c c 

c 
c c 
c 
*c  c  c 
c #
 c 
 F
 
c
 $-7c 6
c  c  c  c  c c 
c  c c 
c # 
c  
$-&c  
c '

c

 c #c c  
<c .  c c 
#c c 
c c ##c c c c c 
  c c c
# 
c c c c 

F  c c  c 
c 

 c #

c c 
c 
c
!

c c 
c 
c c 
c 

 c #F 
c 
 c c 
c 
c 
c c

c
c

c
c
 c c 
c#
 c
 c
c
cc
c
cc
 c 
c  
$- c .  c 
c 3 c 1c c Masciandaroc 
c c   ( c #c

c  c#

c#
c'

( c
 cc ##c c $-c |  !
c
c Mc
c 
c 
c
c#
 c  cc
c c c 
$c'c c cc
c
c 
c
/ c  c 
c 

c c c 
 #c c   c 
c   c c  c  c 
c
c c
c
,
 
c 
cc c c
c
c

 c 
c'

c #
 c

c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
-
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& IcG 7&7H$c
J
cId.c
@
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@? cG 77?H$c
I
cId. c@?&8? $c
?
cId.c c@?:cGc4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI:cIJJc$c1$cG&:?IHH$c
:
cId.c
-7
cId. cI7$c
-&
cId.
-
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@?:$cG 77?Hc
-
c;   cG/

c
cc

c c cc  
c  c c 
c#


c

c
cc
c


c c
, Fc c
cc
 c

c  c c Fc 
 (c cc#

)*c

c 
cc#c# 
c

c
c@&-c3$c c@- c c
#c
cc c 
cc cc
 c c#
c6

c& ?c$c1$c c ? $c/ 
c
cc
c ## cc c c# cc
#
c
c
c cc
c
F


cc c F c+
cc  c 
cG

c
c

cc


cc
c
 c c##
c c c 
c6

c& ?c$c1$c c ?&IHc
c
c c c

c c c

c c

#
cc  c c
c
c cc

#c c
c  c 
cc
c 
$H$c

& c
c


 
c # 
c c  c F# 
c Heller 
c  c #
c 
c   c 
c #
 c

 F
 
c   K c 

c c c 
c  c    c 
c c 
c  "c #c
c 
c  c 

 c c 
c 
 #Lc 
c
c 

c c c # 
c # 
c c 
c


 c c 
c 
c !

$c 6
c 

c  

c 

 c 
c 
c 
c
!

K#

c 
c  c 
 c  c c #c ##
c c c

 cc
F


$ --c
c
c c cc +
c c

c c
cc

c


cc  c c

$c/ c
#
cc #c##
c 
c'

c 
 c c$1$c


 cc
c
c 
c;
ccD cc;  c

c c c
c
cc c
##
c c 
c c 
c / c ;
c  
( c 
 
$-Jc / c 
#
c c
F


c
'

c

c
c c
c$1$c
 c
 cc 
c


c c

cc

c


$ -@c /
c 
c'

c
 c c
 
c
F 
c #
cc 
c  c

c 
 
cc c   c 

c
 
c

 cc c # c c c  
c $cc
c ! c  c 
c # c c  c c c c 
c c
#
K c  c  c 
c



c cc
c

c cc  c cc#
c#
#
( c
cc 
c
c


K c 

c 
c 
c c c 
c 

c 
c 

c  c c
,#
c #
c c   c

cc
c'cc0  c
c$c6 
c/ c c  c c
c
c
c c

c
c

c c$ -Ic 
c'

c cc c  $cc |  !
c  c
c A  c 
c  c  c 
c 
c !

c  c c  #
c # c c 
c 
cc;   c   
c c
#<==# 
$ -$  $=#$#=7:-?
1 c $c $c $c )*c 
c  c 
c 

 c  
c '

c


c 
c 3
c :$ $#c
3( c  
c #
c c #
 c c 
c #
#c c   c 
c 
  c |  .  c

 c #
 c


c   c   c  -?c  
c c 
c 
c 
c c 3
c 3( c c c
|  .  c c c
c
  c c
c##
cc 
cN 

c c  c
$(-:c c
c 

cc c
c 
  c 
cc
c/ c

c (c
c
ccc
ccc c 
 c  cMc5
 J7c cHellerc c
c
c c
cc
c .
c  
cc  c
c
cc
c "

c 
c 
c'

c  cc
c c #$cc
c 

#c c 
c  $c  
c '

c  c 
c c c # c   c 
 $J&c 
c |  .
c # c cc  c
 
c
c cc'

( c  c ##  c

) *c c c c
c8N
c c 
<c c'  cQc  c #c
Keeping Pandora¶s Box Sealed: Privileges or
Immunities, The Constitution in 2020, and
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc Properly Extending the Right to Keep and
--
cId.c cI7@$c Bear Arms to the Statesc?c%CM$c $5$cQc 4'$c
-J
cId.c cI7?$c M5(B c
-@
cId.c cI&7$c
-I
c$c6 
c/ c cOf Guns, Abortions, and the Unraveling Rule of Law c:JcD $c5$c0
$c JcG 77:HcG/
c
c  c
c c c
c
c
 c
#

c
  ccc
cc
 
c

c
c
 
c
c
cc c
 c ccc
c 
cc



cc
 c#

$H$c
c/ c 
c
c  c#cc4
c 
c$c;   cG- c1$c;  c -c 7&&HG/ c$HcG.c
c


c c
c
# c
c c
c c
c#

c1cc6

c
 
cc
c cc
c 
c
c #
cc
popular governancec
c
c ccc c
 
c cc
, c
c c

$c.  c c

 c 
$HG
#  c 
H$c
-?
c4
c 
c$c1 

c  $c7-c4$$c&--c&J c$-cG&:?H$c
-:
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& JcG 7&7H Gc4
c 
c$c1 

c  $c7-c4$$c
&--c&J c$-cG&:?HH$c 
c'

c

cc 
 c# cc3
c3$c  cc c'  cc
 c'  ( c'c; c

 c3
c3c3 c   
c c
#<=="   $==#>-IJ-cG
c ?c 7&7c c&J<J?c#$$H$cSee alsoc c'  cC c 
c
cC
c $c 
c
c6
ccM
 ( c1 ccM
cJ@c5 c5$c0
$c@:IcI@FI:cG 7&7Hc.
c
# c cc  c 
<c c'  cQc  c #cKeeping Pandora¶s Box Sealed: Privileges or Immunities,
The Constitution in 2020, and Properly Extending the Right to Keep and Bear Arms to the States c?c%CM$c$5$ cQc
4'$c M5(Bc& cI7cG 7&7H$ c
J7
cSee 0!ABc'!0AC.. c0C.M0 A%c.6Cc5M.c1MA. .4. MA< c.6Cc 0C4; . MAcM3c5 'C0.BcG 77JH$c
J&
c3c  cc 
c'

( c ##  cseece.g., 0 16!0c MAC0 c6M/c 4%Cc.6 A9c c@cG 77?HcG c
'

( c
cc
 c) c 
c
*cc" cc#
c c
c ##
 cc c$c$c$c)'

( c
##  *c

c c"
c c#

c

cc
c  c# c  c8c
 c$c$c$H$c

&c
c


c
c 
 c
c c c  c # c c c$c$c$c  c cc

c
#
 c


c c c

cc
c#
 cc  c
c 
cc
c
c cc  c
c
cc
 c c
cc  #c
cc
 cc 
c
c


cc ##
 c

$(J cMc
c1 cA
c#cc'

( c  c
c
 c c c#
 
c

cc
c 
c


#
$Jc
c c  
c ##
c'

( c



cc
c


c 
cc
c c##
c
K c c c c c 

c 

c  K
#

c 
c 
c  c 
c  
c c  
c
c c c

c c
cc
c" c

c c c#
c
c 
c c

cc 
$cB
c 
c'

( c" #

c cc c  
$c.

c 
c
c#
cc

 c
c1c
c $c;
c# c

c 
c
 c c 
c'

c |  C
$c c c  c 
c
c 
c 
c Heller c McDonald 

 c c c c  c $c c  c 
c  
c c

c$c
c c 
c  
c '

c # c c 
c 



c  
c c 
c
,  c 
 J-c c 
c |   c 
cc
c 
c
 c
c


c
 c c
ccc c
##  c  
c c Miranda$JJc c

c 
c'

( c 
 cc   c  c   c c  cc
c
 cG 
cc
c
 c
 c 
c c
,# c 

c 
c 

 c  c 
c 
 
$c .

c 
c 
 c  c   cc c
c c
cc c  c

 cc
c1cc  
Kc
c1c c  

c
cc
c# c c
c1c c
Hc
c  
c
cc
c
$cc |   
c c
c&I$c
c .
c
c
 
c 
c 
cc cc
$c

c Scalia¶s Pragmatic Dicta


c  
c  c c   
+
c'

( c
<c
 
c c

c c |  6 c
c  c  cc
c#
c
 
c
c c c
cc c c 
c c
 
c

c

c 
 c  c |  

c; c
c 7c

 c c 
c c #
c G c  
c ## c  c 
c 
c 
c  
Hc 
c |  .
c$cc


F  c c 
 c c 
c   c c 
c c  $c RC$c  
c |  .
c
 c  c c
  c## cc  c 
c'

( c

 cN

F  (c ##  cc 
c
c c
cc  c c
 cc

c
 ccc  c c 
$cc
 cc
c

 
c  c c 
c
c#
c c

c "

cc  c
c c c 

$c .
c 
c !

c   c 
 
)c   *c   c  c

 
c 
 c #c  
c c 
c  
c # c c  c
c c

cc
F


cc
c 
$ccc
c  
c !c c McDonaldc 
c c  c   c c Hellerc  c 
c 
c

 c 
c  c   c c 
c 
c !

<c )*
c  c c 

#c c 
c  c


c  c c 
c c   c  c  c c 
  c #c 
c #  $c
!c
c c) *cc
c  c#  c c#
c
 cc c


c
cc
c#
cc
c cc
c 
c 
c c

 c
, #
$c3 c
c

c  c 
c )*
c
,  c 
c 

 
c N    c  c   (c   c 

c

c
c
cc

c c
c 
 c c 
$J@c.
c #

c c 
c
 c cc

 c 
c  c

 c  c  c
c c c c
 c 
c c c 

$JIc !c 
 c
 c c  
c / 
( c 
c c Mirandac 

c
c 
c  c 
c 1( c c c )*c

cc
cc
c$c$c$c
c c
c c # cc
c cc
c 

 c$c$c$cc

#
c  c 
$ J?c .  c  c 
c F
,  
c

 
c 
c c 
c  c   c  c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
J
cId.c c-&$c
J
c1 cA
cThe Second Amendment is Back, Babyc 77IF7?c1!.Mc4 0C;Cc 1M40.c0CD C/c& Ic&J@cG 77?H$c
J-
c6 c$c;  cJ-Ic4$c$cJ?@cG 77@HcG'

c$c
H$c

cinfrac c D$1$&$c


JJ
cSeecinfra c D$1$ $cc
J@
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c7-JcG 7&7H Gc6 c$c;  cJ-Ic4$c$cJ?@cJ:&c
G 77@Hcc4
c 
c$c5
c-@?c4$c$c?:Ic:7IcG&:?-HH$c
JI
cId.c c7-JcGc' 
c$c/c-7Ic4$c$cJ&-cJ cG&:I HH$c
J?
cId.c c7-JcGc;  c$c!+ c?-c4$c$c-@cJ&IcG&:@@HcG6  c$c
HHLcBarkerc-7Ic4$$c c
J- cG/ 
c$c
HH$c

&-c
c

  
cc ccc ccc

$c c  cc#c 
c  c
c

c 

c c 
 c 

c  
c 

 c   c  c 
c 1c c c )#
*c
  c c 
c+
c c

cc 
$c/

c  cc
c
c
c  c
c

c
c
3 c!

c)c
*c$c
c B
c c  F

c   c

J:c  
c   c 
c c # 
c  c
c #

$c
C
c  c
c  c# ccHellerc cc  c cc  ( c#Kc |  .
c
 c  c c
 c
c c# c# c c c c
c c 
c

@7K cc#   $ @&cc 
c/ 
cTUcBc 
cc
 c
c


c c
ccc
c 
$cc
5
c c c# c#c

cc  c c#

cc
cc
c
, c  c
 c
  c 
"

$@ c Hellerc 
#

 c c 

c " c  
c ) *c   ) *c c c |  !
c
#

 c c 
c  c c   +
c   c #
c  c 
c 
c
  c c 
c O c # 
c 
c c 
c ##
c c c c  c #
c
 
  c 
 c c


c   c # 
c   c c 
 
c   $@c
#
 c 
c  ( c c c F+
@-c @Jcc Hellerc

c   c

cc  <c
c
!  c 
c c c 
 
c c
,  
c   c    c  c c 
c c #
c c 
c 
 c
!

c  c c c #c c 
c  
c c  c c c   c #  c c 
c
#
c c 
 c c 
 c c 
c 
 c c c   c c 
c  c c 
 c c

 
c# 
c  c c   c c

c cc  c# c c c   c
c
c
 c 
cc  c $c $c $c /
c
c

c#
#
c c
 c 

cc c

, #
Lcc c
cc##cc
c
,  
$c
c
 
c '

c  c  c 
c 
#c c 
+c   c  #  
c   c c   
c
  c

 @@c c#++
cc
c "O c c$c$c$cc#  c cc c
cc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
J:
c!c  cOriginalism: The Lesser EvilcJI c4$ c1 A$c5$0CD$c?-:c?@-cG&:?:HcGc6 c 
c c



c c 
cc
c cc c c c c#
c c F

c  $H$cSee also 0 cC$c
' 
c  ( c 
<c!c1
cc3 F6

cM  cIJc4$c1 A$c5$0CD$cIcG 77@H$c
@7
cSee, e.g. 4
c 
c$c
c@&-c3$c@?c@-7cG 7&7HcG
c$c
HcG'cc

c)c
c
c
 c#*c 
cc
c c c  cc c cc
c  c    $c.
cc  c
cNc$$$c# 
cc# 
c

c# 
cc6

c cc
c 
c c  
cc
c
c

cSc
: GHG:Hc c (c; "cM#$c c@-7cc#

 cc# 
c
c# 
c  $H$cc
@&
c3c c  cc
c c


c  c c  c

cC+ 
 c' c c'  c
Youngstown¶s Fourth Tier. Is There A Zone of Insight Beyond the Zone of Twilight? c-7c;C; 6 c5$ c0CD$cJ-&cJJ:c
G 7&7HcG
,#c
c  c c  c
cc  c
c H$cc
@
cSee e.g., 4
c 
c$c;   cG- c1$c= -=&&HcG!
c
cc c   c
c
" c c
#

c
#
 
c
cc
c
c!

c
,c cc c 
c
cc&?-@ccSkoienc

c1c 
c c  c
c c 
cc c
c 
cc c#
 ( c
c!

c

c
c

,
cc  c 
c

 c 
c

cc

c
 c c
c 
 cc
c

( c
"   cc
c
 $Hc
@
c  c;$c' 
c0  c1  c c
c 
  c 
c?@cD $c5$c0
$cc&7c&&cG 777Hc
Gc

H$c
@-
cSee e.g., A
 c5c.
c
c!

c6

c cM  c #

cJ@c415!c5$c0
$c&-c
G 77?H$cc
@J
c3c c  cc
c c


c6c c cSee  c'  c; c!c!cLcc


6ccC 
c 


c/ c0
c.<c.
c c'


c6cQccG
$c&:c 77?Hc
  
c c #<==# #
 $ $= =# #
 $   P>&&??:$c
@@
cSee, e.g. 4
c 
c$c1 c&7c$c1$c&:-:c&:@JcG 7&7HGc/
c 
c

c
c 
  c

$c
.
c
<cG&Hc
c
 cc
cA

c c #
c1 
cG Hc
cc  cc

 c

cc  c

 cGHc
c c
 cc
c  
O c
 
cc cc
c%

O c  c

cc

 c
c#cc 
 c#
cc 
cc

 c cG-Hc
c  
O c  cc  
c


 c cGJHc
c  
O c c #
$H$c

&Jc
c


c 
c !

c $@Ic / c 

c '

c  $@?c c McDonald c '

c

  
c)*c c

c
c cc
 c
c
c1cc c

c
  c 
c
" 
c c 
c #
 c F
 
c  c c 
 c c  c 
c 1c 
c c $c c c
#c

c
c c c sensiblec  c
c 
cc
,# c  c c c 1  ( c
c c c

$@:c.
c
cc

c c sensible$ I7cc c |  !
c
c   c c
cc
c c

c cc
c

 
c  c c 
c
c
#
c c 

c "

c c c 

 c N

F  (c ##  $c c
)*  c  c)

*c
 
c c
c #
c
c

c
 cc 
c
c
c
#
#
c #
c
c
c
c"
cc 
c  c cc
c#
 c
c

c 
c  c  c #
c ) c *c  $ I&c   ( c c  c 
c 
c !

c
 
c

 
c 
c c 
c 

 c 
c  c c  F c 
# 
c +
 c c 
c
 cc


cc
 c c 
c
c
, c c
c+
c'

cc<c c

c #
cc#
c
#

cc
c  cc
c cc  c  
cc
F


cc

c 
$c c Hellerc   c 
c   
)
*c c 
c #
c c c 

c c   c
c c)*c
 c
c
 c 
cc
c c c c


c c# c
c c 
 #c  c c $c '
c c 

c 
 c   c 

c  c 
c
1 c

c
c cc1 c c 
cc cc c)
*c#
cc
 c   $ I c C
c c c 

F  c ##  c  c 
"

c   ( c 
 
c # 
c
 c
 c ##cc
cc c
c

c c 
c
c #
c cc c

K  c c  c 
c c 

c  
K
c # c 
 c c 
c  c c 

#c
c 
c  $c A  c   c 
, 
 
c 
c c  c   Ic   ( c
# c c 
c  
 c c 
c  c  c 
#

 c 
c 
c  c

 c )*$I-c
c / 
c c 
cc c McDonaldccc 
c)
*c    cc
c #
cc
c
 cc
c  IJc c 
c #
c c 
c !( c #c 
 c c  c cc $c
 
c !c 
c  
c   ( c Hellerc  c 
c  c   c 
 c


c c   c c 
c c  c c 
 
c # 
c 
c c c 
c 
$c.
c
McDonaldc 1c 
 c 
c Heller  c c 
c c c c 

c  $c !
c c 
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
@I
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@@cG 77?H G c c  c#++
cc
c "O c cc c c
c c#cc#  c cc c
cc 
c
c!

c $c.

c  ccG&Hc
N#  cc c

c
# (LcG HcN#  cc
c#
cc
 cc
 (LcGHc
N#  cc
c#
cc
 cc$c$c$c
c
 c(LcG-HcN  cc
c cc
 cc

 
c# 
c  c c   c c

c (Lc cGJHc

cN c c   (c
 
cNc
c
 c 
cc  $(c/ c

H$c c c 
c'

c 
cc 
#cc
c


c
c
c  c
c

ccComstockc

c$ c
@?
cId.c cI &$c
@:
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& IcG 7&7HcG
#  c 
H$c
I7
c0
 
c c cc
 
c  c#
c
 
cc

$cSeec;   c! c
c cc
c
 

c  c c c  c# c 
c

c 
c
 cc#
#
cc 
c
 
cc


$c

c;   c@-?c3$c##$c c cI:7$c c  


c" c
 
c

cc

c
#c 
$H$c
I&
cId.c c@-$c
I
cId.c c@@$c
I
c$c6 
c/ cThe Dual Lives Of Rights: The Rhetoric And Practice Of Rights In America c:?c1!5$c5$c0CD$c
IIc7-cG 7&7Hc
I-
c

c .C 6CAc6M5;CcQc1!c0$c4A.C A c.6Cc1M.cM3c0 %6.c:IcG&:::HcG0  c 


c  c

c c
 
c#

#c c 
$c'c

c 
c# c
 c
$H$c
IJ
c4
c 
c$c; ++ 
 c@&-c3$c?Jc??c$cG 7&&H$c

&@c
c

c  
ccHeller I@c!c
  c c
c
#
c 
cassurancesc

$IIcA
c


c 
cc  c
cc  F #
c    $c.
c 
c

c  
$c
.  c  

c  
 c c 
c  c 

c #  c 
c 
c

 c 

F
c
 
F cc
c  c  
cc 
c  cc
c
c
 #c c
c  c  c
c 
c  

$c !c   
c =c  c c 
c 
,c


c !c 

c 
c

#
cc

c  
K
c# c
#
 cG
ccc1  H$c!c

c
 
c ##
c c c  c  c c 

#c c 
c  c  c 
#
c 
c   c
#   c # c 
c c #
c

c  c 
 c 
 $c .  c c c c
c c
c
Kc
c c(cc
c1 ccc
F
cc  c c

cc c  c  $c
c Hellerc c 

c McDonaldc 

c

c
c1O c cF
# c
,  c
c 
c 
c !

c c c 
c c 
,#
c )
*c c  c 
c

c 
$c B
c
  ( cc ##  c# c c#
#cc  c
 c
c cc
c

c!

cc c  
c c
 
cc
ccc  $c/ 
c  c
  c |   
c c
 c

c c
c
c
 cc
,#c#c
c   c"   cc
c
,
# c 
cc ccG
  cc
cHc

c 
c 

c
c #
c c   c   
c   

c c 
c   c
#  c $cc
c ' c c
c   c c McDonald c c Hellerc 
c 
c
,#c c
c 
 c c
 c   c



$c 0

c c United States v. Comstock c  
c '

c c c 
c
1c#
c
c  cc c  
c c

c
cc
cc  c
 c 
c  c mentally ill and dangerous )K
c
, c # c 

c c HellerK*
c 
c

c

c 
c cc
cc c

 c
c
 
cc1
 cc c
 c#
#
c#

c c     c c cc "cc 
c#
 c c
 c  
cc

c ##
c c 
$I?c c  c 
c c 
c 
c   c  
c '

c  

c c


c 

c c   
c  c c N

c c ##
(c 
 c c
,
 c 
c 

 c
 c c#
 c1
cc$c$c$c  cthe security of those who are not imprisoned cc
 c  c 
c 

c c 
c 

 c # 
c c 
 c  c 
c c 
 c c 
c
 
( c
 
c c  c c 
c %

( c   c 

c c safeguarding the public
from dangersc #
c c  
c c 

 c  $c 5

c  
c !c  c 
c c
"
c 

c  c c  c )*c 

c c ##
c c 1
c c protect the public from
dangers createdc c 
c 

 c  c " 
c c # c  
 $c  
c   c  c "
c
 
c.  (c
ccc #
c  c
 c#K)*
c   c
c  c ## c

c3

 c%

( c  cc
 c c
 cc#
 c) c#
c c 
cc
 *c
  c  c c c 
c  c c

c c  c  $c 0 
c 
c 

 c 
c


c 
c A

c c #
c 1 
c c  c 1
c 
c #
c c  +
c 
c


c c #
  c  c c   c c 

 c  c " $c .
c  
  c c
 c cc Comstockc
cc 
c
 c
,#

cc 
c  ccHellerc c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
I@
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c7-IcG 7&7HcG c c# cc

#ccc c6

c 
c
cc c c c# 
c
c#
cc  cc
c 
c
+
c c
c  cc

#c c

c  c ccN c cc

#c c c c


#c  

cc c 
c  

c cc 

c
##
$(c/
c 
cc
cc6

c cc Fcccc ccc  c  c
 c

c
cN#  cc
c#
cc
 cc
 c c
c
 c(cN  cc
c cc

 cc
 
c# 
c  c c   c c

c cc  c# c c c
   cc
c
 c 
cc  $(HcG  c
HcG
#  c 
H$c
II
cId.c
I?
c4
c 
c$c1 c&7c$c1$c&:-:&:@7cG 7&7H$c

&Ic
c

 
c!ccMcDonald$cB
c
c
c

F  c ##  c
c
"

cc
c
c
!

c
,c
c #
cc
c
,ccc

$I:c
c  cc Boumedienec 
c   c

c c
c1( c #cc  c

 c 
c
c!
  cc
c
$ ?7c  ( c Boumedienec 
 c#  
c'

( c
McDonald 
$c 0
 
cc  c 
 cc Schwarzenegger v. Plata c 
c !c

,#

c 
c c 
c  c   c c c ( c # c 


c 
c 

c -7777c
# 
 c c 
c 


c c 

c 
c c 
)*c c c 

c c 
c
c c 

c 


c c  
#  c  c 

c  ) *c c 
c 
c c 
 c 
c

cc #
c
c
cc 
c

c
c
cc  $ ?&c
c .
c 1 (c #  c 
c c Heller c McDonaldc c 
c c c  c 
c

c c 
 c c 
c  c   c
  c c 
c 
c !

