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18 Indoor sports facilities

CI/SfB: 541, 562


Peter Ackroyd and Gerald Perrin UDC: 725.74, 725.85
Uniclass: F541, F562

KEY POINTS: activities in sections 3–5 and even some of those in section 6 can
• Because of the British climate, more and more indoor facilities
for sport are needed
take place in a suitable sports hall. However, the demand for time
in sports halls is so great that those activities that can be carried on
• Encouraging everyone to learn and enjoy swimming is a priority in less expensive accommodation tend to be confined to projectile
• Provision divides into leisure and competitive facilities halls and ancillary halls. In this section, information about the
activities will be found under the most appropriate space.
Contents
1 Introduction
2 Sports centres
3 Sports halls
4 Ancillary halls
5 Projectile halls
6 Special spaces
7 Types of swimming pool: competition, learner, training and
diving pools
8 Water activities
9 Leisure pools and water features
10 Movable floor pools
11 Pool details and lane markings
12 Changing provision
13 Provision for disabled people
14 Pool capacity analysis
15 Bibliography

1 INTRODUCTION
Indoor sporting activity can be competitive, recreational or for
training purposes. Most facilities are designed to cater for all
three, and are either general-purpose spaces such as sports halls
or special to one activity or range of activities, such as a swimming 18.1 Space and circulation diagram of a large wet and dry sports
pool, squash court or ice rink. The different sports and activities centre
will be found in alphabetical order in sections 3–6: whichever is
appropriate. Swimming is covered in sections 7–14. Outdoor activ-
ities are covered in Chapter 20 of this Handbook.
In this chapter, the information given about each activity will
generally be confined to the required overall sizes at the various
recognised levels:
N – international and national competition
C – county and club competition and
R – recreational.
For further information, such as detailed dimensions, equipment,
environmental installations, etc. refer to the Handbook of Sports
and Recreational Building Design.

2 SPORTS CENTRES
Some sports centres are large complexes encompassing wet and
dry sports. 18.1 shows the possible elements of such a complex,
some of which are omitted in smaller centres. 18.2 is a plan of a
large centre. The essential elements of a small dry sports centre are
shown in 18.3, and a plan of a centre in 18.4.

3 SPORTS HALLS
3.01 Use of facilities
Sports halls are general-purpose spaces intended to cater for a great
variety of activities. Some of these can take place simultaneously, 18.2 Dunstable leisure centre: a leisure pool and dry facilities on
but others need exclusive use for a time. In general, all the a school site
18-1
18-2 Indoor sports facilities

3.02 Sizes
Only the largest of halls will satisfy all required standards of play
for all indoor sports, and therefore it will be necessary to decide on
upon the range of sports and levels before determining the floor
area. Table I shows what can be accommodated in the various
standard sizes of hall.
The same floor area may provide for international standard in
one or two sports and at the same time offer a wide variety of other
activities at a lower standard. Typical arrangements are shown in
18.5–18.18.

3.03 Height
The height of the underside of the roof structure, or the ceiling if
there is one, above the floor is specified by each sport’s governing
body, and this is a critical design factor. Badminton, tennis and
trampolining require an unrestricted height of 9.1 m for interna-
tional competition, while 7.6 m is necessary at C level in all sports
except those for which height is not critical. However, a height
greater than justified by the intended use will increase running
costs in heating, lighting and maintenance.

3.04 Construction
The construction and fabric of the hall should be such as to mini-
mise damage, both accidental and from vandalism. Sports halls
18.3 Main elements of a dry sports centre should only be naturally lit from above; any form of vertical
glazing will produce some glare.

3.05 Activities
The sizes required for various activities in the sports hall are shown
in 18.19–18.32 (scale 1:500).

4 ANCILLARY HALLS
To economise in the use of the large sports halls, larger centres
have practice halls suitable for some smaller-scale activities. The
two suggested sizes are:

• 1521–24
 12  3.5–4.5 m
•  12  4.5 m with a divider.
Sizes for various activities in this type of hall are given in 18.33–
18.40 (scale 1:500). For yoga, each person will lie on the floor on a
mat or blanket and will ideally need a clear area of 2.5 m diameter.

5 PROJECTILE HALLS
18.41–18.43 show plans and sections of a range of projectile
rooms, and Table II shows which sports can be covered by them.
The spaces required are given in 18.44–18.48 (scale 1:500).
Where the projectile room is to be used for firearms shooting,
the construction must be to safety standards and robust enough to
withstand the use. It may be found that this use will severely
restrict the projectile hall’s use for other activities.

