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UNIT I
LESSON - 1
CONTENTS
1.0 Aims and Objectives
1.1. Convex and Concave Lenses
1.1a. Refraction through a thin lens
1.1b. Equivalent Focal Length of Two Thin Lenses Separated by a distance
1.2. Aberrations in Lenses
1.2.1 Introduction
1.2.1. Spherical aberration:
1.2.2.Chromatic Aberration in a Lens:
1.2.3. Condition for Achromatism of Two Thin Lenses placed in contact
1.2.4.Condition for Achromatism of Two Thin Lenses separated by a finite distance
1.3.Coma
1.3.1.Astigmatism and its minimization
1.3.2
1.4 Let us sum up
1.5 Check your Progress
1.6 Lesson end Activities
1.7 Points for Discussion
1.8 References

1.0 Aims and Objectives


From this lesson you will understand about the principle employed in convex and
concave lenses and study about different types of defects and to minimize them.

1.1. Convex and Concave Lenses


A convex lens is a transparent refracting medium bounded by two spherical surfaces. The
line joining the centres of curvature of the two surfaces is called the principal axis. A
section of the lens through its principal axis is called its principal section.
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Principal Focus and Focal Planes


AB represents the principal axis of a lens (Fig. 1).

Fig 1

First Principal Focus (F1) : It is that point on the principal axis of the lens, the rays
starting from which (convex lens) or appear to converge at which (concave lens) become
parallel to principal axis after refraction from the lens.

The plane passing through F1 and perpendicular to the principal axis is called first focal
plane.
Second Principal Focus (F2) :Second principal focus is that point on the principal axis at
which the rays parallel to principal axis converge (convex lens) or appear to diverge
(concave lens) after refraction from the lens.
The plan passing through F2, and normal to the principal axis is called the second focal
plane.
The points F1, and F2, are called focal points.
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1.1a. Refraction through a thin lens


Consider a thin lens of refractive index n2 placed in a medium of refractive index nl
(Fig. 1.1.) Let R1, and R2 be the radii of the first and second surfaces respectively.
Consider a point object O placed on the principal axis. Let I' be the position of the image
formed by refraction at the first surface.

Fig.1.1
Let V be the distance of image I' and u the distance of the object from the first surface.

n2 n1 n2  n1
Then   …(1)
V ' u R1
Now I' acts as the virtual object for the second surface. The final image I is formed at a
distance V from the second surface.
Since the rays now pass from a medium of refractive index n2 into a medium of refractive
index n1 we have

n1 n2 n1  n2 n n
   2 1 …(2)
V V R2 R2

n1 n2 1 1 
Adding (I) and (2),   n2  n1   
V u  R1 R2 
Dividing throughout by n1
1 1  n2  1 1  1 1 1 1 
    1  or   n  1   …(3)
V u  n1  R 1 R 2  V u  R 1 R2 
here n  n 2 n1 is the refractive index of the material of the lens w.r.t air.
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First and second principal Foci: The first principal focus (F1) is the position of an
object on the principal axis for which the image is at infinity. The distance of the first
focus from the lens is the first focal length ƒ1 (Fig. 1.a).
If V = ∞, then u= ƒ1 and substituting in Eq. (3), we get,

1 1  1 1  1  1 1 
  n  1     (n  1)   …(4)
 f1  R1 R 2  f 1  R1 R 2 
The second principal focus (F2 ) is the position of the image on the principal axis for

which the object is ·al infinity (u =). The distance of the second focus from the lens is
the second focal length, ƒ2 [Fig. 1.b].  V = ƒ2, when u = ∞ . Substituting in Eq. (3),

1 1  1 1  1  1 1 
  n  1     (n  1)   …(5)
f2   R1 R2  f 2  R1 R2 
Thus the first and second focal lengths of a lens are numerically equal when the lens is
placed in a uniform medium. The general convention is to call the second principal focal
length as the focal length ƒ of the lens.

1 1 1  1 1 
    n  1   …(6)
f  u  R1 R2 
This formula is known as Lens makers formula.

Power of a lens: Power of a lens is its ability to converge or diverge the rays of light.
The power of a lens is measured by the reciprocal of its focal length, P = l/ƒ. The unit of
power is dioptre. One dioptre is the power of a lens whose focal length is 1 metre.
Convex lenses have positive power and concave lenses, negative power.
Focal length of combination of two thin lenses in contact: When two thin lenses of
focal lengths ƒ1, and ƒ2 are placed in contact with each other,
1 1 1
then the focal length of the combination is given by  
f f1 f 2
Power of the combination = P = P1 + P2

1.1b. Equivalent Focal Length of Two Thin Lenses Separated by a distance: Let L1,
and L2, be two thin lenses of focal lengths ƒ1, and ƒ2 placed in air coaxially a distance ‘a’
apart. Consider a ray PA incident on L1 parallel to the axis at a height h1, above the axis
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[Fig. 1.2]. This ray after refraction through the first lens is directed towards D which is
the second principal focus of Ll.

Fig 1.1b.

Then, deviation produced by first lens =  1  h1 f 1


The emergent ray from the first lens strikes the lens L2, at a height h2,. The lens L2
deviates it further through an angle 2. Finally the ray meets the axis at F2 which is the
second principal focus of the lens system.
Deviation produced by the second lens =  2  h2 f 2
PA and ,F2B are produced to cut at E2. Then a single convex lens placed in the position
E2P2 and having focal length P2F2 is equivalent to the leas system. Thus P2F2 = ƒ is the
equivalent local length. Then,
Deviation produced by the equivalent lens =   h1 f Now =1+2

h1 h1 h2
   …(1)
f f1 f 2

ah1  a
Now h2  O2 B  O2 K  BK  h1  a 1  h1   h1 1  
f1  f1 

h1 h1 h1  a
Substituting the value of h2 in Eq(1),   1  
f f 1 f2  f1 
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1 1 1 a
or    …(2)
f f1 f 2 f1 f 2
f1 f 2 f f …(3)
f   1 2
f1  f 2  a 
Here,   a   f 1  f 2  is known as the optical separation or optical interval between the
two lenses.
Let us find the position of the equivalent lens, i.e., the distance O2P2.
The triangles BF2,O2, and E2F2P2 are similar.

h2 O2 F2 h  a  h a
  orO2 F2  2 P2 F2  1   f  2  1  
h1 P2 F2 h1  f1   h1 f1 

 a  fa
Now, O2 P2  P2 F2  O2 F2  f  f 1   
 f1  f1
 f1 f 2 a af 2
   
 f1  f 2  a  f 1 f 1  f 2  a

Let O2P2=-( P2 lies to the left of the lens L2).


af 2  fa
   …(4)
f1  f 2  a f1

Similarly, consider a ray parallel to the axis incident from the right hand side
[Fig. 1.1(c)]. Then we can find the position of F1, the point where the ray intersects the
principal axis after refraction through the lens system. E1P1 is the first principal plane. P1
is the first principal point of the lens system. The distance of the first principal point
from the first lens is =O1P1.

Fig 1.1(c)
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af 1 af
O1 P1    
f1  f 2  a f 2

The first principal focus F1, is situated at a distance ƒ towards the left of the point P1.

If P1 and P2 are the powers of the component lenses and P the power of the combination,
then, P=P1+P2-aP1P2

1.2 ABERRATIONS IN LENSES:


1.2.1 Introduction: The deviations in the size, shape, position and colour in the actual
images produced by a lens in comparison to the object are called aberrations produced by
a lens. Chromatic aberrations are distortions of the image due to the dispersion of light in
the lenses of an optical system when white light is used. The defect of coloured image
formed by a lens with white light is called chromatic aberration. If monochromatic light
is used, then such defects are automatically removed. Besides these defects, there are
defects which are present even when monochromatic light is used. Such defects are called
monochromatic aberrations. These aberrations are the result of (i) the large aperture of
the optical system, (ii) the large angle subtended by the rays with the principal axis and
(iii) the large size of the object. As a result of these aberrations, (i) a point is not imaged
as a point, (ii) a plane is not imaged as a plane and (iii) equidistant points are not imaged
as equidistant points. Following are the monochromatic aberrations: (i) Spherical
aberration, (ii) Astigmatism, (iii) Coma, (iv) Curvature of field and (v) Distortion.
Spherical Aberration in a Lens : This aberration is due to large aperture of the lenses. The
lens of large aperture may be thought to be made up of lanes.

Fig. 1.2.
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The marginal and paraxial rays form the images at different places. Fig. 1.3. shows that a
monochromatic point source S on the axis is imaged as SP, and Sm. Here, SP, and Sm are
the images formed by marginal and paraxial rays respectively. Thus the point object is
not imaged as a point. Similarly the focus of marginal and paraxial rays do not coincide.
The distance SP Sm on the axis measures longitudinal spherical aberration.
1.2.2. Spherical aberration:
The failure of a lens to form a point image of a point object on the axis is called spherical
aberration.

Fig.1.2.1(a) Fig.1.2.1(b)

For rays parallel to principal axis, the distance between the foci of marginal and paraxial
rays gives the extent of longitudinal spherical aberration. In Fig. 1.2.1(a) Fp and Fm are
the focii for the paraxial and the marginal rays respectively. Spherical aberration of a
convergent lens is taken to be positive as the distance (ƒp – ƒm), measured along the axis.
The spherical aberration of a diverging lens is negative (Fig. 1.2.1b ).