$c '

( c
##  c c  # 
cc  cc c
c

c

c
 c  
c  c  c
  $c .
c Hellerc c McDonald 1 c c $c .

c
,
# c 

c c c  c 
c

c c  c c   $c 0 
c 
c 

c 
c c 
c 
c #   c c 
c c


c  c   c  c
  
c c c 
 #c 
c 
c 
c  c  
c  
c
'

( c
$c.
c  
c


c
cc c
 c c
cc


c ccc$c c
.
c

c 1c


c 

c c   c ##  $c / c   c #c   c  c c


c
c  cc  c c 
c


c c c#
 cc##
cc

c
c!

c" #

$cc
c
III.  The Lonely Second Amendment
c .
.
c1( c 
c

cc
c cc

#c c
c  c c
c cc c |  C 
c
c

c  c #

c c 
c 'c c 0  $c / 
c 
c  "c #
 
c  c 
#
c c 
c   
c
  c  
c c cc c
ccc ## c c  ? cc
  cc
c

c


c 
c  "( c  FcumF#   c c 
c 

( c #   K  c  c 
c

c
c

?Kc#
 $c3c c
c c

#
c#cc  c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
I:
c.
c1c

cc 
c

c c c  c c c#

c c#
 # c

c
c c

c 
cc  c$cComstockc c&:@JcG/
ccc
 cc

c c c c
c  
cc c
## c

c
 c#
cc
c  c#
 cc   
c
c#
cc c
c  c  

c
c
c1 $H$c
?7
c'


c$c' c& ?c$c1$c :c :-cG 77?HcG  c$c
H$cc
?&
c.  #ccM c!
 c c-IcSchwarzenegger v. Platac7:F& cGA$c7c 7&7HcG4. 1Cc!5 .M<c. c
 c c
c
c cc 
c
c#
c cc c 
 c


$c cKcc c

c c+
cc
1  c cc
c

c c
c


cc-7777c# 
 $c!c c(c 
c cc
cc c# c



c
cc 

c
c
cc
c $c c-7777c# 
 c 
ccc
c


cc
c



c ccc

cc
c c

c c
 c 
c ccc
c 
cc c
c 
(cKc
c 
(c

cc c

cc
cc
c 
cc1  c c
cKcc
c  c
c c c 
cc c

cc 
c

c c c
,

c  cc
c

cc
c# 
c


c
c c  c c c
  c c c cc  
#  Lc c 
c c#
cc
c
c 
c#c c
c cc c c
c
c
c
 c
c
cc #
c
c
cc 
c

c
c
cc  cFc(cKc ( cc
cc ##
cc1  H$c
?
cSee, e.g.c4
c 
c$c
c@&-c3$c@?c@-7cG 7&7HcG
c HcG!  c
c# 
c
c 
c
c

cc # 
c
c 
c 
$c.
c
c c c  c#  cc
c#
cc
# cc

c#
  c 
c##
8 c# cc
c##
c c
clegislative role did not end in 1791 $c. c

c 
 c c 
c##
c c# cc
c c
c
cc
c#
#
O c


c
#

 
c
c
ccc
  $HG
#  c 
H$c
?
cSee e.g.,4
c 
c$c;   cG- c1$c= -=&&HcG!
c
cc c   c
c
" c c
#

c
#
 
c
cc
c
c!

c
,c cc c 
c
cc&?-@ccSkoienc

c1c 
c c  c
c c 
cc c
c 
cc c#
 ( c
c!

c

c
c

&?c
c

" #

c  c  
$c3 c c 
c

c
c
c!

c c
c c
c
  c  c # c c 
c 

 c 
# c c   c   c 
c c c 
 $c

c c c 
c 

 c #

c " c 
c  c 
#
c c 
c 
c
!

$c / 
c 
c 
c !

c 
 c #

 c   c #
,c  
c c

 c  
 
c
 cc  c"
c c#  
c
,#

c
c1c c
#
c 
#c c 
c  c  c # c c   c 
c 1  c
, $c .
c
 
ccc c

c ##
 cc
c

c" c
 $c. c c
,#
c c 
c
c#
c
c c
c  "c c
c # K c
c !

c  c
c
c
c
c c  
c  c c  c
cc c c 
cMc c c# 
cc
c
c
c
!

c 
c c 
 # c  
c 1 c c   c  c 
c 

c   c c


c# 
c c
c 
c !

c  c
c 
cc  c  
c c 
K  c

cc
c
c"  c c
c c  cc  KMcDonald¶sc
c c

c#

c c  c c
 
$cc
c
°c Is the Second Amendment Unlike All Other Rights?
c c 
c  c c  
c 

 c 
c 
c 

c #

c c 
c 
c
!

c  c   c c  
c 
c 
c 
+
c c  c  # c c 

c 
c

c c 
 ?-c c 
 c 
c c  
 c  
c 
  #c c 
$?Jc
!cc 
c'

c
c
c cc   
c
c
c cc  c$c$c$c

c# c
 (c
c c $?@c.
c# c
#
 c
c c
c
c!

c

 c c c c 
c 
c #  c c 
c 'c c 0  c 
 
c c 
 c 
c  c c
#
c c 
c #

c c   c c #  c c #c 
c c  c 

c  c


c  


c c 
c 
c 

c 
c # 
c #
c c  c c 
c 
c


c c 


c c 
 c c "
$ ?Ic c 
c 
c !

c 
c c 
c
  c
c  
c'

c 
c
c cc

#c c
c  cc
c  c

 
c
c
c'cc0  c c 
c

c# 
$c1c 
c' 
 ( c
ccWhitney
v. Californiac'

c

c c
c cc

#c c
c  c c  cc
c cc


c #

 c c  c 
c # 
c
F


c  c 
c c #
c c 

c # c c 
c

 c#
c c
c1 c

 cc
  $??c.  c c c#  c c

c 
c  
 c  c 
c ' 
 c 
c c Whitney$c Mc
c# 
c '

c 
c 
c
' 
 c

 cc
c 
 c
F
 c
c ccc
#


cc) 
*c

c 

c c   c c 
c c c
, c 
c c 
c  c c 
$?:c .  c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c

,
cc  c 
c

 c 
c

cc

c
 c c
c 
 cc
c

( c
"   cc
c
 $Hc.

c 
c
c
, c  c
 c
cHellerc1c##
cc
"
cc
#c#

$cCf.c6

cG'

c$HcG.  c c 
#cc
cc ##c c ccc
  c
cc# 
ccc c

F  cc c
c

 c#

cc
c
c!

cc
c

c c
c

 c#F 
c
 cc
c
c
cc
c
c

c
c
 c c
 
c#
 c
 c
c
cc
c
cc  c
c 
$H$c
?-
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c&&7cG 7&7H$c
?J
cId.c c&7I$c
?@
cId.c c& 7$c
?I
cId.c c7-J$c
??
cId.c c& JcG'

c$c
HcGc/ 
c$c1  c I-c4$c$cJIcIIcG&: IHcG' 
 c$c
HH$c
?:
c/ 
c$c1  c I-c4$$cJIcIIcG&: IHcG' 
 c$cHcGThose who won our independence by
revolution were not cowards. They did not fear political change. They did not exalt order at the cost of liberty. c.c
 
 c
F
 c
c c

cc
c#
cc

c c

c
c ##
c  c
c

&:c
c

  
cc

cc

c
c
c c
c cc

#c c
c  c c
c c
c c
c 

c c #

 c # 
c c  
c  
 c ) *c
F
 c 
c  c c c
#


cc) 
*c
$ccc
c A
,c '

c # c 

c 
c 3 c !

( c 
 c #
 c 
c 3 c
!

( c #
c   c 
 
c

c c
+
c 
c 3 c c , c
!

 (c  

c#c  c c#

c c
cC  c !

( c#
c
  c
c c  c# 
 c  c
cc
c
c!

cc c 
c
# 
c
F


c c
cc  c

cc#
c  c c c

c

c cc  
c

c c
c  cc c " $:7c.  c 
K c c
c c 
c  K c 

c  $c 4 c c   
c 

c c 
c  c c c
 "c 

c c 
c 
c c ##
c c 
c 

$c 

 c c 
c #

 c c
McDonaldc c 

c 
c  
 c c 

$c M c ; c c c  +
c c c
 c
  cc1  c c

c 


ccc

 c c
c5   c c

c
 

cc  cc
c 
$ :&c.  c

 cc
c
c


c c
c c c# 
c
F



c c '

c # 
c K
c c c 

c 

c c 
c ##
c c  c


cc
 c

c
c

c c 
cc#
c c#
$cc
c '

c
,c"
 c cc
c
c3 c!

( c  

cc" c#
 c
)
c 
c !

*c 
c c 
c c  
c 

c c  "c  c  c
+
c c

c ##
c 
c c c $: c .  c "
c c

 c c ##c c 


c .  c
1 
c c  c ## c c c 
c  c # 
c c 
c 'c c 0  c  c 
 c

$c '

( c  c "
c  c  c # c 
c 
c !

c c c c
 c  #c c 
c   c  c c 
  c  c 

c


c c
c1 ( c cc
c c"

$cc'

c  
c c  c

 c 
cc
c# c  c c c# cc
c  
K
$$c
c
#
c c 
c constitutional objectives K 
cc#

c

$:c / c
, c 
c

c
  c"

c c
c&- c!

c
,
 c

 c#
cc   
c  c
c 
c  
c c   c c 
c c "

c c 
c 1 c 6c c # c
# c   
c   c "

c c c

c c  
c  
c  c 


c  c   c
"

$cc
c ! c   c "
c ##
c c

c 
c # c c 
c 'c c 0  $c !c
# 
c  c #c
c  cc
  c  c c  c#
cc

c 
  
c c
,

c  
c c 
c  
c c 
c " $c '

c 

c  c


c 
c   c c c #  c  
c c  c 

c c  
 c c
#
,c
# c 
c 
 c c c c  c 
  
c 
c 

c 
c  c  c c
 
$:-c'

c 
 c cc
c c" c
c
c cc
cc)*c#

c

cc#
c c
c 
c c

c
c
c c +
 $c / 
c '

c
c c  c
 c cc 

c#

c
c 
c
c# 
c  :Jc  c
F#

c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
#

cc## c

cc 
ccc #

 c c
c


c
c c#

c
c
c


cc
c
c ##


c c c
c cc c
 c

c

c c##ccc  $Hc
G
#  c 
H$c
:7
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c& JcG'

c$c
H$c
:&
cId.c c7 IcG "c#H$c
:
cId.c c& JcG'

c$c
H$c
:
cId.c c& JcG
#  c 
H$c
:-
cId.c c& @$c
:J
cSee,ce.g.c' 
c$cM c:Jc4$c$c---c--IcG&:@:HcG#
c HcG

c #

 HLc

c$cD

cI-c4$c
$c:?c-7cG&:@HcG
HLc' c1c$c cJ-Ic4$c$c:?c-788-7-cG 77@HcG3 c!

HLcA
c

7c
c


c  c # c c 
c 1c 
c   c c  c 
c 
c c 
c  
c 
c
#

c c 
c " c  c # c 
c #c 
$ :@cC
c c 
c 1c 

 c c
 
c #

c 
c 

c 
c 1( c  "c #c c Hellerc c 
c  ( c
#cc McDonaldc
 
c
c cc
c


c 
cc# 
c
 c#
cc

c
 #$cc
c c
c
c!

c c #c

cc c
c  c c 
c

 c c
'

c
c
cc   cc
c c  c c c
c

c

cc c
 $c
'cc
c
c!

c cc  c c c 
 c  c c c
cHeller c
McDonaldc1 cc c c

 cc
c'cc0  c 
 c
cc cc
c


c

$c ! c# c cc  cc##
c
c c
 

cc
c !

c

c c ccc

c 
cc
c c
c1( c

c c 
c  $c c cc

c c  c c
c ##
c
 K c c
c"c c
c
 c#
c  
$c
0 
c c  c
cc
c1 c 
 c c  c c
c

c
 K c c

c c cc
c

c
cc
c# c c
 $c ! cc    c  c
c
#
#c c
c c c

 
c 
 c ccc1 c c c

#c

cc  cA ( c  c c c c
c

c
 cc 
c  c# c
  $c . 
c c c 
 c c   c   c 
c 
c 
c c
  c c  #  
c


cc
c
c c $cc.
c  
cc  c c
c
c c
#
c c  
c
c c  c c
c

 c c  c  $c

cc#
cc
c
 cc cc
c   c 
c  
c c ##
c
 
c  c 
c 
c !

c c 
c 
c c

$cc |  .
c
 c  cc
c  c cc
#
c  c  
cG
c
  cc c 
#

F

Hc
c
|   
#

F

c
c c  
$c c c
c
c cM9$c cc

c  c
c ccc
 
c 
$cc
uc Faux-Restraint and Judicial Engagement
c / c  c 
c ##
c 
c c 
c c
 
c  c 
c !

c 
c  
c
'

( c "
 c c)*
c
c#
 c 

cc  c c

c 
c !

 c)c

c'cc0  c
c!

c 
c*cc
c 
 c cc  c"
c#
c
c #  
c
,#

c c 
c c 
c 
c   c  c 
c " 
c  
c c  c
#
 $:Ic.  c"
c c cc cc
c c c 
c'

c c
c c
c
c

c " 
c 
c 
c 
c  c  
 c c   c "
c #
c 
c c c
#  
c   
Kc  :?c  c
 ::c c 
c#
cc
 

cc

c c  &77c c 
c c 
$c.
c 

c c c 
c 1c #
c c  c Fc 
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
Bc$cR 
c-@Ic4$c$c@-:c@JJcG&:?-HcG3 c!

HLc4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI:cIJJcG&:?IHc
G H$c
:@
cSee, e.g. ;  c$c +
c&7c$c1$c& &cG 7&7HcG"
cc'

c$HcG/
c cc ### 
cc #
c c
#
cc
c) c  c
c
cc c

*$c c

 cc c c#
c c&-c  $c. c#
c#
cc
c
c
c  #
cc
c
 
cc  c c
cc c c
 c c
c cc 
cc c

 c

c

 cc  c#c $Hc.
c1c
cc
c c&-F  c
c
c
ccc

c c ### 
$cSeecMc9
cDoes the Constitution Have a 14-Day Clause?c1M.4cG3
$c Jc 7&7c
&&<-JcC.Hc #<==$  $= 7&7=7 =
F
F F 
F F&-F F 
=c
:I
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c& JcG'

c$c
H$c
:?
cSee, e.g. 9 +
  c$c;1cI:c4$$c :-cG&:@-HLc6
cc!  c;
c $c$c4
c 
cI:c4$$c
-&cG&:@-H$c
::
cSee, e.g. 
 c 
cc1c  c$c

c c cA$c&cJJ&c4$$cI7&cG 77IHLc% +c$c
'
cJ:c4$$c --cG 77HLc%
c$c'
cJ:c4$$c7@cG 77H$cc
&77
cSee, e.g. 6  c$c0 
cJ-?c4$$cJJIcG 77@HLc'


c$c' cJJc4$$cI cG 77?H$c

&c
c

 c 
c 
 c 
c c 

c c 
 
c
,#

$c   c 
 c  c c
 
c "
c
,#
 c c c  c c 
&7&c 
c 
c 


c 
#c 

c 
 $c .
c
#

c1c cc c
 
cc c $c c c c
 
cc c $c |   cc 

c  c
c B
c 
c c 
c c 
c 
c !

c  
c '

c
 
c c
 
c  c G 
c 
c  cc3 
Hc c
  cGc 
 cc  c

Hccc c (c

c  c 
ccc c
c c  
c c cc
 c c

c  c

ccc$c 

c

c

cc
cc c
#
,$&7 c;c1 
c 
c0
 (c cc  

c
 ccCaperton v. c c
cccc
c
$cc
A. T. Massey Coal Co.c'

c#
c c

cc

c c
c# 
c# cc  cc
c 
  c c 
c c 

c c   
c  c 
c 1c   c 
c #


c c

c

c c 
$ &7c/ 
c

c
 ccc 
c #
c  
 c
c1c c
 

c c  

c 
c  c
 c c   c 
c   c 
, $cC
c
  c 

c   c #
,c  
c 

 
c c c 
c 
 
c  c c 
c c
&7-c
ccc
#

c 
c c   c  
c " c



cc
c


c
 
K
#
 c
c
c
c
c c

 
c  c $c
c 3 c '

c  c c

c c 
 c c 

c 
c 
c !

c c
##c  
c 
c 
c c 
c  c c c $&7Jc !
c  
c   ( c 
 
c
# 
c c  c 
c 
#&7@c c '

c  c 
c c 
c  c 
c 
 c c 
c

 #  c
 cc
c
c!

c
  $c!c



cc
c #
c c#
 c
c
c3 c!

c c
c

 c

c c
c1c c 

c  c c 
c
c

cc
c c c c$c3c
c c
c
c1c c

c
c cc
c

c 3 c !

c ##
$c / 
c   
c

c c 
c 
c 
c c #

 &7Ic


c c 
c   c 
c 
c c#
c
c
c  # c c


c 
c

c c c 

c # 
c 
c   $ &7?c .
c 1c c  c  

c 3 c !

c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&7&
c5 
 c cC,#
 c #<=="   $==#>@&-cG1 
c
c#

c1( c
$c.

c 
c
 c
c c
c#
,c
c
c

c 
c

 c##
c
c cc c
#   
c


c 
c

c 
c

 c
c c

c c

#c
  ccc

 c
c c
 c
c 
c #
c c

c 
c  c c
 c cG 
c
 c 
Hc

c c #cc
c   c#


cc c
 c  c#  $c
c c
c 
 c
c

c
c 
cc
  cG
c0 c  
c cc Hc


 c  c
  cc
   $c%

 c
  c


 c  c
  cc    c 
cc
# 
cc
c



c c
c #
c
cc
,#

$cB
c 
 c 
c
,#

cc

c
,#
 cc c#cc

c 
c##
cc c
8cc
c c 
c c
 c#cc c#c c  
cc
c
,#


c
 c c $c
,#
c c c

c c c 
cc
 $H$c
&7
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c& IcG'

c$c
H$c
&7
cId.cGc1 #
c$c!$c.$c;
c1 c1$cJJ@c4$c$cPPPcPPPcG 77:HcG0
 c1$c$c
HcG #c#$c c
&7HH$cG
c
c cc#
c
# cc
F


c
,
c 
c
c 
c.c
c c.cc/ c c
c c 
c

cc
F


c6  c0
c
  c
# c/
c c cc
F  c
/

c 
c

c cc
# c
c


c
c
FF c 
c
c
c#


cc c cc
c

c 
c
c
c#


cc c
c
cc
c 
c 
cc#
c

c #
 c
c#
c
#  c

ccc c/
cc
  c


 c

c


cc
c#c c
c cc
c  c c/ c c#
c c cc cc!
 c cc

 c c  c

 c6cc
c c
 c c c  
cc c

( c cc 
c #
 c

cc c
  c
c



HcG'

c$c
H$cc
&7-
cId.c
&7J
cId.c c& @cGc
c
c cc#
c
# cc
F


c
,
c 
c
c 
c.c
c c.cc$c
$c$c/

c 
c

c cc
# c
c


H$c
&7@
cSee id$c c& I$cc
&7I
c c$c4
c 
c--Jc4$$cJIcG&:?7HcG c c
c3 c!

c#  c
c#
cc
 c c  
c c
  c
cc c  #
O c 
cc
cc 
c c
c
c 
$H$c
&7?
cA
cBc$c'
c-Jc4$$c-J-cG&:?&H$c

c
c

  c c c cc


c# 
&7:c c#c
#
 &&7c
, $c 
 c c# 
c

#
cc
c

ccc c
#

( c  c  c cc cccc 


c
c  
c  $c.
c1c c  c 

c
c ## cc3 &&&c c3 c
!

 && c   c c   c 
c c 
c #
#
c
 
c # 
c  
c   c


$c.
c1( c3 c!

c" #

c
 c 
c
cc
cc c

cc
 c
c# 
c 
c
  $&&c
c '

( c
c
c c 
 c 

c 
c #
 
c #
c c  c 

c c

F


$&&-c / c #
c c  c c 
c #

c ! c  
c   ( c
,#   c

c #
  
$c .
c Hellerc 1( c 
c 
 
c c 
c 
c United States v.
MillerKc c
c
c!

c#
 c
# ccc
cc
c c
c
c
cc
c  cc
c 
c!

 &&JK c
#$ &&@c ccc##cc
 
c c   c 
c  c  c 
c ### 
c c
F


$c c #c c c   c 
c
 c c
c1c c ##
c c  c Fc 
cc
c 
cc
c c c
c c  c
# c c #c

cc
c


c 
$cc
c . c'

c  c

c
c
FF c 
) *c c
#
cc
c
cc
 $c .
c # 
c c  
c 
  c 
c 
c 3 c !

c #
c 
c

, #
c c 

c 
c 1c c  

c 
c   c 
  c c 
c c c c

 $&&Ic 3
c

 c  
c 
c c  c 3 c !

c # 
c 
c |  3,
$c
  cc
c
c c  c c
 c  c c
c
,

c c c #
 c c
  c c#
c  $&&?c |  3c
<c.
c 

c
c 3 c '

c  c 

c 
c #


c c c  c )*c 
c 
c c 
c 
c " 
c c 
c  c 
cc
c
$cc.  c
 
c
c 
cc
c1$c
 
) *$&&:c .  c c 

c c 
c !

c  c 
c 1c .
c 1c c

c  c 
cc

c
, $c c
c

c c#
 c
cc
c 
c 
c c
c 
c 
c
c # c c #

c 


c  c #
 c  c "
c c c 

c

,#
 c c# $& 7c.
c 1c c  c c c
 c
, F
c c  c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&7:
c  c cA  + c

c$c
 c-@@c4$$c &7cG&:?-HcG c c
c  cc Ac 
 c
cc  
  c  c cc
c cc
 Oc+
 #c 
c Ac 
 c

c  
c c

 c
,ccc cc3 c!

c
+
cc
c

cc
cc
c H$c
&&7
cM(1c$cM
 c-?7c4$$cI7:cG&:?IH$c
&&&
c.
c$c
c;
c 
#

c1c c c:c4$$cJ7cG&:@:H$c
&&
cA
c

c$c.$5$M$c-@:c4$$c JcG&:?JH$c
&&
c/ c$c0c!  c0  c-:&c4$$cI?&cG&:?:H$c
&&-
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& @cG 7&7HcG/ c cc c 
c

cc
F


c
6  c0
c
  c
# c$c$c$c cc)c
# c c#
#
c#
*Hc'

c  c  c
)*
c c cc
F  c.  cc

cc
c c
cc
c
  
c  $H$c 
c'

c
 cc c  
cc  c
cc&?c4$$1$cSc: &G HG ?Hc  c

c c
F  c
c c c
#
c

c  c+
c c#cc
c

cc cc 
cc
, c
c
c 
c
c c 
c
c

,cc c  c

c c
#  
c#cc
c
cc
c
 c 
$H$c
&&J
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c ?&IcG 77?HcGc4
c 
c$c;
c7Ic4$$c&I-c&I:c
G&::HH$c
&&@
cSee, e.g.c4
c 
c$c
c@&-c3$c@?c@-7cG 7&7HcG
c HcG!  c
c# 
c
c 
c
c

cc # 
c
c 
c 
$c.
c
c c c  c#  cc
c#
cc
# cc

c#
  c 
c##
8 c# cc
c##
c c
clegislative role did not end in 1791 $c. c

c 
 c c 
c##
c c# cc
c c
c
cc
c#
#
O c


c
#

 
c
c
ccc
  $HG
#  c 
H$c
&&I
cRock Against Racismc-:&c4$$c cI?&$c
&&?
c%c$c4
c 
c-&@c4$$c-7cG&:I-HcGc 
cc
c 
c c

c c cV
c c


c c c c

c c


c

c c

c"  $VHc
&&:
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c& I$c
& 7
cSee, e.g.c5  c$c3+  cJ &c3$ c -@c J?cG: c1$c&:IJHcG6 

c$c
HcG0
 c c

c
c


c
ccc

c
,c

 c c
cG c

c
c c
 
H$& &c & c3
cc |  3c
<c c c
c c
# c   c   c c 
c 
c c 
 

c
,c 

 c 
c  c 
c  c 
c

$cc.
c# 
c
 c 3c
 c c
c
ccc

c
, c
+
c
,c 

c 
 
c c
 
c  c 
c 
 c c c 
c #  Oc 

 c c
c c
cG
c1.c


cc c c
#
cc
c 
c c


c
cc
c#c
c #
cc 
#cc#c 
c$c
cJ?c4$$c&c  c

c  c c # c  c #
 c c  O c 
#


c c  c 
 c #
c c  c c 

cc
c  cc
c c 
c
c
c  
c# cc
c
,c

c $Hc
# c 
  K #
 c 
c  c c 
c  c  c 

 c c c  c  
c c 
c  c c
( c cc
 
$ & c .
c #

c 1( c #


 c 
+c   c c   c c c
F c c c##
$c


 c c

c c  
c   c " c $& -c c  c 

c #

c  c |   c c
( c
cc
#
c  
c c F
 c c 

c c 
c 
c 
c c 
c
,c 

 c 
c 
c 
c c
cc c c
c c  
$c
c c #cc
c c# cc
c
#


cc c

 cc
c c 
c c c
c


c  c
c" c  c c
c ## K c
c1 c 
c 

c
c

c 
c#

cc
c

  cc
c
c 
$cc 

c cc cc

c
,c
c 3 c '

c  c )*c #
c 

c #
 c 
c #
c #  c 

c c c 

c c
$c ccc 

c c
C 
( c c c  c
 & Jc A c c 
c  "( c #c c

c c  c c c c 


c   c c   c   
cc
c
 c
#
 
c #  c
 
c c Terry v. Ohioc c  c #
& @c c c  c


c c
 $c

c #

c c 
 
c  
c  #c  c  c c  c c
c c
c
c 
c 
c c 
 c 
c  #
c c c 


c
 c c 
# $c A

c Hellerc c
McDonaldc ##
 c c  
c   c   $c c 
 
c 
, c 

c 
c 3 c c 3 c
!

 c

c
c#

c1c c ##
c
c  c  c#
cc
c
+
c
c c 

c  

c $ & Ic.
c

c c c c  c c c# 
c
c c


c  #
 c 
c
#
 c c 
c 

c   c c c Terry #c c # 
c c 
c

c   c c # 
c  
$c .
c #


c c c 
c  c c
 c c  
c 

c
#
 $c c Flordia v. J.L. c  
c % c c c 
c 1c 
c  c

c   c

 c 
c  
 c c
,  c  
 c 

c " c   c #
  c $c $c $cc
c  c 
c
,
#K

c c   c #c  c c #
 c  c  c c c
)c 
*c  c 
c 
c c " c c Terryc #Kc 
c c  c c 
c
1( c
 
c)3 c!