6 SPECIAL SPACES
There are a number of activities that need spaces permanently and
exclusively reserved for them. This may be due to the weight or
size of the equipment, such as billiards/snooker, or because the
playing area is closely defined, such as squash or real tennis. For
some of these, semi-portable equipment is now being produced,
but these are generally designed for special occasions such as
18.4 Harpenden, a small compactly designed centre. The social national championships. The critical sizes for these special spaces
areas have been positioned to take advantage of the parkland site. are given in 18.49–18.59 (scale 1:500 except where shown
a First floor. b Ground floor otherwise).
Table I Definition of sizes: maximum number of courts related to standards of play

Large hallfr Medium hallsfr Small halls Community halls

36.5  32 32  26 29  26 32  23 32  17 29.5  16.5 26  16.5 22.5  16.5 17.0–20.0  15.6  17.0–8.5


 9.1 m  7.6–9.1 m  7.6–9.1 m  7.6–9.1 m  6.7–7.6 m  6.7–7.6 m  6.7–7.6 m  6.7–7.6 m 6.7 m  6.7 m
1168 m2 832 m2 754 m2 736 m2 544 m2 486.75 m2 429 m2 371.25 m2 265.2–321 m2 144.5 m2

No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard

Aikido 4 N 4 N 4 N 2 C 2 N 2 N 2 N 1 N 1 N – –
6 C þ3() R 3(1) R 2 R

Archery (length 30 m
 s s
of shoot) 25 m 25 m 25m 25m
18 m 18 m 18 m 18 m 18 m 18 m 18 m 18 m
20 yd 20 yd 20 yd 20 yd 20 yd 20 yd 15 yd 15 yd
– – – –
Badminton 8 N 5 N 3/4 NC 4 N1 4 C 3 C 3 C 3 R 2 R1 1 R1
6(2) R 4 R 6 R 4 R
Basketball 2 N 1 N 1 N 1 N 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 R 1 Mini BB – –
2 C/R 2 R 1 Mini BB
Bowls (portable 7 R 5 R 5 R 4 R 3 R 3 R – – – – – – – –
non–competitive
rinks)
Boxing (training 9 N 6 N 4 N 6 N 3 C 3 C 2 C 2 C 2 C 2 R
rings) 12 R 12 R 9 R 8 R 6 R 5 R 5 R 4 R 4 R – –
Cricket six–a-side 1 N 1 C – – 1 C 1 R – – – – – – – – – –
pitches ns 2 C
Cricket nets 8 N 6 N 6 C 5 N 4 C 4 C 4 R – – – – – –
Fencing (pistes) 12 N 8(3) N 7 N 6 N 3/4 N/C 3/4 N/C 3/4 N/C 3 N 3 C 2 R
14 C 9 C 8 C 8 C 2/3 R þ2 R þ1 R 4 C
Five-a-side football 1 N 1 C 1 R 1 C 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R – –
2 R 2 R
Gymnastics – N – C – P – C – P – P – P – P – P – –
(Olympic)
  
Handball 1 N 1 C 1 R 1 C 1 R 1 R – – – – – – – –
Mini handball 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 R 1 R

Hockey 1 C 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R – – – –
Judo 4 N 2 N 1 N 2 N 2 N 1 N 1 N 1 N 1/2 R
6 R 4 C 4 C 4 R 3 R 2 C 2 R 2 R – – – –
Karate 4 N 2/4 N/C 2 N 2 N 2 N 2 N/C 1/2 N/C 1 N 1 N 2 R
12 R 6 R 4/6 C/R 6 R 6 R 3 R 3 R 2 R 2 R – –
Keep fit; Movement ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü
and dance; Yoga, ns
Kendo 4 N 2 N 2 N 2 N 2 N 2 N 1 N 1 N 1 R – –
6 R 4 C 4 C 4 R 2 C 2 C 2 R – –

(Continued)
Table I (Continued)

Large hallfr Medium hallsfr Small halls Community halls

36.5  32 32  26 29  26 32  23 32  17 29.5  16.5 26  16.5 22.5  16.5 17.0–20.0  15.6  17.0–8.5


 9.1 m  7.6–9.1 m  7.6–9.1 m  7.6–9.1 m  6.7–7.6 m  6.7–7.6 m  6.7–7.6 m  6.7–7.6 m 6.7 m  6.7 m
1168 m2 832 m2 754 m2 736 m2 544 m2 486.75 m2 429 m2 371.25 m2 265.2–321 m2 144.5 m2

No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard No. Standard

  
Lacrosse F 1 N 1 C 1 R 1 C 1 C 1 R – P – P – – – –
Lawn tennis 1 N 1 R – – 1 R 1 R – – – – – – – – – –
2 R
Micro korfball 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 R – – – – – – – – – –
Netball 1 N 1 R – – 1 R 1 R – – – – – – – – – –
2 C/R
Table tennisc/c 10 N 6 N 6 N 6 N 7/9 C/C 7 C/C 6/7 C/C 4 C/C 3–6 C/C 4 R
15/21 C/C 10/15 C/C 10/12 C/C 10/12 C/C 14 R 12 R 10 R 8 R 6-8 R
Trampolining 12 N 8 N 8 N 4 N 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 R 2 R 1 R
12 R 8 C/R 6 R
Tug of war – N – C – R – C – C – R – – – – – – – –
Volleyball 2 N 1 N 1 N 2 N /C 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 R – –
2 C
3 R 3 R 2 R 2 R
Weight lifting – N – N – N – N C – C – C – C – C – – –
contests
Wrestling 4 N 2 N 6 C 2 N 2 N 3 C 2 C 2 C 2 C 2 R
12 C 6 C 6 C 3 C 8 R 6 R 6 R 4 R – –