Methods of minimizing Spherical Aberration:


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The following methods are used to reduce spherical aberration.


(i) By using stops: By using stops, we can reduce the lens aperture. We can use either
paraxial or marginal –rays. Here, circular discs, called the stops, are used to cut off the
unwanted rays. It eliminates marginal rays or paraxial rays. But the use of stops reduce
the intensity of the image and the resolving power of the instrument.

(ii) By using the two lenses separated by a distance: When two convex lenses
separated by a finite distance are used the spherical aberration is minimum when the
distance between the lenses is equal to the difference in their focal lengths. In this
arrangement, the total deviation is equally shared by the two lenses, Hence the spherical
aberration is minimum.
(iii)By using a crossed lens: The radii of curvature R1, R2 of a thin lens satisfy the
following relation:
1  1 1 
 n  1  
f R
 1 R 2 

It, there fore , shows that , spherical aberration depends upon (i) the refractive index of
the lens medium (n) and (ii) the shape factor , which is determined by the ratio
=R1/R2. If the refractive index of material of the lens is 1.5, the spherical aberration will
be minimum when=R1/R2 = - 1/6, A convex lens whose radii of curvatures bear the said
ratio is called as a crossed lens. It is essential to divide the deviation on two surfaces
equally. The axial and marginal rays of light come to focus with minimum of spherical
aberration.
Condition for Minimum Spherical Aberration of Two Thin Lenses- Separated by a
distance:
Spherical aberration may be minimized by using, two Plano-Convex lenses
separated by a distance equal to the difference in their focal lengths.
Let two plano convex lenses L1 and L2 of focal lengths ƒ1 and ƒ2 be placed coaxially
separated by a distance a (Fig.1.3.1(c)). Consider a ray OA, parallel to principal axis,
incident on lens L1 at height h1 above the principal axis.
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Fig.1.2.2(c)

The deviation 1 produced by the lens L1 is given by,

h1
1  (1)
f1

The refracted ray AB is incident at B at a height h2 from the axis on lens L2.

The deviation 1 produced by the lens L2 is given by,

h2
2  (2)
f2

The ray AB produced meets the axis at F1 which is the principal focus of lens L1. Hence
CF1=ƒ1.

For minimum spherical aberration, the deviation produced by both the lenses should be
equal, i.e., 1=2

h1 h2 h f (3)
 or 1  1
f1 f2 h2 f2

From similar triangles ACF1 and BDF1 we get

AC CF1 CF1 h f1 (4)


  or 1 
BD DF1 CF1  CD h2 f1  a

Comparing Eqs (3) and (4), we get


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f1 f1
 or f 2  f 1  a  f 1  f 2
f2 f1  a

This is the condition for minimum spherical aberration for two lenses separated by a
distance.

1.2.3.Chromatic Aberration in a Lens:

The focal length of a lens is given by


1  1 1 
 n  1  
f  R1 R2 

Since n changes with the colour of light, ƒ must be different for different colours. This
change of focal length with colour is responsible for chromatic aberration. It is classified
into two types: (a) Longitudinal chromatic aberration, (b) Lateral chromatic aberration.
a) Longitudinal chromatic aberration: A beam of white light is incident on a convex
lens parallel to the principal axis (Fig.1.3.2). The dispersion of colours takes place due to
prismatic action of the lens. Violet is deviated most and red the least. Red rays
are brought to focus at a point farther than the violet rays. Evidently ƒr> ƒv. The
difference ƒr - ƒv is a measure of the axial chromatic aberration of a lens for parallel rays.

Fig.1.2.3
Expression for Longitudinal chromatic aberration
The focal length of a lens is given by
1  1
 1
 n  1 

f  R1 R2

Let ƒv, ƒr and ƒy be the focal lengths of the lens for violet, red and yellow colours
respectively. Also let nv, nr,and ny, be the respective refractive indices. Then
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1  1 1 
 nv  1   ..(1)
fv  R1 R2 

1  1 1 
 n r  1   …(2)
fr  R1 R2 

1  1 1 
 n y  1   …(3)
fy R
 1 R 2 

subtracting Eq.(2) from Eq.(1),

1 1  1 1 
  nv  n r   
fv fr R
 1 R 2 

or
f r  f v nv  nr
 n y  1 1  1 

fv fr ny 1  R1 R2 

Now   nv  n r  n y  1 =dispersive power of the material of the lens; f v f r  f y2


 f r  f v  f y …(4)

(b) Lateral chromatic aberration: Fig. 1.2.3(a) shows a convex lens and an object AB
placed in front of the lens. The lens forms the image of white object AB as BvAv and BrAr
in violet and red colours respectively. The images of other colours lie in between the two.
Evidently, the size of red image is greater than the size of violet image (BrAr > BvAv).
The difference (BrAr - BvAv) is a measure of lateral or transverse chromatic aberration.

Fig1.2.3(a)
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Chromatic aberration is eliminated by :


(i) keeping two lenses in contact with each other and
(ii) keeping two lenses out of contact.
Achromatic Combination of Lenses:
When two or more lenses are combined together in such a way that the combination is
free from chromatic aberration, then such a combination is called achromatic
combination of lenses.
The minimization or removal of chromatic aberration is called achromatisation.
Chromatic aberration cannot be removed completely. Usually, achromatism is achieved
for two prominent colours.

1.2.4. Condition for Achromatism of Two Thin Lenses placed in contact :


The focal length of a thin lens is given by

1  1 1 
 n  1   …(1)
f  R1 R2 
Here, ƒ is the focal length, n the refractive index, R1 and R2 are radii of curvature of the
two surfaces of the lens. Now we know that ƒvaries with n.
Therefore, differentiating Eq. (1),
df  1 1 
  dn 
R  
f2  1 R 2 

dn  
 n  1 1  1   dn 1
n  1  R1 R2  n  1 f

df dn
or    …(2)
f n  1
Here ω is the dispersive power of the material of the lens.
Let ƒ1 and ƒ2 be the focal lengths of the two lenses in contact and ω1 and ω2
w2 their dispersive powers.
If ƒ is the focal length of the combination, then
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1 1 1 
    …(3)
f  f1 f 2 
Differentiating Eq.(3)
df df df df 1 df 1
 2   21  22  1  2
f f1 f2 f1 f1 f 2 f 2
df df df  
but  1  1and  2  2  21  1  2
f1 f2 f f1 f2

If the combination is to be achromatic, ƒ should be the same for all colours or dƒ=0.

1  2 f 
   0 or 1   1 ….(4)
f1 f2 f2 2
In order, therefore, to design an achromatic doublet of focal length ƒ, the focal lengths of
the constituent lenses must satisfy Eq. (3) and Eq. (4). Knowing ω1, ω2 and ƒ, the
magnitudes of ƒ1 and ƒ2 can be found by solving Eqs. (3) and (4).

Since ω1, and ω2 are positive, ƒ1 and ƒ2 must be of opposite signs. That is, if one lens is
convex, the other should be concave. Since the achromatic doublet is to behave as a
converging lens, ƒ1 must be less than ƒ2. Consequently, ω1, < ω2. The converging lens is,
therefore, made of crown glass (smaller dispersive power) and the diverging lens, of flint
glass (larger dispersive power).( Fig. 1.2.4)

Fig.1.2.4.
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1.2.5. Condition for Achromatism of Two Thin Lenses separated by a finite


distance:
Let us consider two convex lenses of focal lengths ƒ1,ƒ2 separated by a distance a
(Fig. 1.2.5).

Fig.1.2.5

The focal length of the combination is

1 1 1 a 
     …(1)
f  f1 f 2 f 1 f 2 
Differentiating Eq.(1),

df df1 df 2  df 1 df 2 
     a    
f2 f12 f 22 2 2
 f1 f 2 f 2 f1 
df df
Now   1and  2   2
f1 f2
df      
 2
  1  2  a 1  2 
f f1 f2  f1 f 2 f1 f 2 
Since both the lenses are or the same material ω1 =ω2

df   2a
 2
 1  2 
f f1 f2 f1 f 2

For an achromatic combination, the focal length ƒ should not change with colour. :.dƒ=0.
Hence,
1  2 2a 1 1 2a
   0 or  
f1 f2 f1 f 2 f1 f2 f1 f 2
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f1  f 2
a …(2)
2
That is, the distance between the two coaxial lenses must be equal to half the sum of their
focal lengths.

1.3.Coma :
When a lens is corrected for spherical aberration, it forms a point image of a point object
situated on the axis. But if the point object is situated off the principal axis, the lens, even
corrected for spherical aberration, forms a comet-like image in place of point image. This
defect in the image is called coma.
Consider an off axis point A in the object (Fig. 1.3) The rays leaving A and passing
through the different zones of the lens such as 11,22,33 are brought to focus at different
points B1,B2,B3, gradually nearer to the lens. The radius of these circles go on increasing
with increase in radius of zone. Thus the resultant image is comet like.