*c
 c    $& ?c
c , c '

c ## 
c 
c 
 c  
c c  c )*
c c 
  c



 c

c


cc
c#c c
c cc c  c & :c c
c
3 c !

c 
c 
c 1c c #
 c   
c   c 
 c c 

 c
## 
c  
c c  ,c 
  c c   c 
 
c 
c c c  
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c


cc# 
c  
cc c c#
cc#
c cc  
cc
c# 

O c c c

 c 
c# c c 
cc
 
c

cc
c# 

O c 
cc
# c 
c  c
c
 c 
c c $H$c
& &
cSkoienc@&-c3$c c@-J$c
&
cSkoienc@&-c3$c c@-J$c
& 
c c $c$cD

c&I7c3$c:@c-7JcGc1$c&:::H$cSee alsoc
c$c;
c-7Jc3$cI77cI&7cG? c1$ 77JHc

c$c;
c-&7c3$c&Ic&--F-JcG&& c1$c 77JH$c
& -
cSee 
c$c' c-:-c3$##$ c??7c?:cGc c
c
,c

c
  c c  cc# c

 
cc
cccc
O c cc
cccc cc c  c ccc cc 
c
 
$H$cc.
c1c c
+
c c cc# cc 
 c
 
cc  
c#
c c c
 c
  # $cId.c
& J
McDonald, &7c$c1c c& @$c
& @
c.
c$cM c: c4$$c&c7F&cG&:@?H$c
& I
c6

c$c4
c 
c-&c4$$c-?c-: cG&:IHcG c  c c
+
c c#  cc c  c 
c 
c c


 cc# 
c 
cc c
 c   
c cc
c
+
c c##3A:c" c


 cc
c 
c 
cc c 
 c#

c c   
c c
c

cc c


c# c
c

+
c c  c#
 
$H$c
& ?
c3 c$c$5$cJ :c4$$c @@cG 777H$c
& :
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1cc c& @$c

-c
c



 cc
c 
c
c c

cc c 
cc 
c

 $ &7c c

c !c 
c  ,c c 
 # #
 c

c c ##
c c c 

 c ## 
c 
 c 

c
 cc c  c
cc3 c!

c

 $ &&c c


c

c
,

c

,c

c c 
 c 
 c c c 
 c # 
K  c c 
c
 c  
c c
Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah K c  c cc


c c
 c  
 c 
$& c .
c Caseyc 
c 
c  
c   c

 c c 


c

c c
cc 
cc c c

c  c  
c 
c 
 c


c 
c 1c  
c c   c c c 
  c c c  c  
$&c c 

c

, c 
c 1c c #
c 
c c +
c 
c

c c c 
 c 

c c
c
  c   c   K c   c c ## c K
c 

  c c

c


c 
$cc
c 

 c '

c 

c )* c  c #
c  $ &-c .  c 
c

c
#
##
c c 
c#
#
c cc
 c c#
c
 $&Jc#
 c'

c  cc
) *
 c)#*cc

 cc)#*c  c 
 c c#
c
 $c.
c1c
c  

c c   c ##c c 

c #
c c #
#
c c  c c 
c C c 
c
1 
cc
c3

 c!

$c/ c
#
cc 
 c c  c  c 
c


 c ##
c
 cc c#
 c
 
cc  cc
c

c   $&@c' c#

c
c 
c  c 
 c c c 

c 
c   c   c  c 
c
,
#c c

 c 
 c #
c #c #

c 


c c # $c c  c 
c c 
c  
( c


c

cc #
 c# 

c
 
c# 

c$c$c$c 
c
c
ccc

c  c 

c 
c 1c c
c  c c  #
c
 c c # 

c 
c
#  cc c c
c c# 

cc 

cc
c "

cc
 cc
+
c c c
c
c c  
c 
c 3 c !

$&Ic 3
c  
c '

c "
c  
c 9

( c
#c c Romer v. Evans c 

c 
c #

c 1c 

c Davis v. Beasonc c &?:7c
#cc 
c3
&?c c
c c
c
 c c
c

c
c cc
$&:cc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&7
c1  cc
c5c'  c!
c $c$c1cc6 
, J7?c4$$cJ 7cJ-@cG&::HLcSee alsoc% "
c$c
!
 c 
c1$c :Ic4$$c c J7cG&:@HcG c c c 
c ,cc
 # #
 c

cc ##
c c c

 c
## 
c
 c 

c  cc c  c
cc3 c!

c

 H$c
c
c
&
c  
c 
 c$c1
cJ7Jc4$$c?c?I@FI:cG&:: Hc
&-
McDonald, &7c$c1$ c& @$c
&J
Id.c c& I$c
&@
cSee 
c$c
c-JIc4$$c 7 c 7cG&:? H$cCf$c3
c$c1

c-Jc4$$c :&c :@cG&:I?HcG+
 #c c

c c

 c  ccc 
cN# c


c
,

c
  
c c" c#  (c

ccN
 c c# # 
c
cc
c c
,
cc

cc c#c#$cGc
  c$c c-&c4$$c@-c@-IcG&:IHH$c'
 
c
cMcDonaldc# c


cc# 
c
c

c!

c  c
c
c#
c1 
c  c ##
cc c#
  c 
c 
c.  c 
cc
# 
c
c c  c
c 

cc 
c1 
c  cc ##
cc+
 c
c c c
c

c!

c ##
cc c#
  c cc
$c.  cc c#  c 
c  c
cMcDonald
c#  ,c
c
c!

cc ##c
 cc c+
c c cF+
$cSee alsoc c'  c
Does the Second Amendment apply to non-citizens? McDonald Voting Paradox Revisited cM6c'5!19;!A(c'5M%c
G $cIc 7&&c<&Jc ;Hc #<=="   $==#>J?I?$c
&I
cSee, e.g.c  c$c1  cJ-Ic4$$c?-c?J 8JcG 77@HcG
 c  c
H$c
&?
c  c$c'
c&c4$$cc-@F-IcG&?:7H$c
&:
c0
c$cC  cJ&Ic4$$c@ 7c@-cG&::@HcG.c
c
,
cDavisc
c c c
c
c c
c

c
c
 cc
c c c cc# 
ccc
 c c c
,
# 
$H$ c

Jc
c

c C  c  
c '

c  c ) *c c 
c  c 
 c  c c  
c c  c


( c c c  
c #
 c 

c c c   c
c



&-7c
.
c 1c  c

c c
c  c c   cc
c c


$ &-&c c Ex
Parte McCardlec

cc
c
cc0
 c
c#

c1cc c1
c
c  c
c" cc
c

 c cc
c 
c#
 $ &- c c&:- cc

c 
cc/c/ c c
c#

c1ccEx parte Quirin #
c
c  cc
 c ccc%
 c 
 c #
cc
c4
c 
$&-c6

c c
c#
c
c
c9
c/ c
c#

c1cc c 

c. ccc
+
c c 

cc
c#

c c#
c 
c

c  c
c
c#cc 

c c

cc

c c
$&--c cc
c
cc
c
 c   c   
c  c

c #

c 1c #
c 
c  #
  c c   c 
c c 4$$c 1 c

c   c 
c


c  
c c  c  + c c c $&-Jc 3 c c #
 # c 

c c c


c 
c 
c %   c 
 

c 
c ##
c c 1
(c 
# c c  #
c 
c
cc6 
c1# c  c
c; c1  c !$cB
c
c1cc 
c
'

cc c  c  #
 c c c c
ccc 
c# c#

c
 

c

c c%   c ' $&-@c / 
c
c c c !
c 5
c c
,#

c  c c
c
1 c 
 
##c 
c  c c 
c c   &-Ic 
c 1c c  
c '

c
cc 
c c
# cc
c ccc
$cc
c .
c ##
c c  c 

c #


 c  c c c
c  c 
c 1c c  
c c
  
Kc

c

K ##  cc  c  c

c c  c  $c c
($c Ac c c ##c c 

c  c c c 



c #


 c c ##
c 
#
  c c
  c 

$c c ($c c #c c c 
c  c 
c 1c c 

c 
 c
 
c #c   c  K

c 
c 
c  
c  

c  c 
c 

  c c 
c


c
 
$c '

( c   c   c #c 

##c 

c   
 
c

 c c

cc
c
  
c

 c c
# 
cc
c1( c

c
cc
#
c   c

$c ! c c cc cc 
 c"
c  c"
c c
 
c
c
  c 
$c&-?c.
c
c!

c cc

$cc |  !
c
c 
c 
# c 
c 1( c  c c 

c 
c  
 c 
 
c 

c 
c

cc c 
 c  K  cc c
cc

 
cc
c1 K
 c
 c#
$cB
cc c c  c

 
cc
c'cc0  c 
c'

c
 
c c 

c 
c c " c 
c c 
  $c .  c  ,c " c 
 c  c
#
  
$cc
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&-7
cMcDonald,&7c$c1$ c& I$c1
 c  c
, c 
c c
c
c 
ccA c1  cc
! c% c c 
cMcDonald cHeller$c' 
 c$c

cJ< 7&7FF @JcGC$$A$1$c 7&7H$c3c##
cc
c  
cseec! c% c  c #cQc c'  cThe Tell-Tale Privileges or Immunitiesc1 c
#

c1c0

c 77:F 7&7c c&@c&I?F? $$cc
&-&
cSee Youngstown¶s Fourth Tier  suprac
cPPc cJ@JFI-c
&-
cC,c# 
c;1 
cI-c4$$cJ7@cJ&-cG&?@:H$c
&-
cC,c# 
cRc&Ic4$$c&c-?cG&:- H$c
&--
cB c

cQc.
c1$c$c 
c-c4$$cJI:cJ??F?:cG&:J H$c
&-J
c 
cQc;
c$c0
 c-Jc4$$c@J-c@??cG&:?&H$c
&-@
c'


c$c' cJJc4$$cI cI:?cG 77?H$c
&-I
cE.g.c .C 6CAc'0CBC0c;!9 A%cM40cC;M10!1Bc/M09c@?FI7cG 7&&HcG  c
c" c  c
cBush v. GoreH$c
&-?
cCf.c;   cG/ c$HcG c

c

c c c cc
 c  cc

cc
c$c.

c c
 cc
c cc c
cc #
c $H$c

@c
c

c Federalism and Locational Constitutional Rights Clause


c 
c 
c 1 c 
c c 
 # c  
&-:c .  c
c
,#
c 

c 
c

c !

c  c c   c  c c c  c  c  c  c 
c 
c 
c c
  
c  c c  c
$c.
c
 # c 
c 
c  ccc # $c3 c
 
c 

 c c McDonald 

c  c 
c 
c !

c c ##
c c 
c  
c
c #
c 

c #
 c  c 
c 
c !

c c ##
c c 
c 

 c


$c  
c !c 
 
c 

c   c

 c ## c c  
c ' 
 (c
  
c c
,#

 c 
 c c  
c 6  c ( c 

F 
#
c # c
" #

$c .
c 
c
c  
c c  
c '

c 
 c  c  c # 
c
c
c 
cc 
c

c c 
c c c  c
c 
c
c c
c
c
c
c
c!

$c / 
c 
c!c
"

c 
c

 ( cF c ##  c
c # c 

c 
c 
c !

c #
c 

c #
 c   c  
c
#
c c   c 

 c#
c
c

c #
c
cc c 
cc

c  cc
 c #
 c  c  c  c 

 c c  
c c c 
 c )  *$&J7c .  c

c 
 c
c3 c c3 c!

 c  c
 
c  c  c c c
 c 
c c  c c  
c  
c  
 c c 
c ##  c  
c '

c

 $c
c
1. States and Laboratories for Experimentation of Constitutional Rights
c 5c c ##
c c 
c 0
 c 1( c F 
c A
c 3

  &J&c c
McDonaldc 
c

 c
 

c
c 
cc  
c

cc
c 

cc

 c
" c

$c 
c

 c
c c
c# cc
c
c!

c c
c

  c# $c c c

c c#

c
c c c
c 

c 
c c c
c


c
  c# cc c

 ccagainst 
c 
c&J c6
c
c
  c
 c c )*
c   c c 

 c  Oc # c c c   c   c  c 
c
#
 c
 c 
c 
c 

 c 
 c 

 c  c  c  c  
c c 
c 
c
c# 
c
c 
Oc
c#
c#
 $&Jcc1c 
c9

( cc#c |   ! c# c
c Lopezc  
c 

 c 
c  c c  c c 
c 
c 
c c   c 1c c c 
c c
#  
c
c

c 
c  c


c
cc#$& ?c 
cc

,#

 cc)
c  
c*c c 
c N

c
c
c c c cc 
$(&J-c 
c   c
cc&&-c
  c  

c  c   cc c

c  c
c
c c c  cc 
cc |  . ( c
ccc cc
 c 
 c  c #
 c 
c 1c c 
c 
c  c  c  
c c 

c c c
#  
c
$cc

 &JJc c 
c 
 c #
 $ &J@c c  c 
c 
c # c  
c  c c 
c

c c 
c


$&JIc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&-:
c c'  cDoes the Constitution have a Geography Clause? How can rights mean different things in
different places?cM6c'5!19;!A( c'5M%cGM$c&Jc 77:c:<7 c!;Hc #<=="   $==#>7$c
&J7
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c c7 7c7-@cG 7&7H$c
&J&
cSee, e.g. +c$c4
c 
cJ &c4$$c?:?c:J:cG&::IHcG

 c$c
H$c
&J
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c&&&cG

 c$c
HcG  c c
 c  c
H$c
&J
cId.c c7:JcG

 c$c
H$c
&J-
cId.c c&&-cG

 c$c
HcGc4
c 
c$c5#
+cJ&-c4$c$cJ-:cJ?&cG&::JHcG9

c$c
HH$McDonaldc c&&-cc4
c 
c$c5#
+cJ&-c4$c$cJ-:cJ?&cG&::JHcG9CAACBc$c
H$c
&JJ
cId. c7J@FJIcG  c$cHcGc;  c$c!+ c?-c4$$c-@c---8-JcG&:@@HH$;  c$c
!+ c?-c4$$c-@c---88--JcG&:@@H$c
&J@
cId. c7J@FJIcG  c$cHcGcC c$cM  c-JJc4$$c&7-c&& cG&:? HH$C c$c
M  c-JJc4$c$c&7-c&& cG&:? H$c
&JI
cId.c c7JI$McDonaldc c7-I$c

Ic
c

c 'c c  


c ' 
 (c   c   
c c 
 c 
 # c  New
State Ice Co. v. Liebmann &J?c 
c

 c
  c c)*
c  cc

 c c# c
cc  c   c  c
c
#
 c  c 
c
c

 c
 c

 c  c
 c  c 
$&J:c Liebmannc

 c



cc' 
 (c c
c
 

c

c
c
c#
c 
c#


c c  
c
  
cc  c
c

 c c  

Kc   c 
c 
c  
c c #


c 5
 c c
c 
c
 c c 

$c ' 
 (c 
c 
c c
,#

 c c 
c  
c  c 
#
c c
 
 c c
c

cc   c
c c  c
c 1 c
cc
c cc
$ &@7c 1 c c  
c

 ( c
c  
c ' 
 ( c 
c 
c c #
c 
c |   (
c

c

 ( c c
 
c c 
,#

c  c 
c #
c c 

 c #

c   c   c c 

 (c
c
# 
c

 
c  $cc c c(c 
c  c
cc
c cc c( c
c !c
"
 c
cc c
c!

c c c
F c c  c   c   
$cc
c

c

ccc
cc# cc
c
c#
c 
$&@&c;# c

#
 c
cc
cc  c
c 
c
 
cc c c c# cc
c'cc
0  c  c c c 
c  
c c 
c c c 
c  c c  
c c  #
c #c 
c
#  $&@ ccAc  c#


 c
, $c/ 
c!c c
c
c!

cc
c 
c  
c )  c 
c  *c  c 
c  c c  
c c  #
c #c 
c
#  c
c c
 
c 
c#c 
c#  cc c 
c
c c
c
 c c c 1 $c .
c 1c  c  c c 
c 
c 
c !

c
 c c 
c
  c # 
c c 
c
 c 

c
 c 

$c .
c ; c 1( c    c  c

c
c#cc Hellerc


c  c
c
c!

cc
, c c c
F c
 $c
c !c  
c  c c c c   c c c c #
 ( c 

c c 


 
c

 c c
+
c
 
c
c#
 c c 
 $&@cAc
c c c  
c
c 
cc
c c
#
 ( c cc
F


c
 
c c 
c c c  c 
c 
$c # 
c#  c c

c 

 c  c #
c c c c c #
$c  
c  c #
c  c #
 c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&J?
c ?Jc4$$c @ c&&cG&: HcG' 
 c$c
HcG c c
cc
c ##c
 cc
c

 c  
c c c

c 
 c 
c cc c+
 c 
c

c c c  Lc cc
c  c c
c

,#

 c c cc
c
cc
c$H$A
c 
c 
c1$c$c5
 c ?Jc4$$c @ cG&: Hc
G' 
 c$c
H$c
&J:
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c7:Jc$G

 c$c
H$ ?Jc4$c$c @ c&&cG&: HcG' 
 c$c
Hc
G.

c c
c#
cc
c  
c c
c cc
c  c
,#

 cc
c# 
c c
  cc

c c  c c


c

 $c c c


c c
c 
 cc
c3

 c
!

cc
c  
c  c 
cc

cc
#
c cc
c#
cc
c
c
 cc
  c

#
c c
,
c#
c # c  c 
c 

c#
cc
c
c  H$c
&@7
cLiebmannc ?Jc4$c$c @  c&&cG&: HcG' 
 c$c
HcG.

c c
c#
cc
c  
c 
c c

c cA cc
c  c
,#

 cc
c# 
c c  cc

c c
 c c
c

 $c c c


c c
c 
 cc
c3

 c!

cc
c  
c 
c
  c 
cc

cc
#
c cc
c#
cc
c
c
 cc
  c
#
c c
,
c
#
c # c  c 
c 

c#
cc
c
c  H$c
&@&
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c7--cG;# c
#
 cc

c c cc
c
c c
+
cc6

c c
c
F c c "
cc c

c

ccc
c c
c
c'cc0  c  

c c
c

c
cc
c# 
cc
c
c 
c1 
$H$c
&@
Id. c7-J$c
&@
cD c$c;
cJJc4$$c&@-c&I cG 77?HcG  c$HcG/
c  cc c c
c3 c!

c( c

ccc 
c c c c


c# 
K

c# 
c
cc
$c/ 
c 
c# 
c
N cc# 
cc# 
c cc
cc
(c3 c!

c#
 c 
ccN c  
(c c
 cN
c 
ccc#c  c 
$c(cGc/ 
c$c4
c 
cJ&Ic4$$c?7@c?&JcG&::@HHH$c $c
c?&J$H$c

?c
c


c ccc 
cc#
c
cc

cc#
c 
c
c1 $c


cN# c c   (c


c c c

c
c
,

cc#
c#
 cc
cc cN 
) *cc c
$(&@-c6

c

c
c  
( c#
c#
c cc
c 
c c  
c  c c 
c 4
c  
c 1 $c  
c !c c 
 c  
c
'

( c
 c c  c

c   c )*# c   c 
 c
,#

 c
c c   c$c$c$c c cc ##
c
c1cc# c c

c
c
# cc
c'cc0  $&@Jc
c
2. Locational Constitutional Rights
c
c c   c   c 
c 

c   c c 

c # 
c c c # c

, K3 c c 3 c !

c 
K
c 1c  
 c  c c 


c 
c

c c  $c.

c locational c   c   c  c
c 
c c
c 
c |   c 
c#c  c$c
!

c" #

c
c

 c##
c c
c "c  cc
$c c cc

c 9cc
c
# cc
cc $cc

, c 
 # c  c c 
c  c  c  c # c c ex post c 
 c c c
+ 
c $c c  c c '

c
,#  c 
 # K  c c c   c 
c 
c


c c c

Kc
cc
c

c ex antecc
#
c c c+
 c c

c
 
ccc cc
c  c  $cc
c
$c The Second Amendment in High-Crime Urban Areas
c !c 
 c  c c  
c '

( c
c # c
c c
c#
 

c c

cc c 
c c
c 
 c

cc 
c# 
cc 
c 
ccc
  c c c 
#c c 
c  
c

c 
 $c C

c '

c

 c c #
c c
 

Fc 
 c c 
c 
c !

c c  c 
c  c  c 
c c c
#
 

ccF
 
c
 c c"
c  c c
c cc1 cc1  c
c

c c  
c
# $c '

c 
 c 
c  
c 


c  c )Heller*c  c 
c c
# c c
c

cc 
c  c c  

cc
c
c!

cc


#c  
c  c c 
c 
c c crime-ridden urban areas $&@@c '

c 
c  c 
c
 ( c  
c c c 
c cc
c#


cc  cc high-crime urban
areas $&@Ic 
c 
c 

 
c c 
c  ( c #
 c 
c  c  c  
c c 
c urban
crime problemcc cc c local in scopec c  c 
 cc cgeographic area c c limitedcc
sizec c entirely urban $&@?c3
c'

c cc  cc
c 
cc  c
  c 
c #
 c
ccurban gun deaths and injuries $&@:cc
c  
c '

c  
c  c # c c McDonald$c 3 c c 
c  c  
F 
c
 
cc
c
 c c
c c
c
cccc'

c c 
cc 
c c
 F
 c#
cc
c#
#
c
c c c
c c

c c cc

 c c  
$&I7c Ac  c [u]rban centers  
c  c 

c 

 c c 
c

c c 
c  
c '

c  c  c )*
c  
c c c 

c  c  
c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&@-
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c& :cG'

c$c
HcGcc;
c $c$c5 cJ&?c4$c$c-I7c-IJc
G&::@HcG

 c$HHcG
 c c  c
HH$McDonaldc c& Jcc;
cJ&?c4$c$c c-IJc
G
 c c  c
HcG'

H$c
&@J
cId.c c7J7$c
&@@
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7cI cG 77?HcG
#  c 
H$c
&@I
cId.c c@?&cG
#  c 
H$c
&@?
cId.c c@? cG
#  c 
H$c
&@:
cId.cG
#  c 
H$c
&I7
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c& ?F :cG'

c$c
HcG
#  c 
H$cc

:c
c




c  c 
c c cities$&I&c #
 c 
 c   c  c   c  c
# 
cc

c
cc   c

c  
Kc
, #
cc 77?c
c

c  
c  c -7c 
c 
c c A
c M
 c  c c  c c 5c A
  $&I c .

c

# c 
  c 
c

 c ex antec #
 c c  c c c 
c 

c c c
+ 
c c
c
c  
cc 3 c c3 c !

c  c  c 
c
infra$c
c / 
c  
c !c 
"
 c 
c c  c 
c 
c !

c  c c 
F c
 c  c  c #c c McDonaldc 
c c 

c 
c 
 # c  
c 
c 

 c
##

cc
c
c!

