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A Project Report On

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR RECONCILATION AND CHECKING IN


FINANCE

At

OMAXE LIMTED

Under the guidance of Submitted by:


MR. MANISH HARSH
KUMAR GUPTA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMEN
T

It is almost inevitable to incur indebtedness to all those who generously helped us by


sharing their invaluable time and rich experience with me, without which this project would
have never been accomplished.

Project work is a combination of views, ideas, suggestion and contribution of many people.
Thus, it is one of the pleasant parts of writing. The report is the opportunity to thank those
who contributed towards its fulfillment.

We are very thankful to OMAXE LIMTED for giving us an opportunity to work with
them and to gain knowledge and learning that would assest to me forever.

It is difficult to find words to express my deep sense of gratitude and


obligation to MR. PRAVEEN JI (HEAD OF DEPARTMENT) co-operative
endeavor in my efforts. We feel obligated to all the staff members of
Quality dept. for helping me during my summer internship.

I also extend my heartiest thanks to Mr. HARBANSH CHOUDHERY for


his regular assistance all through the project. His working has motivated
us to do better.

I also thank Mr. NAVEEN and Mr. SAURAV SINGH for providing us with timely data.
It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the gratitude I feel towards other employees of
OMAXE Ltd. who have extended their co-operation during this study period.
I also want to thank all our team mates who have played an imperative
role in the successful completion of this project.

With Regards

HARSH KUMAR GUPTA

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M.B.A. (2009-11)

ABSTRACT

The project “TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR CHECKING AND RECONCILATION


IN FINANCE” mainly focus on how to check whole process of financial
activities and programme in the department in omaxe infrabuild limted.it
focus to all system,tools and techniques used in order proper
management

The project aims at capturing the feedback & suggestions of financial system which has
been adopted by omaxe limted to gain high stability in market ,raise market share ,strength
to stand against competitor.

Besides, the project also highlights the Voice of major revenue generators of omaxe limted
with better services to strengthen the business relations in future.

Thus, this project is an attempt to closely understand the viewpoint of the end users, as to
how to fill up the gaps between customers ‘expectations & services offered by the
organization for consistently achieving the Customer Delight.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The summer training of a management student plays an important role to develop


him into a well – groomed professional. It gives theoretical concepts a practical
shape in a field of applications. It gives an idea of dynamic & versatile professional
world as well as an exposure to the intricacies & complexities of corporate world.

My summer training for one and half months in omaxe limted ,kalkaji,new delhi was
a learning experience to see how the company reconcile and check financial
programme and give boost to that programme keeps an eye on its customer
service quality in order to thoroughly work upon attaining the customer satisfaction
& maintaining long term customer commitment and relationship.

At omaxe Limited, I got a chance to apply the theory to latest technological &
marketing environment.

In the last two months of exposure we learnt a lot on various aspects of


organizational structure, departments, customer service, communication & their
impact.

It was real interesting experience & I enjoyed every part of it.

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GLOBAL REAL STATE INDUSTRY
Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions, such as the
United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, USA and The Bahamas)
that encompasses land along with improvements to the land, such
as buildings, fences, wells and other site improvements that are
fixed in location—immovable.[ 1 ] Real estate law is the body of
regulations and legal codes which pertain to such matters under a
particular jurisdiction and include things such as commercial and
residential real property transactions. Real estate is often
considered synonymous with real property (sometimes called
realty), in contrast with personal property (sometimes called
chattel or personalty under chattel law or personal property law).

However, in some situations the term "real estate" refers to the land
and fixtures together, as distinguished from "real property",
referring to ownership of land and appurtenances, including
anything of a permanent nature such as structures, trees, minerals,
and the interest, benefits, and inherent rights thereof. Real
property is typically considered to be Immovable property [ 2 ] The
terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common
law, while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable
property.

Tangible, it's solid, it's beautiful. It's artistic, from my standpoint, and I just
love real
Estate.” – Donald Trump

The real estate sector has all the trappings of a winner underpinned by the
booming IT/ITES, organized retail, hotels and logistics sectors, and the
emergence of India as a global manufacturing hub. Further, resilient economic
factors and strong inflows have added muscle to the growth story. Oversupply
fears have been overdone, though watch out for changes in Government policies
on real estate. Overall, the sector offers lucrative investment opportunity as
evidenced in realty companies of South and West India, which are trading at

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significant discount to their inherent values. We initiate coverage on Sobha
Developers, Peninsula Land, Marg Construction, Prajay Engineers and D S
Kulkarni with BUY recommendations. Arihant Foundations (Unrated), too,
deserves a closer look.
� Riding the growth wave. Rising income levels (annual per capita disposable
income growth at 8-13% through FY07-12E), growing urban population and
burgeoning middle class (15-16% annual growth), all point towards growth in real
estate. Further, demand from the booming IT/ITES (25-30% annual growth in
FY07-12E), organised retail, hotels and logistics sectors would boost realty. We
estimate the sector to grow at 12.8% CAGR through FY07-12E with US$85bn
Annual investment demand.
� Thriving inflows propped by the perception shift of real estate as an asset
class
indicate healthy dynamics – annual investments of ~US$7-9bn are expected
Through domestic and overseas real estate funds with ~US$4-5bn via foreign
direct
investment (FDI). This would finance the investment requirement for office and
retail construction in India. Further, developers have raised ~US$4bn via the capital
market in the past two years and US$4.7bn is expected to be raised this year.
� Key risks. Oversupply concerns are overdone though sporadic drop in prices in
overheated markets can not be ruled out. Watch out for changes in Government
policies on real estate, particularly those intended to curb inflationary pressure such
as changes in interest rate, risk weightage on residential and commercial lending,
moves to curb foreign money flow (tightening ECB norms) etc.
� Valuations. We have valued real estate companies based on net present
valuations (as they are more robust and stable, providing better relative and
absolute valuations) rather than P/E-based methodology. We favour companies
with diversified business segments, higher value additions, strong annuity flows,
comfortable cash situation, low land costs and transparent
management/disclosures. We believe there are developers in South and West
India, which are trading at attractive discount to their NPV, offering sound
investment opportunities. Recommend BUY on Sobha, Peninsula Land, Marg
Construction, Prajay Engineers and D S Kulkarni. Arihant Foundations (Unrated) is
another upcoming player from the South.
Investment summary
Riding the growth wave
Key growth drivers for the real estate sector are: i) sustainable economic growth ii)
favourable demographics, iii) growth in IT/ITES (with India emerging as global
manufacturing hub) and organised retail sectors, iv) increasing demand in hotels
and
logistics sectors, and v) rising direct and indirect investments in real estate.
We expect the real estate market to grow at 12.8% CAGR (in terms of value) in the
next five years, requiring US$85bn annual investments and estimate the annual
office