Fig.1.3.
Removal of coma. The comatic aberration may be eliminated as follows:
1. By using a stop before the lens and so making the outer zones ineffective.
2. By properly choosing the radii of curvature or the lens surfaces. For example, for an
object situated at infinity, the comatic aberration may be minimized by taking a lens of n
= 1.5 and
R1 1
k 
R2 9

3. Abbe sine condition. Abbe showed that coma may be eliminated if each zone of the
lens satisfies the Abbe sine condition
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n1 h1 sinθ1 = n2h2 sin θ2,


Here, n1 and n2 are refractive indices of the object and image regions respectively. h1 and
h2 are the heights of the object and the image. θ1 and θ2 are the angles which the incident
and the conjugate emergent rays make with the axis. (Fig.l.4a)

Fig 1.3a

If this condition is satisfied, the lateral magnification


h2 n1 sin  1

h1 n2 sin  2
will be same for all the rays of light, irrespective of the angles θ1 and θ2. Therefore, coma
will be eliminated.
1.3.1.Astigmatism and its minimization:
Consider a point B situated off the axis in a line object which is vertically below the axis
of the lens. When the cone of rays from B falls on full circumference of the lens, then
after refraction all the rays do not meet at a single point ( Fig 1.4.1)
a) The rays lying in the vertical plane BMN (called meridional plane) form the image as a
horizontal line P.
(b) The rays lying in the horizontal plane BRS (called sagittal plane) form the image as a
vertical line S. The circle of least confusion C lies in between P and S. The best image for
the object point is obtained here. This defect is called astigmatism. The distance between
P and S is a measure of astigmatism and is called the astigmatic difference.
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Fig1.3.1

The astigmatic difference in the concave lens is in opposite direction to that produced by
a convex lens. Hence astigmatism may be reduced by suitable combination of concave
and convex lenses. Such a combination of lenses is called anastigmatic combination. It is
used in the construction of objective lens in a photographic camera.

1.4 Let us sum up

In this lesson you learned about the principle employed in convex and concave lenses and
studied about the different types of defects and how to minimize them.

1.5 Check your Progress

1) What is meant by principal focus and focal planes in convex and concave lenses
2) Define spherical and chromatic aberrations in lenses
3) What is abbe sine condition in a convex lens
4) What is coma and astigmatism
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1.6 Lesson end Activities

1) An achromatic telescope objective of 1.5 m focal length consists of two thin layers in
contact with each other and their dispersive power are 0.05 and 0.070 respectively.
Calculate their focal lengths.

2) Two thin converging lenses of focal lengths, 10cm and 20cm are separated by a
distance ‘a’. Calculate the effective focal length of the combination.

1.7 Points for Discussion

1. What do you mean by spherical and chromatic aberration of a lens? Explain how they
are caused. How would you correct chromatic aberration in the case of lens system in
contact?
2. Obtain an expression for the dispersive power of a lens in the condition for for
achromatism of a combination of two thin coaxial lenses (i) when in contact and (ii)
when separated by a difference.

1.8 References

1) Optics and spectroscopy - A. Murugesan


2) Geometrical optics – Brijlal and Subramanyam
Page 20

LESSON – 2
CONTENTS
2.0 Aims and Objectives
2.1 Eye-pieces
2.1.1 Hygen’s Eye-piece
2.1.2 Ramsden’s Eye-piece
2.1.3 Abbe’s Homogeneous Oil Immersion Objective
2.2 Dispersion by A Prism
2.2.1 Refraction through A Prism
2.2.2 Angular and Chromatic Dispersions
2.2.3 Cauchy’s Dispersion Formula
2.2.4 Dispersive Power
2.3 Rainbow
2.3.1 Primary Rainbow
2.3.2 Secondary Rainbow
2.3.3 General Discussion
2.4 Let us Sum UP
2.5 Check your Progress
2.6 Lesson end Activities
2.7 Points for Discussion
2.8 References

2.0 Aims and Objectives


From this lesson you will learn about the usage of convex and concave lenses in different
optical instruments as eye pieces. Also you will study about the light reflection
through a prism and also about the angular and chromatic dispersions. Also you
will learn about the formation of different types of rainbows.
Page 21

2.1 EYE-PIECES :
An eye-piece is a combination of lenses designed to magnify the image already formed
by the objective of a telescope and microscope. An eyepiece consists of two plano-
convex lenses. F is called the field lens and E the eye lens (Fig. 1.5). The field lens has
large aperture to increase the field of view. The eye lens mainly magnifies the image. To
reduce the spherical aberration, the lenses taken are plano-convex lenses. Further the
focal lengths of the two lenses and their separation are selected in such a way as to
minimize the chromatic and spherical aberrations.

A combination of lenses is used in an eyepiece of a simple lens magnifier for the


following reasons:
(i) The field of view is enlarged by using two or more lenses.
(ii) The aberrations can be minimized.

Fig 1.3.5.

Fig.2.1.

2.1.1. Huygens' Eye-piece:


Construction: It consists of two plano- con vex lenses of focal lengths 3ƒ(field lens) and
ƒ (eye lens), placed a distance 2 ƒ apart [Fig.2.1). They are arranged with their convex
faces towards the incident rays. The eye-piece satisfies the following conditions of
minimum spherical and chromatic aberrations.
(i) The distance between the two lenses for minimum spherical aberration is given by
a = ƒl – ƒ2. In Huygen's eyepiece, a= 3 ƒ - ƒ = 2 ƒ. Hence this eye-piece satisfies the
condition of minimum spherical aberration.
Page 22

(ii) For chromatic aberration to be minimum a   f1  f 2  2 . In Huygens' eyepiece,

a  3 f  f 2  2  2 f . Hence this eyepiece satisfies the condition of minimum chromatic

aberration.

Fig 2.1.1

Working: An eye-piece forms the final image at infinity. Thus the field lens forms the
image I2 the first Field Lens focal plane of eye· lens, i.e., at a distance ƒ to the left of
eye-lens. Now the distance between the field lens and eye-lens is 2ƒ. Therefore, the
image I2 lies at a distance f to the right of field lens. The image I1 formed by the
objective of microscope or telescope acts as the virtual object for the field lens. Thus we
treat I1 as the virtual object for the field lens, and I2 as the image of I1 due to it
(Fig.2.1.1a) or ν=ƒ., F=3ƒ, u=? We have
1 1 1 1 1 1
  or  
 u F f u 3f

u  3 f 2
i.e. I1 should be formed at a distance 3/2 ƒ from the field lens. Therefore the rays coming
from the objective which converge towards I1 are focussed by the field lens at I2. The rays
starting from I2 emerge from the eye-lens as a parallel beam.
Page 23

Fig.2.1.1(a)

Cardinal Points of Huygens Eyepiece


The equivalent focal length F of this eyepiece is
1 1 1 a 1 1 2f 2
      
F f1 f 2 f1 f 2 3 f f 3f  f 3f

 F  3f 2

The second principal point is at a distance  from the eye lens.

f 2a  f 2f 2f 2
   f
f1  f 2  a 3 f  f  2 f 2f

The first principal point is a distance α from the field lens.

f1a 3f 2f 6f 2
     3f
f1  f 2  a 3 f  f  2 f 2f

The position of the principal points P1 and P2 and the principal foci F1 and F2 are shown
in Fig.2.1.1b Since the system is in air, the nodal points coincide with the principal
points.
Page 24

Fig.2.1.1b
2.1.2.Ramsden's Eyepiece
Construction: It consists of two plano convex lenses each of focal length ƒ. The
distance between them is (2/3) ƒ [Fig.2.1.2]. For achromatism, the distance between the

two lenses should be a   f1  f 2  2 


f  f
 f . But here a =(2/3)ƒ
2

Fig.2.1.2

Thus in this eyepiece the chromatic aberration is only partly reduced. Similarly, for
minimum spherical aberration, a  f1  f 2  f  f  0 . Hence the spherical aberration is
not at all reduced. This is a demerit of this eyepiece.
Working: I1 is the image formed by the objective of the microscope or telescope. It
serves as an object for eyepiece. The eyepiece is adjusted such that the image I2 formed
Page 25

by the field lens lies in the first focal plane of the eyelens [Fig.2.1.2a]. Then the eyepiece
forms the final image at infinity. Since the focal length of the eye lens is ƒ and
a = (2/3) ƒ, I2 is at a distance ƒ/3 from the field lens. Now, the image I1 due to objective
serves as the object for field lens. I2 is the image of I1 due to field lens.
Or, V   f 3, F  f , to find u we have

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4
  or   or  
V u F f 3 u f u f

u   f 4

Fig. 2.1.2(a)

Thus the eyepiece its so adjusted that the image (I1) formed by the objective of telescope
or microscope lies at a distance ƒ/4 towards the left of field lens. The crosswire is placed
at I1. I1 serves as the object for field lens and its image is formed at I2.

Cardinal points: The focal length F of the equivalent lens is

1 1 1 a 1 1 2f 3 4
      2
 F  3f 4
F f1 f 2 f1 f 2 f f f 3f

f 2a  f  2 f 3 f
  
f1  f 2  a 2 f  2 f 3 2
Page 26

f1a f  2 f 3 f
   
f1  f 2  a 2 f  2 f 3 2

The positions of the principal points Pl and P2 and the principal foci F1 and F2 are shown
in Fig.2.1.2(b). Since the system is in air, the nodal points coincide with the principal
points.

Fig.2.1.2(b).

Distance of the first principal focus from the field lens of the eyepiece = F1L1 = F1P1 - =
3ƒ/4 - ƒ/2=ƒ/4. Similarly the distance of the second principal focus from the eye lens is
L2F2 = P2F2 - = 3ƒ/4 - ƒ/2=ƒ/4.