Key
N National/international standard
C County/club standard
R Recreational standard
P Practice area only
c/c For table tennis there are two grades of minimum space allowances for inter-county/inter-club standards of play
fr Fire regulations and maximum compartment volumes should be checked. Halls of 7000 m3 or over need a DOE waiver, ‘Volume’ can include an unenclosed structural roof spaces ns No standards have yet been laid down
S Area behind shooting line is below safety standard recommended. Acceptable space can be provided with a slight lengthening of the hall; or existing spaces may be used for practice purposes

Below minimum space standard recommended by the governing body concerned, but capable of providing purposeful and enjoyable activity

Recreational standard where the hall is less than 7.6 m clear height for badminton and trampolining, or less than 7.0 m for basketball and volleyball 6.7 m height is suitable for mini basketball and mini volleyball

County/club standard where the hall is less than 9.0 m clear height
Indoor sports facilities 18-5

18.7 Alternative arrangements for large sports halls

18.5 Alternative arrangements for large sports halls

18.8 Alternative arrangements for medium-size halls

18.6 Alternative arrangements for large sports halls 18.9 Alternative arrangements for medium-size halls
18-6 Indoor sports facilities

18.13 Alternative arrangements for medium-size halls


18.10 Alternative arrangements for medium-size halls

18.11 Alternative arrangements for medium-size halls 18.14 For small halls

18.12 Alternative arrangements for medium-size halls 18.15 For small halls
Indoor sports facilities 18-7

18.16 For small halls

18.17 Wycombe sports centre: plan of court markings and equipment fixings in sports hall
18-8 Indoor sports facilities

18.18 Tamworth sports centre: plan of court markings and equipment fixings

18.19 Badminton, a doubles court for all standards of play. Where


courts are placed side by side, tournaments are held with seating
and play on alternate courts. Heights lower than 7.6 m are
discouraged by the Badminton Association of England

18.21 Five-a-side football. This needs rebound walls all round to


about a height of 2 m, but can be adapted to the available space. In
a medium-size sports hall 18.10, the playing area is the size of the
hall. At a recreational level the game may be played in a small size
hall, about 30  15 m being regarded as a reasonable minimum.
Depending on age and sizes of players, their numbers on the pitch
could be reduced as necessary for satisfaction. This game can also
18.20 Basketball. At a recreational level, this game can be played be played out of doors, but difficulties may be experienced in
in a school gymnasium 21.3  12.2 m installing suitably robust rebound walls
Indoor sports facilities 18-9

18.25 Hockey. Team sizes are adjusted according to the size of the
available pitch. Side boards should be provided 100  100 mm
with a 20 mm inward tilt

18.22 Men’s gymnastics. See 18.54 for special practice spaces

18.26 Korfball. In halls of smaller dimensions, allow for full safety


margins, keep pitch width about 18–20 m, and maximum possible
length up to 40 m

18.23 Women’s gymnastics. See 18.54

18.24 Handball, seven-a-side 18.27 Netball


18-10 Indoor sports facilities

18.28 Pop Lacrosse. This has superseded indoor women’s


lacrosse. It can also be played out of doors, when there is no
boundary. The size approximates to four badminton courts, and
could be played on a five-a-side football pitch. For further details, 18.30 Trampoline. The ‘bed’ is 0.95–1.05 m above the ground.
refer to the English Lacrosse Union, Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancs, or Synchronised competitions must be parallel to each other and 2 m
the All England Women’s Lacrosse Association, Birmingham apart. Note etxended length of end frame units from that previously
published

18.31 Tug-of-war

18.32 Volleyball

18.29 Tennis 18.33 Aikido


Indoor sports facilities 18-11

18.34 Boxing. A ring for recreational purposes may be only 3.6 m


square. For competitions, in addition to the ring and spectator
accommodation the following are needed:

• Medical examination room 18.39 Table tennis. See Table III for overall dimensions. The table
• Gloving-uproom
Weighing is 0.76 m high, and normally requires a space 1.4  1.6  0.5 m for
• Administrative
room storage. When in use, each table requires individual lighting
• Lighting above facilities
• Water supply totheeachring‘corner’

18.35 Fencing pistes

18.40 Wrestling

18.36 Judo

18.41 Small projectile hall: a. Section. b. Plan

18.37 Karate. Regional competitions require three international


size combat areas

18.38 Kendo 18.42 Medium-Projectile hall: a. Section. b. Plan


18-12 Indoor sports facilities

7 TYPES OF SWIMMING POOL: COMPETITION,


LEARNER, TRAINING AND DIVING POOLS
7.01
There has been a general trend away from pools designed specifi-
cally for competition and diving towards shallow water, free-form
‘fun’ pools with many features including water rides. The intro-
duction of compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) has further
increased the emphasis on income-producing dryside provision, in
the form of fitness rooms, health and beauty suites, sunbeds, saunas
and steam rooms. This dryside space around the fun pool is often
themed to represent ‘tropical paradises’ where dense planting
provides the backcloth for steel bands, travel agencies, and pool-
side refreshments. Indoor/outdoor pools – often seen in European
countries – are becoming popular.
Demand for serious swimming facilities in the meantime has
reappeared in the form of 25 m pools with six or eight lanes, 18.60.
18.43 Large projectile hall: a. Section. b. Plan Many older 33.33 m pools have been converted into combined