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and retail space demand at 65mn sqft and 37mn sqft (average) respectively for the
next five years. In case of residential units, it is difficult to estimate the demand of
the
target segment to be addressed by real estate developers – our estimate is 450-
550mn sqft, including 100-130mn sqft for the high-end residential segment
(properties
with ticket-size of >Rs2.5mn).
Going forward, hotels, logistics and warehousing are also likely to create significant
demand. Also, development of special economic zones (SEZs) would boost the
realty
sector, though their contribution should be evaluated on a case-to-case basis as
riskreturn
for each SEZ is different.
Thriving inflows
Real estate has emerged as a lucrative investment alternative against bonds and
equity, leading to thriving inflows – we estimate ~US$7-$9bn investments annually
through domestic and overseas real estate funds, including ~US$4-5bn via FDI.
Further, through capital markets, developers have raised ~US$4bn in the past two
years with another US$4.7bn expected this year. Strong inflows in the property
market are fuelling growth by increasing the overall liquidity.
Key risks
We believe demand and supply are on an even keel across India and do not
perceive
significant oversupply in either residential, office or retail segments till end-CY09.
Also, the Government is taking measures to curb the inflationary component of
growth
by reducing liquidity in the system. Given that such measures were taken mid-way
of
the real estate cycle, they would help sustain a long-term rally in real estate and
prevent overheating. However, minor corrections in property prices can not be
ruled
out. Further interest rate tightening could reduce demand, leading to lesser
absorption
of supply.
Valuations
We have valued real estate companies based on net present valuations (as they
are
more robust and stable, providing better relative and absolute valuations) rather
than
P/E-based methodology. We favour companies with diversified business segments,
higher value additions, strong annuity flows, comfortable cash situation, low land
costs and transparent management/disclosures. We believe there are developers
in
South and West India, which are trading at attractive discount to their NPV, offering

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sound investment opportunities. Recommend BUY on Sobha, Peninsula Land,
Marg
Construction, Prajay Engineers and D S Kulkarni. Arihant Foundations (Unrated) is
another upcoming player from the South.

OMAXE LIMTED
Incorporated as Omaxe Builders Private Limited in 1989, to
undertake construction & contracting business, the
company changed its constitution to a limited company
known as Omaxe Construction Ltd., in 1999. The name of
the company has now changed to Omaxe Ltd in 2006.
Omaxe was founded by Shri. Rohtas Goel, a first
generation entrepreneur, a civil engineer by qualification
and a visionary. With over two decades of experience in
construction and real estate development, Rohtas Goel, as
Chairman & Managing Director of Omaxe Ltd., has been at
the forefront of the real estate industry, following its motto

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“Turning Dreams into Realty” through building world class
residential and commercial projects.

As a civil construction and contracting company, Omaxe successfully


executed more than one hundred and twenty industrial, institutional,
commercial and residential projects for a number of prestigious Indian
private, public sector and Multinational's clients such as Amity
University, LG, Pepsi, Samsung, Wave Cinemas, National Brain Research
Centre, P.G.I. M.E.R, Apollo Hospitals and Delhi High Court.

To capture the opportunities offered by the growing real estate market


in India, Omaxe entered the real estate development business in 2001

In the span of a few years, Omaxe Ltd. has experienced exponential


growth and success, crowned by its landmark IPO oversubscribed by 68
times in 2007, and is now amongst the largest public-listed real estate
development companies in India.

The company has completed and delivered 17 projects across India,


covering sprawling 10.68 million sq ft of total area, consisting of 9 Group
Housing projects, 2 integrated townships and 6 commercial projects.

The company currently has 53 projects under execution and planning.


Among these are 21 Group Housing projects, 21 Integrated Townships
including a Hi-Tech City, 9 shopping malls and commercial complexes
and 2 Hotel projects. These 53 projects are located in 38 towns in 10
states in northern, central and southern India. Besides, there are 8
ongoing infrastructure & contracting projects.

To undertake such expansion, Omaxe Ltd. today, is backed by a


professional and competent Team Omaxe: a constantly growing
workforce of currently over thirteen hundred professionals, including
highly-qualified engineers, architects, Chartered Accountants, MBA’s,
etc. With high standards in line with Mr. Goel’s vision and ambitions,
Team Omaxe makes Omaxe Ltd. a strong, structured and high-growth
ISO-certified company with a bright future. Taking forward our vision to
provide an environment of professionalism, competence, teamwork and
service excellence, Omaxe is working towards benchmarking our HR
policies with the best employers and international standards.

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Thanks to its strong experience in construction, Omaxe’s uniqueness
also lies in the fact that the company doesn't give its projects on sub
contract: while assuring timely completion, this also allows keeping pace
with the progress in construction technology, helping to give clients
“value for money”.

Today, OMAXE enjoys a reputation of being one of India's leading real


estate developers with an indelible focus on customer satisfaction.
Omaxe has adopted quality system standards that integrate
technological and design innovations with a strong technical base to
provide state-of-the-art real estate options. Omaxe has also been the
first to:

• offer Penalty Clause


• introduce Sample Flats concept
• offer ready-to-move-in homes

Besides this, Omaxe is the first to have created and implemented the
concept of Eco Friendly City, integrating Environment Protection
Measures in all projects, with a defined implementation process.

For Omaxe, environment protection and innovative architecture and


practices are the standards of today and tomorrow’s in real estate
development.

Achievements&Awards
Omaxe was the first Construction Company of northern India to receive
an ISO 9001:2000 Certification.

Omaxe has received a number of awards from the industry as


recognition of its continued commitment and efforts towards achieving
excellence in concept and construction quality.

‘Svedala’, ‘Udyog Ratna', ‘Pride of the Country', ‘Arya Vaidya Sala' &
‘Industrial Award' are some of the many prestigious awards that have
honored Omaxe in the past years.

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USE OF ERP AND FINANCIAL MODULE IN OMAXE

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Software is effective only if it can support the realities of
your business and offer cost effective solutions to your
problems. ,have taken special care to actively involve our
clients from the Real Estate and Construction fraternity to
encourage them to give real life problems to find solutions
for the same. The results have been very encouraging to
the extent that the users

have testified to the effectiveness of this business tool.

- Real Estate ERP Software, we seek to address this


very issue of having a balanced approach to success in
detail. Our patrons like you, do not just build concrete
structures of utility value. They have your unique stamp of
style and aesthetics that proudly sets your brand apart
from the herd.

It generates information on a daily basis that other


software applications provide on a weekly or monthly
basis. Plus, separate systems are no longer required to
manage the individual operations of your company.

Construction ERP Software, adequate care has been


taken to strengthen your backend systems, integrating all
your functional departments by the use of a single
business tool to seamlessly blend your property
development with performance enhancement and
accountability at every stage of the construction activity.

This means Integrated Construction, Equipment and


Materials operations with back-office Financial operations
enabling your Construction company to manage estimates,
projects, changes, labor, billing, equipment, and materials,
which means operational efficiencies, cost reductions and
increased profits for your business.

Drawing on our association with international big and small


construction companies, their owners and chairmen,

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contracts managers, quantity surveyors, estimators,
project managers, planners, drawing office clerks and
foremen, we have tailored our software to the exact needs
of the people working in the various construction
processes.

So whether you need to do presentations to board


executives and financiers, manage your planning,
estimating, forecasting, project budgets, earned value,
cash flows, drawings or materials, there is a component
that will satisfy your requirements.

Our Windows® based system is simple to implement and


get working in either a stand-alone or a multi-user
networked environment without IT skills.

Our software steps in right where you start!! Identification


and Purchase of property slated for development. This
scalable solution integrates virtually all of the information
you have about your properties, allowing you to streamline
your financial and operations processes.

The success of a project depends on how efficiently one is


able to collate data, manage and deploy the available
resources to efficiently control costs and customer
relationships from contract through to Sales.

Prior to construction, all components that go with it must


be in place. This exercise calls for a Maintenance of high
degree of coordination and communication from all
involved, to effect timely and accurate decisions. It is
inherently equipped to precisely handle such contingencies
as they arise during various stages of project completion.
The Architecturemodule helps in optimum utilization of
available space for development within the given project
parameters. In conjunction with the Engineering module,
this business tool becomes a potent weapon for effective
decision-making.

itis not a collection of independent processes but, a system


that has been designed with an emphasis on integration,
scalability and ease of use.