$c.
c;# c
#
 cc McDonaldc c
c1cc

c
c c
+
cc6

c c c
F c c "
cc c

c

cc
c
c c
c
c'cc0  c  

c c
c 
c
cc
c# 
cc
c
c

c 1 
$&Ic !c  c  c 
c c 
c  c c 
c   
c  c 
c F

 
c   c
c ##cc# c
$&I-cc
c !c 

c  c )*# c   c 
 c
,#

 c c  c
   c c 
c
 

c c   c   c 

c  
c 
 c #c
 
cc
c 
&IJcc
c  ( c c cc c
$c 
c!c c
cc
c
 c 
c  c c ##
c   c 
c  
c c 
c
 c c 
c  c c ##
c   c 
c


 c

$ &I@c6

c  cc
 c# cc
c( c"
 $c.
c
c 
c
'

c 
c c c
c c c 
c
,cc#
c
c 
ccc
 
c
cc
c#
 

cc
$c c
cc 
cc
c cc c
c cc
1 c 

c 
c 
c !

c ##
c 
c c 1  c 

c 
c 
c
!

c ##
c  c
c3

 c!

$c
c   c c c

c
c
c!

c c
c)c# 
*c

cc


c c c
 c#
c c#
 # c
  
$c/ 
c  c
c cc cc
c
c
c   c 1c c #
c 
c 
c !

c
,c
c #c 

c #
c 
c c


c 
 
c c c


c c 
c !

c " #

$c .
c  c  c  c


c  c c'c c 0 c   

c c 
 c cc ccc c
c 
c

c  
c  c c 

c  c c  c #
 c  c c  c 

 c c  
c
cc 
 c)  *$&IIc.  c c #c 

c  c 
c   c
c
#
c c Hellerc c  c '

c

 $c 4 c 
c 
c c  c 

 c c  
K
#
 c  
c 
c  c  c 
K c  c 

c #
c c   c c
c  
c 
c 
c c   c 
 # c  c  c  c c c  c 
c c c
+ 
c c c  c# c 
 cc 
 $c
c  c 
c c c c
c c
  c  c c c  c  F
c 
c c 
c   c



c Ac


$c 'c 
c  c 
c  
c c 
c '

( c 
c   c  c 
c"
( c c


cc c c) * 
c  &I?cc  c F
c  $cc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&I&
cId. G
#  c 
H$
&I
cId. c& :cG'

c$c
Hc
&I
cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c7--$c
&I-
cId.c
&IJ
cId.c c7J7cGc cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@@cG 77?HH$c
&I@
cId.cG.  c c) c
c# cc
c
c!

*c cc
c
  
c c
#
cc

c
c!

c cc c c
#
cc c
c
c  cc  
c#
ccc
c1 $H c
&II
cIdc c7-@$c
&I?
c4
c 
c$c1

c@ ?c3$c@Ic@I:cG- c1$c 7&7HcG
c c 
c

c6

( c cc
N#
#
c c
 c

(cc c#  c##
c c cccN 
c (cc 
c

 c

c4
c 
c$c
c@&-c3$c@?cGI c1$c 7&7HcG
c$c
HcG
c HcG.
c

7c
c

c
$c First Amendment Locational Rights
c
c 

 c3 c!

c
c
c 
c cc 
 c
c #
cc  $c
.
c 

c c#
c
 
c
  cc
c
c placecc 
cc#

c
#

 c #
c  c 
c 
 c  c 
c 
 $ &I:c .  c 
c 
c c  
c  c
3 c !

c   c  c 
c c 

c 
c #
 K 
c c 
c 

c  c c

 
c
c #

 cc c
F
 c 
cc cc
c# 
c c
c c
c
c c
 
 cc  cc #
$ &?7c.
c
c  
c3 c!

c
cc 
cc  c

,c  c c    c 

c 
c 1c c  
c ) #

 c 
  c *c 

c
##
cc 

c 

&?&K  c#c &? c
 
c#c  &?c c

c#c $ &?-c c
 c
c
c

c c
 
c
 c#
cc# 
c
##
c  c c c ##c  c c #
c c 
c #c c
,#
c c c c 
c


c  c  c 
 c c 
$&?Jc .
c Heller 1c c  c 
 c 
 
c
# 
c  c c   c c

c cc c 
# c  c c
c

c
 cc
c!

c#
$cc
c .
c 
c  
c c 
c   c 
c !

c  
c '

c ##
c  c
 
c
$c.
c c#cc
c
cc 
c
c

c
c 
 
c#
 c
##c contemporary community standardsc c c  c 
c c  
c c c  
c
##
 c c 
c #
c 

$ &?@c .
c Millerc 1c 

c  c )*c  c 

c 
 c c
  c c c 
c 
c 3 c !

c c 
c  c 
c #
#
c c ; 
c c
;  ##c 
#c #c 
#c c c c 
 
c c 5 c D
 c c A
c Bc
1$&?Ic.  c c#
cc
c 
c 

c 
 cc5 cD
 c c;  ##cc
##c 

c 
c c  $ &??c .
c 1c c  c )#*
#
c c 

c  
c  c c 
c
 
c c 
c c   c 
 c  c c c 
c  
c c 
c   c c #
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c


c
c6

( c # c  
c c
 cN#
#
c (c
 c
  K
#
 c
F #
c  K c c cc 
c cc   c#  $HLc' c $c
c
Qc%
c6$c0
 cHeller,cHigh Water(mark)? Lower Courts and the New Right to Keep and Bear Arms c@7c
6!. A%c5$$c& -Jc& J7cG 77:HcGc c6

( c c c#
#
c c
,
# cc
c

c!

c c c 
c#

c c 
c cc c
c   cc
 c
 H$c
&I:
c/ c$c0c!  c0  c-:&c4$$cI?&cI:&cG&:?:H$c
&?7
c.  c
c# 
c c 
c    c c
c
cc
c   c c

c
c
c!

c
#
 c
c cc c 
c
c 
c c#
 cc

c# 
$c
&?&
c15c$c; 
+c&7c$1$c :I&c :?-c$c&&cG 7&7H$c
&?
cId. Gc  c#c c  c c#c 

 c c#  cN c


c
cc
c
cc$c$c$c
#

 c c  c c c c c


c
c c
c c 
cc

c c#
c


c

$(HG  c
H$c
&?
cId.cG

 c

c

c
 
c#c c
cN

c##
c c cc  c


c
 
c c c#cc c
 c#

c#cc c##
(Lc #

 c
 cc  c ccN 
c
"
cc
c 
c c c c
 cc c  c#c$(HG  c
H$c
&?-
cId. G

 c

c
  c
c#c cc#
c##
cN
cc
cc
 c# c
c
 
c 
cc
c  cc
 c "
 $(c$c$c$c)*c  c cc c

 c
c c#
c

 cc #

 c c 
c
 
c c
#F
 $(HG  c
H$c
&?J
c 
B c ##c1

c$c0 c--Ic4$$cI-cG&:?7H$c
&?@
cSee also  c'  cOmniveillance, Google, Privacy in Public, and the Right to Your Digital Identity: A
Tort for Recording and Disseminating an Individual¶s Image Over the Internetc-:c!A.!c15!0!$c5$c0CD$c&c
?:F:7cG 77:H$c
&?I
c;
c$c1  c-&c4$$c&Jc cG&:IH$c
&??
c 

c
c

 c

c
c#

c 
c
cc
c
 
c"  cc
cc
 c


cc
c cc    $cc

&c
c

$&?:c 5

c  
c '

c 
c  c c 77?c 
c 
c  
c  c -7c 
c

c c A
c M
 c  c c  c c 5c A
  &:7c c c 

c 
c
!

c    c c ##$c
c 3c    c c
c c
c
c# 
c c 
c 
c
cc
c Miller
 
c 
$c 3c    c  c 
c 

 c ##
c c  

c 
c c

c   c 
c  
c  c c
# c   c  c c  c 
c 
$c .
c # 
c c
 
c    c

c
cc c3 c!

c  c
cc
c#  
cc c

c 
cc c

c #

 c cc c c 
c c
 cc
$cMillerc
c  c 
c  
 c c  c   
c 
c 
c  c c c  $c c   c


cMillerc c c
$c 

cc Ashcroft v. ACLUc 


c'

c  c cc
cc
 c3 c!

c c ccc    cc
 #  c
#  
c c 
c
 
c c
cA ( c cc 
c c c 
$ &:&cc
c
$c Fourth Amendment Locational Rights
c
c .
c3 c!

c  c c
 

c   c#
 c
c

cc
 
c #  +
c   c c  c 
c 

c 
 
c  #c c
# 
c 
$&: c'c c 
c c 
$c c
c
,cc
 
c  #c

c
c  c 
c c 

 c  c  c c  c 
c c  c 
c  #
c  c 
c

c c presently c 
 c
c
c c c
c c
 
c
cc  ccc

 (c 
$&:c!c#
c
c
c c  #
cc c  c
c 
c c 
c c
 ccc c
c # 
cc  c

  c
 c
 
c  #$c5 c
 c
c  

cc
c
 
c  #c   c c 
ccc # 
c  c c
c cc c#
c c c
c+ 
c 
cc $c.
c1c cc c

c
c F 
c   c 
c 
c 

c 
c # c  c c 
c  c  c 
c  c
 cTerryc

c
 
c +
c  #c

c c cc
# c c
c

$ &:-c.
c

c c c c#
c #c
cc cN  c
c 
(c) * c c
c


 c
, c 
  cc c Terryc    $&:Jc c cc # 
$c! c 
c  c

cc Virginia v. Moorec c #c 
c '

c"
c)*
c  cc  c c
c
3 c !

( c 
c c c  
c  c  c  c


c # 
$c C
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&?:
cMiller v. CaliforniaMillerc-&c4$$c c-&c4$$c&Jc cG&:IH $c
&:7
cId. c.& :cG'

c$c
Hc
&:&
c! c$c!154cJJc4$$cJ@-cJ?:cG 77 HcG'

c$cHcG c
c
#  
c
 
c c


c c
1
c

c
c  ccVVcc

cc
cA O c cc 
c c c 
ccc

 #  c
#  
c c 
$H$c
&:
cThe Fourth Amendment¶s Third Wayc& 7c6!0D$c5$ c0CD$c&@ IcG 77IHcG!c
c)3 *c!

c c

c
#

c c  c# c  
c c cc
,#  c c  c
#

c
 c"
 c
  
c
 c
cc
c 
c  c
,c c

c
c
 c


c
c!

( cc
 
$H$c
&:
c.
c$cM cG/
c

c c c c

c c#
c
c

c  cc  c
 c c

 cc
cc cc  c
,#


c ccriminal activity may be afootc c c
c#
  c c c

c c
c c
carmed and presently dangerous c

cc
c
cc
 c  c
c
c

c

c c c#
 c c 
c
 
c
c c

c cc
c c  
cc
c

c


cc #
c  creasonable fear for his own or others' safety c
c c

cc
c#
cc 
c c

 cc
c 
ccc c 
c
c
 cc
c
c cc  c#
  cc c 
#cc 
c

# c  c c
c
cc c HG
#  c 
H$$c
&:-
c;  c$c'
c-:-c4$$c Jc-c$c cG&::7Hc
&:J
c  c$c/  cJ ?c4$$c&&:c& -cG 777Hcc!  c$c/  c-7Ic4$$c&-c&--c&-IF&-?cG&:I H$c

 c
c

  c # 
c  c c # 
c c # 
c c c 
c c 
c 
c 3 c !

c
#
 c 
cc c  
c c c
c 
ccc#c  c 
$&:@cc
c  
c .  c c c 
c  "c c Samsonc 

c c c #c c )  *c
   c c 
c 
 c  
c c # 

c c 1  $&:Ic c c 



 c c  c 
c


 cc
c"
cc 
c'

c
,#

c
c c

c
c    c$c$c
$c  c
  
c c
c 
O c

c c
c

cc
c)  #
*c

$ &:?c
 
c

 ccc
c c
c

c
c c $c. c c  c)  c    *c
c 

c 

c
c 
c c " c  #
c

$&::c  
c 

 c 
c
 c )*c  c 
c  
c )#
c c    *c 

c  c
 c c  # c c 3 c
!

c #
 c 
c !

c c c c 
c 

c c 
c 

$ 77c .
c

cc
c cc
c
c!

$cc
c c Edmondc 
c 1c  

c 
c   c c #
c 
# c  c 

c


cc

c


cc c c$ 7&c.
c1c
,#
c
"

c
c ex antec ##  cc c


c
cc    c c

 +
c
 c 
c c
 +
c  # $c c   c 
c 
c   # c #
c


c 
#c   c


 c c  
c 
c c  c  
  c c 
c 
c    c c  c  7 c
 
c c c#  +
c  cc+ 
c
$c0
#
 c c c   c
c
1c
c c cc
c3 c!

c  $c c
c# c
c1c c#
c

c  #
c
+
c c   c c c ,
c '
c c 
#c 

c c


#c 
 c 
 c U.S. v. Martinez-Fuertec - ?c J-c G&:I@Hc c c c 
c 
#c

c c
cc
 cc
c cMichigan Dept. of State Police v. Sitzc-:@c4$$c
---cG&::7H$cc
c .
c 1c 
c 
c 
cc Edmondcc
c


cc
c 3 c
!

c  
cc   c 
c

 c c
c

 c

cc
c$ 7c
Martinez-Fuertec c Stitz 
#


c ex-postc
#
cc
 
c +  cc
c  7-c


c 
c #
c 

c 
#c c  c + 
c  
 c c 
c 
c c 
 $ 7Jc .
c
#
c  Edmondc c  c #


c 
#c # 
c ex-antec 
c c  
c 
c
   c 
c c

)*c


cc c c$ 7@c.
c1cc


c
# c  $c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&:@
cD c$c;
cJJc4$$c&@-c&I cG 77?HcGc/ 
c$c4
c 
cJ&Ic4$$c?7@c?&JcG&::@HH$c
&:I
cId.
&:?
cId.
&::
cId.cc
77
cJ-Ic4$$c?-c?@Jc$c@cG 77@HcG

 c$c
H$c
7&
c1cc   # c$cCcJ&c4$$c cJcG 777H$c
7
cId.
7
cId.c c-7cGc
c


cc
c3 c!

c  
cc   c 
c

 c c
c


 c

cc
c$H$c
7-
cEdmondc c:cG.  c
#c# c c
c 
c c
c
cimmediate hazardc#
cc
c
#


ccc
 cc
c    c c

c c c c
c


c
c#
 
cc   c

c c
c c


c# 
c c 
$c.
c cc
ccc#
c c
c 
cc
c
 
O c

cc
cc
 cc
c c

c
ccc

 c c
c# c c
  $H$c
7J
cEdmondc c- cG
 cc
c
#c#  c c
c 
c ##
c c

c# cc

c
##
c
c
 
cc
c#
 ccpolicing the bordercc
c

ccensuring roadway safety $H$c
7@
c1cc   # c$cCcJ&c4$$c cJcG 777H$c

c
c

c 1
c c  c  c  
c M(1c 
c  c  c c 
 c   c


c  c  c c 
c  c  
$ 7Ic .
c  
c  c 
c c c   c 
c 
 c

Kc
c
 c
c c 
 cc c 
 K
c
c  c c
c 
c

c  c
c # 
c c
 c 
c  c
 c c


c 
 c c

#c c# 
c c 
c ##
$c 3
c 
c1c  c #  c 
 c c 
+
c

,
# c c 
c 

 c 
c c  +
c  #c 

c 

 c  
c
# c# 
c
c

 c
cc
 $cc
c Martinez-Fuertec c Stitzc c
c c c 
 
c 
 c
cEdmond 1c
 
c
##
c 

c 

c  c  
c


c  c 
,

 7?c 
c  c c 1 
c c
  c#
 c


c" c cc
c 
 $ 7:c.
c   c
c1c
"

c
c Edmond c  cc1 
c Dccc#

c
cex ante 
cc  c  c
 c c#  +
c cc  &7cc 
c
cc c
c  c
c
   $ &&c Edmondc 

 c 
c 
c  c 
c !

c   c  c 
c 
c

c
cc c

 c

cc
c & cc  c
c 
cc
c 

cc c
+ 
c 
 cc
 $c c
c1c

 cc
c
c
c!

c  
c c

c 
 
c c 
c 'c c 0  K 
c c 
c Miller 
 K c   
c
 c c  c 
c c 
c 
c c c   c 
c  
c c c   $c .
c 
c
!

c cc c c cc c c  c $ &c
c cc
IV.  The Constitutionality of Social Cost and Equality of Rights
c .
c 1c c c c 
c  
c c   c 
, c c )*c #F 
c

 c 
c 
c c " c 
 c c  c 

$ &-c c 
c c
  
c  c 
c 
c !

c
,  c  c 
 c  
c '

c 

c 
c

, #
<c 

c #

  &Jc 

c c 
 &@c 
c 3 c !

 &Ic 
c 3 c
!

 &?c c
c ccF
,

c $ &:c.

c#


 c c

 c
 c c
  
c c
c c  c  c 
c  c

cc c 
 ccc# c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
7I
cId. c- $c
7?
cEdmondc c--$c
7:
cSee infra c D$!$c
&7
cEdmondc c-&cG0 
cc
#c
c 
c
+
cc
c
,
# cc
c

 c
c c c

+
c c
c # 
cc 
c

ccindividualized suspicion $HG
#  c 
H$c
&&
cSee infra cD$c
&
cEdmondc c-7$cc
&
cBut Cf.c0 c  
cIn Defense of Loosenes c.6CcAC/c 0C 4'5 1c! c Ic 77?c c-$c  
c cc
##
cc  c  cc

 c
"
c
cc cc;  ##c c
c#

cc 
c 

 c
c0 
c  cc c.
c cDc1
$ccId.c6
cc
 
c c
cC  c!

( c# cc
c
c  c# 
c c
c3 c!

( c#
cc

cc #

 c
c#


c c c  c
 $cAc cc
c
c!

K  
c
 c c  +)*c c 
cc
c 
cc
c
1 c  cc c
,

cc"
$ccId.,cc c
c

cc  c#cc

c



cc c c  + c c
c#
 
$ccId.cc3c  cc  
( c 
c see  c
'  cOriginalism for Dummies, Pragmatic Unoriginalism, and Passive Liberty: An Originalist Critique of the
Heller Dissents and Judge Posner¶s and Wilinson¶s Unoriginalist Assault on the Liberty to Keep and Bear Arms c
M1 !5c 1 CA1Cc0CC!016cAC./M09cGM$c:c 77:Hc# #
 $ $= =# #
 $   P>&&??I$c
&-
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@?:cG 77?HcG'

c$c
H$c
&J
c' 
c$cM c:Jc4$$c---c--IcG&:@:H$c
&@
c

c$cD

cI-c4$$c:?c-7cG&:@H$c
&I
c' c1c$c cJ-Ic4$$c:?c-7F7-cG 77@H$c
&?
cA
cBc$cR 
c-@Ic4$$c@-:c@JJcG&:?-H$c
&:
c4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI?cIJJcG&:?IH$c

-c
c

  <c 
c 

c c 
c c 
c ##
 c c 
c c c c c c 
c 
c
  c 
c c  
c c 
c ### 
c 

c c " c $c .

c #


 c
  c 
c c  

c  

$c 3 c 
c c + 
c c c  
c c 
c  c

c 
c  c #
c 

c 

 c c  c 
c  c  c c c
" c
  $c
c
c c 
c cc
c+ 

cc c#
 ( c#
 c
 c 

 c c ##
 c   c 
c 

c 
c  c #
c c 

c c
 c 

c c   
c 
 c  c c " c 
  $c . c 
c c  
c  c
+ 
c c c 

c 
c 
c  c #
c 

c c  c 

c
" c $c / c 
c 
c c 
c !

c " #

c c Hellerc 
c
#

c1c c

cc c c 
$c.  c 
c c#



$c c c
c 6

c
c
c 
c cc+ 
cc cc
c c
c c#

 cc
##
 cc 
c c
c##
c c c
cc
# c  cc c cc cc
##
c  c 
c 

c #

c 
c 

c c c   c   7Kc $c
 
c

 c 

c c 
cc
c'cc0  (c#
 c  

c c# 
c
N
 cc c


(c c 
cN
  c#c 
c#  $( &cc/ 
c

c #  c c c 
c  c c 
 c 
 c 
,) c *c 
 c


c
are generally quite attenuated c$c$c$c)*
cc


c c 
 #c c#c 
c c
 c  
$ c  c   c 
c   
c   c  c 
c 
 
c c 
 c  c c

 ) *c  
c c 
c  #,c #

c 
c # 
c c 
c 
c c c  c #
( c
 
cc 
c 
c
  c 
c

c 
c c#   cc
 c c
cc  c 

c
c#   c 
cc c
c#
 $ -c.c

 c)*
c c
 c
c ccc
Lc
c ( c
 c 
c
c

c c" c c c
 c c
#c


 c

c
c 
c
c c  c  
c
 c c
c c

cc

 +
c

c
$ Jc
c !
# ccc

cc

c
c#


 c 
c  cc 
c

 $c cc

c 
c  c c #
F
#
c 

c c c   c  c #
 
c  c  c c

 
c
  #c c#

c  c  c c  c c c c c
c#
 c
 
c  c 
c
c
c  cc c#
c c 
$c6  c  c 
cc
   cc

c
c1( c 
# cc  
c  c  c c c
K c
 cc
c
c!