Table II Projectile halls

Large Medium Small


30.3  12.8  4.6 30.3  9.75  3.6–4.6 30.3  5.3  3.6

Air rifle 12 firing points 8 firing points 4 firing points


Archery 3 details  6 archers 3 targets 3 details of 4 archers range 18 m 2 details of 4 archers
Bowls 2/4.5  27 m roll-up rinks (if no shooting) 1 roll-up rink (if no shooting) 1 rink
Cricket 3 nets 6-a-side cricket 2 nets 1 net
Fencing 1 piste 4 practice pistes 1 piste 1 piste
Golf practice 4 ranges 3 ranges 1 range
Pistol shooting 7 firing points 10 with side screens 5 firing points 3 firing points
Rifle shooting 12 firing points ranges 25 m, 25 yd, 15 yd 9 firing points 4 firing points
Table squash 15 tables 8 tables 4 tables
Table tennis 15 tables 8 tables 4 tables

Table III Dimensions for table tennis playing space (m)

Standard of play L W Ceiling height Clear height below lights

International matches 14.0 7.0 4.20 4.05


Inter-league and inter-county matches 11.0–14.0 min 5.50–7.0 min 4.20 4.05
Practice and inter-club matches 10.0 5.0 4.20 4.05
Tournaments (more than one table) 8.0 5.0 4.20 4.05
Recreational play 7.6 4.6 – 2.7

Table IV Dimensions for indoor athletics tracks (m)

Lap length Length of Length of Radius of Overall length (L1) Overall width (W) Space for sprint
straight (s) bend (B) bend (R)y straight (L2)
6-track 4-track 6-track 4-track

200 35z 65 20.49 88 84 53 49 75.98


50 50 15.716 93.44 89.44 43.44 39.44 81.44
52.25 47.75 15.0 94.25 90.25 42 38 82.25
65 35z 10.94 98.88 94.88 33.88 29.88 86.88
160 35z 45 14.124 75.25 71.25 40.25 36.25 63.25
40 40 12.532 77.06 73.06 37.06 33.06 65.06
45 35z 10.941 78.88 74.88 33.88 29.88 66.88

Measured 200 mm from inside of outer white line around flat-edged track, or 300 mm inside a raised border or edge framework
y
Nett radius allowing for 200 mm deduction. The smaller the radius, the greater the inclination of the banking, 10 –18 max
z
A European Athletic Association regulation minimum dimension
Indoor sports facilities 18-13

18.49 Athletics: requirements for straight sprint

18.44 Archery. International and national shoots require ranges


of 30, 25 and 18 m, and of 20 yards (18.288 m). For club and
recreational shoots 15 yards (13.716 m) will do, but 30 m is
preferred for competition practice. Archers stand no closer
together than 1.25 m when on the shooting line, with two or three to
each target. The minimum ceiling height is 3 m. Where there is no
public access the distance between the side wall and the first target
should be at least 1.2 m. Where spectator accommodation is
required, advice should be sought from the Grand National
Archery Society. Storage is required for straw bosses and stands,
preferably at the target end; and lockable storage for portable bow
racks and tackle boxes 18.50 Athletics: indoor tracks 200 and 160 m laps, with straight
sprint in centre. See Table IV for dimensions. It is no longer
considered satisfactory to fit a running track inside the cycle track
in 18.53. If spectator accommodation is needed around the track, a
building of considerable clear span is necessary as supports in the
central area are not acceptable

18.45 Bowling. A single rink in a projectile hall. See also 18.52

18.46 Cricket practice nets. For the six-a-side game (not illustrated)
the playing area is 30.4–36.5  18.9–30.4  6.1–7.6 m high
18.51 Billiards and snooker. The agreed international size, due to
become mandatory in 2025, of 3.5  1.75 m measured inside the
cushions, has had little acceptance, even in major competitions

18.47 Golf practice

18.48 Shooting range, small-bore target. For rifle shooting,


ranges at 25 m, 25 yards and 15 yards are required at minimum
1.05 m centres. Pistols (where permitted) use 25 m and 25 yards at 18.52 Bowling. Four rinks are the minimum for recreation, six are
1.8 m centres, or 1.15 m with side screens: a. Section. b. Plan required for tournaments
18-14 Indoor sports facilities

18.53 Cycling, 250 m track. This is relatively steeply banked. The 333 1/3 m track [24.48] can be used internally

18.56 Rackets, or racquets: a. Section. b. Plan

18.57 Real (or royal) tennis. The dimensions are those at Hampton
Court which is reputed to be the widest and among the longest
18.54 Gymnastics practice: training hall at Lilleshall Hall NSC:
a. Cross-section. b. Plan

18.55 Ice hockey. Rinks are usually sized to accommodate the


‘pad’; this should be surrounded by a 1.2 m high barrier 18.58 Rugby fives: a. Section. b. Plan
Indoor sports facilities 18-15

7.02 Dimensions for competition pools


Dimensions of these pools, are strictly laid down by major govern-
ing bodies for swimming (FINA – international: ASA for UK).
Changes are made from time to time and it is advisable to seek
up-to-date information from the relevant authorities.