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With the use of this business tool, you are able to analyze
purchasing volumes across multiple projects or drill down
to an individual commitment associated with a custom
option purchased for a single lot. Information is available
at any level of detail and in a view that can be tailored to
individual preference.

All types of reports can be generated at various user levels


and from any remote location with secured web access.
The software has data security features embedded into it.

The ultimate goal is to help our clients maintain an


information system that is specific to their business, while
integrating this software so as not to sacrifice their unique
competitive edge. That advantage may be in brand,
purchasing, or construction efficiencies.

We offer training courses, if needed, for novice and


advanced users at our corporate office or, by special
arrangement, at client premises anywhere in the world.
This helps our clients gain confidence to derive the fullest
benefit from our Construction ERP Software with all
itsadvanced features.

he deployment of electronic schedules at


construction sites gives all stakeholders access to
up-to-date information.

Whether you are a main contractor or a specialist


trade contractor, an architect, surveyor, project
manager or consulting engineer, a maintenance
contractor or house builder, we will have a solution
to meet your specific requirements.

Our broad spectrum of modules - including a fully


integrated Accounting System, Service Management,
Inventory Management, Advanced Job Management,
Proposals, Purchase Orders, Estimating, Residential
New Construction and our unique Project Manager
module allows us to package our software to meet
the diverse needs of your contracting business.

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it is web-based Construction ERP Software that
provides the construction industry with complete
project management, document and record
management, scheduling, searching functionality and
workflow. Its centralized repository enables users to
collect, analyze, manipulate and annotate documents
from virtually wherever they are located. This allows
decision makers from the level of a CEO to the level
of subcontractors to eliminate the whiteboards, file
folders, and spreadsheets they use for managing
their schedules, and the details about all of their
jobs.

enables you to make better, faster decisions


through real-time business intelligence. We have
used .Net framework for development of this
software to ensure optimal usability and flexibility.
With our modular solutions you can assemble a fully
integrated system that meets your exact business
requirements to save you time and money and help
make better business decisions.

For example, lump sum contract costs are broken


down into a progress-billing schedule, which is
connected to a custom-designed electronic
construction schedule. At the construction site,
supervisors' mark off completed work on the
electronic schedule. The system automatically
reconciles the schedule with invoice payments.
Project managers no longer have to manually
confirm invoices, construction site superintendents
no longer sign off on work completion, bookkeepers
spend less time processing invoices, and suppliers
receive precise payments according to pre-approved
pricing.

With this new Real Estate ERP Software tool, each


purchase order is loaded into the database
containing exact information about unit prices and
supplier part numbers. At month end, an electronic
invoice is exchanged to automatically reconcile items

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ordered and quantities received. This electronic
exchange means that one invoice can correspond to
many purchase orders, resulting in a dramatic drop
in the number of invoices and disputes over
inaccuracy.

All of our software has been written for Windows©,


providing our customers with state-of-the-art
operating environment and functionality that few, if
any, other true Windows products can offer. for
Windows, specifically designed for the service and
construction industry, is fully integrated and the
solution is tailored to your needs.

We are proud to present as the most cost effective,


company-wide management Construction ERP
Software for the construction and real estate
industries available in the market today. it is a
Comprehensive, Integrated, Modularized and User-
friendly Construction ERP System for the Real Estate
and Construction industry. It is a ready to use system,
which is useful in quick implementation and thus reducing
the lead-time. The implementation is modularized type and
the each module can be linked at any time as per
customer's requirement. The system will run both at site
as well as at head office independently. The head office is
linked with the site office through web server/data transfer
protocols and thus enables one to know the status of each
site, which increases the effectiveness in monitoring and
executing of site work.

• Helps in plan layout and structural design of a project


• Budget control for each process in the project
• Tender management and bid analysis
• Project scheduling in stages, with costs and allocation of resources
• Remote project monitoring with generation of various timely
reports form multiple work sites and head office
• Total system control and data security
• Reports generated within all modules are viewable on screen as
well as exportable to MS Word or Acrobat PDF Files

Architecture Sales Engineering

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Accounts Purchase & Stores Payroll
Maintenance Legal

Architecture Module

Architecture module is a comprehensive application developed to take


care of the minute details of construction activity in a project, right from
the design stage. Plans can be viewed vis-à-vis compliance with all
government described norms and buyer preferences.

Salient Features

• Sets Project Parameters (Fresh / Slum Rehab Project)


• Maps the latest status of the project e.g. Under Construction (i.e.
Slab status etc.) or ready for possession, which enables the sales
team to plan its activities in advance
• Define installment structure in project
• This module can provide a view of the project site, building, wing
and structure layout for sales department and buyer decisions
• Create various masters like Project Master, Building Master, Unit
Master, Floor Master etc.
• Create Parking Area with allocation of Name / Nos.
• Merge request forms received from Sales module for instant
feedback on status, "Approved / Not Approved"

Reports

• Project Report
• Annexure I, II, III
• Area Certificate copy
• Project Completion Certificate
• Various types of Issue Certificate
• Various Types of NOC's and more

Back to Top

Sales Module

Sales module is a comprehensive module which records each and every


action of the sales representative for affecting a sale along with
customer feedback. This really strengthens the front end, without

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compromising on the basics of the company's sales policy.

Sales persons can check the feasibility of each request posted by the
customer along with the project status and explore possibilities of
merger of another unit or, transfer from one unit to another at a click of
a button.

This feature enables quick response time and in turn, provides for an
excellent and effective Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
feature tool.

Salient Features

• Maintains history of customer enquiries with complete details and


its subsequent follow-ups
• Generates status and demand letters automatically
• Report Builder tool for creation of customized reports
• Booking details of all unit owners are maintained, including parking
availability, rate and issue of allotment letter in a project
• Define base rate for a project and also, define subsequent
incremental floor wise rates
• Define Transfer fee and also, cancellation charges between dates
• Define project wise brokerage charges
• Setting up of installment structure for a project
• Configure other various heads under which payments are
receivable, e.g. parking, electric / water meter charges, legal
charges, maintenance charges etc.

Reports

• Enquiries handled between different dates


• Unit Occupation Report
• Client Feedback / Follow-up Report
• Complete Transaction details
• Booked Units, Cancelled Units, Merged Units (with reasons, if any)
• O /S Reports
• MIS Reports and more

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Engineering Module

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Engineering module is a powerful project management tool to monitor
and control project data, evaluate projects and enable design-to-cost
engineering to optimize construction costs. Quality Management - Plan,
collect, settle, and evaluate quality related to costs. The solution
includes features that provide data to determine standard or user
defined quality scores. This module is also designed to integrate with
other modules like Accounting, Architecture, Sales etc.

Salient Features

• Project execution management and running bill generation


• The quantities can be generated directly from the user-defined
drawings using graphical building generator
• The user can maintain the detailed library of resources, units,
overhead charges and activities
• Daily reports can be had from the site engineer
• The actual progress is mapped to the plan of the project to find
deviations
• Total inventory management of site
• Embedded provision for multi-level user security and permissions
• Customized reports generation
• Analyze the warehouse activities, such as the physical flow of raw
materials versus workloads
• Daily labour entry and material consumption entry

Reports

• Sub Contractor detail list


• Activity Time Management
• Work Order Processing.
• Daily Progress Reports etc.
• Stores inventory report
• Site activity and other MIS reports

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Accounts Module

Construction accounting software doesn't need to be expensive. offers


construction software for less than many other construction software
packages. Our SQL database architecture and dynamic reporting

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capabilities make it easy to customizeto meet your company's unique
construction accounting needs.