Comparison of Eyepieces
Huygens' eyepiece Ramsden's eyepiece

1 The image of the object formed by the The image of the object formed by the
objective falls in between the two objective lies in front of the field lens.
lenses. Therefore, no cross wires can be Therefore, cross wires can be used. For
used. For this reason. it is called a this reason, it is called a positive
negative eyepiece. eyepiece.

2. It satisfies the condition for minimum It does not satisfy the condition for
spherical aberration. minimum spherical aberration.

3. It satisfies the condition for It does not satisfy the condition for
achromatism. achromatism.

4. It is generally used for biological It is used with instruments meant for


observations where no measurements physical measurements.
are required.
Page 27

2.1.3 ABBE’S HOMOGENEOUS OIL IMMERSION OBJECTIVE:


In a microscope the objective is a lens system corrected for chromatic and spherical
aberrations. In a microscope designed to magnify 500 times or more, the objective alone
produces a magnification of 50 or more. The microscope objective is a hemispherical
lens L1 of radius R with its plane surface directed towards the object A. The plane surface
is in contact with cedar wood oil having the same refractive index as that of the lens.
Under such conditions no refraction can take place except at the spherical surface of the
R
lens L1. If the object is placed at A at a distance from C, then the image formed at I1 at

a distance  R from C (Fig.2.1.3). Then the image will be free from spherical aberration.
The magnification produced is
CI1 R
  2
AC R 

Fig.2.1.3
If the second lens L2 has the centre of its concave surface at I1 then the rays emerging
from the hemispherical lens L1 will fall on its lower concave surface normally and will
pass undeviated. Then the rays fall on the convex surface of L2. The radius of the convex
surface of the lens L2 is so selected that I1 is one of the planatic points. The rays appear to
diverge from J" which is the other a planatic point. This gives added magnification
without introducing spherical aberration.
This property of the lens L2 holds true only for rays from the point A and not for points
adjacent to it.
Page 28

The object is immersed in oil such as cedar wood oil and the hemispherical lens with its
plane face is also immersed in the oil. This is known as Abbe's homogeneous oil
immersion objective.

2.2. DISPERSION BY A PRISM


A beam of white light, when it passes through a prism is split up into constituent colours
and that is called dispersion of light. The image thus formed on a screen is called a.
spectrum.

Fig 2.2
The spectrum consists of visible and invisible regions. In the visible region the order of
the colours is from violet to red. The principal colours are given by the word VIBGYOR
(Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red). The deviation produced for the
violet rays of light is maximum and for red rays of light it is minimum. Fig.2.2 represents
the dispersion of a white ray of light by a prism in the visible region. The region of the
spectrum, of wavelengths shorter than violet is called ultra-violet and the region of wave-
lengths longer than red is called infra-red. In the present chapter, the discussion relates
only to the visible region of the spectrum.

The refractive index for the material of a prism (or a lens) is different for different
wavelengths (or colours). The deviation and hence the refractive index is more for blue
rays of light than the corresponding values for red rays of light. The deviation and the
Page 29

refractive Index of the yellow constituent are taken as the mean values. If the dispersion
through a prism does not follow the order given by VIBGYOR, it is said to be anomalous
dispersion.

2.2.1.REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM:

The refractive index of the material of a prism is given by


A D
sin
 2
A
sin
2
where A is the angle of the prism and D is the angle of minimum deviation. For a small
angled prism
 
 
 2 
 
2

where  and  refer to the angle of the prism and the angle minimum deviation (for small
values of , the angle  is also small and the sines of the angles are taken equal to the
angles).
    1
Fig. 2.2.1.represents the angles of deviation  b ,  and  r , produced in the blue, mean

yellow and red rays of light.


Page 30

Fig.2.1.1
The deviations  b ,  and  r can be written as:

  (   1) for mean yellow light.


 b  (b  1) for blue light
and
 r  ( r  1) for red light

The difference in deviation between two colors is called angular dispersion.


 b   r  ( b  1)  ( r  1)

 ( b   r )
dividing
 b   r (b  r ) (b  r )
 
 (   1) (   1)

where b and r are the refractive indices for the blue and red rays of light and  is the
b   r  d 
refractive index for the mean yellow rays of light. The expression    is
 1    1
called the dispersive power of the material of the prism. It is constant for two colours (or
wavelengths] chosen end is represented by ω,
Page 31

b  r
 
 1
The reciprocal of ω is called the Constringence. It is also customary to represent b,  and
r where F, D and C which correspond to the Fraunhoffer lines (dark lines) in the solar
spectrum. The P, D and O lines lie in the blue, yellow and red regions of the spectrum
and their wavelengths are 4861Å, 5893 Å and 6563 Å respectively. (l Å =l Angstrom
unit=10-8 cm).

2.2.2.ANGULAR AND CHROMATIC DISPERSIONS:


The refractive index  of the material of a prism is given by
A
sin
 2
A
sin
2
where A is the angle of the prism and θ is the angle of minimum deviation.
A A
sin   sin
2 2

A  A
 cos  1   2 sin 2
2 2
If dθ is the difference in the angle of deviation between two spectral lines of wavelengths
d
λ and λ +d λ, then is called the angular dispersion between the wavelengths λ and
d
λ +d λ .
Differentiating equation with respect to  on the left hand side and θ by right hand side.

1 A
cos
d  2 2 d
A
sin
2
dividing by d λ
Page 32

A 
cos
d 2 d

d A d
2 sin
2
A
2 sin
d 2 d
 
d cos A   d
2
A
2 sin
2 d

A d
1   2 sin 2
2
d
is called chromatic dispersion of the material of the prism. The angular dispersion of
d
the material of a prism depends on the angle of the prism and refractive index of the
material of the prism. Using a spectrometer and the given prism, a graph is drawn
between  and λ ( along the Y-axis and λ along the X-axis). The tangent to the curve at
d
any point measures the chromatic dispersion for that particular wavelength.
d
d d
Substituting this value of in equation (iv), can he calculated.
d d
2.2.3. CAUCHY'S DISPERSION FORMULA:
When an electromagnetic wave is incident on an atom or a molecule, the periodic electric
force of the wave sets the bound charges into vibratory motion. The frequency with
which these charges are forced to vibrate is equal to the frequency of the wave. The phase
of this motion as compared to the impressed electric force will depend on the impressed
frequency. It will vary with the difference between the impressed frequency and the
natural frequency of the charges.
Dispersion can be explained with the concept of secondary waves that are produced by
the induced oscillations of the bound charges. When a beam of light propagates through a
transparent medium (solid or liquid), the amount of lateral scattering is extremely small.
The scattered waves travelling in a lateral direction produce destructive interference.
However, the secondary waves travelling in the same direction as the incident beam
superimpose on one another. The resultant vibration will depend on the phase difference
Page 33

between the primary and the secondary, waves. This super-imposition, changes the phase
of the primary waves and this is equivalent to a change in the wave velocity. Wave
velocity is defined as the speed at which a condition of equal phases is propagated. Hence
the variation in phase due to interference, changes the velocity of the wave through the
medium. The phase of the oscillations and hence that of the secondary waves depends
upon the impressed frequency. It is clear, therefore that the velocity of light in the
medium varies with the frequency of light. Also refractive index depends upon the
velocity of light in the medium. Therefore the refractive index of the medium varies with
the frequency (wave length) of light.

The relative permittivity of the medium in the case of dynamic polarizability is given by
Ne 2 f
r  1 Xe  1 
 0m i i   2
2

Here N is the number of electrons per unit volume, e the charge and m the mass of the
electron, ε0 permittivity of free space, ƒi oscillator strengths of the substance, ωi is the
angular frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of the substance, ω is the impressed
angular frequency.
Also f i 1

and relative permeability in majority of substances that transmit electromagnetic Waves


is equal to 1.
 2  r
Assuming that there is only one atomic frequency ωo where
ω < < ωo
Ne 2
 2  1

 0m 02   2 

using the binomial expansion,


1
 Ne 2 2
  1  2 

2
  0 m 0    
Page 34

Ne 2
  1

2 0 m 02   2 
1
 Ne 2   2 
 1   1  2 
2 
 2 0 m0  0 
 Ne 2   2 
 1   1  2 
2 
 0 0  0 
2 m
2c 2c
As,   and 0 
 0
Ne 2  2 
  1 1  0 
2 
 2c   2 
2 0m 
  
Ne 220 Ne 240
  1 2 
8  0 mc 2 8 2 0 mc 22
Ne 220
Taking 1  2 A
8  0 mc 2

Ne 240
And B
8 2 0mc 2

B
  A
2

Equation represents Cauchy's dispersion formula. A and B are called Cauchy's


constants. The values of A and B depend on the medium. From equation (vi) it is evident
that the refractive index of the medium decreases with increase in wavelength of light.
1
If a graph is plotted between  and it will he a straight line.
2
Page 35

Fig 2.2.3
The intercept OP on the Y-axis gives value A. the slope of the line PC gives the value of
B (Fig.2.2.3)

DISPERSIVE POWER

According to Cauchy's dispersion formula,


B
  A
2

Differentiating equation

d 2B
 3
d 

d
is the dispersive power of the medium. Therefore, dispersive power is inversely
d
proportional to the cube of the wavelength of light. At λ=4000 Å (violet) the dispersive
power is about eight times the dispersive power at λ =8000 Å (red). It. means the spectral
lines are more dispersed near the violet end of the spectrum that at the red end.
Page 36

2.3. RAINBOW

Rainbows are formed by sunlight falling on raindrops. Sometimes two rainbows are seen.
The common rainbow known as the primary rainbow is a coloured band, having red on
the outside and violet on the inner side. It is formed due to two refractions and one
reflection of light falling on raindrops. The other rainbow called the secondary rainbow is
formed due to two refractions and two reflections of the sunlight falling on the raindrops.
The rainbows are visible only when the altitude of the sun is less than 42°. No rainbows
are seen when the altitude is more than 42°. A complete rainbow can be seen in an
aeroplane flying at high altitudes.
2.3.1. PRIMARY RAINBOW
Consider a ray of sunlight incident at the point B of a raindrop (Fig. 2.3.1). The ray AB
after refraction travels along BC and is reflected along CD and finally comes out along
DE. The deviation of the ray AB after refraction is (i-r). The deviation of the ray BC after
refraction at C is (180-2r) and the deviation of the ray CD after refraction at D is (i-r).
Therefore, total deviation = 2( i-r)+(180-2r)
  180  2i  4r
For the angle of deviation to be maximum or minimum, the differential coefficient of 
with respect to i must be zero.