7.03 Competition pools


Competition pools are based upon long-course 50 m, 18.64, or
short-course 25 m, 18.65 requirements. Long-course pools have a
minimum width of 21 m or 25 m for Olympic competition. The
18.59 Squash. All dimensions are highly critical and are to minimum depth of water may be 1 m, although 1.2 m is preferred in
internal finished surfaces, which are plastered to a special 21 m wide pools. Olympic standard pools require a minimum depth
specification: a. Section. b. Plan of 1.8 m.

competition and learner pools by means of causeways at the 25 m 7.04 Short-course pools
mark, 18.61. Hybrid pools with 25 m training lanes down the centre Short-course, 25 m, pools should have a width of 13 m for six-lane
and free-form sides are becoming increasingly common, 18.62. competition, or 17 m for eight-lane competition. Minimum water
Another leisure pool is shown in 18.63. depth should be 0.9–1 m (preferably 1.2 m following recent court
The refurbishment of old Edwardian pools and buildings of simi- findings relating to accidents in shallow water pools). Maximum
lar vintage (corn exchanges, sawmills, etc.) has increased the present depth may be 1.8–2 m. These pools are suitable for ASA National,
stock of good pools considerably, especially in the UK and Holland. District and County standard competitions.

18.60 25 m pool complex


18-16 Indoor sports facilities

7.05 Training pools


Training pools of 25 m length may have four or five lanes (9 and
11 m wide). Depths should be as for short-course pools. In both
cases, the last 6 m of the deep end should be level.

7.06 Learner pools


Learner pools for beginners and non-swimmers, 18.66, should
preferably be separated from the main pool far safety reasons and
in order to maintain higher air and water temperatures. Steps along
one side form part of the water-acclimatisation process especially
for the young. Ramps are sometimes included for disabled non-
ambulant users, although with level deck pools these have become
largely unnecessary. Handrails should be provided where steps
lead down into the water.
Dimensions are based upon class size down one long side
(classes are of 30–35 pupils on average), with the width allowing
18.61 Plan of 33 1/3þ metre pool, showing use as 25 metre pool plus beginners to take at least three or four strokes before reaching the
learner pool side. Common dimensions are length 12–13 m, width 7–10 m and
depth 0.7 m at the foot of steps to 0.9–1.2 m at the deep end.

7.07 Pools for the very young (two months old)


These are frequently provided separately, 18.67, to acclimatise
children to water accompanied by parents. Shallow water, seat/
steps, and water features such as slides and play furniture make up
the main characteristics of these pools. There are no fixed dimen-
sions or shapes.

7.08 Hydrotherapy pools


These are commonly seen throughout Europe, particularly in
Germany and Austria, for the elderly or infirm, 18.68. The water
is heavily salinated to assist swimming and healing. The increasing
number of sports injuries clinics now appearing in the UK suggests
a wider role for this type of pool.

7.09 Diving pools


Diving pools attached to main competition pools have been super-
seded by specialist diving facilities in separate self-contained
spaces where diving can be carried on without interruption. The
18.62 Hybrid pool minimum distance to other pools should be 5 m. The minimum
requirements for a diving pool are given in 18.69 and Table V.
Olympic or international standard competition diving requires
more rigorous standards, 18.70, and associated specialist facilities
such as sprays to ripple the water surface and lifts to the higher
diving boards. The FINA/ASA standards for these are shown in
18.71 and Table VI. An example of this type is shown in 18.72.
National training status requires length 30 m, width 25 m and
depths as Table V.
All dimensions should be checked with the relevant authorities
as they may be amended from time to time.

8 WATER ACTIVITIES
A number of activities are currently associated with deep water in
hybrid or competition pools.

8.01 Water polo


Water depth at Olympic standard should be not less than 1.8 m, and
for lesser play, 1.2 m. The fields of play are:

• Olympic standard 30  20 m
• Club standard 25  10 m.
The standards are shown in 18.73. However, the game can be
played as a recreation in a standard pool, 18.74. The field is marked
above water level at the pool sides. Space should be accessible for
18.63 Plan of a leisure pool the free movement of the referee and goal judges at goal lines.
Indoor sports facilities 18-17

18.64 Plan of 50 m pool

a Plan b Longitudinal section

18.65 25 m pool

a Plan

b Section
18.66 Learner pool

a Plan

b Section through pool


18.67 Plan of toddlers’ pool 18.68 Hydrotherapy pool complex
18-18 Indoor sports facilities

a Plan b Section
18.69 Diving pool (see Table V for dimensions)