( c" #

c


$c.
c" #

c
c1c

c
 c 
#
c c 
c 
c !

c 
c c  c c

c c 

c  

c  

c c
 
c   c c  c  
c c 

c #



c c 
c 1( c 
c   c
 c
c c  c  $c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
7
cSee infrac c D$1$ $c
&
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c&&7cG 7&7HcG

 c$c
HcGcMcDonaldc&7c
$1$c c7-JH$c
c;  c$c!+ c?-c4$$c-@cG&:@@H$c

cMcDonaldc&7c$c1$c c&&7cG

 c$c
H$c
-
cId.
J
cId.c c&7?$c.  c  
c c 
c

 (c#cc;5  c$c4$$c-I@c4$$c&@c&?cG&:?@HGc
. 

c
 c
 c
#

c 
c ##c
c c c c 
cc c c 
 c
#$c
3 c cc c c 
c c c# c c  
  c 
 Lc
c
cc  cc c  
c c
c c c 
 c
c c
c c
 c c#

c c  c c 
c c   c 
 c

c  cc
 cc
c 
c c c#  c
cc# 
$c c c
c # cc cc  c
cc
c 
 
c+
Lc c
c


cc

c c
 
c 
c c c
c
#
cc
 
$c3 c cc c 
c c

c
c c c
$H$cSee alsoc;   cG/ c$HcG.  c c
 c 
$c/
ccc cc
c


c
c
# 
cc 
c #
 c c cc 
c
 
cc
c#

ccc" c 
 c

c   
c cc
c!

c  $H$c

Jc
c

c
°c Category I - Imminent Harm
c .
c c 
c c 
 c  c c  c #
c  
$ @c c 
c 
 c c
 
c c


cc

c
c 
ccc 
cc
cc#

c
c 
c
c 
c 
$c 3c 

 Ic c 
 ?c 
c  c 
c 
"

c c  c ' 
c ##  c c

 $ :cB
c
c#

c1c c
+
c cc
cc
c 
c

c

c 
c c c
 c  c 
c c
c
$c 
c3 c
c c)*
c

c
 c)c
c1( c c c
*c  c

 cc  c  c
cc 
c  # cc
c  # c  $ 7c5

c 
cD c
c c
c c  c 
 c  
c c
,  c  
c 
c  c  c 
c 
c
c 
L &c
  c c 
 c c 
c 
 cc
c

c c c 
 c c
c "
c
c c

c
cc
$  cc
c C
c
c
c ccc 
cc c  # c  
c

c c
c 
$c.
c
 c 
cc
c c
c 
cc

c
  c 
 c c 
c 
 +
c
c 
c#
cc
ccc  cc
 $c c  c
c
c1c
c cc
c  
 c 
c
,

c c 
 c  c   c  c 

c c c " c $c
Brandenburg v. Ohio  cChaplinsky v. New Hampshire -c c New York v. Quarlesc
  
c
  c $ Jcc
c
1. Unlawful Incitement to Imminent Violence
c 1 c c # c 
c 
#
c c  +
c 
c 
c !

c c 
c 3 c
!

cc
  c 
c !

c  

$ @c !  c   c#   c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
@
cSee 9 
c9 cOur ³Jack Bauer´ Culture: Eliminating The Ticking Time Bomb Exception To Torture c c
3 5!$c$c A.(5c 5$c J&c J cG 7&7HcG.  c cc c
cNc
c(c
,
#$c4
c  c##
c  
c
 c 
c
 c# 
c
c
cc
c c
cc
c
cc c
  c
c
c 
c 
c c c
 
F  
c c
c  #
$c.
c 
c cc
c c c
c
cc

c
  cc#
c c
 #
cc

c c c cc
#c  
c  c#

c c  #
$H$c
I
c/ c3$c +cThe Torturer's Apprenticec.6CcA!. MAc; c&c 77 c c @cG c c
cc
c 
 c c 
c c c
c c

c#
 
Hc
?
c!5!Ac;$cC06M/ .Wc/6Bc .C00M0 ;c/M09< c4AC0.!A A%c.6Cc. 60C!.c0C MA A%c.Mc.6Cc
16!55CA%Cc&- F-:cG 77 HcG c cc
c  #
cc
ccc
c c#
 
Hc
:
'c$c;  ##c :Ic4$$c I?c ?IcG&:@HcG c c
c 
cc
c c c


c c  ccc c


c 
c
c#
H$cSee alsocAc$c%+ 
c-7-c3$c& 7Ic& c
G: c1$c 77JHcGc c
c1
c!  c.
( c  
c# cc
ccc
c

c


cc
,
# c  
c  

c

c c  
cc cc 
cc c
 c# c
  cc c
c#c


$cG  c
HH$cBut cf.c  cc

c5  cc
c/ c

c
 c5 c'c #<== $ "$= = 77I=7@= 7=" 
F   F
 F" F 
cG
c 7c 77Ic&&<IcC.Hc
GAc c 
c!c  c c) *
ccccc c' 
c c c
c c c c   c
cNBc 
c
c cc c"c (c c c"cccc c' 
c cOc c $H$c
7
c

c0 c6$c3 c$cStrict Judicial Scrutiny cJ-c415!c5$c0CD$c& @Ic& I&c&7-cG 77IH$c


&
cC

cD cImplementing the Right to Keep and Bear Arms for Self -Defense: An Analytical Framework and
a Research AgendacJ@c415!c5$c0CD$c&--c&-@-cG 77:H$cc

cId. GcC

cD c Crime-Facilitating SpeechcJIc.!A$c5$ c0CD$c&7:Jc& 7:8& cG 77JHH$c

c' 
c$cM c:Jc4$$c---cG&:@:HcG#
c HcG
 c c

cc
c

H$c
-
c1 # c$cA
c6 # 
c&Jc4$$cJ@?cG&:- HcG
 c#

c c H $c
J
cA
cBc$cR 
c-@Ic4$$c@-:cG&:?-HcG
 c
c#c 
c
,
#ccMirandaH$c
@
c4
c 
c$c; ++ 
 c@&-c3$c?Jc?:c$c-cG'
 
cHellerc c
c c#

c1c
c 
c

c #
cc
c c cc
c  c
ccc
c  c 
cc 
cc
  c

c!

c 

$c/
c c
c3 c!

c c
c  c 
$H$cSee alsocC

cD c
The First and Second Amendments c&7:c1M54;$c5$c0CD$c
 c:IcG 77:Hc

@c
c

  c 
c
#cc

c
c cc
c" #

c
c #
cc3 c!

c
 c  c #
 # c 
c
#c  c 
 $c #
 c 

c 
c  c c 

c #

 c  c

 
c c 
c #
c c  c  
c  c 
 K 
c  
 c #

 c  c  c

c c 

c c 
 $c c  c 
c 
c #
c  c  
c  c 
c c c $c .  c



cc #

 K

cc

c
c  c cBrandenburg K#
c c
cc  +
c
c 
c 1c c 

c 
c #
c c   c 

c  c  c 
c 
c 

c c

cc
c

$c c
c c Brandenburg v. Ohio c 
c 1c c  c 
c 3 c !

c #
 c 
c


c c 
c  c  c  c 

c c c c #c 
c  
c
c c  c 
c c 
c c #
c  c $ Ic 1 

c ' 
c c 

c c c
M c9c9,c9 c#c +
c c $c!c
c c' 
c #

c  c c  F

c c c
 
c c
c9 c c   c c / c $1$c c
c 3 c c
$ ?c 

c ' 
c  c 
c 
c M ( c 1 c   c !$ :c
.
c#

c1c


c  cc c
c c
c!c 
c
c3 c!

c

 
cc 
cc  c


c

c  c c

cc 
c 
c
$ -7c.
c1c  c


c
c  c 

c Whitney v. California -&c  c
#
c c  c  
- c c 
c c  c  c 
c N  (c 
c 
 c c


c # c c
c  
c 
c  c  
c c 
c
c c 
c  
c  c 
c
 
c  c  c $ -c 'c  c #


 c 

c c Whitneyc 
c 1c c  c

c   c   

c c 

c #

 c c 

c #
c c c #
c c  
c c c c
# 
c  cc
c
cc
ccc c c
,
#c

c  c  c c

c
c inciting or producing imminent lawless actionc c  c likely to incite or produce such
action$ --c '
 
c 
c  
c c  c c  c c c ##
c ## c c # c 

c
 c c c c c # c c  c # 
c
c  c 
 c 

c c
 
c 
c 

c #
c c c $c $c $c )*c   c  c 
c 
 c c 
c 3 c c
3

 c!

 $ -Jc
c ! c c Salerno -@c 
c Brandenburg c 1c 
c c 
c $c .
c 1c

+
c
c  c
 cc
c 
 c


c

c   c
 c$c$c$c
)*c c
cc 
c c 

c c#
# c c #c c 
c c c 

ccc
 c $ -Ic /
c c  c 
c 
c  c 


c 

c c
 c c #
 c

c #c 
c 

 c   

c c 
c 3 c c 3

 c !

 c $c $c $c ) *c


# c  c  c 


 c #

 c   c c 1 c c +


c c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c


#<==$  

$=
 =
=&7:=:IPD $#$ c
I
cBrandenburgc:Jc4$$c c--I$c
?
cId.c c--@$c
:
cId$c c--:c$ccG.
c ccc
c
c 
c c ##
 cNc cccc c
 
c
c

cc##
cc
c

cc c
  cc
 c c c
 cc
# c# c
c$c$c$c$(c.
c
cc 
c c ##
 cNc c c

c
 c c#cc
 
cc#
  c
cc  
c
c
cc c   c$c$c$c$(H$c
-7
cId$c!c--?F-:c--:c$-$cc
-&
c/ 
c$c1  c I-c4$$cJIcG&: IH$c
-
cId.c cI&FI $c
-
cBrandenburgc:Jc4$$c c--I$c
--
cId$cG
#  c 
H$cc
-J
cId$c c--:$c
-@
cSee infrac c D$'$&$c
-I
cBrandenburgc:Jc4$$c c--?cGccAc$c4
c 
c@Ic4$$c :7c :IF :?cG&:@&H$c

Ic
c



 c $ -?c 1+ c c 
c # 
c  c   c c ' 
( c  c 
c
1cc c
c  
( c ccc
c
c c  c
c c
c cc

cc
c 
$cc
c Brandenburg
,
#
c
c1( c


c c c
c  c

c
c
 
c c
c c#
$c 
c'

c ccc
cc    c c 

c

 c 


c  c c 



 -:c c  
c 

 c 
c  c )*
c c 


c
c
 #c c#c 
c c c 
 J7c c 
cc
c  $cB
c

c c
c # c c  
 c  
K
c 
# c c 
c  c 

c c  c
 c  
 +
$c ' 
c c c 
c 
c 

c c  c 

K
c
1c

c
$cA  c
c 
cc' 
( c9 c c
c1c cc
cc c
c  
cc 
c#


c $cC
 c ' 
c c 
ccc

 c
c 
c

cc
c 
c $cc
c
2. Fighting Words
c / 
c1 # c c
cc c cA
c6 # 
c  
c  c#
c |  .
cG#

Hc1cc
 c c
 
c
 
cc ccc 
c#
 cc c#c# 
c cc1 # $c.
c 
c
c
$c

 
c
c  
c c #
c 
c c  
c 3  c c c %c  
c  


$ J&c c
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshirec
c#

c1c 
c
c

 ( ccc
 c
c#

c c# 
c$c$c$c)*c ccN (c K 
c  cc
c

c 
 
c inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace c  )
*c 

c


c  cc 


c c1  c#
) *$ J c.
c1c
c c F 
c c
 c 
cc

 c# cc c
,# cc
c c 
cc  c  c  c 
c c c

#cc c c c

c c c
c

cc
c c
c

cc
c  c


c c 
c c  $ Jc !  c 
c 
c c  c  c 
  c
  J-c 
c% c

cc
c c 
cc #

 c c 
c c
 c  c c  c 
 c c Snyder v. Phelps $c 3 c c 
c 
c c 
c
#

c #

 c  
c % c 

c   c
, #
c c  
c c  c  <c
c c ) 
 *c c 
c c (c 
 
c c c # c c c 
c 
c 
 
c c

K( c c 
c
$ JJc
c ! c c Brandenburg c 
c Chaplinskyc 1c  c 
c  c c 
c  
c c
#c 
c

c
c  
c c c
$cA  c
c3 c!

c
c

c c  c c 
c #
#
c c  
 + c 
c 1c 

c  c 
c c  c c
#

$c Ac " c c  c 

c

$c 1
 c c #
 c 
c c 
c c c
 

c  
c c c "
c 
c c 
c c  c  c c 
c !

c
#
 K  c c 
c  c c c 
#
c c c   
$c 'c # c c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
-?
cId.c c--?$c
-:
cSeecinfra c D$1$ $c
J7
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c&&7cG 7&7H$c
J&
c1 # c$cA
c6 # 
c&Jc4$$cJ@?cJ@:cG&:- H$c
J
cId.c cJI&FI cG
#  c 
H$c
J
cId.c cJI $c
J-
c.  #ccM c!
c c-F--cSnyder v. Phelpsc7:FIJ&cGM$c@c 7&7HcG4. 1Cc1!5 !<cBc c
 ( c c  
c ( c c cLc

c c c c 
 c  

c K
c c

c
c ( c c cc c(c

c
c


$H$c.
c#

c1ccc 
c c cc

c#ccSnyder v. Phelps$c
JJ
cId.c c-J$c

?c
c


c  

c c 
c 
  c 
c c

c 
c 

c c  c 
c

 <c

c c#
 c c

#cc
c c
cc c
 c 
$c c
c
3. Public Safety Exception to  and Exigent Circumstances
c c New York v. Quarlesc 
c #

c 1c 
+
c 
c #c 
c
,
#c c
Mirandac c  
c # c 
c c c   c c 
c 

 c  c   $ J@c c Quarlesc
'
" c R 
c 
c 
c #
c c c #
 
c  c R

 c 
c  c c $?c  
c


$ JIcM
c 9 c 

c R 
c  
c c c 
c R 
c 

c  c c  c
 
$cR 
cc
c
c c
c c 
c
c
c
c

cc c
#c c
c 
c 
$c .
c 
c 
c
+
c 
c 
#c #c c 
c R 
c  c Mirandac
  $ J?c3c c 
c  
  c c#c 
c" c
c 
O c 
c
c#
c Mirandac   J:c
c1ccc ##
c
c
+
c
c c
+
c

cN#c 
(c
,
#cc$c$c$cMiranda$ @7cc
c  
c 0
 c c c 
c  "c 
+
c  c 
c Miranda 1c  c
c c 
c 
c costsc c 
 c )#*
 c 
  c $c $c $c ) *c 

c 


c

# 
c$c$c$c 
c
c# c social costc c 
c 
c#
 c) *c
c# cc


c  $c $c $c $ @&c .
c 1c c 

c  c 
c 

c c  #
 c c  
c

 c c c  c # c c  
c c 
c #c 
c 
 )
*c 
c 

c c 
c
##  c 
c #
c 
c 3 c !

( c #

c   c
F $ @ c
!  c Dickersoncc c Mirandac cc c##  c
cc 
c c c1  c

c
c 
c  c
c
c#c 
c
,
#c
  $ @c c Miranda   c c



cR 
cc
#ccM
c9 O c
c c
c

 cc
cc

c [social] costc c 
c 

c 
 c 
c  c 

c 
c  
c c  c


c

cc c R 
Kc c 
c c
c 
cc
c#ccc
c c

c

cc
ccc c#c 
$ @-c
c ;
c  c 
c 1c c  
c c

c 
c c 3 c !

c
" #

c 
c  c 
c  
 c c



$c 3c   
c 
c   c



c c 

 c  
c 
cN
c
,

c c
c  (c  
c
c

 c c c



c c#
c c
c  
c
 c c"

c
 
c
c
c3 c
!

$ @Jc.
c1c cc c)*
c

cc#
cc#


c
cc c
 c
"c c"  cc cc
c 

c
 c 
c c exigency or emergency @@c
c  
c 
c   c 


$ @Ic !  c c
 c c c 
c  c c   c  c
#
#
c
 
c c


c 
 c  c

c c 
c  c c   cc


c emergency assistancec c c "
c # c c c #
c c # c c imminent
injury$ @?c! c c


c
 c c 
c c  
c
cc c# 
c##
cc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
J@
cA
cBc$cR 
c-@Ic4$$c@-:c@JJFJ@cG&:?-H$c
JI
cId.c c@J&FJ $c
J?
cId.c c@J $c
J:
cId.c c@J&$c
@7
cId.c c@JJ$c
@&
cId.c c@JIcG
#  c 
H$cc
@
cId.c
@
cSee, e.g. 
 c$c4
c 
cJ7c4$$c- ?cG 777H$c
@-
cQuarlesc-@Ic4$$c c@JIcG
#  c 
H$c
@J
c' c1c$c cJ-Ic4$$c:?c-7F7-cG 77@HcGc;
c$c!+ c-Ic4$$c?Jc:F:-cG&:I?HH$c
@@
cMinceyc-Ic4$$c c: cGc/ 
c$c4
c 
c&?c3$ c 7Jc & cG$1$c1$c&:@HH$c
@I
cStuartcJ-Ic4$$c c-7cG
#  c 
H$c
@?
cId.cG
#  c 
HcGcMinceyc-Ic4$$c c: H$c

:c
c


cc c c
cc
 
c c 
 @:cc#

c
c
cc


 I7cc
c
 
c c 
c  c # c c c 

c  #
$ I&c /
c 
c  
c  c 
c 
 c
" c 
  c 
c
$cc
c !  c c c c

c
c c
c


cc 
c'

( c cc

c cc

#c c
c  cc cc c 
cc
c#c 
cc
 c c
cc
c c 
c 1c c 

c 

c  
 K Quarlesc c #  K c  
$c 3 c 
c
1c 
c  c 
c #c 
c
,
#c  c c  c
,
#c c)*c ;   I c c 
c
#
c  cc)
*c
c$c$c$c
  
)c  *c $ Ic
c
c1c
cc

c 

c c 
c  K)*
c #
c c   c 
c c 
c 
c c c ##

c c
 #
c

c
c c
c immediate necessitycc 
 c
c

 cc cc
  c
c c

c
cc


c
c  #
c c" c

cc  c
#c  
c c
  
c c 
c #
 
$ I-c c 
c 1c c c  c c 
c c c 
c
 
c 
c 

c c 

c Mirandac   c 
c c  
c  c c   c  c +
c

 cc
c

 
c 
c
c 
  ccc c" 
c  
$cc
c 6

c 
c 1c c c c $c Quarlesc  c c c FF
Fc 
c 

c c

c  #

c  c c #
 c  c #
c c $c 0 
c 
c 
c 
+
c 
c

 
c

cc
cc#
c
c
cc
c
c#  cc
c #
 
$c! c
c
1c
ccc c
c c  c 

c 


cc
c #
 
c c c  c


 c c c  c #
c 
c  c 
c  
c c 
c #c 
<c c
#
c c 
c
ccc c 
cc
#

c c 
c
c#c$ IJc c 
c

c  
+
cc
c
,
c 
cc
c  cMirandac

cc
c ##
cc c c
c c " c c  c 
 ,
$ I@c ;

c #
c c c c #c 
c c



c  c
cc  c
 ,c
c ccMiranda$cAc c
 #cc c

c c 
K

c 
c 
c #
c c 
 
c  c c c # 
c c  c 
c

 
K


c  c ,c" c c c
c

 c 
$c
c cc c
c
uc Category II - Latent Threat from a Dangerous Actor
c 6  c 
c


cc 
c c c c  c##
 cc

K 
c
 
c 
c c 

K 
c 

c 
c  
c c 
c 
# c c 
 c c c
# c   $ IIc B
c   c  
c 
c c c 
c 
c   c c #
#c c


 I?c
c

c  c# 
c
cc c

c  
c
 
c
c#
 c cc

c  c 

c   c 
c   c 

$c c 
c 
c 
c 
c 1c

+
c  c c 

 ( c ##
 c c 

I:K c  
c c 
c + 

c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
@:
c;  c$c.
c-@c4$$c-::cJ7:cG&:I?H$c
I7
c9
c$c1  cI-c4$$c c-7cG&:@HcG# c#H$c
I&
c4
c 
c$c   c- Ic4$$c?c- F-cG&:I@H$c
I
cQuarlesc-@Ic4$$c c@J?$c
I
cId.c c@J:$c
I-
cId.c c@JIcG
#  c 
H$c
IJ
cId.c
I@
cId.c c@J@$c
II
ccSee, e.g. 0
c$cC  cJ&Ic4$$c@ 7c@-cG&::@HcG.c
c
,
cDavisc
c c c
c
c c
c


c
c cc
c c c cc# 
ccc
 c c c
,
# 
$H$c
I?
c 
 c$cA
cBc- c4$$c&:Ic 7?cG&:IIHcGc c
c/ #c:Ic4$c$cJ?cI cG6  c$c
HcGc c
c
c#
c 
c c
cc c 
 c 
c

 ccc 
c
 cc c c
ccc c
c c cc
c cc cc

$H$c
I:
cSee 4
c 
c$c1 c&7c$c1$c&:-:c&:I:cG 7&7HcG.  c$c
HcG!c

 c c

-7c
c

c

cc#
 c K c
c
cc# 
c  cc  c

c cc
c 
 c #
 c   c 
c   
$c .
c 1c c 
+
c  c ) *c "c
c



cc c

 O c
  
c propensity cc

c
 cc
c c
c
#

 c c cc
c
c

c
c#cc

c c

c

c c c
cc c
c# 

$ ?7c!  c"


c

 c 
cc 
cc 
c  c


c
c 
K
c 
c" c c
cc
 c
c 
 
cc
c c
c c
 c
  $c.
c
  c c

c c#
 c 
 c c  c c 
c

cc 
c
c  c
c
 c c   ?&c c 
c  c c c #

c  $ ? c.

c  
 c   c  
c 
c c c c
 cc cc
c c $cc
c
c
1. Right to Bail
c c United States v. Salerno c 1 
c  
c 0
 c 
c c 
c 1c  c 
c ' c
0
c !( c  + c c #
 c 

c 
c c 
c  
 
c  c
  c c c  
c   
c 
c #
c c c c #

c #
 
c
# 
c#cc $ ?c0
cc
 c c c1
c#


c#
 c


c c c#
 c cc c#
c 
 c#
c
c 1c 

c
c !c c c
#
 
c 
 c  
c  c c 
c c 
c  )*c #
 
c
# 
$ ?-c.
c1c
+
c c#

c 
cc
cc c c
 
c

 c  c c  c 
c 
c c 

c 
c 
c c )*c +
  ?Jc ) c *c # c

c c

c 

$ ?@c  
c '

c
+
c c   c   
c c 
c c c  c
Heller ?Ic c McDonald ??cc  
c
c 
( c  c


c

ccc 
cc

 c c  
c   c # c  $c .
c c c Salernoc 
c c  c 
c  
c c


 c

cc
 
c
cc#
c
c c 
c'

c 
 $cc
c ! c 
c Salernoc 1c 
c .
c ' c 0
c !c  
c  c 
c   
c

c  c

c c
c  cc
c c
 cc
Lc
c 


c c

cc c
##c 

c
c $c $c $c c 
c  ,c 
 c c #
 c 

c  c 
c c 
c

c 
c   c c 
c #

c . c !$ ?:c 1 


c  
c 0
 c 
c  c )*c
c 
c
c c
cc c

c#cc cc c c c
c 
c
c

,
#$ :7c c cc
 
cc  c#
#cc
c 
c cc   :&c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c


 O cN
, c 
 (c##
 
c 
ccN

c(c
c cc  c 
 cc  c
  #c
 c
c

 c# c  
$H$c
?7
c9
c$c c1  cJ-c4$$c -@c JFJ-cG 77 HcG
#  c 
H$cc
?&
c4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI:cG&:?IHcG 
c
c cc H$c.  c
c c
cc 
c
'

( c
cc; c$c1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& @cG 7&7H$
?
c' 
c$c/c-7Ic4$$cJ&-cG&:I HcG 
c
c cc c #

c H$c
?
cSalernoc-?&c4$$cI:cG&:?IH$c
?-
cId$c cI-I$c
?J
cId.c
?@
cId$c cIJJ$c
?I
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@?:cG 77?HcG'

c$c
HcG. c c
 
c  c

c
Fc
 cc

cc  
cG c
c
c

c
Hc cN# c
cc

c

K c

cc
c 
c c

c
c
cc c+
 $(HcGcSalernoc-?&c4$c$c cIJJcG&:?IHH$cc
??
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c& @cG 7&7HcG'

c$c
HcG.
c

 c

c
cc
 c c  cc  c  c   c

c
c
 cc
c  c cc
c
 c   c
c# c
cc

c

K c
cc
c 
c c

c
c
cc c
+
 $HcGcSalernoc-?&c4$$c cIJJcG&:?IHH$c
?:
cSalernoc-?&c4$$c cI-I$c
:7
cId.c cIJJ$c

-&c
c

 c 
c 1c  c c c c  c   c 
 c 

 c 
c c c  c #c
 c# c 
c c

c 

K c
cc
c 
c c

c
c
c c c
+
 Kc  c  
c  
c 
c 1 $ : c !##
c c 
c   c c Salerno K

c c
#
 c


c
 c#
 c 
   :K
c c c
c $cc
c 1 
c  
c 0
 K
 cc  #c c  c  K

c c )*c
c 
c 
c  c 
c $ :-c !  c c 
c c 
c  c 
c # c 
c c

c
,
# c c 
c c 
c  c   
c c #
c  c 
$ :Jc .
c
Salernoc1c
+
c c)* 
c
c%

O c

 c

cc#

c
c c
#
c

c  c

c c
 

c
c
c%

c 
 cc#c c

c 


c 
c 
c c
c c  
c c c
 c 
c #

 c c 
  
c
 
cc
c$ :@c.
c1c  
c  c
c)*c
c
c 
cc
c  
c$c$c
$c ) *c 
c  O c c 

c c 
$ :Ic .
c 1c 

c  c c 
c
)*

c #
c c 
c c c


c  c c 


c #

 c c 

c
c  
c  
c c c  c c 
c  :?c 
c  c 
c  c 
c 
 
$c
.  c c
c cc   cc
c
c
# cc c#
 ( c
c c

c c c
 c c#
 ( c#
 c
c c##
 c c 

c#
c c
c c
c c 
cc


$c Mc )*
c 

c  c   
c 
O c 

c c 
c #

c  c c  c


$ ::c Salerno  c cc 
c c
( c

 c
cc #
c  c c c



c#
c c 
cc
c c
c
c
#
$c5

c
  c

cc


c
c

 c#
c c 
c "
cc
cleast restrictive further conditioncc cc
 c $c $c $c )*c 
c 
c $c $c $c c 
c c c 
c #
 c c 
c $77c .