Fig.2.3.1
Page 37

 Differentiating equation (i),


d dr
 24
di di
d
But 0
di
dr
 24 0
di
dr 1
or 
di 2
sin i
Also,  
sin r
or sin r = sin i
dr
Differentiating,  cos r  cos i
di
dr cos i
or 
di  cos r
Equating
cos i 1

 cos r 2
 2 cos2 r
or cos2 i 
4
 
4 cos 2 i   2 1 - sin 2r   2 -  2sin 2 r

But  sin r  sin i

 4 cos 2 i   2 - sin 2r

3 cos 2 i   2 - (sin 2r  cos2i )    1

2 1
 cos i 
3
Taking refractive index of water for red light =1.329,
i=59.6° and =137.2°
180-137.2=42.8°
Taking refractive index of water for violet light =1.342,
Page 38

i=58.8° and =139.2°


180-139.2=40.8°
These angles 42.8° and 40.8° are shown in Fig.2.3.1(a)

Fig 2.3.1(a)

It is to be remembered that sunlight strikes the raindrop at different angles of incidence


and undergoes different deviations. Only those rays produce a rainbow which have the
angle of incidence corresponding to minimum angles of deviation. All such rays produce
concentrated effect of light in the formation of a rainbow. Also, as shown in the diagram,
in the primary rainbow, the angle of inclination of red light is more on the eye than the
violet. Therefore, the outside of the rainbow appears red and the inner violet. The other
spectral colours lie in between violet and red in their order.
2.3.2.SECONDARY RAINBOW
In the case of secondary rainbow, there are two reflections and two refractions. Suppose a
ray AB from the sun strikes the drop at B end after refraction goes along BC. It is
reflected at C and D and after refraction at E, finally emerges along EG (Fig. 2.3.2)
Page 39

Fig.2.3.2

The total deviation


=2(i-r)+2(180-2r)=360+2i-6

The rays are concentrated around the directions of minimum deviation.

Differentiating  with respect to i


d dr
 26
di di
d
But 0
di
dr
26 0
di
dr 1
or 
di 3
sin i
Also,  or sin r = sin i
sin r
Page 40

Differentiating,
dr
 cos r  cos i
di
dr cos i

di  cos r
Equating

cos i 1

 cos r 3

2  2 cos2 r
or cos i 
9
or 9 cos 2 i   2 (1  sin 2 r )   2   2 sin 2 r

But sin r = sin i


 9 cos 2 i   2  sin 2 i

8 cos 2 i   2  (sin 2 i  cos2 i)

2 1
cos i 
8
Taking  of water for red light=1.329, the angle of deviation =360-129.2=230.8. The
acute angle = 230.8-180= 50.8° (Fig.2.3.2) Taking  of water for violet light = 1.342, the
angle of deviation = 360 -126.48 = 234.52°. The acute angle = 234.62-180 = 64.62°.

Fig.2.3.2(a)
Page 41

In Fig. 2.3.2(a), it is shown that the angle of inclination for violet rays is more than for
red rays.
2.3.3.GENERAL DISCUSSION
The primary rainbow is formed by light from the sun undergoing one internal reflection
and two refractions and emerging at, minimum deviation. The inner violet edge subtends
an angle of 40.8° and the outer red edge subtends an angle of 42.8°. The secondary
rainbow is formed by light from the sun undergoing two internal reflections and two
refractions and also emerging at minimum deviation. This rainbow is fainter than the
primary one and inner red edge subtends an angle of 50.8° and the outer violet edge
subtends an angle of .54.52°. Therefore the colours in the secondary rainbow appear in
the reverse order compared to those of the primary rainbow. All the spectral colours are
present in order between violet and red (Fig.2.3.3). Between the two rainbows no bows
are viewed because for this the angle of deviation should be lese than the minimum in
both the cases, which is not possible.

Fig.2.3.3
Page 42

Sometimes other bows are observed which are near the inner edge of the primary bow or
near the outer edge of the secondary bow. These are known as supernumerary bows and
depend upon the size of the raindrops. These are due to diffraction just similar to
diffraction at narrow slits.

2.4 Let us sum up


From this lesson your learned about the usage of lenses as eyepices and also you learned
about the light reflection through a prism and also about angular and chromatic
dispersions. Finally you learned about the different types of Rainbows.

2.5 Check your Progress


1) What are the differences between Huygens and Ramsden’s eyepieces ?
2) What are cardinal points
3) Explain angular dispersion
4) State the importance of the Cauchy’s dispersion formulae
5) Define dispersive power

2.6 Lesson end Activities

1) The focal length of an eyepiece is 0.015 m. Calculate the focal length of the two lenses
used in the Huygen’s eyepiece. Also calculate the chromatic aberration. (Dispersive
power is 0.03)

2) The angle of the prism is 60 and its refractive index for green light is 1.5. If the green
light passes through it find the deviation.

2.7 Points for Discussion

1. Give the theory of formation of a (i) primary rainbow (ii) secondary rainbow. Explain
in what order are the colours arranged.
Page 43

2. (i) Derive Cauchy’s dispersive formulae/


(ii) Write a note on ABBE’s homogeneous oil immersion objective.
3. With a neat diagram explain
(i) Huygen’s eyepiece and its cardinal points
(ii) Ramsden’s eyepiece and its cardinal points

2.8 References:

1) Light by Brijlal and Subramanyam


2) Optics and Spectroscopy by R. Murugesan
Page 44

UNIT – II
LESSON - 3

CONTENTS

3.0 Aims and Objectives


3.1 Introduction
3.1.1. Interference due to reflected light( Thin Film)
3.1.2 Interference due to Transmitted Light (Thin films)
3.2. Wedge-Shaped Film –(Air Wedge)
3.2.1. Experiment to measure the Diameter of a thin wire
3.2.2. Applications of Air Wedge
3.3. Newton’s Rings
3.3.1. Expression for the radii of the rings:
3.3.2.Determination of Wavelength of Sodium Light by Newton’s Ring.
3.3.3.Determination of Refractive index of a Liquid by Newton's Rings
3.4 Let us sum up
3.5 Check your progress
3.6 Lesson end activities
3.7 Points for discussion
3.8 References

3.0 Aims and Objectives

In this lesson you will study about the principles of interference and its characteristics in
thin films for reflected and transmitted light. Also you will learn about the wedge shaped
film. You will also learn about Newton’s rings and its application in determining the
wavelength of sodium light and also the determination of  of liquid.

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Interference is the phenomenon of the superimposition of one light source over the other.
Due to the superimposition of any two light sources, the resultant energy is redistributed
into a position of maximum intensity and of minimum intensity. If the crest of one wave
falls on the crest of the other, constructive interference is produced. If the crest of one
Page 45

wave falls on the trough of the other, destructive interference is produced. When a soap
film or an oil film is viewed from a reflected light or transmitted light, it exhibits
different colours. It is due to the interference pattern produced in thin films

3.1.1. INTERFERENCE DUE TO REFLECTED LIGHT

Consider a transparent film of thickness t with refractive index  Let AB be the upper
surface of the film and CD be its lower surface. Let a ray of light PQ be incident at an
angle of incidence i on the upper surface of the film. Some part of the incident beam is
reflected by the upper surface along QR and the remaining part is transmitted through the
film along QS. This transmitted beam undergoes reflection by the lower surface of the
film CD. SU is the reflected beam and ST is the transmitted beam from the interface CD.
The ray SU undergoes reflection at the interface AB. UV is the transmitted beam and UW
is the reflected beam from the interface AB. (Fig 3.1.1.)
Consider the rays PQR (ray I) and PQSUV (ray II). Ray II has traveled greater distance
compared to ray 1. The path difference between the two rays can be determined by
drawing a perpendicular line from the point U to the line QR. UN is the normal to the line
QR drawn from the point U.
The path difference between the two rays is given by,
x = (QS+SU) – QN …..(1)
Let r be the angle of refraction . (In Fig2.1,) consider the triangle QSM
SM
cos r 
QS
SM t
QS  
cos r cos r
similarly, from le SMU,
t
SU  …(2)
cos r
Page 46