Table V Minimum dimensions in metres for diving boards

Type of board Spring Spring Fixed Fixed Fixed


A Board height 1.0 3.0 5.0 7.5 10.0
B Clearance forward 7.5 9.0 10.25 11.0 13.5
C Clearance to sides 2.5 3.5 3.8 4.5 4.5
D Clearance behind 1.5 1.5 1.25 1.5 1.5
E Centre of adjoining board 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
F Clearance overhead 4.6 4.6 3.0 3.2 3.4
G Depth of water 3.0 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.5
H Depth maintained forward 5.3 6.0 6.0 8.0 10.5
J Depth maintained to sides 2.2 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.0
K Board length 4.8 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.0
M Board width 0.5 0.5 2.0 2.0 2.0
N Clearance forwards overhead 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 6.0
P Clearance sides and behind 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75
Overhead

The 7.5 m board is mainly used for training.
A tolerance of 0.1 is permissible on board height, relate all dimensions to front edge centre of each board.

b Elevation from pool

a Plan c Side elevation and pool cross-section

18.70 Olympic regulations diving platform assembly and pool


Indoor sports facilities 18-19

a Side view b Frontal view


18.71 FINA/ASA dimensions for diving facilities (see Table VI)

8.02 Synchronised swimming • Waterfall


This has become progressively popular over recent years and is • Rapids/wild water, jungle river, lazy river/indoor–outdoor rides
now performed up to Olympic standard. Water should be not less • Jacuzzi spa bath
Whirlpool
than 1.8–2 m. Provision should be made for underwater windows, • Plume/water rides
lighting and sound for coaching purposes. • Slides
• Lagoons with Jacuzzi rest ledges
8.03 Sub-aqua diving • Underwater lighting and sound.
Water should be not less than 1.5–2 m in depth with a high degree •
of clarity. Other requirements are:
9.02 Dryside facilities
• Water depths up to 5.5 m for pressure valuation experience
Dryside facilities usually associated with the above may include:
• Compressor room of approximately 15 m 2

• Club room, 18.75, for approximately 50 people • Health and fitness suites plus separate changing, toilets and
• drained
Storage space for equipment of approximately 15 m, well showers
• Beauty salon – massage, aromatherapy, manicure, hair
• rooms, club room, compressor store, equipment shop, separate Rapid-tan sunbeds
Specialist rooms for advanced training including seminar treatment
• Sauna, steam cabins
changing rooms and an office •
pool ranging in depth from 1.5 to 5 m, with a diving • Platform for concerts, receptions, fashion shows, steel bands
• Snorkelling
pit 7 m deep and • Lighting to match
• Access to the pool using suitable ladders, 18.76. • Creche, meetings(Turkish,
Themed baths Roman, Japanese, Scandinavian)
Details from the British Sub-Aqua Club. • room
• First-aid room
• Landscape store
Equipment
9 LEISURE POOLS AND WATER FEATURES • setting features normally themed to represent a tropical
9.01 Fun pools • Food and drinks points
Fun pools, 18.77, with irregularly shaped sides and a considerable • Administration/supervision/control points
amount of shallow water space approximately 350–400 m in area, • Travel agency/displays.
2

may have combinations of the following features:

• Wave-making machinery, 18.78 9.03 Hybrid pools


• Water cannons These, 18.62, are similar to leisure pools, but have a central area
• Underwater massage jets 25 m in length marked out with four or six training lanes for serious
Table VI FIN A/ASA dimensions for diving facilities (see 22.71)

Springboard Platform

1 metre 3 metre 1 metre 3 metre 5 metre 7.5 metre 10 metre


Length 4.80 4.80 5.00 5.00 6.00 6.00 6.00
Width 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.60 min 1.50 pref. 1.50 1.50 2.00
Height 1.00 3.00 0.60–1.00 2.60–3.00 5.00 7.50 10.00

Horiz. Vert. Horiz. Vert. Horiz. Vert. Horiz. Vert. Horiz. Vert. Horiz. Vert. Horiz. Vert.