Accounts module is a business application capable of totally managing


most accounting needs of a company. It enables you to optimize
accounting with inventory control along with integration of payroll, sales,
purchase and engineering modules thus delivering a comprehensive
picture of your company's financial robustness at any given point of time
and at any given place through web connectivity.

Accounts module is a powerful browser architected enterprise module,


providing a completely integrated approach to an organization's
accounting needs, delivering control, speed and responsiveness with cost
savings.

Salient Features

• Maintains financial year wise transaction details


• Helps in generation of different types of vouchers such as Credit,
Internal Transfer, Journal and Petty cash etc.
• Calculations of TDS, VAT and other taxes possible before releasing
payments
• Maintenance of all payment details made to external parties under
various accounting heads
• Bank reconciliation and Cheque return status maintained

With Commercial Construction ERP Software, you can rely on:

• Builder software with a solid accounting foundation enhanced with


construction-specific functionality
• Job cost reporting in real-time, including work-in-progress
schedules and detailed bonding reports
• Billing and cost tracking by lot, plan and elevations
• The ability to import payroll time cards
• Residential templates for housing developments
• Buyer options and change order tracking software to capture
revenue for work outside a job's original scope

Construction management software that integrates accounting, jobs,


project management, purchasing, equipment and more.

Reports

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• Balance Sheet
• Trial Balance
• Profit and Loss Account
• Account Books like day cash, bank transactions etc.
• General Ledger and multiple ledgers
• Stock Report
• O/S Report
• Payable / Receivable
• MIS Repots
• Ratio Analysis, etc.

Back to Top

Purchase & Stores Modules

Purchase & Stores modules cover the entire Purchase and Stores
function aspects of an enterprise. It is tightly integrated with the
Inventory, Payments and Legal modules. Purchase Managers can now
accurately and easily access information about vendors, stock levels,
purchase analysis, etc. in real time. Store Managers can easily deal with
all the items or products required by the organization.

Salient Features

• Get complete purchase history such as cost average, cost


difference and average lead-time for each vendor, item and
delivery schedules
• Supports FIFO, LIFO average and standard costing methods
• Easy templates for calculation of taxes and Vendor terms and
conditions
• Maintaining Product wise preferred vendor list
• Preparation of Purchase Bill based on GRN
• Tracking transfer of stock from company to work site and vice-
versa
• Updation of stock after receipt of resources
• Price comparisons of quotation and finalization of best quotation
• Generation of request for the quotation of the procurement
• Compilation of available resources from various project sites for
procurement analysis. This helps procurement of the right material
at the right time and at the right place
• Requisition directly linked to the Project Plan

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• Check stock opening balance
• Stock transfer
• Generate material receipt
• Inventory Management

Reports

• Vendor Detail List


• Indent details report
• Enquiry generation
• Quotations
• Purchase Order
• Store Receipt Note
• Purchase Invoice
• Payment authentication, budget allocations etc.
• Stock Report (Updated Stock, Stock as on date, Periodic Stock)

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Payroll Module

Payroll module covers every activity dealt by the HR department. This


module enables an organization to capitalize on the workforce - their
most important asset. It helps in performing HR activities such as
recruitment, salary, leave management, payroll, etc.

Salient Features

• Maintenance of Employee Details with respect to department,


designation, status, income tax category, recruitment agency,
payment mode, PF, etc.
• Leave Management that involves leave opening balance
calculations, over time and monthly leave calculations
• Application, processing and sanction of Loan to employee and their
repayment
• Payroll generation and management based on every department
• Statement creation for pay slip, provident fund, professional tax,
ESIC, income tax, housing loan, salary, challan, etc.
• MIS reports based on monthly leave details, leave balance and
attendance
• Voucher creation and management

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Reports

• MIS reports
• Attendance Report
• Leave Balance as well as details
• Vouchers
• Salary Structure
• Form 3A, 5, 6A, 10, 12A, 3, 6, 7

Back to Top

Maintenance Module

Building and Property maintenance has always been a low priority area
for the construction industry, as it is perceived to be labour intensive
along with poor returns. The after sale service component is gaining in
importance and often this is what differentiates one good company from
another for an average customer.

With Maintenance module, it is possible to generate periodic individual


building maintenance bills and post it to Accounts on time and
accurately. This entails considerable savings in terms of man-days and
customer satisfaction.

Salient Features

• Receipt Head Master for different head types like maintenance


charges, arrears, utilities etc.
• Receipt heads will be created incorporating various criteria like
area, flat type, etc.
• Payment template for tax and other charges
• Automatic ledger management for all receipt heads
• Maintains information of the Directors of the Society, Association
etc.
• Maintain the Auditors remarks
• Flexible to be customized
• Maintains the details of the Share Holder, their assigns, nominees,
number of shares held and share transfer details, if any

Reports

• Monthly Maintenance Bills

23
• Customer outstanding
• Share Certificate details
• Demand Notes and Challans
• Complaints redress and work completion status etc.
• Accounts statement with available credit

Back to Top

Legal Module

Legal Module covers the entire legal efficacy involved in the real estate
and construction business. This module helps to perform operations in
accordance with the laws applicable in the construction activity.

Salient Features

• Availability of all the legal documents at one place


• Easy access to general legal forms and transfer documents
• Provides Ready Reckoner for reference to all facilities made
available
• Stamp Duty Calculation
• Availability of addresses of important government offices
• EMI Calculation for user-specified values
• We have chosen Microsoft technologies for our Construction
ERP Software as Microsoft® Windows Server System is a
comprehensive, integrated, and interoperable server infrastructure
that helps reduce the complexity and costs of building, deploying,
connecting, and operating agile business solutions. Windows
Server System helps customers create new value for their
business through the strategic use of their IT assets. With the
Windows Server operating system as its foundation, Windows
Server System delivers dependable infrastructure for data
management and analysis; enterprise integration; customer,
partner, and employee portals; business process automation;
communications and collaboration; and core IT operations
including security, deployment, and systems management.
• The problem for IT departments is typically not insufficient
functionality; rather, it is that critical business systems such as
customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource
planning (ERP) operate in isolation from other critical business
systems-despite the fact that business processes often span
multiple applications. To obtain an end-to-end view of a complex

24
business process necessitates integration of information and
process silos. In the past, this has been accomplished either
though time-consuming manual interventions, or through hard-
coded solutions that are difficult to maintain.
• s .NET architecture is scalable to cater the needs of BPM
requirements. Architecture diagram shown below provides the
complete gist of its extensibility, interoperability, scalability and
the flexibility to integrate with various third party applications or
popular Microsoft products.


• The product is also intended for developers, technical business
managers, MIS and system administrators who wish to provide
increased value to their software application, products or business
processes by the addition of dynamic workflow functionality.
• .NET's open architecture exposed by XML and Web Services enable
seamless integration with Microsoft .NET Servers and Microsoft
Office 2003 products. It extends the functionality of various
Microsoft products like BizTalk, SharePoint Portal Server, Windows
SharePoint Services, CMS, Office 2003 etc.
• Too frequently, the existing IT portfolio does not adequately meet
specific business needs, is costly to manage and maintain, and is
inflexible in the face of business growth and change. The solution,
however, is not to rip and replace systems or applications, nor to
completely renovate them, but rather to find a way to leverage
existing IT investments so that overall organizational goals are
effectively supported.
• Service orientation helps to accomplish these goals by making
systems more responsive to business needs, simpler to develop,

25
and easier to maintain and manage. Implementing a Construction
ERP Software solution based upon service orientation helps
organizations plan ahead for change, rather than responding
reactively.