c


c
 c "
cc c#
 c


  7&c
c0
 ( cc c

c c
c c   
c c
c
c

c 
 c

cc c c
c


 ( c#
 c 
cc
c 
cc
 $c
c c 
c 
c c 
c #
F
#
c  c c 1 c c 1  c  
c 
c  c

#
c c c
c c ccc  c c c c#
$c!c#
 c c

 ccc cc #c c#



cc
c 
 c c c c c
c#

 c c


c c  
c  
c c c  c c 
c 7 c %

 +
c
# c
c
c
  #c


c
 c c

c c 
c  c c $c!  c
c
 ( c  
c

 cc
c
c c c
F#

c c#F 
c

 c c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c


:&
c0!ABcC$c'!0AC..c0C.M0 A%c.6Cc5M.c1MA. .4. MA< c.6Cc 0C4; . MAcM3c5 'C0.BcG 77JH$c
:
cSalernoc-?&c4$$c cIJJ$c
:
cId.
:-
cId.
:J
cId.
:@
cId.c cIJ7$c
:I
cId.
:?
cId.c cIJ&$c
::
cId.c cIJ7$c
77
c&?c4$$1$cSc&- GHG&HG'HcG
#  c 
H$c
7&
c&?c4$$1$cSc&- GHcG.
c" c
c c c c
cc


c

c ccc
 cc c
c cc 
cGHcc  c
cc
 c 
c
c ##
 
cc  c
#
 c c

c c
c 
cc c
c#
 c c
cc$c$c$c.
c
c c
c
c
 
c
#c
c#
 ( c c ##
 
c

c
c" c
c$c$c$c!c
c
c  c#
 c c
c cc
c

#


cc
c cc  c 
cc c 
 
c
#

 cc 
c
c ##
$c.
c
#
 c c
c 
c c##cc
cc#

c

cc F
, 
c

c c ##
c c
c

c cc#

c cc#
cc

$H$c
7
cId.c cIJ&$c

- c
c

1c c 
cN#
(7cc

cSalernoc
 
c
c

cc
cc
 c

c 
$c!c

c c c
c 
c

c
c#c 
c

c c 
$cc
c
2. Right to a Speedy Trial
c .
c, c!

c cc c #

c c  
c
c  cc
c 
c c
c
 c  cc
c 
c c 
$7-c c Barker v. Wingoc
c1c
+
c

c#
c


 c c  c 
c  c c  
c #
  c )*c 
c 

c c c 

c c  c
#

c 

 c c 
c   
c  c 
 c  
 c 

) *$7Jc .
c 

c c
 c
c c 
c c" c  c c c c

 c# c c
c )

 *$c c

c
 c cc c"Lcc # c c
Lc cc

c

$7@c c c
c #
c
c" c c #c
c
$7Icc
c Mc 
c 
c c 
c  c   c  
c  c 
c 
 c 
 
c 

  c c

 
c 
c


c c #
c c c c 

c 

c c 

c  # 
c 
c
 
$ 7?c3
c
  c c#
c

  c c 
c  c c$c$c$c c##cc
c 
c 
7:c c 
c 
c c 
c  c 

c  c  c 


c 
c 
#c


c  c ##c c "#c  c c
 #
$ &7c .
c 1c 
+
c  c 
c  c  c
' 
c c c 
cc cc
cc
 c 
c 
cc c c c c
cc
  c
c  c  
c 
&&c  c 
c c 
c c c 
c 

 c c 1   c
1c9
$& cc
c c c  c 
c 
F
c 
 c 


c 
c 
c c  c c c #
"
c 
c


 c 
c 1c 

c  c c 

c  c c 

c c

 c  
  c  c
c
c ##
cc c  c
Kc)*
 c c
 c
c
c c
c
 c

c 

 O c
c c  c  c c #
"
c c 
c 

 $&c .
c 1c


c  c   c   c c  c c
K c  c c
 
c c c c c

 
c  c#
$&-c'c
c1c 

c cc
c c c 
 c c
c
c 
c  c#
c c
c 
cc cc
c c
c 
O c

cc
c #

c c c #
 c 
cc
c1 $&Jc/
c c
c

c c c  
c

c 1c  
 c  c  <c 
c c  c   $c 5
c 
c   c c Salernoc 
c 1c

c
c

 c  c  c c 
c

#ccc
c# 
c  c  c
c
ccc 
cc c
 c
 $cB
c
c1c c
c 

cc
c  cc

c
c c c # cc# 
c1  c  cc
c c cc
#

$cc
c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
7
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7cI7JcG 77?HcG'

c$c
HcGcSalernoc-?&c4$$c cIJ7c
IJ-H$cc
7-
c4$$c1MA.$c 
$cD $c
7J
c' 
c$c/c-7Ic4$$cJ&-cJ&:cG&:I H$c
7@
cId.c cJ $c
7I
cId.c cJ F$c
7?
cId.c cJ&:$c
7:
cId.c
&7
cId.c cJ 7$c
&&
cId.c cJ&:F 7$c
&
cId.c cJ&:$c
&
cId.c cJ7$c
&-
cId.c cJ$c
&J
cId.c

-c
c

c Category III - Cognizable Threat That Is Not Imminent


c .
c #c 
c
,
#c c Mirandac c 
c
,
c   
c 
c c 
c
3 c !

c 
c 
 c c c   c " #

Lc 
c 
c #
c  c



cc
c
 c  c

c c  c" c c
c

c 

c c  c 
$c c  c 
c  c c #

c  c c  c 



c   c c
#
 ( c c  c c##
 cc

c c
c 
c
c
,
#cc
c
ccc 
c  c c
$&@c/
c

cc

c   c 
c#

K c c
c 
c c+ 
ccc
 K
c1( c#


 c cc
c c 
$c c!c
 
c  c + 
c 
c 
c  
c G c  c c 

Hc  c 
+
c c c 
c c 
c
  c c 

c  c c #
c  c  c 
c c c  
 +
c c c c $c 3c

, #
c c  c


c 
c  #
 c  c c #
 c  c
, c  # c 


c
c  c #
c c  
c c 
 $c .  c   c  c 
c
, c  c 
c 
,
c 
 
c
 #c   c  c

c  c c c  c
c c c
c  #
c c

c 
c c presently c 
 c
c
c c c
c c
 
c
cc  cc
c 
 (c 
$c !c + 
c 
c  c  c
$c %

 c 
# cc 

c c
 c  cG

c 
 c c 
c+ 
Hc
c
c 
c cc
cc
c 

cc
c ##
 c c 

c 
c
c c c 
c
, c " c 

$c .c   c
##
c c  c #

c 
c
,  c 
c c Miranda v. Arizonac  
c

,#
c   c 
 $c !  c 
c


c c 
 c  c c 
 c # c c
 
c " 
c c c  c  c 

c 
c 
c 
c 
c c 
c
1$cc
c
1. The Exclusionary Rule and its Good Faith Exception
c 4
c 
c 3 c !

c 
c #
#
c 
c 
c  c c 
c 

c c 
 
c


c c
+
c c
c#

c1c cc c  cc  c c

c
+
c



c   
c c  c #

 $ &Ic .  c ##


c  c 
c
,  c 
$c .
c
3 c !

c  c c # 
c
,
 
c  c c #c # c #c

c c 
( c #
  c c

 c 

c #
c  c c #

c c 
F
 
c

cccc# 
c
c cc
c c c
#

c
" c 
$c .
c
,  c 
c  c c c  c 
 
c
,
 K 
c  c
  c c c
c#
cc

c
 
cc
  
$c 
c6
c

c

,#

c  c
 cc  c Olmstead v. United Statesc
<c/
c 
cc 
c ccc
# c c cc c
c
c c 
c  c c
 #
c c c
c%

c c# c
c
c# $&?c
c 5
c 
c   c c Miranda&:c ## c   c 
c
,  c 
c # c


c c 
 c c 
c  c   c  c 
c c 
c
 c c
+
c  $c c
&:I@c1 
c 
c'
( cc#ccStone v. Powell

c
c  cc
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&@
c4
c 
c$c 
c-?&c4$$cI-&cIJJcG&:?IH$c
&I
c; ##c$cM c@Ic4$$c@-cG&:@&H$c
&?
cM 
c$c4
c 
c IIc4$$c-?c-I7cG&: ?HcG6
c$c
HcG.


c
c c 
c
c
c"
 cc

c cc  c
c c 
c c 
c#cc c  cc 
$c c c
 
c c
  c c
c


c cc c
c c c   
c


c c
c
$c c  c c
 
c c
c


c cc
c 
c c# cc
c
c
c
c 
c
c
 cc  c
c


c cc
c
 
$c cc#  c c
 cc cc


cc
c ccc

c cc cc c
c# c
cc

ccc
c 
c c c c c   cc# 
cc#
  cc ## cccc 
# c c
#  c c 
c cc
c
ccc# cc
c $H$c
&:
cSee infrac c D$1$ $c

--c
c

,  c 


<c .
c 1( c #c  c

c 

 c 
 c c 
c
  csocial costs  
c c 
c 
$ 7c c Stonec  
c / 
c 
 
c  c 
c

,  c 


c  
c c 


c   
c c c c 
c  c c  c  c
  $ &c 
c c
 
c
cc  c
,
#cc
c
,  c
c 
c/ 
c


c  c 
c 
c c 
c    c 
c c c c #

c  c ## c c
 
c  c   
c 

c 
c


c c  
c  c
+
c c c 
c c c 
c
good-faithc 

c  c  c c #
c  c
, c c c c 
 
c  c
c  c

$ c
c 1 
c 
c'
c
c
c cc
c
,  c
ccBrewer v. Williamsc

c c 
c1c  c

cc  
c

c
c

 c

cc ## c c

c
,  c
cc  c
c
 c c csocial costs$ c c
c&:I?c
c Rakas v.
Illinois,  
c0
 c  c
 
c  )
*  c
c
c
,  c
c c ##
cc

,  c c    csocial cost c 


c  c c 3 c !

c   $c 0

 c c

 
c


c  c 
#c c 
c 
c c  c c 
c
 c c  c c  c  c 


$  -c
 
c / 
c c  c c #c c Illinois v. Gates 
c
,#

c 
c 
 
c

,
 
c  c  c 
c c 
c ##
c c


<c )*
 
c c 
c 

c
  
c c
+
c  
c


c c 
c 
csocial costs c  c  c   c
##
c ## cc 
c
,  c 
c c 

c  
c N

c c  
c 
c


c c

 c "

c 
c  c  c
  c

$( Jc c&:?-c 1 
c  
c
'
c 

c 
c
, c c


c c  socially costlyc 
c ) *c  c 


c c 

c
#
 @c  c   c 
c  c social costc c 
c #
  c  c c
c#
cc
c
$  Ic
c .
c c   c
,
#c c 
c
,  c 
c  c  c 
+
c cUnited
States v. Leon c &:?-$c .
c c   c
,
#c #
 c 
c  c c


c
  c   c c 
c 3 c !

c c 
c  c


c  c 

c c
c   c c c   c  c   $ ?c c c 
c c   c
,
#c 
c 1c


c c 
 c   c c 
c   c 
  c c  c  $c 3 c 
c 1c

c  c 
c     csocial costs
, 
c c 
c
,  c 
c c 
c  c c
3 c !

c   c 
c c 

c c 
c c 
$ :c .
c 1c 
+
c 
c
#
c 

 K



c c #
c  c c 
c   c c  c
" 
Kc c  c )*c 
c 
c   
c 
+
c  c 
c ## c c

c
,  c c c

c 
 c c 

 c 

c c #

c
 
# c
c Fc cc"
c c"$7ccc
c 0

c c Herringc 
c 1c 

 
c  c 
c principal [social] costc c 
c

,  c 


c  c 
c c c # c  
 c 

  c c 

K 
 c  c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
 7
c- ?c4$$c-@JcJ7&cG&:I@HcG'
c1$$cHcG
#  c 
H$c
 &
cId.c cJ?cG/ 
c$c
H$c

cId.cG
#  c 
H$c
 
c'

c$c/  c-7c4$$c?Ic- cG&:IIHcG'
c1$$c
HcG
#  c 
H$c
 -
c-:c4$$c& ?c&IcG&:I?HcG
#  c 
H$c
 J
c-@ c4$$c &c J-FJJcG&:?HcG/ 
c$cHcGc4
c 
c$c1   c-&-c4$c$c?c-?c
G&:I-HH$c
 @
cA,c$c/  c-@Ic4$$c-&c-- cG&:?-HcG'
c1$$HcG
#  c 
H$c
 I
cId.c c--cG'
c1$$HcG
#  c 
H$$c
 ?
c4
c 
c$c5
c-@?c4$$c?:IcG&:?-H$c
 :
cId.c c:7IcG
#  c 
H$cc
7
cId.cGc4
c 
c$c 
c--Ic4$$cI IcI-cG&:?7HH$c

-Jc
c

N
 c c 
# c c
c  c" 
c  
$(&c).*
c
( c  cc#c F

c c  c


c "

c #

 c c  c   
c c  
c c ) *c
## $ c  c 

c c c c 
c 
,  c 
c $c $c $c #
) *c 
c


 c 


c  c # 
c 

c  c 
c 

c   c ) *c substantial social
costs$c
c Cc 
c  
c 


c ##
c # c 
c c c 
c 
c c c
#
c  c 
+
c c  
c 6
c c Olmsteadc 
c
 c 
 
c

-c 
c
Leon 1c
+
c c) *c "
 
c  
 c 


c c  c



c  c

c c" 
c  
( c Fcc c c 
cc

  c cc

cc



c

c


c c c
cc  
c#
c   $Jc.
c1c
c c
 c

c c
c c#
  cc    #c c
# c

 c c c
c
,  c

c  c c c 

 c

c c 
c #
c c 
$@c A  c  c 
c
# cc
c
,  c
c c    c$c$c$c
c  c#

 
c c  c
c
c
 c c  
c  
c 
c c 
 c  c 
c 


c 
 
c 
c 
c   c 
c 

c

cc# cc
 c

cc
+
$Ic
c c c c  c
c
,  c
cc c
, c
c 1c
+
c cc c
 c 
c c 
c 

c 
c #
c 
c c c   c c c   c  c   c 
c

,  c 


c ³ c 
c c    c


c

c c  c # c  c  c c  
c
  $?c c 
c 

c  c


c 
 c 
c 
c c "

c c   c c

c   
 c 
c 

c c 
c  
c c 
c 

c 

c c  c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
&
c6
c$c4
c 
cJJJc4$$c&JcG 77:HcGcLeonc-@?c4$$c c:7?H$c

cId.c c&JcGc $c'$cc $cQc 
c$ccJ -c4$$cJIc@-F@JcG&::?HcG
 c c  c

H$cSee alsoc4
c 
c$c6 
 c--@c4$c$c@ 7c@ @F IcG&:?7HLc4
c 
c$c 
c--Ic4$$cI Ic
I-cG&:?7H$c

cHerring,cJJJc4$$c ccGc  c$c9c-?7c4$$c-7cJ FJcG&:?IHcG
 c c  c
H$c
-
cM 
c$c4
c 
c IIc4$$c-?c-I7cG&: ?HcG6
c$c
H$c
J
cLeonc-@?c4$$c c:7I$c
@
cId.c c:7IF7?c$c@cG0


 c 
cc

c
cc c
,
 
c
c

 cc
c
,  c
c
c
c # cc
c 
 $cM
c c 
 c c
c
c
 cc
c#
ccc
c


c7$@Xc c $JXcc  c 



cc

$c 
c!c6 c5c c/ c/
c9cG cc
A

cc5
Hc!c
c1  cc
cC,  c0
<c.
cA cc cM
c
cc5 c!
 c
&:?c!$c'$c3$c0
$c$c@&&c@ &$c.
c
 
c 
c 
cc#  c
c
c#
cc  c
#
 c

cc#   c


$c.  c
c 
c c
cc#
cccc  c


cc
cc 
c c# cc
c 
cc $?XccI$&X$cId.c c@?7$c 
(c    cc1  c
  c 
 c c 

cc#
c c#
 c
 cc
c


c
 
cc
 c

cc
+
cc
c c c&$-Xcc c
c 


cid.c c@J7c c7$:Xcc


c 


c 
c


c
 
cc
 c


cc
+
c c
c#
 c
cc 
c cid.c c@Jc c c c7$JXcc c
c 


c


cc

  cc ##
c
 
cc
 c

$cId.c c@J-$c

c  c9$c' c!c1 F1c1#  c


c3
c1
c 
c&@c&?F&:cG&:I:HLc4$$c%

 c!cM
c0
#cc
c1#
c%

 cc

c4
c 
c # cc
cC,  c0
cc3

 c1 c 
 c&7F&&c&-cG&:I:HLc3$c3


c3$c
cQc!$c/
c!
 c/ c1 <c6cM
c.
cMc c/ c 7F 7@cGA  c  
cc
 
c&:?HLcA  c  
cc 
c.
cC
 cc
cC,  c0
<c!ccc1  c&F cG&:? HLc
A c.
c
 c1 cc
cC,  c0
<c!cC# c!

c&:?c!$c'$c3$c0
$c$cJ?Jc@77$c.
c

,  c


c  c c

ccc 
c
c#
F  c#
$c$c 

cC,  c " 
<c
.
c 
cc 
 cM 
cC

c@cG&:IIH$c'c

c 
csuprac c@@?F@@:LcA csuprac c@7-F
@7@$Hc
I
cLeonc-@?c4$$c c:7?c$@cGc  c$c% 
c-@ c4$$c &c JIFJ?cG/ 
c$cHcG)!*c
cc



c c

c
c"c 
cc
c# 
c c
 
c


c c
c c
c
cc
"  c c c
c 
c
cc
c  
cc  ccc# c c cc

c c
 

$H$c
?
cLeonc-@?c4$$c c:7?c$@.c

-@c
c



  c
 c c
# cc
c c" 
c  
$:c.
c
,  c
c cc
c c c  c
Lc c

 c cc 
c cc  c#  c
c
#
c
c  c

c



cc
c


c
 cc" c
c $-7c3
c
c
,  c
c
 c 
c c  c   c  
<c 

c #
c  c  
c +c

c  c cc
,c# 
c


$-&c.
c1c 

c
c
c 
cc
c
## c c 
c c   c
,
#K

c c  c c
,
#c  
c  c c 
$c Mc c

c

c
c  
c 
c cc c


cc
c c
c ## cc
c c

c
c c  c c
c  c  c

cc  c c
c


cc
c ##

$c
c 6c c

c #
c   c c 

 c 
c 

c  
c   c c  
c
'

c # 
c cHudson v. Michigan 
c 
c 
c c  c   c c
,c


c
#
c c 
c
,
c c Fc

$- c  
c   c c c 
c  "c

c R
c # c c 
c 


c c  
 
c   c 
c
,  c 
c c


c 

c ##
c
,
#c N

c  c 



c 

 c 
 c  c N    csocial
costs$((-c c Hudsonc   c c 
c   c )c 
*c  
 
$--c '  c 

c
    c  c  c
c1c c 
c
c



c

 c
, 

cc  c
 c c 

c c c
, $-Jc 



c 

 c   c 
c c c  
c
c c
, c 
 
c c 
c c c  c 
c 3 c !

c 

c
#cc

c## c c c

c#
c $-@cc
c  
c '

c  #
c  
c   ( c   c ##  <c A

c  c 
c  "c
" c c 
cc
#
c
c

cc



c c
c c  
cc
c1( c#c

c  c   c  c  c c N    c  c  (K c 
c c c 
 c  c  
c N  c
  (c 
c 
c #
 c

$-Ic '

c 
c  c 
c c  c   c 

c c 
c
1( c 3 c !

c #


c 
<c G&Hc  c 

c 
c   
c 
 c c c


 c  c 
c
c 

c G 
c Mappc 
HL-?c G Hc  c 

  c  c
c   c |  1 cc#c c
c


c3 c !

c  c 
c 
 c G 
c 
c 1( c  
c c  
c c
c
c  c; 
c (cc" c
 c$cc
" #

Hc c GHc  c 

c c  c c c 

c 
c 
 c c  
c 
 c
  $-:c .
c 
c c Fc    c  c 
c 

c  c   c  c 
c 3 c
!

c 
  c   c c 

c 

c c #  c   
c
 c  c
" 
cc
,
$J7c.  c 
c '

c
c c
c1( cN    c  c   (c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
:
cId.c c:7?cGc
c$c 
c- ?c4$$c-@Jc-:7cG&:I@HH$c
-7
c'
csupra 
c&@c c-J$c
-&
cId$ See alsoc $c'$cc $cQc 
c$ccJ -c4$$cJIc@cG&::?HcG)/*
c 
c
c)
c
,  c

*cc
c ## 
cc

c c



c)c#
c *cFc
 ) *c cN    c  c  $(H$c
-
cJ-Ic4$$cJ?@cG 77@Hc
-
cId.cGcScottcJ -c4$$c c@H$cSee alsocD csupra 
cc c&-@&cG.
c

c
c
cc" c
   c
 cc  c  cc c c  c
 c  c

c 
c 
c 
$H$c
--
cHudsoncJ-Ic4$$c cJ:JcG  c$H$c
-J
cId.c cJ:@$c
-@
cId.cGc4
c 
c$c1   c-&-c4$$c?cJ7cG&:I-H$c
-I
cHudsoncJ-Ic4$$c c@&-cG'

c$c
H$c
-?
c; ##c$cM c@Ic4$$c@-cG&:@&H$c
-:
cHudsoncJ-Ic4$$c c@&-ccGcMappc@Ic4$$c@-H$c
J7
cId.c

-Ic
c


c c c 
c   c
c3 c!

( c
,  c##
c
$J&c.  c
 c c 
c c  c1ccc c  
c
"

$J c
c  
c '

( c # cc Hudsonc  c 
c   
c  c  c 
 c c c
$c !  c 

cc 
c 
c c 
c   c 
c #
c c c c 
c
 
( c 
c  c 
#
c c 
c c  c   $Jc c  c  c Hellerc c
McDonaldc 
c 
c c 
c 
 
c 


c  
c'

c c   c 
c  c 


$c
 
c   c  c c c c 
c  c 
c 
c  c   c    c 
 c 
c
 c 
c 

$c  
c '

c 

c   c
c c  c ##
c c c   c

c

c  c
c  c  c c c
cc  c#$c
c c c
#cc
 c 
c  c c 
c'

( c
 
c
c
c
,  c
c
c Fc    c c 
c #  
c c 
c 
c !

c 
 
$c 3 c 
c 
c


 <c c 
c
,  c 
c c  c 



c #
c  c c c 
c 
c
!

c c  c 
c  c  c c
F


$c 
c 
c  c   <c c 
c

,  c


c
c cc

c 
 c  cc 
J-c cc
c
c
!

c
c 

c c c
cc
c
 #$c 
c  c
c c
c

,  c 
c c 

c 

c ##
c
,
#c N

c  c 



c 

 c 
 c  c
N    csocial costs$((JJc 0
# 
c 
c 
c !

c c 

c 

c ##
c c

cc c cc c
,
#c

c
c c cc
F


c

c
c
   c c c 
c c c 
c

cc
c
 #$c.  c c
c  c
c 
c   c 
c  
c '

c  
c c HellerJ@c c  c c 
c  ,F  c
  c 
c  c$JIcc
c Mc 
c 
c c 
#  c 
c 
c c Hudsonc  
c '

c
 c  c
 
c  ( c ##  c  cc
#
c
c c
c

cc
c
c!

c
  c 
c 
 c c "
c  c  c 
c c 
c 
 #K c 
c c c

 c  c  
c N  c   (c 
c 
c #
 c

$c  
c '

( c 
c

+
c c c c c  c 
c  c  c c c
c
,  c
K c 
c c

c
c!

K cc

$c
 # c  c # c c 
c ##
c c   c
   c  c  c c 
 c   
c  
c '

c  c c c 
 
c    c  c
  c c #
c 
 c   c   $c .
c
,  c 
c  c c  c  
Lc 
c

c!

c
c$cc
c  
c '

c G
# 
Hc 
c  c  
c   ( c N    c  c   (c

c  c c 
c   c 
c )
c !