Fig 3.1.1
Therefore,
t t
QS  SU   …(2)
cos r cos r
Page 47

from le QSM,


QM
sin r 
QS
QM=QS sin r
t
QU  2QM  2QS sin r  2 sin r …(3)
cos r
Consider the le QUN,
QN
sin i 
QU
QN  QU sin i …(4)
From Eqs (3) and (4),
2t sin i sin r
QN  …(5)
cos r
From Snell’s law,
sin i
 ...(6)
sin r
 sin i= sin r
From Eqs (5) and (6), we get
2t sin r. sin r
QN  …(7)
cos r
From Eqs(1), (2) and (7), we get
 2t  2t
x  sin 2 r
cos r cos r
 2t
 (1  sin 2 r )  2 t cos r
cos r
The ray QR is the reflected ray and the ray UV is the transmitted ray. Due to

reflection, there is a phase change of  degree or an additional path difference of
2
will be introduced. So, the total path difference is written as,

x  2t cos r 
2
Page 48

To get the condition for bright fringe, the path difference is equated to an integral
multiple of λ, (i.e., n=1,2,3…)

i.e., 2t cos r   n
2
 2n  1 
i.e., 2t cos r    …(8)
 2 
To get the condition for dark fringe, the path difference is equated to half integral
multiple of λ,

i.e., 2t cos r   (2n  1)  2
2
or 2t cos r  n …(9)
Equations (8) and (9) give the conditions for bright and dark fringes produced by thin
films due to interference of light.

3.1.2 Interference due to Transmitted Light(Thin films):

Consider a thin transparent film of thickness t and refractive index . A ray SA


after refraction goes along AB. At B it is partly reflected along BC and partly refracted
along BR. The ray BC after reflection at C, finally emerges along DQ. Here at B and C
reflection takes place at the rarer medium ( medium-air interface). Therefore, no phase
change occurs. Draw BM normal to CD and DN normal to BR. The optical path
difference between DQ and BR is given by,
x   ( BC  CD )  BN
sin i BN
also,    or BN  MD
sin r MD
Page 49

Fig.3.1.2
In Fig.3.1.2
BPC=r and CP=BC=CD
 BC+CD=PD
 x   ( PD )   ( MD)   ( PD  MD)  PM
PM
In the  BPM. cos r  or PM  BP. cos r
BP
But, BP=2t
 PM=2t cos r
 x  PM  2 t cos r
(i) For bright fringes, the path difference x  n
 2t cos r=nλ
where n=0,1,2,3,…etc.,

(ii) For Dark fringes, the path difference x  (2n  1)
2
(2n  1)
 2 t cos r 
2
where n=0,1,2,3,…etc.,
Page 50

In the case of transmitted light, the interference fringes obtained are less distinct
because the difference in amplitude between BR and DQ is very large. However,
when the angle of incidence is nearly 45, the fringes are more distinct.

3.1.3 Production of Colours in thin films:

When white light is incident on a thin film, the light rays are reflected from the top and
bottom surfaces of the film. The condition for brightness or darkness depends upon (i) ,
(ii) t and (iii) r. Here t and r are constants. White light contains a number of wavelengths(
colours). Condition for brightness in the reflected system is
2t cos r  (2n  1)  2
The colour for which this condition is satisfied will be present with maximum intensity,
other colours in the neighborhood will have lesser intensity. Colours for which the
condition or darkness
2t cos r  n
is satisfied wil be absent. Hence the film will appear in colored.

3.2. WEDGE-SHAPED FILM


Consider a wedge-shaped film of refractive index  enclosed by two plane surfaces OP
and OQ inclined at an angle θ (Fig.2.2). The thickness of the film increases from O to P.
When the film is illuminated by a parallel beam of monochromatic light, interference
occurs between the rays reflected at the upper and lower surfaces of the film. So
equidistant alternate dark and bright fringes are observed. The fringes are parallel to the
line of intersection of the two surfaces. The interfering rays are AB and DE, both
originating from the same incident ray SA.
Page 51

Fig 3.2.
Expression for the fringe width : The condition for a dark fringe is 2nt cos r = mλ. Here
for air n = I. For normal incidence cos r = cos θ =1. Suppose the mth dark fringe is
formed where the thickness of the air film is tm ,(Fig 3.2a). Then,
2 1 tm 1 =mλ or 2tm = mλ …(1)
Suppose the (m + 1) th dark fringe is formed where the thickness of the air film is tm+1
Then,
2 tm+1= (m + 1)λ …(2)
Subracting (1) from (2),
2 (tm+1-tm)=λ …(3)
Let xm+1 and xm be the distances of the (m+1) th and mth dark fringes from O.
d=diameter of the wire; L=distance between O and the wire. Then

Fig.3.2a
tm 1 t d
 m  
xm 1 xm L
d d
 t m 1  xm 1; tm  xm
L L

substituting these values in Eq(3), we get,


d
2 ( x m 1  x )  
L
But xm 1  x   -fringe width.

d
or 2  
L
Page 52

L 
  
2d 2
d, λ and L are constants. Therefore, fringe width β is constant. Similarly if we consider
two consecutive bright fringes, the fringe width β will be the same.

3.2.1.Experiment to measure the Diameter of a thin wire:


An air wedge is formed by inserting the wire between two glass plates. Monochromatic
light is reflected vertically downwards on to the wedge by the inclined glass plate G
(Fig.3.2.1). A traveling microscope M with its axis vertical is placed above G. The
microscope is focused to get clear dark and bright fringes. The fringe width (β) is
measured. The length (L) of the wedge also is measured. Knowing λ, the diameter (d) of
the wire is calculated using the formula,

Fig.3.2.1
L
d
2

Testing a surface for planeness: A wedge shaped air film is formed between an
optically plane glass plate OP and the surface under test (OQ). The fringes will be
straight if the surface under test is perfectly plane. If the surface OQ is not perfectly
plane, the fringes will be irregular in shape. In practice, perfectly plane surfaces are
Page 53

produced by polishing the surfaces and testing them from time to time, until the fringes
are straight. In testing for planeness, an extended source of light should be used.
(Note: For Experiment Ref. Annexure I)
Page 54

3.2.2. Applications of Air Wedge

(i) Testing of flat surfaces

The air wedge experiment is used to test the planeness of a glass plate. To test the
planeness of a glass plate the given glass plate is placed over an optically plane glass
plate. Then the interference fringes are formed. If the fringes are of equal thicknesses and
of straight lines then the given glass plate is optically flat.
The condition for bright fringe is 2t cos r  (2n  1)  2
For normal incidence, cos r =1 and for air =1. Hence, the above equation becomes
2t  (2n  1)  2
The interference fringes are characterized for a particular value of n. For a particular
value of n, the thickness of the air film and the flatness of the given glass plate are
constant. Therefore, straight fringes are obtained. If the fringe obtained for a constant
value of n is a colored one, it represents the varying thickness of the film and it represents
that the given glass plate is not flat. The flatness of a given glass plate can be tested up to
one tenth of the wavelength of the light used.

ii) Thickness of a thin sheet of paper


A monochromatic source of light is passed through a convex lens and is made to fall on a
glass plate inclined at an angle of 45° as shown in Fig. 3.2.2. The rays of light are
reflected in the downward direction and are used to illuminate an air wedge set up. An
interference pattern is formed due to the superposition of the rays emerging from the
upper glass plate and the rays reflected from the bottom glass plate.
Alternate bright and dark fringes are viewed through the microscope. Anyone bright or
dark fringe is taken as the
nth fringe and the
readings
Page 55

corresponding to n, n + 5, n + 10…n + 50 fringes are taken. From the observation, the


l
value of the fringe width β is determined. Then, using the relation t  , the thickness
2
of the paper is determined.

Fig.3.2.2
3.3. Newton’s Rings:
A plano-convex lens of large radius of curvature is placed with its convex surface in
contact with a plane glass plate. Then, an air film is formed between the lower surface of
the lens AOB and the upper surface of the plate POQ (Fig.2.3). The thickness of the air
film is zero at the point of contact O and gradually increases from the point of contact
outwards. If monochromatic light is allowed to fall normally on this film, a system of
alternate bright and dark concentric rings is formed in the air film. They are called
Newton's rings. The thickness of air-film remains constant along a circle with its centre at
O. Hence, the fringes are in the form of concentric
circles.
Page 56

Fig.3.3.
Newton's rings are formed as a result of interference between the light waves reflected
from the upper and lower surface of the air film. 1 and 2 are the interfering rays
corresponding to an incident ray SR.

3.3.1. Expression for the radii of the rings:


R is the radius of curvature of the lens and A is the centre of curvature (Fig. 2.3.1). Let
there be mth dark ring at point C. The thickness of the airfilm at point C is OB = t. The
radius of the mth dark ring is r = BC. Let DC be the chord and DE the diameter
intersecting at right angles at B.

Fig2.3.1
From the geometry of the circle,
DB x BC = EB x BO
rm2  (2 R  t )  t. In practice t <<R. so that 2R - t ≈ 2R

or rm2  2 Rt. …(1)

The condition for a dark ring is 2nt=mλ where m=0,1,2,3….


m
 t …(2)
2n
Substituting for t in Eq(1), we get

2 Rm Rm mr


rm2    rm  …(3)
2n n n
Page 57

Thus the radii of the dark rings are proportional to the square roots of the natural
numbers.