CONSTRUCTION ERP SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


SERVER Side:

• Pentium IV or Higher
• 1GB RAM
• Windows 2000 / XP / 2003 server
• Internet Explorer 5.0 or Higher with resolution set to 1024 x 768 pixel
• Crystal Report 9.0 or Higher
• MS SQL Server 2000
• Adobe Reader 5.0 or Higher
• 240 GB HDD
• Backup devices

Client Side:

• Pentium III or Higher


• 512 RAM
• Graphics (1024 x 768 pixel)
• Windows 2000 / Me/NT/XP / 2003

• Internet Explorer 5.0 or Higher with resolution set to 1024 x 768 pix
Real Estate ERP Integration
Almost everything about computers eventually comes
down to trade-offs about what is most important. A
computer system consists of both hardware and
software. A key recurring question is how well are the
software and hardware integrated.

Today's competitive business environment and


globalization demands corporates to react rapidly to
business events, reduce inventories, shorten new
process cycle times and lower costs by reusing existing
process and applications and other IT assets.

A technically superior combination of server hardware

26
and operating systems could prove to be less expensive
in the long run. One should integrate applications on a
common infrastructure, for maximum efficiency. It can
be from simple connectivity all the way to the
requirements of a fully integrated, on demand
enterprise.

eBuildTM is the first and only web-based Real Estate


ERP application to offer everything in a single,
integrated and powerful solution. By choosing to build
its solutions using Microsoft-based technologies,
the eBuildTM team can integrate all of its systems
virtually seamlessly within the Microsoft-based stack.
The company can also leverage the expertise of the
Microsoft technology partner network. The robust
development capabilities of Microsoft Development
Tools are helping eBuildTM lay a flexible foundation for
future product innovations.

The Microsoft .NET Framework SDK (including ADO.NET)


is supported on Microsoft® Windows XP, Windows 2000,
Windows NT 4 with Service Pack 6a, Windows
Millennium Edition, Windows 98, and Windows CE.

27
ORACLE

ORACLE DATABASE
The Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or
simply as Oracle) is arelational database management
system (RDBMS) produced and marketed by Oracle
Corporation. As of 2010, Oracle remains a major presence
in database computing.[ 2 ]

Larry Ellison and his friends and former co-workers Bob


Miner and Ed Oates started the consultancy Software
Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed the
original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes
from the code-name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on
while previously employed by Ampex.[3 ]

Physical and logical structures

An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system


identifier or SID[ 4 ] —comprises at least one instance of the
application, along with data storage. An instance—identified
persistently by an instantiation number (or activation id:
SYS.V_$DATABASE.ACTIVATION#)—comprises a set of
operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact
with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process
monitor) and SMON (the system monitor).

Users of the Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-


structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically
holds cacheinformation such as data-buffers, SQL commands, and
user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of
online redo logs (or logs), which hold transactional history.

28
Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs
(offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data
recovery and for some forms of data replication.

If the Oracle database administrator has implemented Oracle


RAC (Real Application Clusters), then multiple instances, usually
on differentservers, attach to a central storage array. This
scenario offers advantages such as better performance, scalability
and redundancy. However, support becomes more complex, and
many sites do not use RAC. In version 10g, grid
computing introduced shared resources where an instance can
use (for example) CPU resources from another node (computer) in
the grid.

The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored


procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle
Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the
object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects
and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.

Storage
The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form
of tablespaces and physically in the form of
data files ("datafiles").[ 5 ] Tablespaces can contain various types
of memory segments, such as Data Segments, Index Segments,
etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents
comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the
basic units of data storage.

Oracle database management tracks its computer data


storage with the help of information stored in
the SYSTEM tablespace. The SYSTEMtablespace contains the data
dictionary—and often (by default) indexes and clusters. A data
dictionary consists of a special collection oftables that contains
information about all user-objects in the database. Since version
8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces

29
which can store space management information in bitmaps in their
own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens
with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces).

Disk files

This section
requires expansion.

At the physical level, datafiles comprise one or more data blocks,


where the block size can vary between datafiles.

Datafiles can occupy pre-allocated space in the file system of a


computer server, utilize raw disk directly, or exist
[6]
within ASM logical volumes.

Control files
The following parameters govern the size of the control files:

* maxlogfiles
* maxlogmembers
* maxloghistory
* maxinstances
* control_file_record_keep_time

Database schema
Oracle database conventions refer to defined groups of object
ownership (generally associated with a "username") as schemas.
Most Oracle database installations traditionally came with a default
schema called SCOTT. After the installation process has set up the
sample tables, the user can log into the database with the
username scott and the password tiger. The name of
the SCOTT schema originated with Bruce Scott, one of the first
employees at Oracle (then Software Development Laboratories),
who had a cat named Tiger.[7 ]

Oracle Corporation has de-emphasized the use of


the SCOTT schema, as it uses few of the features of the more

30
recent releases of Oracle. Most recent examples supplied by Oracle
Corporation reference the default HR or OE schemas.

Other default schemas[ 8 ] include:

 SYS (essential core database structures and utilities)


 SYSTEM (additional core database structures and utilities, and privileged
account)
 OUTLN (utilized to store metadata for stored outlines for stable query-
optimizer execution plans.[9 ]
 BI, IX, HR, OE, PM, and SH (expanded sample schemas[ 1 0 ] containing more
data and structures than the older SCOTT schema).

System Global Area


Main article: System Global Area

Each Oracle instance uses a System Global Area or SGA—


a shared-memory area—to store its data and control-information.
[1 1 ]

Each Oracle instance allocates itself an SGA when it starts and de-
allocates it at shut-down time. The information in the SGA consists
of the following elements, each of which has a fixed size,
established at instance startup:

 the database buffer cache: this stores the most recently-used data blocks.
These blocks can contain modified data not yet written to disk (sometimes
known as "dirty blocks"), unmodified blocks, or blocks written to disk since
modification (sometimes known as clean blocks). Because the buffer cache
keeps blocks based on a most-recently-used algorithm, the most active buffers
stay in memory to reduce I/O and to improve performance.
 the redo log buffer: this stores redo entries—a log of changes made to the
database. The instance writes redo log buffers to the redo log as quickly and

31
efficiently as possible. The redo log aids in instance recovery in the event of a
system failure.
 the shared pool: this area of the SGA stores shared-memory structures such
as shared SQL areas in the library cache and internal information in the data
dictionary. An insufficient amount of memory allocated to the shared pool can
cause performance degradation.

Library cache
The library cache[1 2 ] stores shared SQL, caching the parse tree and
the execution plan for every unique SQL statement. If multiple
applications issue the same SQL statement, each application can
access the shared SQL area. This reduces the amount of memory
needed and reduces the processing-time used for parsing and
execution planning.]Data dictionary cache

The data dictionary comprises a set of tables and views that map
the structure of the database.

