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3/23/2011

A Seminar On

Light Weight Concrete

By:
V. S. C. Mourya
(Y7CE226)

What is light weight concrete?


 Light weight concrete (LCM) is the one which
has less weight than the normal ordinary
concrete.

 It has density of 300 to 2000 kg/m3

 It can be prepared at the site as ordinary


concrete but the coarse aggregate or fine
aggregate is replaced by light weight materials.

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 In some construction coarse aggregate replaced


with the foam.

 This foam has no chemical action in concrete.

 It only serves as a temporary wrapping material


for the air bubbles till cement mortar develops
its own final set and strength.

 In some constructions aggregate is replaced with


the pumice aggregate.

 This is known as the lightweight volcanic


pumice concrete (VPC).

 VPC shows better residual strength and strength


retaining capacity compared with NC after
exposure to elevated temperatures for different
durations.

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 In some constructions in Malaysia, they made


the concrete with the oil palm shells as
aggregate.

 It solves the problem of the disposing the solid


waste and saves the natural resources.

 It was observed that beams with low


reinforcement ratios satisfied all the
serviceability requirements as per BS 8110.

 In some areas cement or fine aggregate is replaced with


the fly ash.

 Different types of aggregate and their density (Spratt et


al. 1980)

Aggregate type Density (lb/ft³)


 Normal weight aggregate 85-100
 Sintered PFA 48-65
 Brick rubble 47-70
 Scoria 45-81

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 Volcanic slag 44-75


 Furnace clinker and breeze 45-65
 Expanded slag 44-61
 Foamed slag 30-960
 Pumice 30-55
 Expanded slate 29-50
 Sintered diatomite 28-50
 Expanded shale and clay 20-60
 Wood shavings and sawdust 20-30
 Exfoliated vermiculite 04-10
 Expanded perlite 03-15

OPS Concrete
 OPS is hard in nature and does not deteriorate easily
once bound in concrete and therefore, it does not
contaminate or leach to produce toxic substances.

 The bulk density of OPS is about 500 to 600 kg/m3,


producing concretes of about 1900 kg/m3 in density,
which makes them lightweight.

 OPS to be used as coarse aggregate in the production of


structural lightweight concrete especially for the
construction of low cost houses.

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 OPS concrete beams showed good ductility behavior.

 The crack widths at service loads ranged between 0.22


mm to 0.27 mm and this was within the maximum
allowable value as stipulated by BS 8110 for durability
requirements.

 It has been found that OPS concrete easily attains the


strength of more than 17 MPa, which is a requirement
for structural lightweight concrete as per ASTM C330.

Properties of OPS aggregate and Granite Aggregate

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Cement = 510 kg/m3


sand (FA) = 838 kg/m3
OPS = 308 kg/m3
w/c ratio = 0.38

Beams were casted with above mix and tested then results
as follows

Properties of OPS Concrete


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Foam concrete
 It is the concrete having mortar and foam
instead of the Coarse aggregate.

 It has the tendency of the free flowing due to


absence of the coarse aggregate.

 The high stability of LCM Foam prevents a loss


of volume during mixing, conveying (even
pumping), pouring or during hardening process.

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 The curing of this concrete is as normal as it can


be.

 The density would naturally depend on the


extent of foam injected in the slurry.

 Foaming Generator enables accurate dozing of


foam, thereby enabling production of wide
range of controlled densities from 300 kg/cu.m
to 1,800 kg/cu.m.

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 The water absorption of LCM is also very low.


It is in the range of 6.5% to 14% depending on
the density.

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Uses of Foam concrete


 ROOFING INSULATION - Low-density
lightweight concrete has great thermal insulation
properties

 TRENCH REINSTATEMENT - Lightweight


concrete doesn't settle, requires no compaction
and has excellent load spreading.

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 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (panels,


blocks, partitions, etc.) - Lightweight concrete
density and therefore strength is adjustable
during production and can be adjusted to the
customer's choice of form and size.

 VOID FILLING - Lightweight concrete is very


fluid and will fill every void, even in the most
inaccessible areas. Can be applied through a
very small opening

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 ROAD SUB-BASE - Lightweight concrete used


in such purposes, prevents the road from
subsiding into the soft earth it was built on.

 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION - Lightweight


concrete levels, raises, isolates, speeds up and
reduces the cost of making floors.

 FIRE BREAKS - Lightweight concrete is


inflammable and therefore prevents fire from
spreading when used to fill spaces between floors
and ceilings.

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Conclusions
 Density of light weight concrete is varies from 300 –
2000 Kg/Cu.m

 Coarse or fine aggregate are replaced with light weight


materials based on the required density of concrete.

 Beams with OPS is tested and results were given. It


shows acceptable strength.

 Uses of foam concrete was discussed.

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References
 Technical report “Flexural Behavior of Reinforced
Lightweight Concrete Beams Made with Oil Palm
Shell (OPS)” Delsye C. L. Teo, Md. Abdul Mannan
and John V. Kurian
 www.nrmca.org/aboutconcrete/cips/36p.pdf
 MBTC-2089 By Sreeram C. Marisetty Eric D. Bailey W.
Micah Hale Ernest P. Heymsfield
 “ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL
LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE” Kenneth S. Harmon, PE
Carolina Stalite Company – United States
 www.greenhomebuilding.com/pumicecrete.htm
 www.ebrindia.com/

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THANK YOU

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