Bright Rings: The condition for a bright ring is


2nt  (2m  1)  2
(2m  1)  2
or t  …(4)
2n
Substituing for t in Eq(1), we get

2 R(m  1)  2 (2m  1) R
rm2  
2n 2n
(2m  1) R
Radius of the mth bright ring = rm  …(5)
2n
Thus the radii of the bright rings are proportional to the square roots of odd natural
numbers.
The diameters of mth dark and bright rings are
4mR
Dm  Dark ring …(6)
n

2(2m  1) R
Dm  Bright ring …(7)
n

3.3.2.Determination of Wavelength of Sodium Light by Newton’s Ring.

Experimental arrangement: Fig. 2. 3.2. shows an experimental arrangement for


producing Newton’s rings by reflected light. S is source of monochromatic light. The
light from S rendered parallel rays by a convex lens L1. These horizontal parallel rays fall
on a glass plate G at 45, and are partly reflected from it. This reflected beam falls
normally on the lens L placed on the glass plate PQ. Interference occurs between the rays
reflected from the upper and lower surfaces of the film. The interference rings are viewed
with a microscope M focused on the air film.
Page 58

L1

Fig.3.3.2.
Procedure: With the help of the traveling microscope the diameters of a number of dark
rings are measured. The position of the microscope is adjusted to get the centre of
Newton's rings at the point of intersection of the cross-wires. The microscope is moved
until one cross wire is tangential to the 16th dark ring. The microscope reading is taken.
Then microscope is moved such that the cross-wire is successively tangential to 12th, 8th
and 4th dark rings respectively. The readings are noted in each case. Readings
corresponding to the same rings are taken on the other side of the centre. The readings are
tabulated as follows:
No. Reading of Traveling Diameter of D2 Dm2  D 2p
of Microscope ring
Ring Left (a) Rigth(b) D=a~b
16
12
8
4
Average ( Dm2  D p2 ) 

The average values of ( Dm2  D 2p ) is found.

For an air film n=1.


Page 59

The diameters of pth and mth dark rings are given by


D p2  4 pR and Dm2  4mR

Dm2  D p2
Dm2  D p2  4(m  p ) R  
4( m  p ) R
The radius of curvature R of the lower surface of the lens is found by Boys’ method.
Substituting this values of R and the average value of ( Dm2  D 2p ) with (m-p)=8 in the

above equation, λ is calculated.

3.3.3.Determination of Refractive index of a Liquid by Newton's Rings

The experiment is performed with an air film between the glass plate and the lens as
described above. The diameters of pth and mth dark rings with air given by,
D p2  4 pR and Dm2  4mR  Dm2  D p2  4(m  p ) R …(1)

The transparent liquid of refractive index n is introduced between the lens L and the glass
plate G (Fig,2.3.3). Then a plano--concave film of liquid is formed between the lens and
the glass plate. The diameters of pth and mth dark rings are determined.

Fig 3.3.3.

With liquid film, the diameters of pth and mth rings are given by
Page 60

2 2
 D    4 pR and  D    4mR
 p  n  m  n
2 2
  D     D    4(m  p) R …(2)
 m   p n
Dm2  D p2
Dividing (1) by (2), n  2 2
 D     D  
 m   p 
Thus ‘n’ of a liquid can be determined by measuring the diameters with and without
liquid.

2.3 Let us sum up


From this lesson you learned about the principle of interference and its characteristics in
thin films both for reflected and transmitted light. Also you learned about the wedge
shaped film. Next you studied about the Newton’s rings and its application to determine
the wavelength of  of liquid.
3.4 Check your Progress
1) What is interference
2) What is the condition to get bright and dark fringes in interference pattern
3) Write a note on production of colours in thin films
4) How you would test the flat surface using air wedge
5) Write the equation for the radius of the mth dark ring in Newton’s rings experiment
3.6 Lesson end Activities
1) A parallel beam of sodium light with wavelength 589 x 10-9 m is incident on a thin
glass plate (=1.5) such that the angle of refraction into the plate is 600. Calculate the
smallest thickness of the plate which will make it appear dark by reflection.

2) Light of wavelength 600nm falls normally on a thin wedge shaped film of refractive
index 1.4 forming fringes that 2m apart. Find the angle of the wedge.
Page 61

3) The diameter of the mth ring changes from 1.2 cm to 1cm when the air space between
the lens and the plate is replaced by a transparent liquid. Find the refractive index of the
liquid.

3.7 Points for discussion


1. (i) Derive an expression for the interference due to reflected light in thin films.
(ii) Discuss any two applications of Airwedge.
2. (i) Derive an expression for the radii of the Newton’s rings.
(ii) Explain how you would determine the Refractive index of a liquid by forming
Newton rings
3.8 References
1) Optics and Spectroscopy b y R. Murugesan
2) Optics by K. Krishnamoorthy
Page 62

LESSON – 4
CONTENTS
4.0 Aims and Objectives
4.1. Michelson's Interferometer
4.1.1. Types of Fringes
4.1.2.Uses of Michelson’s Interferometer:
4.2 Jamin's Interferometer
4.3. Rayleigh's Refractometer
4.4 Let us sum up
4.5 Check your progress
4.6 Lesson end activities
4.7 Points for discussion
4.8 References

4.0 Aims and Objectives


In this lesson you will learn about the different optical instruments using the principle of
interference namely Michelson’s and Jamin’s interferometer. You will also learn about
the Rayleigh refractometer and the determination of refractive index by direct method.

2.9. Michelson's Interferometer

Principle: Here, the two interfering beams are formed by division of amplitude. The
amplitude of the light beam from an extended source is divided into two parts of equal
intensity by partial reflection and refraction. These beams are sent in two perpendicular
directions. The two beams are finally brought together after reflection from plane mirrors
to produce interference fringes.
Apparatus: M1 and M2 are front silvered plane mirrors (Fig.4.1). The two mirrors are
mounted vertically on two arms at right angles to each other. The planes of the mirrors
can be slightly tilted with the fine screws at their backs. The mirror M2 is fixed. The
mirror M1 can be moved parallel to itself by means of very sensitive micrometer screw.
G1 and G2 are two plane parallel glass plates of equal thickness. The plate G1 is semi-
Page 63

silvered on the back side. Gl is a beam splitter; i.e., a beam incident on G1 is partially
reflected and partially transmitted. G1 is inclined at an angle of 45 to the incident beam.
G2 is called the compensating plate. S is a light source.

Fig 4.1.
Working: Light from the sources is rendered parallel by a lens L and falls on the glass
plate G1 at an angle of 45°. At the back surface of G1, it is partly reflected along AC and
partly transmitted along AB. The reflected beam moves towards mirror M1 and falls
normally on it. It is reflected back along the same path and emerges out along AT. The
transmitted ray AB falls normally on the mirror M2. It is reflected along the same path.
After reflection at the back surface of G1, it moves along AT. The two emergent beams
have been derived from a single incident beam and are, therefore, coherent. The two
beams produce interference under suitable conditions.

Function of the compensating plate G1: The reflected ray AC passes through G1, thrice.
But the transmitted ray AB passes through G1, only once. That is why a second plate G2
of the same thickness and inclination as G1 is introduced. Thus the function of the plate
G1 is only to equalize the optical paths traversed by both the beams.
4.1.1. Types of Fringes

(i) Circular fringes: Concentric circular fringes are obtained when both the mirrors M1,
and M2 are mutually perpendicular. The image of M2 is at M 2 parallel to M1, (Fig. 4.4.1).
Page 64

Hence, M 2 and M1, form the equivalent of a parallel air film. The effective thickness of
the air film is varied by moving mirror M1, parallel to itself. Let the eye or the telescope
be set along a direction making an angle r with the normal to M1. Then the path
difference between the two coherent beams is 2t cos r . The condition for a bright ring is
2tcos r = rnλ where m is an integer. The condition for a dark ring 2 t cos r = (2m - 1 )
λ/2. In either case, r will be constant for given values of t, n and λ. Hence the loci of
maxima of intensity will be concentric circles having their centre on the perpendicular
from the eye or telescope on M1. The circular fringes will be situated at infinity.
Therefore they can be observed by a telescope focused for infinity. Thus we get circular
fringes of equal inclination or Haidinger’s fringes.
If a dark circle appears at the centre of the pattern, the two rays interfere destructively. If
the mirror M1 is then moved by a distance of λ/4, the path difference changes by m (twice
the separation between M1 and M 2 ). The two rays will now interfere constructively,
giving a bright circle in the middle. As M1 is moved an additional distance λ/4, a dark
circle will appear once again. Thus, we see that successive dark and bright circles are
formed each time M1 is moved a distance λ/4.

Fig.4.4.1(a)
(ii) Straight fringes: If M1 and M2 are not exactly perpendicular, a wedge shaped air
film is formed between M1, and M 2 . The fringes become practically straight
(Fig.2.4.1(a))when M1, actually intersects M 2 in the middle. The fringes are fringes of
Page 65

equal thickness. The fringes are localized in the airfilm itself. Hence the telescope has to
be focused on the film to observe these fringes.
Page 66

Fig 4.1.1(a)

(iii) White light fringes: If white light is used, the central fringe will be dark and others
will be colored. With white light, fringes are observed only when the path difference is
small. These fringes are important because they are used to locate the position of zero
path difference.