Oracle databases store information here about the logical and


physical structure of the database. The data dictionary contains
information such as:

 user information, such as user privileges


 integrity constraints defined for tables in the database
 names and datatypes of all columns in database tables
 information on space allocated and used for schema objects

The Oracle instance frequently accesses the data dictionary in


order to parse SQL statements. The operation of Oracle depends
on ready access to the data dictionary: performance bottlenecks in
the data dictionary affect all Oracle users. Because of this,
database administrators should make sure that the data dictionary
cache[ 1 3 ] has sufficient capacity to cache this data. Without enough
memory for the data-dictionary cache, users see a severe
performance degradation. Allocating sufficient memory to the

32
shared pool where the data dictionary cache resides precludes
these particular performance problems.

Program Global Area


The Program Global Area[ 1 4 ] [ 1 5 ] or PGA memory-area of an Oracle
instance contains data and control-information for Oracle's server-
processes.

The size and content of the PGA depends on the Oracle-server


options installed. This area consists of the following components:

 stack-space: the memory that holds the session's variables, arrays, and so
on.
 session-information: unless using the multithreaded server, the instance
stores its session-information in the PGA. (In a multithreaded server, the
session-information goes in the SGA.)
 private SQL-area: an area in the PGA which holds information such as bind-
variables and runtime-buffers.
 sorting area: an area in the PGA which holds information on sorts, hash-
joins, etc.

Dynamic performance views


The dynamic performance views (also known as "fixed views")
within an Oracle database present information from virtual tables
(X$ tables[1 6 ] ) built on the basis of database memory.[ 1 7 ] Database
users can access the V$ views ( named after the prefix of their
synonyms) to obtain information on database structures and
performance.

]Process architectures
Oracle processes
The Oracle RDBMS typically relies on a group of processes running
simultaneously in the background and interacting to monitor and
expedite database operations. Typical operating groups might

33
include some of the following individual processes—(shown along
with their abbreviated nomenclature):[1 8 ]

 archiver processes (ARCn)


 checkpoint process (CKPT) *REQUIRED*
 coordinator-of-job-queues process (CJQn): dynamically spawns slave
processes for job-queues
 database writer processes (DBWn) *REQUIRED*
 dispatcher processes (Dnnn): multiplex server-processes on behalf of users
 memory-manager process (MMAN): used for internal database tasks such
as Automatic Shared Memory Management
 log-writer process (LGWR) *REQUIRED*
 log-write network-server (LNSn): transmits redo logs in Data Guard
environments
 logical standby coordinator process (LSP0): controls Data Guard log-
application
 media-recovery process (MRP): detached recovery-server process
 memory-monitor process (MMON): process for automatic problem-detection,
self-tuning and statistics-gathering[1 9 ]
 memory-monitor light process (MMNL): gathers and stores Automatic
Workload Repository (AWR) data
 mmon slaves (Mnnnn—M0000, M0001, etc): background slaves of the
MMON process[2 0 ]
 process-monitor process (PMON) *REQUIRED*
 process-spawner (PSP0): spawns Oracle processes
 queue-monitor processes (QMNn)
 recoverer process (RECO)
 remote file-server process (RFS)
 shared server processes (Snnn): serve client-requests
 system monitor process (SMON) *REQUIRED*

34
User processes, connections and sessions
Oracle Database terminology distinguishes different computer-
science terms in describing how end-users interact with the
database:

 user processes involve the invocation of application software[ 2 1 ]


 a connection refers to the pathway linking a user process to an Oracle
instance[ 2 2 ]
 sessions consist of specific connections to an Oracle instance.[ 2 3 ] Each
session within an instance has a session identifier or "SID"[2 4 ] (distinct from the
system-identifier SID).

Concurrency and locking


Oracle databases control simultaneous access to data resources
with locks (alternatively documented as "enqueues"[2 5 ] ). The
databases also utilize "latches" -- low-level serialization
mechanisms to protect shared data structures in the System Global
Area.[2 6 ]

Configuration
Database administrators control many of the tunable variations in
an Oracle instance by means of values in a parameter file. [2 7 ] This
file in its ASCII default form ("pfile") normally has a name of the
format init<SID-name>.ora. The default binary equivalent
server paramater file ("spfile") (dynamically reconfigurable to some
extent)[2 8 ] defaults to the format spfile<SID-name>.ora. Within
an SQL-based environment, the
[29]
views V$PARAMETER and V$SPPARAMETER[3 0 ] give access to
reading parameter values. 1

Internationalization

Oracle Database software comes in 63 language-versions


(including regional variations such as American English and British
English). Variations between versions cover the names of days and

35
months, abbreviations, time-symbols such as A.M. and A.D., and
sorting.[ 3 1 ]

Oracle Corporation has translated Oracle Database error-messages


into Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English,
Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian,
Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian,
Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Thai and Turkish.[3 2 ]

Oracle Corporation provides database developers with tools and


mechanisms for producing internationalized database applications:
referred to internally as "Globalization".[3 3 ]

]History

Corporate/technical timeline

 1977: Larry Ellison and friends founded Software Development


Laboratories.
 1979: SDL changed its company-name to "Relational Software, Inc." (RSI)
and introduced its product Oracle V2 as an early commercially-available
relational database system. The version did not support transactions, but
implemented the basic SQL functionality of queries andjoins. (RSI never
released a version 1 - instead calling the first version version 2 as a marketing
gimmick.)[ 3 4 ]
 1982: RSI in its turn changed its name, becoming known as "Oracle
Corporation",[3 5 ] to align itself more closely with its flagship product.
 1983: The company released Oracle version 3, which it had re-written using
the C programming language and which
supported COMMITand ROLLBACK functionality for transactions. Version 3
extended platform support from the existing Digital VAX/VMS systems to
includeUnix environments.[ 3 5 ]
 1984: Oracle Corporation released Oracle version 4, which supported read-
consistency.

36
 1985: Oracle Corporation released Oracle version 5, which supported
the client–server model—a sign of networks becoming more widely available
in the mid-1980s.
 1986: Oracle version 5.1 started supporting distributed queries.
 1988: Oracle RDBMS version 6 came out with support
for PL/SQL embedded within Oracle Forms v3 (version 6 could not store
PL/SQL in the database proper), row-level locking and hot backups.[3 6 ]
 1989: Oracle Corporation entered the application products market and
developed its ERP product, (later to become part of the Oracle E-Business
Suite), based on the Oracle relational database.
 1990: the release of Oracle Applications release 8[3 5 ]
 1992: Oracle version 7 appeared with support for referential
integrity, stored procedures and triggers.
 1997: Oracle Corporation released version 8, which supported object-
oriented development and multimedia applications.
 1999: The release of Oracle8i aimed to provide a database inter-operating
better with the Internet (the i in the name stands for "Internet"). The Oracle 8i
database incorporated a native Java virtual machine (Oracle JVM).
 2000: Oracle E-Business Suite 11i pioneers integrated enterprise application
software[3 5 ]
 2001: Oracle9i went into release with 400 new features, including the ability
to read and write XML documents. 9i also provided an option for Oracle RAC,
or "Real Application Clusters", a computer-cluster database, as a
replacement for the Oracle Parallel Server (OPS) option.
 2003: Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 10g, which
supported regular expressions. (The g stands for "grid"; emphasizing a
marketing thrust of presenting 10g as "grid-computing ready".)
 2005: Oracle Database 10.2.0.1—also known as Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10gR2)—appeared.
 2006: Oracle Corporation announces Unbreakable Linux [3 5 ]
 2007: Oracle Database 10g release 2 sets a new world record TPC-H
3000 GB benchmark result[3 7 ]

37
 2007: Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g for Linux and
for Microsoft Windows.
 2008: Oracle Corporation acquires BEA Systems.
 2010: Oracle Corporation acquires Sun Microsystems.