*c 
$c A  c  c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
J&
cId$cSee alsoc5
c-@?c4$$c?:Ic-&cG'
 c$c
HcG4
 cc  c c
c)3 *c!

c

c
# 
c c 
c
 
c c c


cc
c cc
c

Lc


cc c
c
c
,  c
cc
c!

c
c c c#
c  c $H$c
J
cId$c
J
c c c
c  cc  c
K

c
c#
c 
cc c c
K#
 # cN 

cc
c
 (K


cc
ccc
c
cccHudsoncJ-Ic4$$c cJ??c c
,
c c
 c  K  c

cc
c#
cc
c 
 c 
cc1 
c csee suprac c D$!$c

c
c" c c c


cc
c

 cc c
$c
J-
cHudsoncJ-Ic4$$c cJ:J$c
JJ
cId. cJ:-cGc $c'$cc $cQc 
c$ccJ -c4$$cJIc@cG&::?HH$c
J@
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@?:cG 77?HcG'

c$c
HcG.  c c 
#cin theorycc
##c c ccc
  ccin practiceccc c

F  cc c
c

 c
#

cc
c
c!

cc
c 
c c
c

 c#F 
c
 cc
c
c
cc

c
c

c
c
 c c 
c#
 c
 c
c
cc
c
cc  c
c
 
$H$c
JI
cSee suprac# c $1$c

-?c
c

#c  c 
c  ( c  
c 
c 
c 
c !

c

c c c #
 c c
 c cc

#c c
c  J?c 
c'

( cc 
 ccHudson c 
c  c
 
c c 
c  
c c 
c c   c
 $c 

c  
c '

( c Hellerc c
McDonaldc
 c c
c

c c 
 cc" c   c  c
c c  c  c
c   c
c
c!

c
$c
c
2.  °
c 3c c

 c Miranda v. Arizona c c c
  c#$J:c 
c6  c c


c
c  c c 
cc  c  cc  c
c#c

c
c

c  c ) *c  c c   c 
 c c c c  c


c  c  c 
c
#

c c  $@7c 
c6  c c  c c

c c
cc c
#

c 

c )
*

c c 
c 
c c 
 c  c  c #

c c  
c

c c
c 
c c
 $@&cc
c  c6  c
,#

c
c
 c 
c 1c  c  c c 
c  c  c 
( c 
 
c c # c  c 
c 

c c 
c
$@ c c c)*
csocial costscc
c 
cc
cc c
c
c
c  cc c
+  c
,#

 $@c
c / 
c c  c 
c c c


c 

c 
c  c   c  
c 6  c 
c

c 
c c c 
K c  
c 4
c  
c  c 1c 
K c 1
c
 
c c 
 ( c
c c   c $c c c 
KHandcuffing The Cops? A Thirty -Year
Perspective On Miranda¶s Harmful Effects On Law Enforcement@-c c Miranda¶s Social Costs:
An Empirical Reassessment  @Jc1
c 

c
c
cc c
c c 
c K
cc
c cc 
c6  c
c) cc*c
c 
c c
 K
cc
Miranda$c/ 
c1
( c  c c

c "
cc
 c
 
@@K c c
# c  c

Kc #
c c   c c   c c c 
c 1( c  
 c c  c   c c
  c
<c
c
) c&::*c 
c cJ77777c)
c 
c
c
c
,c

c *c<cJI777c c
c c
c 
c 
c 

Lc --777c  c 
c c  c Gc c   
c HLc - 777c  c

ccc

Lc&:777c c
cc
c c Lc& 777c c
cc   Lc c:777c
 c
cc
# c  cG c#
c
 c
$H$@Icc
c
.

c
c 
c
c
c 
 cc 
Kc)* c ?777c 
 cc
 c
c
c

c cI:777c 
 cc##
c
c #c  c
c c" 
c  
c
cc
;  c c  c 
c 
c 
c c 
c 
c  #
c c c 
 c 
c   
c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
J?
cId.c c@?cI cG c c c c c 
c c
c "c c
c!

cc cc
c c
 F
 
c##
c  c
 c c

cc#
c cc##
cc
F


c c
cc 
c



c$c$c$c! 
cc 
( c 
c c
c3 
 cc
c
c!

cc
c c


cc
F



c#
$H$c
J:
c;  c$c!+ c?-c4$$c-@cG&:@@H$c
@7
cId.c cJ&IcG6  c$c
H$c
@&
cId.c
@
cId$c
@
cId. cJ&I$c
@-
c c%$c1
cQc0 c3
cHandcuffing The Cops? A Thirty-Year Perspective On Miranda's Harmful
Effects On LawcC

cJ7c .!A$c5$0CD$c&7JJcG&::?H$c
@J
c c%$c1
c;  's Social Costs: An Empirical Reassessment c:7cA/$4$ c5$0CD$c?IcG&::@H$c
@@
c
#
c$c  
c;  's Practical Effect: Substantial Benefits And Vanishingly Small Social Costs c:7c
A/$4$ c5$0CD$cJ77cG&::@HcG #c 
c1
( c

 c c  H$c
@I
c1
csuprac
c :c c--7$c

-:c
c



  $@?c .
c   c c  c c &::c Mirandac #
c  c ?777c  c 
c
  c  #
 c c 
,c 
c 
c c I:777c  c 
c   c  #
 c c 
,c
##
c
$@:c.

c
c
c c
c
cc #
c
c #
 c??7c

c cF

c    
c
c&-77c
c #
c
c@J77c
c
c c
&777c   
c c
$I7c.
c
  c 
c c


c?777c c@777c
c


cc 
c

c 
cc&::Jcc
c 

cc
c Mirandac

$I&c3
c) * c
 c c@777c

c? 777c 
c&@777c 

c cI?777c

c
 c
 c


c
 c
c c c
cc Miranda$I c
c c c

cc# 
c

c
 c c
c    c 
c'

c
cc  c
McDonald ##
,$ Ic.

c
# c
c c c cc  c    c
cc


K
c @7777c 
 c c "
c  
c c 
 c
 c 
 I-c  c  
c
# 
( c 
c c c 
c 

c 
c  c c 
c
 c c 
c c #   c
 
c
  #IJcc&::Ic
F
 
c
 c 
cc $JXcc c"c
 c
c  c


c&c c&: I@c


 c
c:Xc c
cJ@ c c


c 
 c

 c
cc
c
ccc


c&::Ic c 77@IIc 


c c
cc c 
c
) 
*c#  c c cc
c

I?c cc c 
c
cc@c
c c
&@Xcc
c ( c## I:c cc
  c 
c
#
cc
cA
cB( c
c
c 
c  
$?7c  
c '

c  c 
c c

c c 
c 
 c  c c 
c

K c 
 #c c 
c 
c  c  
c  c 

c  c c 
 ?&c
 
c c
cc
 c 
 c 
c
cc
c
c
c c 
 
cc 
c cc
c
c 
? c c 
c c
cc
c  c

c  
c c c cc 
c
 c 
c c  c c  c c 
c  c c c  $?c 3 c  
c '

c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
@?
cId.c c-?-$c
@:
cId. c--7$c
I7
cId.c
I&
c1
cQc3
csuprac
c : c c&&7I$c
I
cId.c c&& @$c
I
c; c$c1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c&@8?cG 7&7HcG'

c$c
H$c c#

c 
c'

( c
   c

c c c#cc#  c ccc cc
c  cc

c 

c  $c c  c 
c c
cc  ccc
c
# c
 
cccc 
$cc
I-
cId.c c&IcGc;!0 !AACc/$ cW!/ .WcQc9CD Ac$c.0M;c4$$ cC .$cM3c 4. 1Cc'40C!4cM3c 4. 1Cc
 .!. . 1 c3 0C!0;c A40Bc!AcC!.6c30M;c10 ;Cc&::8:Ic cG 777HH$c
IJ
cId.cGc 
c1$c1 #
c
c $cRisk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results from a
Multisite Case Control Studyc:c!;$ c$c 4'$c6C!5.6c&7?:c&7: cG 77HH$c
I@
cId.c c&?cGc1$cc "cQc  c 

cFirearm-Related Injuries Affecting the Pediatric
Populationc&7Jc C !.0 1c???c???cG 777HH$c
II
cId.c c&IcGc3 C$c' 40C!4cM3c ADC. %!. MAc10 ;$c4.$c A3M$c C0D$c D$c5!/cC A3M01C;CA.c
M33 1C0c9 55Cc!Ac!!45.Cc 77@c. 
c Icavailable atc #<== $$==
= 77@= 
I$  H$c
I?
cId.cGcC. c.$c46!0.c4$$cC .$cM3c 4. 1Cc'40C!4cM3c 4. 1Cc.!. . 1c40'!Ac 4'40'!Ac!Ac
040!5cD 1. ; W!. MAc&::8:?c&c:cG 777HH$c
I:
cId.cGc% 
c$c/

cThe Future of Firearm Violence Prevention: Building on Success c ?&c$c!;$c
;C$c!( Ac-IJc-IJcG&:::Hc
?7
cId.cGc'
cc4
c 
c1


cc;  c c! c1
c)sic*c##c0
#
 c c-8&c
; c$c1  c&7c$c1$c7 7cG 7&7HcGA$c7?F&J &HH$c
?&
cId.c c&?cGc'
ccM +  c1
cc 
c
c ( c6
 c 
c c/
F'
c
c!c1
cc##cc0
#
 c c&8&@c; c$c1  c&7c$c1$c7 7cG 7&7HcGA$c7?F&J &HH$c
?
cId.cGc c$c/

cFirearms in US Homes as a Risk Factor for Unintentional Gunshot Fatality cJc
!11 CA.c!A!5B cQ c 0CDCA. MAcI&&cI&8I&- cG 77HH$c
?
cId. (quoting ! c5$ 9

 c
c ., Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownershipc IcAC/cC A%c$c
;C$c-@Ic-I7cG&:: H$c

J7c
c

#

 c c

c c   c c 
 c 
 c c  c c 
c 
 #Kc


c 
cc  
?-c c

 c 
c  c

c

 cc
c
c c

c 
c c
c 
c## 
c

c#
 c c 
cc

 c  c c 
c c 
 ?Jc c 
c 
c  
c  c -7c 
c 
c c A
c
M
 c cc cc5cA
  $?@c
c c

 c 
#
 c 
c  c   c c Mirandac ##, 
c 
c  c   c c 
c

c !

$c 3c
, #
c c 
c c c 1  c 
c  
c  
c  c 
c
# FMirandac
c 
c c @$JXc
c c
c#
F;  c 
$?Ic.  cc c
c
# 
c c c c c
F
 
c
 c 
cc $JXcc c"c
 cc
  c


c 
c&c c&:cc&::I$c'c# c

c    cc

 c c;  c
c c 
c# c c 
c 
 c c
c
c !

c
c c"F
 
c

 $c
c c Dickerson v. United States c 
c #

c 1c  

c 

c Mirandac  c c
  c cc

c c##  c
c c1
cc  
cc  
$??c'c
 cc
c1K
c4
c 
c

cc

c c3 c1c#cc c
Mirandac  c c 

c c 
c 1 K 
c 1
c 
c 
c 
$c 6
c

,
 
c 

c 
c  c   c  
c  c Miranda   $?:c .
c1c c
Dickerson 
"

c c 
 
c c 
c # 
c  c 
c  c 
c c Miranda$c / 
c
  ccMirandac 
c  c"
cc 
c.  ccc
cc  c
c
cc  c
$c  c 
ccc
cc
c
 
c
,
 
ccMirandac

c c
c 
c6  c c 
c  c
c
# ccc 
c1
$c' c
c "c
c
c# c
cc
c 
c
cc

c;  c c c  cc


c##  c
$c
c  
c   c 
c  c#cc  c 
 cc McDonald v. Chicagocc
c
#
cc 

c c 


c'

c
c
c
cc    cc

c  c
  <c
c
4. 1Cc'0CBC0<c.

c 
cc  c)c 
c
c
c
 *$cM
c c cKcc c Kc c
c 
ccc cc c
c
 $c5c c
c    $cBcc
c 
c  c cc#
#
c
c
c $c1  c  c c
cKc
cc c c 
c 
 ccKc c
c 
c    c
Kcc  c c 
c c 
c 
$c !c 
c 
c 
c  #
c $c .  c  c c  c    c
 
$c
Uc
4. 1Cc 1!5 !<c .

c  c c c c    c  


c c 

c 
cMirandac
c 
c 
cc
c 

c c 
 c c 
c 


c c  
 c #
#
c  c 
c 

c c 
c 
c c 
c

c (c
c
$c/
c(cKc
c(c

c
 c
c cc
c  cc    cc
c

#c #c 
c    c 
c# cc
c
  
c
c 
cc# c c
c
"
$:7cB
c  ( c#ccHellerc
 c  c#$c3
ccc

cc
 c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
?-
cId.cGc cc1 c$c6

c& ?c$c1$c I?c ?J@8JIcG 77?HcG'

c$c
HH$c
?J
cId.cGc cc1 c$c6

c& ?c$c1$c I?c ?J@8JIcG 77?HcG'

c$c
HH$c
?@
cId.cGc3 C$c'40C!4cM3c ADC. %!. MA c10 ;$ c 4.$ c A3M$c C0D$c D$c10 ;Cc Ac.6Cc4A .Cc .!.Cc 77?c
. 
c@cavailable atc #<== $$== 77?=  = 
P7@$  H$c
?I
c1
csupra 
c :c c-&-$c
??
c
 c$c4
c 
ccJ7c4$$c- ?cG 777H$c
?:
c

c'
cDickerson ð" c ccc c
 
:7
c.  #ccM c!
 c c&-K&Ic; c$c1  c&7c$c1$c7 7cG 7&7HcGA$c7?F&J &HG 
c
  c 
c c  

c  cc
H$c

J&c
c

#
  c c c 
 c # 
c  c c 
 
c # 
c
 
c 
c 1c c  c c
#
#cc  cc
 cc
c $cc
c  
c '

c 
c c c  #c c
# F
c " #

c  Heller c
McDonaldc c  
c c c 
c c  c    c  
$cB
c
c

c 
c c
"
 c c
c  c  cc Mirandacc Dickinsonc

c 
c c#  
c
c    c

c 
c c McDonald$c c  c c   
c M(1c  c 
cc Withrow v. Williamsc
 c
c1c c
 
cMiranda 
c#


c c
# c  :&c  c

c
c #c  c#  $c c c c 
c '

( c #cc Hudsoncc

 c  c  
 c c |  !
c
 c  cc  
c
c c  
c ##
$cc
c .

c  c 
c 
 c 


c 
c F  c
,
#c c 
c
,  c 
c c
 
cc Leonc c
c   c   
c  cc Miranda$c c Leonc
c 1c

c  
c
c  c   c c
c c #
#
cc 

$c c Miranda c c c#


c
c
1c 
  c

c  $c
 # c  c


c 
 cc
c 
cc
c $c/ 
c
c
 
c  c c   c 
K c  
c c DickersonK
c 
c  c c c  c 

c c
" c 

c 
 c c 

c 
 c

c c
+
$: c c Pennsylvania Bd. of
Probation and Parole v. Scott c 
c 1c  
c 
c  c 
c
,  c 
c  c #
 c
 
c c  cc c
c

( c
cc


c 
cc cc

c 3 c !

c 
c c 
c  
c 
c 1 $:c c c ##
c c 
c


c c

 c "

c 
c  c c
  c

$:-c .  c#
 c
c
 c c ## 
c 

c  c 



c 

 c 
 c  c N    c  c   $( :Jc
'
 
c
c
,  c
c c#
 c
c1c#
 c
c  cc  c  $c3c
1  c 
c  c c Mirandac c c c 
c 
c 
c !

c 
c
 
cc
c  c cc
c  c ccc
c 
c 
$cc
c ' c
c
,  c
c cMirandac
,#
c
c cc
c1( c" #

c
c
c c+ 
c 
 K 
 c  c 
ccc
K
c  c
 
c  c c 
$c 4
c 
c #c 
c
,
#c c Mirandac c 
c
,
c
  
c 
c

c 
c 
 c 
c 
c  c FF
Fc   c 

c

c  #
c  c c  c 

c c 
c 
$c 3
c 
c 
c 1( c 
c

c  c 
 c  
c  
 c c  
 c #
#
K  c c 
c  
c   c c
 c c #

c  Kc 



c 
c 
c  c c c c c 
c 
( c ##
 c c


$c6

c
c1cc c


c 
 c
c  c  cc ##
c c
, c
cc" c cc#
c
c c  $cc
c
V.  A Second Amendment Framework that Balances Social Costs and Liberty
c .
c Hellerc c McDonaldc1 c
"
c  c
 cc#c #c
c c
c
#  c $:@c.
c
c# c #c c  c
c cc c c
c 
c c

c
 K
c  c   K cc
c
c

 $ :Ic ' c c

c
 c 
c c

 
c 
c  c c 
c 
c  c  
c c c c c 
c 
c   c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
:&
cJ7Ic4$$c@?7cI&--cG&::HGM(1c$ccc# c c
cc# H$c
:
c $c'$cc $cQc 
c$cc -c4$$cJIc@cG&::?Hcc,(c4
c 
c$c1   c-&-c4$c$c?c
-?cG&:I-HH$c
:
cId.c c@ Gc4
c 
c$c5
c-@?c4$c$c?:Ic:7@cG&:?-HHLc
c$c 
c- ?c4$$c-@Jc-? c-?@c
G&:I@H$c
:-
cId.c c@cGc4
c 
c$c1   c-&-c4$$c?c-?cG&:I-HH$c
:J
cId.cGc4
c 
c$c5
c-@?c4$c$?:Ic:7IcG&:?-HH$c
:@
cSee supra c $1$c
:I
cSee supra c $'$c

J c
c

 c  $c c  c


c c##
c c 
c c#
c c" c  

c   c
c 1 c c  
c 

c  
$:?c 3 c 
c  c 
+
c  c 
c    c 
c 1c
#

cc Hellerc c#



c c
cc cc cc
c 

c 

c 
c
supra$c
cc
cc

c
c cc

#c c
c  c c c
 
cc
c'c
c0  c c  c
c
 c

cc cc
K c

c
c c c $cc
c 'c c 
c  

c  

c c 
c #


 c  
c 
c !

c
 

c c
c 
c
cc
c  c  c
c c
c ( c##
 cc


$c 3c 
c 
# c c 
c 
c c #
#
c  c c ##
 c c 

c 
c

cc#
  c
  c c
c  
c c 
c" c c c  
$c3c 
c
 c 
c 
  
c c ##
 c c 

c c 
c 
c c c c c 
c 
c
 c c 
c 
 c 
c 
c c 
c  c 
c  c c 
c
, c " c
c c ### 
$c 3 c  c#  c c c  c
c
c c c

c 
c !

K c 
c 1 c   

c c  c  c c 

#c c 
c
 K c 
c   
c c 
 c 
  c c c

 c 
  c c 
c
1 $c.  c 
F 
c

c c 
c Heller¶s " 
 
K  c
c
c
c
c

 c 
c !

c  
c c
c


c 
K c c

c # cc
c "c#( c  $c
c
°c Unprecedented Analysis
c 4
c c 
c 
c !

c " #

c #
#
c  c 
c c c
##
 c c 

c  c 
c 

c 
c
,

c c 
c   c  c  c c
#
c 
c 
c 
c c 
  
c "
 c 
c c  #
c    ::c  c |  !
c
c

$cc
c c#
 c  c c 
c  c
c
c c
 
cc 

$c.  c ex antec
# c c

c cc" c
  c c#



c c
cccc cc
c1( c 

c
  c 

$c3 c

c 

ccc cc1 
c $c;

c

cc c
c  c c 
c 
c c #

c c + 
c c c  
c c 
c  c  c 
$-77c

# cc c
c

c
cc c
, c c c c  #
c    c c
 c 
c c c cc ##
c c
#c 
 c
c
 c c 
 cc#
#
c 
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
:?
cSee ' 
c$c1 c@:c4$$c&?@c @cG&:@&Hc  cc" c  

c    $c
::
c.
c1( c#



cc
cc
# c  cc c  c  c c
c  
c ##
$c
See, e.g.,c cc1 c$c6

c& ?c$c1$c I?c ?@7cG 77?HcG'

c$c
HcG c c
c

# c


c#


c

c)cc*c c 
cc c c"
cc
 c cc
 c HLc
 $c!( cM
ccc c $c$cM 
c& :c$c1$c 7?c Ic$:cG

 c$c
HcGc

# c  cc# cA!c


 HLc%
c$c'
cJ:c4$$c7@c-JcG 77HcG% c$c
HcGc
# c  c
 c

c#c   c 
c  c

 
HLc
c$c1  c
J:c4$$c@7Ic@-:cG 77HcG9

c$c
HcG c c c

 c
 c c 
c c
c
#
c
 
cc c #c ##
cc
# c 
HLc! c$cD cJ@c4$$c7-c&@c$ &cG 77 Hc
G 
#c
# c  cc c c
  c   c
,
c
c
 c
 
HLc/ c$c/  cJ7Ic
4$$c@?7cI&-cG&::HGMO1c$ccc# c c
cc# HcGc c
c1c c
 
c
Miranda 
c#


c c
# c  H$/  c$c3 c::c4$$cI?c&7&87 cG&:I7HcG 
c

# c

 cc


c
cc"c +
c

cc
c1 H$c3c c
 cc
c
1( c
 
cc
# c  cseec c9 cComment, Constitutional Fact Finding and the Appropriate
Use of Empirical Data in Constitutional Lawc&7c5C/ cQc15!09c5$c0CD$c@IcG 77@HLcScience And Constitutional
Fact Finding In Equal Protection c@:cM c$5$$c&&&Jc$c7LcFree To Leave? An Empirical Look At The Fourth
Amendment's Seizurec::c cc1 c5 c c1cJ&c$c&I&Lc c5$c3  c³Normative
Constitutional Fact-Finding´: Exploring the Empirical Component of Constitutional Interpretation c&:c4$c $c5$c
0
$cJ-&cJ??F:-cG&::&H$c
-77
cSee supra c D$!cG  c
c 
 H$c

Jc
c

c   c  # 
c G c 

c #c 
c c c

c #
 c #
 c  
c c

 cc cc
c#
c 
 cc
 H$-7&cc
c .
c

c
 #cc
 c c
c 
 
cc c
c
$c.cc

c
,cc Brandenburgc c 
 
c c
c

c#
cc
 c c 

cc
c  c c ;

c #
c c c 
c 

c #
c 
c c  c 
 c
3   c c0 


 K c1 # ccc# 
cc  
-7 K c cc 
 
cc
#
c c cc

cc c  c c c
c" c $c;

c
#
c ccc#c 
c c


c  c
cc  c
 ,c
c cc
Miranda$cAc c
 #cc c
c c 
K

c
c
c#
cc
 
c c
c c # 
c c  c 
c 
 
K


c  c  ,c " c c c 
c 

 c

$c
c 
c

c 

ccc cc1 
c $cC
cc

c c
c c 
c c c
c
c+ 
cc

c  
c c#
 ( c#
 c c

 cc##
 c
  c
c

$c4
c
c 
ccSalernoc c Wingoc
c ##  cc
 cc
  c  
c c c 
c c 
c  c  
c c 
$c .
c #  c c Hellerc c
McDonaldc

c
c#  c+
 $cc6

c
c c c
c cc
c

 c
" c

c
c c#

cc c c
cc#
c"
$c4
c
c
c
,c


 c c Comstockc  
c #
 c ##
 c c  c c   
c 1
( c


 c  c 
c c 
c 
c M c ; c c c 6

c 
c c c
 c##
 $c!c c c
ccc cc
 c c
cc c
c
 c

 +
c    c c
# K c

c c
c1c c

c ##
ccc c
  c $c
#
c
c c c

c#  c 
cc##
 cc

c
c


c

cc
c 
c c c c c 
c c 
 c
$c
c . c 

c  

c c c  c c 1 
c $c C
c   c c  
c  c 
c
+ 
ccc

c
c

 c 
c c #

c c 

c" c
$c.
c1ccDickerson 
"

c c
 
cc
c# 
c 
c
c cc

c c ;  $c / 
c   c c Mirandac  
c   c "
c c  
c .  c
cc
cc  c 
cc  c
$c.
c
,  c
cc ##
cc c  c

c
c 
c 

c ##
c


K

c c  c c
,
#c  
c  c 
c 
$c  c
## c c   c 
c 
  c c  c 
 c c 
c 

 c  c   c c 
c
 c
c

 cc



$c.
c
c!

c cc 
c  c c

$c
3
cc

c
c
c


c 
c

 c ex post K
, cc


c ##
cc
cc
c
c

 $c0
  cc
c cc

#c c
c  cc c 
cex
ante$cc
c c
uc The What, Where, When, Who, and Why of the Second Amendment
c /
c c   c  c 
c 
c !