A From plummet back to pool wall Designation A–1 A–3 A–1 pl A–3 pl A–5 A–7.5 A–10
minimum 1.50 1.50 0.75 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.50
preferred 1.80 1.80 0.75 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.50
A/A From plummet back to platform Designation A/AS/1 A/A/.5/3.1 a/A10/5, 3, 1
plummet directly below minimum 0.75 0.75 0.75
preferred 1.25 1.25 1.25
B From plummet to pool wall at side Designation B–1 B–3 B–1 pl B–3 pl B–5 B–7.5 B–10
minimum 2.50 3.50 2.30 2.80 3.25 4.25 5.25
preferred 2.50 3.50 2.30 2.90 3.75 4.50 5.25
C From plummet to adjacent Designation C1–1 C3–3, 3-1 C 1–1 pl C 3–3 pl, 1 pl C 5–3, 5-1 C 7.5–5, 3, 1 C 10–7.5, 5, 3, 1
plummet minimum 2.00 2.20 1.65 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75
preferred 2.40 2.60 1.95 2.10 2.50 2.50 2.75
D From plummet to pool wall ahead Designation D–1 D–3 D–1 pl D–3 pl D–5 D–7.5 D–10
minimum 9.00 10.25 8.00 9.50 10.25 11.00 13.50
preferred 9.00 10.25 8.00 9.50 10.25 11.00 12.50
E From plummet to board to ceiling Designation E–1 E–3 E–1 pl E–3 pl E–5 E–7.5 E–10
minimum 5.00 5.00 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 4.00
preferred 5.00 5.00 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 5.00
F Clear overhead behind and each Designation F–1 E–1 F–3 E–3 F–1 pl E–1 pl F–3 pl E–3 pl F–5 E–5 F–7.5 E–7.5 F–10 E–10
side of plummet minimum 2.50 5.00 2.50 5.00 2.75 3.25 2.75 3.25 2.75 3.25 2.75 3.25 2.75 4.00
preferred 2.50 5.00 2.50 5.00 2.75 3.50 2.75 3.50 2.75 3.50 2.75 3.50 2.75 5.00
G Clear overhead ahead of plummet Designation G–l E–l G–3 E–3 G–1 pl E–1 pl G–3 pl E–3 pl G–5 E–5 G–7.5 E–7.5 G–10 E–10
minimum 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 3.25 5.00 3.25 5.00 3.25 5.00 3.25 6.00 4.00
preferred 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 3.50 5.00 3.50 5.00 3.50 5.00 3.50 6.00 5.00
H Depth of water at plummet Designation H–1 H–3 H–1 pl H–3 pl H–5 H–7.5 H–10
minimum 3.40 3.70 3.20 3.50 3.70 4.10 4.50
preferred 3.50 3.50 3.30 3.60 3.80 4.50 5.00
J Distance and depth Designation J–1 K–1 J–3 K–3 J–1 pl K–1 pl J–3 pl K–3 pl J–5 K–5 J–75 K–75 J–10 K–10
K ahead of plummet minimum 5.00 3.30 6.00 3.60 4.50 3.10 5.50 3.40 6.00 3.60 8.00 4.00 11.00 4.25
preferred 5.00 3.40 6.00 3.70 4.50 3.20 5.50 3.50 6.00 3.70 8.00 4.00 11.00 4.75
L Distance and depth Designation L–1 M–1 L–3 M–3 L–1 pl M–1 pl L–3 pl M–3 pl L–5 M–5 L–7.5 M–7.5 L–10 M–10
M each side of plummet minimum 1.50 3.30 2.00 3.60 1.40 3.10 1.80 3.40 3.00 3.60 3.75 4.00 4.50 4.25
preferred 2.00 3.40 2.50 3.70 1.90 3.20 2.30 3.50 3.50 3.70 4.50 4.40 5.25 4.75
N Maximum slope to reduce Pool depth 30 degrees Note: Dimension C (plummet to adjacent plummet) apply to platforms with widths as detailed.
dimensions beyond full Ceiling ht 30 degrees If platform widths are increased then C is to be increased by half the additional width(s)
requirements
Indoor sports facilities 18-21

a Elevation

a Side view b Frontal view


18.72 Ponds Forge, Sheffield: diving stages

b Plan
18.75 Sub-aqua equipment store and compressor room

a For men

b For women

18.73 Water polo layouts

a Elevation

b Plan
18.76 Access to the pool for sub-aqua diving. Specially designed
18.74 Water polo layout for a 25 m  12.5 m pool removable steps assist a heavily laden diver
18-22 Indoor sports facilities

a b

c d

e f

18.77 Layout of leisure pool De Mirandabad, Amsterdam.


Architects: Architektenburo Baanders, Frenken
g

h i

j k

18.78 a Section through a leisure pool showing wave making l


machine room and ‘beaching’ of pool b Sectional plan
18.80 Various arrangements of the pool above: a 5:30–8:30 am,
of wave-making machine room
club training and keep fit. b 5:30–8:30 am, alternative for club
training and keep fit. c 9 am to noon, public, school swimmers and
school non-swimmers. d A 9 am to noon, alternative for public,
school swimmers and school non-swimmers, e 4–6 pm, clubs and
public, f 4–6 pm, alternative for clubs, public, keep fit and lessons,
g 6–8 pm, synchro swimming or water polo, public and disabled
people. h 50 m competition pool 2.4–3 m deep, i 25 m competition
pool constant 3 m depth, j Twin 25 m competition or training pools,
k Water polo: 30 m  20 m, or 25 m  17 m for women, 3 m deep.
l Synchronised swimming: 25 m  20 m by 3 m deep

swimming. Depths at either end of this area must be the same as for
normal 25 m competition pools. Because the sides may be free-
form in shape and other features intrude (e.g. whirlpool, flume
a Plan rides), competitions cannot be judged properly.