Version numbering
Oracle products have historically followed their own release-
numbering and naming conventions. With the Oracle RDBMS 10g
release, Oracle Corporation started standardizing all current
versions of its major products using the "10g" label, although some
sources continued to refer to Oracle Applications Release 11i
as Oracle 11i. Major database-related products and some of their
versions include:

 Oracle Application Server 10g (also known as "Oracle AS 10g"):


a middleware product;
 Oracle Applications Release 11i (aka Oracle e-Business Suite, Oracle
Financials or Oracle 11i): a suite of business applications;
 Oracle Developer Suite 10g (9.0.4);
 Oracle JDeveloper 10g: a Java integrated development
environment;

Since version 5, Oracle's RDBMS release numbering has used the


following codes:

 Oracle5
 Oracle6
 Oracle7: 7.0.16—7.3.4
 Oracle8 Database: 8.0.3—8.0.6
 Oracle8i Database Release 1: 8.1.5.0—8.1.5.1
 Oracle8i Database Release 2: 8.1.6.0—8.1.6.3
 Oracle8i Database Release 3: 8.1.7.0—8.1.7.4
 Oracle9i Database Release 1: 9.0.1.0—9.0.1.5 (patchset as of December
2003)

38
 Oracle9i Database Release 2: 9.2.0.1—9.2.0.8 (patchset as of April 2007)
 Oracle Database 10g Release 1: 10.1.0.2—10.1.0.5 (patchset as of
February 2006)
 Oracle Database 10g Release 2: 10.2.0.1—10.2.0.5 (patchset as of April
2010)
 Oracle Database 11i\11g Release 1: 11.1.0.6—11.1.0.7 (patchset as of
September 2008)
 Oracle Database 11i\11g Release 2: 11.2.0.1 (released 2009-09-01)

The version-numbering syntax within each release follows the


pattern: major.maintenance.application-server.component-
specific.platform-specific.

For example, "10.2.0.1 for 64-bit Solaris" means: 10th major version
of Oracle, maintenance level 2, Oracle Application Server
(OracleAS) 0, level 1 for Solaris 64-bit.

The Oracle Administrator's Guide offers further information on


Oracle

Marketing editions

Over and above the different versions of the Oracle database


management software developed over time, Oracle Corporation
subdivides its product into varying "editions" - apparently for
marketing and license-tracking reasons. (Do not confuse the
marketing "editions" with the internal virtual versioning "editions"
introduced with Oracle 11.2[4 0 ] ). In approximate order of decreasing
scale, we find:

 Enterprise Edition[4 1 ] (EE) includes more features than the 'Standard


Edition', especially in the areas of performance and security. Oracle Corporation
licenses this product on the basis of users or of processors, typically for servers
running 4 or more CPUs. EE has no memory limits, and can utilize clustering
using Oracle RAC software.

39
 Standard Edition[4 2 ] (SE) contains base database functionality. Oracle
Corporation licenses this product on the basis of users or of processors,
typically for servers running from one to four CPUs. If the number of CPUs
exceeds 4 CPUs, the user must convert to an Enterprise license. SE has no
memory limits, and can utilize clustering with Oracle RAC at no additional
charge.
 Standard Edition One,[ 4 3 ] introduced with Oracle 10g, has some additional
feature-restrictions. Oracle Corporation markets it for use on systems with one
or two CPUs. It has no memory limitations.
 Express Edition [4 4 ] ('Oracle Database XE'), introduced in 2005, offers
Oracle 10g free to distribute on Windows and Linux platforms. It has a footprint
of only 150 MB and is restricted to the use of a single CPU, a maximum of 4 GB
of user data. Although it can install on a server with any amount of memory, it
uses a maximum of 1 GB.[4 5 ] Support for this version comes exclusively through
on-line forums and not through Oracle support.
 Oracle Database Lite,[ 4 6 ] intended for running on mobile devices. The
embedded[4 7 ] mobile database located on the mobile device can synchronize
with a server-based installation.

Host platforms

Prior to releasing Oracle9i in 2001, Oracle Corporation ported its


database product to a wide variety of platforms. More recently
Oracle Corporation has consolidated on a smaller range of
operating-system platforms.

As of October 2006, Oracle Corporation supported the following


operating systems and hardware platforms for Oracle Database
10g[ci ta ti o n n e e d e d ]:

 Apple Mac OS X Server: PowerPC


 HP HP-UX: PA-RISC, Itanium
 HP Tru64 UNIX: Alpha
 HP OpenVMS: Alpha, Itanium
 IBM AIX5L: IBM POWER

40
 IBM z/OS: zSeries
 Linux: x86, x86-64, PowerPC, zSeries, Itanium
 Microsoft Windows: x86, x86-64, Itanium
 Sun Solaris: SPARC, x86, x86-64

Related software

Database options
Oracle Corporation refers to some extensions to the core
functionality of the Oracle database as "database options".[4 8 ] As of
2008 such options include:

 Active Data Guard (extends Oracle Data Guard physical standby


functionality in 11g)
 Advanced Security (adds data encryption methods)
 Content database (provides a centralized repository for unstructured
information)
 Database Vault (enforces extra security on data access)
 Data Mining ( ODM) (mines for patterns in existing data)
 In-Memory Database Cache (utilizes TimesTen technology)
 Label Security (enforces row-level security)
 Management Packs (various)
 Oracle Answers (for ad-hoc analysis and reporting)
 Oracle OLAP (adds analytical processing)
 Oracle Programmer (provides programmatic access to Oracle databases
via precompilers, interfaces and bindings)[ 4 9 ]
 Partitioning (granularizes tables and indexes for efficiency)
 Real Application Clusters (RAC) (coordinates multiple database servers,
together accessing the same database)
 Oracle Real Application Testing (new at version 11g)—including
Database Replay (for testing workloads) and SQL Performance Analyzer (SPA)
(for preserving SQL efficiency in changing environments)[ 5 0 ]
 Records database (a records management application)

41
 Oracle Spatial (integrates relational data with geographic information
systems (GIS))
 Transparent Gateway for connecting to non-Oracle systems. Offers
optimized solution, with more functionality and better performance than Oracle
Generic Connectivity.
 Total Recall (optimizes long-term storage of historical data)
 Oracle Warehouse Builder (in various forms and sub-options)

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.


In most cases, using these options entails extra licensing costs.[5 1 ]
Suites
In addition to its RDBMS, Oracle Corporation has released several
related suites of tools and applications relating to implementations of
Oracle databases. For example:

 Oracle Application Server, a J2EE-based application server,


aids in developing and deploying applications which
utilise Internettechnologies and a browser.
 Oracle Collaboration Suite contains messaging, groupware and
collaboration applications.
 Oracle Developer Suite contains software development tools,
including JDeveloper.
 Oracle E-Business Suite collects together applications
for enterprise resource planning (including Oracle
Financials), customer relationship management and human
resources management (Oracle HR).
 Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) used by database
administrators (DBAs) to manage the DBMS, and recently in version 10g,
a web-based rewrite of OEM called "Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control". Oracle Corporation has dubbed the super-Enterprise-Manager
used to manage a grid of multiple DBMS and Application Servers "Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control".