c c  c
#c c  
c 
c

 Kwhatc wherec whenc whoc c why$c3 c whatc#
c c  c  c c#
 c

#c .
c
Hellerccc c  cc c
c

cc
cc  c
cc Miller v.
United States$c /
# c c c 
c c 
c  c c 
c 
c c 
c   c c 
c

c !

c 
c #

$ -7c 1 c 
c 
c  
c  c c   c   c
$ -7-c C
c 
c c c ## c c c c 
c   c #


c c &?c 4$$1$c Sc


cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
-7&
cSee suprac c D$1$ cG  c
c1( c
"
cc
# c  cc

cMirandaH$c
-7
c1 # c$cA
c6 # 
c&Jc4$$cJ@?cJ@:cG&:- H$c
-7
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@ -cG 77?H$c
-7-
c4
c 
c$c
c@&-c3$c@?c@-7cGI c1$c 7&7HcG)6

c
 *c c c  c#  cc
c

J-c
c

: GH)K c 
c #
c c 
 c c c c 
c 
 K*c



c 

c 
c   c "   c 
c 
c  
c ##c c c c
#
 
c  c c   c 
c  c    c  c c  
c 
c c c   F#
c
##  c
c
, c 
c Hellerc ## 
c
"

$ -7Jc/ c
c c
c
cc
c( c
#c cc  cc#   K c c
F
 
c c
 c 
c
c
cc
c
c
c c 
c
c  c+
 $c. c c
c
cc
c cc c
Skoien c Barton$c
c c.
c1c
c +
c
c
 c c  c#
#
c c
,

c  c
  c  c  c 
c  c   $c .
c 1c 

c 
 c c 
 c 


c


c #

 c  c  

 -7@c  
c  c  -7Ic c  c 
 c #

 $ -7?c c 
c


c
,

c
,c
c1c c


c

c c
 c

c c 

c
$-7:c c

c
,c c
#
c  c
c 1c c  
c  c c   c#

c  c
c
 
c c
 c# cc c#
 $ -&7c
c 
c wherec c c#
 c

#c c
c  c.  c
c 

c
c
,ccc |  .cc  c

c!

c
cc c c
c#
 # c

c 
c
c 
$ -&&c   
$c
.
c Hellerc 1c 
c c 
c   c 
c c c  c #  c c  c c

 
c # 
c 

c #
#
c   $c 1  c #
 c c 
c 
c c

c3 c !

c 
,c 
c  

c c
c# 
 -& c

c#
 c 
c
c

cc#$c c Terry v. Ohioc
c1c#

c
c
 c c
+
cc c#
 cc#c
#c c 
 
c  #$ -&c ;
c  c c Katz v. United Statesc 
c c #
 c  c c
#c
c1c 
 c c c "

c c"

c
 
c
,#
 cc# $-&-c
3
c"
 c  c c 
# c c   c cc c#c# 
c  c
c
+
cc
c
#
c  c c   $-&Jc .
c # 
c c  
c 
  c 
c 
c 3 c
!

c #
c 
c
, #
c c 

c 
c 1c c  

c 
c   c

  c c 
c  c c c 
 $-&@c / 
c   c   c 
c 
c c 
c

c
c 
cc 


c 
cc
c 
$cc
c . c whenc c c#
 c
c#

cc
c  K
c#

c c c#
c
c 
 c  c c #
 c 
c 

c  c c 
c c
,

c 
c  c .
c 1c c Heller

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c


#
cc
# cc 
c#
  c 
c##
K c# cc
c##
c c
c
  
c
c
cc
cc&I:&$c. c 
c 
 c c 
c##
c c# cc
c c
c
cc
c#
#
( c



c
#

 
c
cccc
  $H$c
-7J
c #<==$ $  $=#  =7: &&#$#cG6  c$H c
-7@
cSee ;
c$c1  c-&c4$$c&JcG&:IH$c
-7I
cSee 1 # c$c 
ccA
c6 # 
c&Jc4$$cJ@?cG&:- H$c
-7?
cSee 1
$c6 c% cQcC
$c1#$c$c $c
$c1(ccA$B$c--Ic4$$cJJIcG&:?7H$c
-7:
cSee 4
c 
c$c


c?7c4$$c&@cG&:@JHcG c
,
#cc
c  cc
c3

cC,

c1 
cc
 
 c"
 HLc4
c 
c$cW
 cJ&-c3$c?J&c?J-cG: c1$c 77IHcGcSeeger, ?7c4$$c c
&?JHcG).*
c ccc

cc


c

cW
 ( c
 c

 c 
c 

c
c  c
 c c
cc $H$cc
-&7
c0
c$c/ 
c-&7c4$$c&&c&@-K&@JcG&:IHcG

c 
HLc  
c 
 c$c1
cJ7Jc4$$c
?c?I-cG&:: HcG
c
c 
HLc%+ 
c$c1  cJJ7c4$$c& -c&-IcG 77IH$c
-&&
cSee, e.g.c%
 1 $c$c%
 cA$cJ<&7F1DF7 cG;$$% $c $c -c 7&&HcG
c c

  (c
 cc  HLc% c$c0
cA$c7:&:-c #c#$c c&K cGD $c $c&c 7&&H$c
-&
c c$cA
cBc--Jc4$$cJIcJI@cG&:?7H$c
-&
c.
c$cM c: c4$$c&c7cG&:@?H$c
-&-
c9 +c$c4
c 
c?:c4$$c-Ic@&cG&:@IHcG6  c$cH$c
-&J
cPaytonc--Jc4$$c cJ?I$c
-&@
c/ c$c0c!  c0  c-:&c4$$cI?&cI:IcG&:?:H$c

JJc
c



c c  
c 
c ) ( *c 
 c 


-&Ic   c   c  
c  c 
 c

cc 
c c ccM
c3 c

cc
c
c
$c! c 
c suprac
c1c c
 

c  c
 c

c c cc  c  $-&?c.

c#


 c c

c cc

c c
 c

c

c c
c
cc
c
,

cc
c cc


#c c
c  $c
c 3 c whoc  c 

#c c 
c  K c F c +
 c  c 
c
 

  cF
c
 c
c
 c3 c whyc c
c cc

#c c
c  c

c 

c c 
c 

c c 
c 
 
c c 
c 
,c c  c  c c 
c

c !

c 
c c c c 
c 
c 
K c   c #
 c 
c 
c c

,

c  c 
c !

c   c #c c  c 
c  "c c 
c 
c c
Hellerc c
c

ccc

c 
cc
c
 #$c.  c c c# c c
c c
c#
 c c
c 
$c % c(cc#
#
Lc#
#
cc#
#
$c
#
c 
c


c 
c c  c c c 
c 
c  c $c /
c 
c   c 
c

c 
c
 "c 

c  c   c c 
 c c 
c 
 c K#
 c  
 c
#
#
Kc
c  c 
c#
#
c  $c.  c c
c
cc cc
c |   c 
cc
F

c "
cc c
 c

$c c  cc
 c#
cc 
 c#
#
c
c 
c c 
c 
cc
c
  c
 
 cc

cc
FF
c  -&:c c#
#
c cc c c
c
|  ;
c  $cc


cc
c 
c 
c c 
c c 
c c c##
 cc

c/ c
 c
c

c c #c   c  
 
c .
c  c # c 
c  c 
c  c 
<c  c 
 c

c 
c c #c   c  
 
c .c 
c   c  
c c ##
c  c 
c
!

c
$cc
c

c Bifurcating Second Amendment Challenges based on Social Cost and Propensity for
Harm
c 1 

cc  c c
c
c!

c 
cc c c 
c

cc

c whoc c 
c why c  c  c c 
$c .
c  c #
K
c 
c  c c Hellerc c
McDonaldK

 c c  

c c ex antec c #

#
c 
c c c c  c c

$c .
c
c #
c c  

c 
c  c c c  c c c c ##
 c c


K  c c 
c 

c c
c 
c
c

 c
 c c  c cc
c
 K c

 c c  

c c ex post c 
c c c c  c c 
$- 7c C
c
  c
c
c #c c  c
c
cc  
c 

c c
c 
c
c Hellerc c
McDonaldc  c c 

c # c 
c 

c 
 $c D
c 

c  

c   c 
c

 cc
c  cc  c c
c 
c 
cc
c cc1 
c K
c 
c 
cc c 
 c Kc#
 # c c1 
c K c+ 
c 
c c cc

$c.
c
c 

cc ccc cc c 
$c
c!

c
 

c c
c 
c c
c3 c1c 

c
cc c cc c##
 c
c 
c c c
c$ - &cc |  !
c c
c

$cc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
-&I
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@7cG 77?H$c
-&?
c% "
c$c!$c 
c1$c :Ic4$$c c --cG&:@HLc1  cc5c'  c!
c $c$c1cc6 
cJ7?c
4$$cJ 7cJ -cG&::HLc  
c 
 c$c1
cJ7Jc4$$c?c??-cG&:: H$c
-&:
cSee 4
c 
c$c
cc@&-c3$c@?c@-&cGI c1$c 7&7HcG
c HcG 
#c 
 c  cc
  
cc 

  H$cSee alsoc'
csuprac
c&@c c-&-$c
- 7
cSee, e.g. 4
c 
c$c
cc@&-c3$c c@:Lc4
c 
c$c; ++ 
 c@&-c3$c?Jc??cGc1$c 7&7H$c
See alsocW c$c
#
 c-@ c4$$c?@ c:77cG&:?HcG0
 c$ccc"
HcG  
c c
##
 
cc
c

 c 
c# cc c
c +
c"
c
 c
c# 
c c c
#  c#
 c


H$c
- &
c.
c3 c1c 

cccc

c c
c
c!

c  cc#
#
c c c

J@c
c

c / c c c##
 cc 
c c c
ccc .
cc cc c   c
#
 cc c 
c cc cc
, cc
c
cc
c
$c0 
c
cc


c c
c##
 c c
 cc
c ## cc
c
c
cc 
$c.
c
c c 
c c  c 
c 
c c 
 c #
c c #
 c

c  Kc c




 c    c 
c c 
 #c c  
 c ##  $c / 
c ex post c 

c c
#

c#
#
c cc
ccc

c c
c  c# c
cc
c1( c
#


 c #
c  c c #

#
c 
$c 1 c  c  c 
c 
c c 
c Hellerc 1c


c c 
 c c 
c 
 c $c
 # c 
 c #
c c  
 c ## 
c 
c
#
 
c
c

c c c  c 
cc# 
c $ - c. c c
c# 
c
ccc

c c 
$c / 
c 
c 1 c 
c #
c  c ##  - c c
c 1c
cc Stevens c

c1c c c#



ccc
+
c
c 
 c
,
# cc  c  $- -c
c 3c
# cc
c
cc#
#
c c  c##
 c
c
c c
 c
 c 
c  
$- Jc 
c D c 

c

 c   c c 
c  
c 
c c

  cc
c cc

#c c
c  $cM
c ##  cc
cc

c 
c
   c 
c#cc c c c cc

c    c

c
c c"c
G c c
c 
 
c  c c
 +c

c c(cc
c"H$- @c!
c
##  cc  
 c c cc
cc #c

c c c#  
c
cc
 
c 
c  c  c 
 
c #
#
c 


$- Ic / 
c 

c 
  c   c c

c c c  
c '

c  c  
c

cc
# c c    c 
c# cc
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
 c c  c
+c c#
 # c

c    c c ##$c4
c 
c$c
;   cG- c1$c;  c -c 7&&HcG c
c
c

c c;   c c c F c+
c c
c
c
c  c 
c c c c
c

cc1

c
c

 c c c
c

c 

 $c
Mc
c
c c1

c cc  c 
c

c
c
c6

c c ##
c

c;   c cc c
#c# $c.

c

c
, c c cc

c" c ## 
$c 

c c c

c
c
,#


c

c
c3 c!

c
c c
,#
c c cc
#c

c#
cc cc
c
 c
c
c!

c  c
#
cc
c  
cc
c
c!

c
c#


$HG  c

H$cc
-
cSee 
c@&-c3$c c@-&Lcsee alsoc'
csuprac
c&@c c-&-$c
- 
cSeec
c@&-c3$c c@-&Lc4
c 
c$c' cGc1$c 7&&HG6  c$Hc   
c c
#<==$ $  $=#  =7: &&#$#cHcGHGc
#
c
c
 cc  c
, c
c
 c
c
 cc#
c
 c c

c  
c c
c##
cc
c
c!

cc  c
c
c
c c

c 
$c4$$c1MA.$c 
$c $c c c
F
 
c c
 c 
c
c
ccc
c
c
 c 
c
c  c+
 $c

c
$$c'
cc 
c   c0
 cc  
 c0


cc&::-c
c@cG 77 HcGc c c c## cc -J?c

 c 
c


cc&::-c
c 
cc 
cc

c

cJc
c
c  c 
 
H$H$c
- -
c4
c 
c$c

 &7c$c1$c&JIIc&J?-cG 7&7HcGc1 # c$cA
c6 # 
c&Jc4$$cJ@?c
JI&FI cG&:- HHcGc c 
c
  c

c c cc 
c c
c
cN
F

c c
 c
c
cc #

 c
c#

c c# 
cc  c 
c

c

c  cc 


c c
1  c#
$(H$c
- J
cSee, e.g. Skoienc@&-c3$c c@-@cG
c$c
HcG;c

c  cccc

c
c #
c

c c c
c   FF

c 
cc #c 
#c
c

O c
c c
 
ccc c cGN

 
c (c c# c Hc c

 c c cSc: GHG:Hc c c
cc    c
 
cc c# c

 c"

$c; "cM#$c c@-&$c/
cc
cc
##c  c   c
c
c
c

c cdecisive assistLc cc
c
# c  c
cc   cSc
: GHG:Hc c

c ##
cc
c$c.  c c cc cc#c
c

cc c
cc" c c c
 c#  c
c
,

cc c  c $HcG
#  c 
H$c.
cBarton c
c
c

c c

 
c  cccc'
cc 
c   c c c c c## cc -J?c

 c
 
c


cc&::-c
c 
cc 
cc 
c

cJc
c
c  c 
 
$c' c
#<==$ $  $=#  =7: &&#$#$c
- @
cD csuprac
cc c&-@I$c
- I
cD csuprac
cc c&-@?$c

JIc
c


  
cc 
cc# cc
c"
$- ?$c1 
  cc  c c cc
#c c  c c c cc 
$c.  c
c c
c  
c
cc
c
 c 
cc
c ## c 
c c c

 c c 
 c
# c
c
$c
.  c c
# cc c c

c


c c c 
c#
c

c
c
c
c
 c
c  
cc
c#  c
 c c
c#
c cc 
$c
c c  c c  
c  c 
c 
  
c c ##
 c c c c 
c 
c c
c c cc
c
K  c c
c
 K
c
c
 c c
c
$c5
c
c


  cc Salerno c Wingoc
c
c
 c c
c 
cc
  
c
c
cc
#
c c 
$c.  c ccc c c
 cc c #
c c
c#
#
 c 
- :c c
c

c  
c c 
c c 

c c #
 
c c  +
c  c #
c c F
c

-7K
c c c c c
c

 ( c##
 cc c
 cG;  c

 cc
, #
H$c-&c.  c
c cc  
cc c c c
c cc

c #
c  c c  
$c C
c 
c A  c 0
c !  c  c c  c c c 
c

 #cc F c+
 c cc
c
 $c.  cc##
cc  
c

 cc c 
cc
c 
c c#
c
c1c c c" c  

c   c
c  
c
c c  c  $cc
c !c c 
c 


c  
c  c c #
c ##
 c c 

c c  
c
 
c   c 

c c c 
c c 

c
 
c 
c 1 c c c  c 
 c 
c

c cc 
c c c  c

c c " c c  c ### 
$c.
c  ( c
c1  ( ccc  
(c
cc 
cc
 c c ex antec c c
" c 
  c c c  c c 

c c c # 
c $c / 
c 
c  
c c
 
ccSkoienc c
c
c 
c
c  cc
F
 cc#
c  c c
c



cc c 
 c ##  - c
c  
c c 
ccMcDonaldc c Hellerc

c  c
c #
#
c  c c  c  c 
c c 
c 
c  c c $c c  c 
c 
c 
c
c cc
c  
cc
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
- ?
c.  #ccM c!
 c c&-KK&I@c; c$c1  c&7c$c1$c7 7cG 7&7HcGA$c7?F&J &H$7?F
&J &cG; $c c 7&7HGG 
c  H$c
- :
c4
c 
c$c
cA$c7:FJ7@ cG: c1$c
$c&Ic 7&7HcG  c$cHcG!  c c"c
c
 "ccc

c ccccUnited States v. VongxaycJ:-c3$c&&&&cG: c1$ 7&7Hc cc
, 
c


c  c
c#

c1( c ccDistrict of Columbia v. HellercJJ-c4$$cJI7c& ?c$1$c I?c
?&@8&Ic&I&c5$C$ c@IcG 77?Hc
c

c c c    c

ccc cF
c
( c
  c cc
c  $cSeecUnited States v. Williams c@&@c3$c@?Jc@:cGI c1$ 7&7HcG)/*
c
+
c
 cSc: GHG&Hc c
c "
cc c

 c 

c c 
c#c
 
cc c   cc c

 cc 
c c 
cF
$HLcUnited States v. Skoienc@&-c3$c@?c@-JcGI c1$ 7&7HcG
c Hc
G
c$c
HLcUnited States v. McCanecJIc3$c&7Ic&7-IcG&7 c1$ 77:HcG. c$cH$c


c
c c
c
  

c  c  c 
c
ccSc cc
c3

 c!

csee
Richardson v. Ramirezc-&?c4$$c -cJ-cG&:I-Hc c c ccc
c  c c c ##
ccc c
N
 c 
cc#
  c$$$c) *c c
c
,
cc

c
,
 c
c $(cSkoienc@&-c3$c c@J7c
G
c$c
HH$cSee alsoc;  csuprac
c-?c c@:@$c
-7
cSee 6!0DCBc!$ c 5DC0%!.C c.60CCc3 C5MA Cc!c!B<c6M/c.6Cc3Cc.!0%C.c.6Cc AAM1CA.cG 77:H$c
-&
c. O ccc c c
 Vc 
c 
 $cSee 1$c9
c;  cWhy Can't Martha Stewart Have a Gun?c c
6!0D$c$5$cQ c 4'$ c M5 1Bc@:JcI77F&cG 77:HcG 
c
c  cc  
c  cc Oc


cc
#
c
 H$c
-
cSee, e.g.   c$c4
c 
c-&c4$$cJ@cJI cG&:IIHcG)'c# c#
cc
 *c
1
c  cc
c Fc

#c ccc
c  cc 
c c 
c
  
c cN
c cc
c
 
cc#
c c
c c
c c 
cc 
$(cGc&&-c1MA%$c0C1$c&-IIcG&:@?HH$c

J?c
c

c Reject Longstanding Prohibitions that Conflict with  


c .
c Heller 1c c# cc c)F*
,  
c   c    c$c$c$cc
cc #
c
c
c
c !

c 
c
c  c  c
c #c cc
c 
cc  c
cc)
 *c  c#  c c
c
c#
cc
 cc
 c |  B
c c cc
c
c 
c 
 c c c   c c 
c  c c 
 c c
 
c # 
c  c c c  c#  c cc c
6

$cc
  c c 

c  c c   c # c  c c    c c 
c

 c 
c c  $-c .
c 1c 

c  c   c  c c #
#
c   c
  c #  c 
c c ##c c 
c
,  
$--c  
c !c 

 
c c
McDonaldc  c 
c  
c c 
c #

c c N
,#

)*c  c reasonable firearms |  !
c
c 
 c


c
regulations c 
c 
c 
c !

$( -Jc 6c c  c c # c  c c 
c c (cc 
cc  cc
c
cc
c

$c
  c# c.  c c 
c
c c
c c 
c 
c ##c c  c


 
c   $ -@cc
c ! c /
( c

c 
c 
cc 
 c

c Hellerc c

c 
cc c
Heller c McDonaldcc
c
c 
cc
c
c 
cc  c
c  
c 
c

 
c 
 $ -Ic .

c #


 c 
c 

 c c   c ##
c #
 # c c c 
c

,
c c
c c  c
c
c c c Hellerc c #
c c c cc

#c
c
c  c c
c
c   
c $c3c
, #
cc c  
c

c
c cc

#c
c
c  c c c

c c c#

c c
 
cF  c
  cc
 cc
c 
c
  c

cc  c 
c  $c / c c
c



c
, c#
c 
c
 
cc
c
c 
c
c c
 
c
 c
  c 
c 
c c#c c
c1( c
cc

c
c!

cc Hellerc c McDonald c c c c
c c 
cc"
$c
'c c 

c 
  c 
c 
 
c 
 
c 
c 
c   K c  c 
c 
c
  c 

c
 
c
c#
 
c
c 1( c
c c
c 
c !

c
c c  c  c 
c !( c #c

 c c #
c #
 F  c   c
#c
 
c
c 
cc c#
#
c 
ccc
cc
$cc
c 3
c 
#
c 
c 
c  c c  
c 
  c c   c 
  c 
c Hellerc
1c c  c c #
c 
 c  c #  c c 
c
,

c c 
c  c c


#c c
c  c  c
c c c 
c  c

c
 
c
c
c  cc
#cF

c
c!

c#


 $c0
 
c

c  c c c cc
#
 c 
 cc
c
,cc1  c c
c 
c  c

$-?ccc
c / 
c  
c '

c  c c  # c  c  
c c  c 
c 
c
  c

c c
c

cc c
 cc c  c
  
$c /
c

c 

c c  
c c c c c c 

c 
c 
c !

c  c c c
  c c c

c 
c Hellerc
c ccc
cc c  $c.
c Heller 1c c
c c   c   c   c #  c

c   c  
c #


 c 

c
c


c 
c 
c !

c  c 
+
c c c  c  $c 4c 
c 3 c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
-
c cc1 c$c6

cJJ-c4$$cJI7c@ @K IcG 77?H$c
--
cId.c c@ Ic$c @$c
-J
c; c$c1cc1  c&7c$c1$c7 7c7-@cMcDonaldc c7 IcGc'$
cc 
cc.
, c
c $c c
!c1
c H$c
-@
cSee 4
c 
c$c
cc@&-c3$c@?c@-7F-&cGI c1$c 7&7H G
 c
c cc  c
c
# cc
c 

 c c H$c
-I
c! c/
c+c
c
c!

c&7Jc;  c5 c0

c@?FIcG 77IH$c
-?
cMcDonald,c c7@cG.  c$cHcGc[S]tare decisisc cc cN "(cccc c"
cc


ccc
c  c c
c1 c
 $HcGc  
c 
 c$c1
cJ7Jc4$c$c?c:@c
G&:: HcG0
 c1$c$ccc"
cc# c c
cc# HH$c

J:c
c

!

c  c # 
c  
c 
 c 

c c 
c 

c c #
 c c
 c #

c   $c 5

c c 
c 3 c !

c  c # 
c  
c


c c
c

cc#
c

c #

 c c

c
,

$c.

c   c

c
c 
c #
F# c   c

c c  c
c  c c 

c c c c 1 c

, 
c

c
c c


cc

 c  c c
c 
c
cc
"K c
c c
c 
c   $c 3c Mapp v. Ohio-: c Miranda v. Arizona--7c   c #
c

 c 
 
c  c  
c 
c 1 c 

c c #
Kc c 
c
#  c 
c Heller 1c 

$c ! c c 
c c   c    c 

c 

c 
c
#

c c c  
c 
  c c 
c 1 c c

c 
c Hellerc c
McDonaldc
c
c !

c c
c
$c Ac
c
c !

c c

c
 c# 
cc  c c
c  cc 
c  c
  cc
c

 
cc
" c K  $cc
c
c
CONCLUSION
c / 
c
c   c
 
c
c
c
c!

c c
cc 
cc 
c
c

c
cc  c" #
 c  cc
c 
cc c 

c cc K
c
c  c  $c.
c
cc
c cc


c
cc## c 
$c.  c 
c
c
c##cc
c
c 
$c0 
c c  cc##
c
c c
 

c c
 
c c
 c $c.
c##
cc  c 
c cc


cc
  cc
c
c!

c
c 
c 
,c c 
c 
c #  c c 
c 'c c 0  $c c c  
c 
c !

c
" #

c cc

c
c c

c
cc#
FHellerc 
cc
c  cc
cc  c c  c
c
c cc

#c c
c  c
c
c
c#  ccc
1 $c.
c
c!

c c
c
cc
$c
c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc
-:
c; ##c$cM c@Ic4$$c@-c@@7cG&:@&H$c
--7
c;  c$c!+ c?-c4$$c-@c---K-JcG&:@@H$c

@7c