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Contrast with other communication networks such as -  


 (- ),  


    
     
  



 
   that are usually limited to a room, building or campus respectively. Wide

Area Networks (WAN)s are supposed to provide communication solutions for organizations or people

who need to exchange information between two distant places e.g. within one country or between two

different countries. In fact, WANs are usually maintained by the public telecommunication companies

like British Telecom (BT, UK), AT&T (USA) etc. which offer different communication services to the

customers.

If we talk about the


 and   
within the  
 then we have so many

terms & technologies that came across during the maturity period of Wide Area Network (WAN).

Every one of them is based Firstly on what we have basic Wide Area Network (WAN) service?

Which usually offered by leased line? A leased line is a point-to-point connection between two places.

Implemented by different transmission media usually though Publish Switched Telephone Network

(PSTN) trunks, which create one link between its nodes. An organization whose networks are based

on such lines has to connect each office with one line, meaning that each office is connected to as

many lines as the number of offices it is connected to. The other types of emerging  

X

  are that we are going to discuss one by one in detail are as follows;

G‘ ATM

G‘ Frame Relay

G‘ SONET

Most of the Wide Area Networks (WAN) s are made for one particular organization and are private

and some others made by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Wide Area Network provides a

connections from an organization¶s Local Area Network to the internet. Wide Area Networks (WAN)s

are mostly made using leased lines and at each end of the leased line a router connects to the Local

Area Network (LAN) on one side and a hub within the Wide Area Network (WAN) on the other

router. Leased lines can be very expensive instead of using leased lines Wide Area Networks (WAN) s

can also be made using less costly circuit switching or packet switching methods and equipments.

Using network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions within Wide

Area Networks (WAN) s. Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM and Frame

relay are often used by Internet Service Providers (ISP) s to deliver the links that are used in Wide

Area Networks (WAN) s. Up until now networks that support business evolution have not delivered

the reliability and flexibility required for multi-site organizations. Issues such as time delay and the

need for ongoing application tuning and performance management all render past WAN solutions

insufficient for next-generation and mission critical business processes. Therefore networks that are

always available, never drop packets and deliver predictable, deterministic network responses are

needed to resolve these problems. This will enable enterprises to cost-effectively support new IT

initiatives for real-time and transaction-oriented application traffic over multiple sites as well as store

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data over large distances.

The three areas that will all have a significant impact on the inter-site/WAN traffic demands of the

enterprise are networked remote storage, distributed computing and IT asset virtualization. Enterprises

therefore require a new type of approach that a not only complement todays WAN, but accommodates

tomorrow¶s requirements both technically and economically. Enterprises need to move away from

multiple dedicated single-application networks to more flexible, adaptable network architecture. This

can be achieved in what Ciena calls an µAdaptive WAN¶.

Adaptive WAN is a network solution designed to provide businesses with the ability to support any

mix of applications between sites by providing all traffic with high performance, zero packet loss and

low fixed latency, regardless of where the data is sourced from ² a remote LAN-based server, a

SAN-based storage array, or a legacy mainframe. An Adaptive WAN does not attempt to priorities or

accelerate one form of traffic at the expense of another. Rather, it advocates a simpler approach by

leveraging highly-reliable, intelligently-switched transport-based networks to provide the throughput,

deterministic response times, security and high availability that mission critical applications and data

require.

As they are transparent to all applications, Adaptive WANs provide flexibility to support changing

application requirements. Intelligent Layer 1 and Layer 2 networks allow for application transparency

due to their ability to provide local LAN-like connectivity across the WAN. The solution provides

high bandwidth, high application availability, near zero packet loss and low determinist latencies

regardless of the load or application. All in all, the Adaptive WAN is a simpler, lower-cost solution

that supports the productivity needs of business user. The increase in usage of bandwidth-intensive

º
applications will always put pressure on the traditional WAN. However, as businesses experience

exponential traffic growth and increasingly operate across cities, countries or around the world, they

will need WANs that can provide high throughput with minimal latency. Employing an Adaptive

WAN strategy that accommodates these needs will enable businesses to meet the network

requirements of emerging technology applications over any given geography. It also means that

organizations can simultaneously solve three major network challenges: today¶s networked remote

storage, the near term proliferation of Web services and future multiple-site grid computing.

Adaptive WANs enable organizations to place their IT and storage assets anywhere at any time. As a

mission-critical solution to the multi-site organization, Adaptive WANs handle both TCP/IP and

storage protocols and minimize applications ³tuning´ ² a cost-cutter for most IT enterprises. With an

Adaptive WAN businesses can more quickly deploy new applications because it provides a highly-

reliable network with high bandwidth, deterministic end-user response and physical layer security,

which is an obvious competitive advantage for any business looking for a more effective

communications infrastructure and an increase in workforce productivity.‘



 
 (  is a computer network usually spanning a campus or a

city, which typically connect a few local area networks using high speed backbone technologies.

A MAN often provides efficient connections to a wide area network (WAN). There are three

important features which discriminate MANs from LANs or WANs:

1.‘ The network size falls intermediate between LANs and WANs. A MAN typically covers

an area of between 5 and 50 km range. Many MANs cover an area the size of a city,

although in some cases MANs may be as small as a group of buildings.

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2.‘ A MAN (like a WAN) is not generally owned by a single organization. The MAN, its

communications links and equipment are generally owned by either a consortium of users

or by a network service provider who sells the service to the users.

3.‘ A MAN often acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of regional resources. It is

also frequently used to provide a shared connection to other networks using a link to a

WAN.

MAN adopted technologies from both LAN and WAN to serve its purpose. Some legacy

technologies used for MAN are ATM, FDDI, DQDB and SMDS. These older technologies are in

the process of being displaced by Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. At the physical

level, MAN links between LANs have been built on fiber optical cables or using wireless

technologies such as microwave or radio.

The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) protocols are mostly at the data link level (layer 2 in

the OSI model ), which are defined by IEEE, ITU-T, etc. One example of a MAN is the MIND

Network located in Pasco County, Florida. It connects all of Pasco's media centers to a

centralized mainframe at the district office by using dedicated phone lines, coaxial cabling, and

wireless communications providers.

Most widely used technologies to develop a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) network are FDDI

(fiber distribution data interface),  (  ) and SMDS (switched multi

megabit data service). (  ) is the most frequently used of all. ATM

(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a digital data transfer technology. It was developed in 1980 to

improve the transportation of real time data over a single network. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer

c
Mode) works just like cell relay system, where data is separated in the form of fixed equal sized

packets and is transferred overtime. The purpose of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) was to

access clear audio and video results during a video conferencing. The attributes of ATM has enabled it

to become a base of wide area data networking.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) combines the characteristics of circuit switching and packet

switching, which allows it to transfer even the real time data. [! is a standard for data transfer over

LAN, which can be extended to the range of approximately 200kms. [! can help support the data

transmission of many thousand users. This is the reason why it is referred to as the MAN

(Metropolitan Area Network) technology. [! uses optical fiber for its basic infrastructure that is

why it is referred to as fiber distribution data interface. When data is transferred through a

connectionless service we use the technology named as "". Connectionless service implies that

data is transferred by storing the information in the header and it reaches its destination independently

through any network. When the data is transferred using the technology of "", it also forms small

data packets just like in ATM. However "" allows the transmission of data over large

geographical areas in the form of datagram¶s (the data packets of an unreliable data service provider).

Nowadays MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) links are established using infrared and microwave

signals. Having small networks compounded into a large network such as in MAN provides security

for the communication shared in between the networks.

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