42
 Oracle Programmer/2000, a bundling of interfaces for 3GL
programming languages, marketed with Oracle7 and Oracle8.[ 5 2 ] [ 5 3 ]

Database "features"
Apart from the clearly-defined database options, Oracle databases
may include many semi-autonomous software sub-systems, which
Oracle Corporation sometimes refers to as "features" in a sense subtly
different from the normal usage of the word. For example, Oracle
Data Guardcounts officially as a "feature", but the command-stack
within SQL*Plus, though a usability feature, does not appear in the list
of "features" inOracle's list.[o ri g i n a l re se a r ch ? ] Such "features" may
include (for example):

 Active Session History (ASH), the collection of data for immediate


monitoring of very recent database activity.[5 4 ]
 Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), providing monitoring
services to Oracle database installations from Oracle version 10. Prior to
the release of Oracle version 10, the Statspack facility[5 5 ] provided similar
functionality.
 Clusterware
 Data Aggregation and Consolidation
 Data Guard for high availability
 Generic Connectivity for connecting to non-Oracle systems.
 Data Pump utilities, which aid in importing and exporting data and
metadata between databases[5 6 ]
 Database Resource Manager (DRM), which controls the use of
computing resources.[5 7 ]
 Fine-grained auditing (FGA) (in Oracle Enterprise Edition[ 5 8 ] )
supplements standard security-auditing features[ 5 9 ]
 Flashback for selective data recovery and reconstruction[6 0 ]
 iSQL*Plus, a web-browser-based graphical user interface (GUI)
for Oracle database data-manipulation (compare SQL*Plus)
 Oracle Data Access Components (ODAC), tools which consist of:[ 6 1 ]

43
 Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET)[6 2 ]
 Oracle Developer Tools (ODT) for Visual Studio
 Oracle Providers for ASP.NET
 Oracle Database Extensions for .NET
 Oracle Provider for OLE DB
 Oracle Objects for OLE
 Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server
 Oracle-managed files (OMF) -- a feature allowing automated
naming, creation and deletion of datafiles at the operating-system level.
 Recovery Manager (rman) for database
backup, restoration and recovery
 SQL*Plus, a program that allows users to interact with Oracle
database(s) via SQL and PL/SQL commands on a command-line.
Compare iSQL*Plus.
 Virtual Private Database [6 3 ] (VPD), an implementation of fine-
grained access control.[ 6 4 ]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.


Standalone tools
Users can develop applications in Java and PL/SQL using tools
such as Oracle JDeveloper, Oracle Forms, or Oracle
Reports. Oracle Corporation has started[cl a ri fi ca ti o n n e e d e d ] a drive
toward 'wizard'-driven environments with a view to enabling non-
programmers to produce simple data-driven applications.

Oracle SQL Developer, a free graphical tool for database


development, allows developers to browse database objects, run
SQL statements and SQL scripts, and edit and debug PL/SQL
statements. It incorporates standard and customized reporting.

Other databases marketed by Oracle Corporation


By acquiring other technology in the database field, Oracle
Corporation has taken over:

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 TimesTen, a memory-resident database that can cache transactions
and synchronize data with a centralized Oracle database server. It
functions as a real-time infrastructure software product intended for
the management of low-latency, high-volume data, of events and of
transactions.
 BerkeleyDB, a simple, high-performance, embedded database
 Oracle Rdb, a legacy relational database for
the OpenVMS operating system
 MySQL a relational database purchased as part of its immediate
previous owner, Sun Microsystems

Use

The Oracle RDBMS has had a reputation among novice users as


difficult to install on Linux systems.[ci ta t i o n n e e d e d ] Oracle Corporation
has packaged recent versions for several popular Linux
distributions in an attempt to minimize installation challenges
beyond the level of technical expertise required to install a
database server.[ci ta ti o n n e e d e d ]

Official support
Users who have Oracle support contracts can use
Oracle's MetaLink web site. MetaLink provides users of Oracle
Corporation products with a repository of reported problems,
diagnostic scripts and solutions. It also integrates with the
provision of support tools, patches and upgrades.

The Remote Diagnostic Agent or RDA[ 6 5 ] can operate as a


command-line diagnostic tool executing a script. The data
captured provides an overview of the Oracle Database
environment intended for diagnostic and trouble-shooting. Within
RDA, the HCVE (Health Check Validation Engine)[6 6 ] can verify
and isolate host system environmental issues that may affect the
performance of Oracle software.

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Database-related guidelines
Oracle Corporation also endorses certain practices and
conventions as enhancing the use of its database products. These
include:

 Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA), guidelines on


developing high-availability systems
 Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA), blueprints for mapping
Oracle-database objects to file-systems

Oracle Certification Program


Main article: Oracle Certification Program

The Oracle Certification Program, a professional


certification program, includes the administration of Oracle
Databases as one of its main certification paths. It contains three
levels:

1. Oracle Certified Associate (OCA)


2. Oracle Certified Professional (OCP)
3. Oracle Certified Master (OCM)

User groups
A variety of official (Oracle-sponsored) and unofficial Oracle User
Groups has grown up of users and developers of Oracle
databases. They include:

 Oracle Technology Network


 Independent Oracle Users Group
 Geographical/regional user groups
 Product-centric user groups
 Industry-centric user groups
 The Oak Table Network
 Usenet newsgroups

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Market position

Competition
In the market for relational databases, Oracle Database competes
against commercial products such as IBM's DB2 UDB
and Microsoft SQL Server. Oracle and IBM tend to battle for the
mid-range database market on UNIX and Linux platforms, while
Microsoft dominates the mid-range database market on Microsoft
Windows platforms. However, since they share many of the same
customers, Oracle and IBM tend to support each other's products
in many middleware and application categories (for
example: WebSphere, PeopleSoft, and Siebel SystemsCRM ), and
IBM's hardware divisions work closely[ci ta t i o n n e e d e d ] with Oracle on
performance-optimizing server-technologies (for example,Linux
on zSeries). The two companies have a relationship
perhaps[o ri g i n a l r e se a rch ? ] best described as "coopetition". Niche
commercial competitors include Teradata (in data warehousing
and business intelligence), Software AG's ADABAS, Sybase,
and IBM's Informix, among many others.

In 2007, competition with SAP AG occasioned litigation from


Oracle Corporation.[6 7 ]

Increasingly, the Oracle database products compete against


such open-source software relational database systems
as PostgreSQL,Firebird, and MySQL. Oracle
acquired Innobase, supplier of the InnoDB codebase to MySQL,
in part to compete better against open source alternatives, and
acquired Sun Microsystems, owner of MySQL, in 2010.
Database products licensed as open source are, by the legal
terms of the Open Source Definition, free to distribute and free
of royalty or other licensing fees.

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Pricing
Oracle Corporation offers term licensing for all Oracle products. It
bases the list price for a term-license on a specific percentage of
the perpetual license price.

Enterprise Edition
As of July 2010, the database that costs the most per machine-processor
among Oracle database editions, at $47,500 per processor.[6 8 ]
Standard Edition
Cheaper: it can run on up to four processors but has fewer features than
Enterprise Edition—it lacks proper parallelization,[ 6 9 ] etc; but remains quite
suitable for running medium-sized applications.
Standard ONE
Sells even more cheaply, but remains limited to two CPUs. Standard Edition
ONE sells on a per-seat basis with a five-user minimum. Oracle Corporation
usually sells the licenses with an extra 22% cost for support and upgrades
(access to MetaLink—Oracle Corporation's support site) which customers
need to renew annually.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Ask.com

• Wekipedia

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• Google

• http://trak.in/Tags/Business/cdma/

• http://www.neoncarrot.co.uk/h_aboutindia/india_telecom_stats.html

• http://www.knowindia.net/telecom.html

• http://www.trai.gov.in/annualreport/AReport2006-07English.pdf

• COAI (Cellular Operator Association of India)

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