10 MOVABLE FLOOR POOLS


b Cross-section 18.79 shows a pool with movable floors; while 18.80 shows the
flexibility offered to 50 and 25 m pools by movable floors.
18.79 A 50 m pool with ultimate flexibility. This has two movable Flexibility is further increased by the inclusion of two movable
floors and two laterally moving bulkheads floors and two laterally moving bulkheads.
Indoor sports facilities 18-23

11 POOL DETAILS AND LANE MARKINGS


11.01 Rest ledges
These are required around pool sides where the water depth
exceeds 1.2 m, 18.81.

18.81 Rest ledge

11.02 Raised ends and touch pads


Where pools are to be predominately used for competitions and
serious training, raised ends should be provided, 18.82, equipped
with touchpads, 18.83. 18.83 a Touch pad to conform to FINA regulations, b Touch pad
for ASA Championship requirements in 25 m pools
11.03 Edge channels
The present preference for deck level pools requires edge channels
designed for overflow purposes, finger grip and demarcation
between water edge and pool surround, 18.84.

11.04 Lane rope anchorage


This is for fixing lane booms on level deck pools and is usually
behind edge channels on pool surrounds.

11.05 Start-recall
A recall rope and flags are required 15 m in front of the start for
competition use.

11.06 Lane markings in competition pools


These should be laid in accordance with FINA/ASA recommenda-
tions, 18.85 and Table VII.

18.84 Edge details for deck level pools

11.07 Backstroke turn indicators


These are required 5 m from end walls, 18.85.

11.08 Underwater windows


These may be considered for coaching and video. Underwater
lights may be required for environmental purposes.

12 CHANGING PROVISION
12.01 Facilities
Segregated changing facilities, 18.86, have been largely replaced
18.82 Removable starting platform by the changing ‘village’ arrangement, 18.87, which is based upon
18-24 Indoor sports facilities

a 50 m pool to Olympic standard

b 25 metre and 33 1⁄3 m pools

18.85 Lane and other marking required for competitive swimming

Table VII Dimensions of lane markings in metres

FINA/ASA ASA
50 m pools 25 m pools

A Width of lane markings, end lines, targets 0.25  0.05 0.2  0.05
B Length of end wall targets 0.5  0.05 0.5  0.05
C Depth to centre of end wall targets 0.3  0.05 0.3  0.05
D Length of lane marker cross line 1.0  0.05 0.8  0.05
E Width of racing lanes 2.5 2.0
F Distance from cross line to end wall 2.0  0.05 2.0  0.05
G Touch pad 2.4  0.05 1.9  0.05

separation of dry and wet footpaths to and from changing cubicles. 13 PROVISION FOR DISABLED PEOPLE
Minimum cubicles are shown in 18.88, but it is important to
13.01 Disabled people
provide a proportion of larger cubicles for the use of families and
Consideration for disabled people is mandatory. As well as wheel-
disabled people.
chair users this includes people with impaired vision and those
with learning difficulties. Wheelchair users may be provided for
either in the changing village or alternatively in rooms around the
12.02 Other arrangements pool, 18.89 and 18.90. The disappearance of the footbath has eased
Toilets should be positioned between lockers and poolside. wheelchair access to the poolside.
Precleanse footbaths are no longer mandatory although foot sprays
are still desirable. Showers are largely for after-swim shampooing.
Hairdrying facilities are desirable close to changing room exits.
13.02 Deck level pools
These also improve access into and out of the water for disabled
people. Chair hoists are still sometimes provided for this purpose
12.03 Sauna and steam rooms although they are often disliked by users for the attention they
These may also form part of the ‘village’, 18.87. cause.
Indoor sports facilities 18-25

18.89 Minimum changing provision for disabled people

18.86 Traditional layout of changing rooms

18.90 Better provision for disabled people

13.03 Other arrangements


Shallow water spa (bubble) areas are much liked by those with
learning difficulties.
Large, clearly marked signs, colour-coded footpaths and rails
are required for visually impaired people.

14 POOL CAPACITY ANALYSIS


As a rule of thumb, pool capacities may be determined by dividing
the water surface area by 2. Thus a 25  13 m pool can accommo-
date to reasonable comfort standards 325  2 ¼ 162 bathers.
Changing cubicles, lockers and car parking provision can be
based upon the same analysis plus the following allowances:

• Locker allowance based upon pool capacity, with a further 162


changing ¼ 324 lockers, usually in two- to three-tier
compartments
• Changing cubicle provision may be based upon a time factor of
5–10-min occupation per bather. Thus in any one hour 162
bathers in the pool plus a further 162 changing ready to enter
the pool ¼ 324 bathers  10 min ¼ 32 cubicles
18.87 Changing village. No segregation. Average cubicle • Car parking provision may be calculated thus: 324 bathers, 3
persons per car average ¼ 101 spaces þ a further allowance for
occupancy 4 minutes
staff, disabled, etc. say 125–150 spaces.

15 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Geraint John and Kit Campbell, Ice rinks and swimming pools,
handbook of sports and recreational building design, Vol. 3 (2nd
ed), Butterworth Architecture and the Sports Council, Oxford,
1996
Geraint John and Helen Heard (Eds) Handbook of sports and
recreational building design, Vol. 2, Indoor Sports (2nd ed),
Architectural Press, 1995
The Oxford Companion to Sports and Games, Oxford University
Press, 1976, also as a Paladin paperback
Rules of the Game, Paddington Press, 1974, also as republished by
a Plan b Section
Literary Guild and Bantam Books
18.88 Changing cubicle Information published by the ruling bodies for each particular sport