4.1.2.Uses of Michelson’s Interferometer:

1. Determination of wavelength of monochromatic light:

(i) Using monochromatic radiation of unknown wavelength λ, the interferometer is


adjusted for circular fringes.
(ii) With any ring at the centre, the reading of micrometer is noted. Let it be x1.
(iii) Now the mirror M1 is moved with the help of micrometer screw.
The fringes appear to sink or rise due to the change of path difference. Let N fringes
move and x2 be the new reading of the micrometer. When the mirror moves through a
distance λ/2, one fringe shifts. Hence,

x2  x1  x  N
2
…(1)
Page 67

2( x2  x1 ) 2 x
1  
N N
…(2)
2. Determination of difference in wavelength between two neighbouring lines: Let
the source of light emit two close wavelengths λ1 and λ2 (like sodium D lines). λ1>λ2.
The apparatus is adjusted to form circular rings. Each spectral line produces its own
system of rings. We have to consider the superposed fringe-systems. If the bright rings
due to λ1 exactly coincide with bright rings due to λ2, then the rings are very distinct and
well defined. This is called consonance. If, however, the bright rings due to λ1 coincide
with dark rings due to λ2 the ring system would disappear producing uniform
illumination. This is called dissonance. This is the position of maximum indistinctness.
Circular rings are formed by adjusting the interferometer using sodium light. The mirror
M1 is gradually moved to obtain dissonance and its position noted. The movement of M1
is continued in the same direction and successive positions of dissonance are noted. The
mean distance x between two successive dissonances is determined. When x is the
distance moved by the mirror for two consecutive positions of maximum indistinctness,
the path difference is 2x. During this movement if N is the change in order of the longer
wavelength λ1 at the centre of the field, then (N+ I) will be the change in order of
wavelength λ2 at the centre. Therefore, for dissonance 2 x  N1  ( N  1)2
2x 2x 2x 2x
or N and N  1    1
1 2 2 1

or 2 x
1  2   1 or   2 
12
1
12 2x
Put λ1- λ2 =dλ and λ1λ2 = λ2 where λ = mean wavelength
2
d 
2x
From this equation dλ. can be calculated.

4.2. Jamin's Interferometer:


.
Page 68

Construction : The essential optical parts are shown in Fig. 4.2. A and B are two
identical optically plane, thick glass plates. The back surfaces of the plates are silvered.
The plates are arranged with their faces slightly inclined to each other. S is an extended
source of monochromatic light, placed at the focal plane of the lens L. A parallel beam of
light is incident on the plate A. It gives rise to two beams: (i) R1 reflected from the front
surface and (ii) R2 reflected from the back surface. Both these reflected beams pass
through two identical glass tubes T1, and T2. Then the two beams fall on the plate B. The
beam R2, is reflected by the front surface. The beam R1 is reflected from the back surface.
The emergent beams have been obtained from the same beam by the division of
amplitude. Hence the emergent beams interfere. The straight interference fringes are
viewed by a telescope T. These are called Brewster’s fringes.

Fig.4.2
Measurement of refractive index: This arrangement is used to measure the refractive
index of a gas at different pressures. The two tubes T1 and T2 are first evacuated. The
centre of the cross-wires of the telescope is set on the centre of a bright fringe. Then the
gas is allowed to slowly enter one of the tubes. The number of fringes crossing the centre
of the field of view is counted. Let it be m.
Let n = Refractive index of the gas at final pressure
l = length of each tube.
The path difference between the two beams = (n - 1)l :. (n - 1) l = mλ.
Page 69

Knowing l, λ and m, n is calculated from the relation n = 1 + (mλ/l)


The experiment is repeated with the gas at different pressures. Let P be the density of the
gas. It is found that (n  1)   or (n  1) /  is a constant. This is Gladstone and Dale's

law. Since   P ,the pressure of the gas, (n  1)   .

Jamin's compensator: To overcome the difficulty in counting the number of fringes


which quickly cross the field of view, a compensator is used. It consists of two glass
plates C1 and C2 of equal thickness and inclined at a small angle. The plates can be
rotated about a common horizontal axis by a calibrated circular disc D. When the disc D
is rotated, the interfering beams passing through C1 and C2 are affected such that in one
case the path increases and in the other case it decreases. The circular disc is calibrated
by counting fringes directly with a monochromatic light and is marked in terms of the
refractive index and the number of wavelengths.
The tubes T1 and T2 are evacuated. Using white light the compensator is adjusted so that
the central bright fringe is brought on the cross-wires of the telescope. Then the gas is
introduced in one of the tubes at a given pressure and temperature. The fringes will shift.
The compensator is then rotated to bring the central white fringe again on the cross-wire.
The reading on the calibrated disc directly gives the refractive index of the gas.

4.3. RAYLEIGH'S REFRACTOMETER


Monochromatic light from a linear source S is made parallel by a lens L1 and split into
two beams by a double slit S1,S2 (Fig.4.3). After passing through the two exactly similar
tubes(T1, T2 ) and the compensating plates (C1,.C2 ), the two beams pass through the lens
L2, Interference fringes are observed through the eyepiece E.

Fig 4.3
Page 70

This instrument is mainly used (i) to find the absolute value of refractive index of a gas
and (ii) to find the variation of refractive index of a gas with pressure and temperature.
Initially both the tubes T1 and T2 is observed in the field of view of the eyepiece using
white light. Now the gas at given temperature and pressure is introduced in one of the
tubes. This brings about a change in the optical path of one interfering beam. So the
central white fringes shifts from the field of view. By rotating the circular disc D and of
the thus the plates C1 and C2 the central white fringes is brought back to the centre of the
field view. The circular disc D is previously calibrated in terms of refractive index. The
reading on the calibrated disc D gives the value of refractive index directly.

4.4 Let us sum up


From this lesson you learned about different optical instruments using the principle of
interference namely Michelson’s and Jamin’s interferometer. Also you learned about the
Rayleigh refractometer and the determination of refractive index by direct method.

4.5 Check your progress


1) State the principle employed in Michelson’s interferometer.
2) What will happen to the fringes if the white light is used in Michelson interferometer ?
3) How you would use the Michelson’s interferometer to determine the wavelength of
monochromatic light ?
4) Write a note on Jamin’s compensator

4.6 Lesson end Activities


1) A shift of 100 circular fringes is observed when the movable mirror of Michelson’s
interferometer is shifted by 0.030 mm. Calculate the wavelength of light .

2) In an experiment with a Michelson’s interferometer the distance traveled by the mirror


for two successive positions of maximum distinctness was 0.295 mm. If the mean
wavelength for the two components of sodium d lines is 5893 Angstrom, Calculate the
difference between them
Page 71

3) In an experiment for determining the refractive index of air with Michelson’s


interferometer a shift of 150 fringes is observed when all the air was removed from the
tube. If the wavelength of the light is 4000 Angstrom in air and the length of the tube is
20 cm, calculate the refractive index of air.

4.7 Points for Discussion


Write in detail about the following
i) Michelson’s Interferometer
(ii) Jamin’s Interferometer
(ii) Rayleigh’s Refractometer.

4.8 References
1) Optics and Spectroscopy by R. Murugesan
2) Optics by K. Krishnamoorthy
Page 72

Annexure I

MATERIAL-AIR WEDGE
Aim
To determine the thickness of a given thin wire or thin sheet of paper by forming
interference fringes using an air wedge arrangement.

Apparatus acquired
Two optically plane rectangular glass plates; sodium vapour lamp; thin wire or thin sheet
of paper; travelling microscope.
Formulae
The thickness of the wire
l
t m
2
…(E.1)
where λ is the wavelength of the monochromatic light used (5893 Å), β the fringe width
and l the distance between the edge of contact and the wire.
Description
An air wedge is formed by keeping two optically plane glass plates in contact along one
of their edges, and keeping a thin wire or paper at the other end parallel to the edges of
contact of the glass plates, as shown in Fig. E 1.
Page 73

Fig.E.1. Fig E.2.


The glass plate P should be parallel to the bed plate of the travelling microscope. With
the help of an ordinary thin glass plate G inclined at 45° to the horizontal and a
condensing lens L, light from the sodium lamp S is made to fall vertically on the air-
wedge, as shown in Fig. E. 1.

Interference takes place between the light reflected at the top and bottom r surfaces of the
thin air film between the two glass plates. The thickness of (this wedge-shaped air film
increases as the distance from the edge of contact increases. Hence, a large number of
equally spaced alternate dark and bright fringes are formed, as shown in Fig. E .2, which
are parallel to edge of contact of the two glass plates.

The microscope is focussed on these fringes and its vertical cross wire is made to
coincide with a bright or dark fringe near the edge of contact of the glass plates. This is
considered as the nth fringe and the reading on the horizontal scale of the travelling
microscope is noted. The microscope is then moved in the same direction with the help of
the horizontal transverse screw and is made to coincide with successive 5th fringes (5, 10,
15, etc.) and the corresponding readi ngs in the microscope are noted. The readings are
tabulated in Table E 1.

Table E..l To find the width of the fringe β


Order of the Microscope Reading Width of 20 Width of 1
Fringes MSR VSC X LC Total Reading fringes fringe β
(X10-2m) (x 10-2 m) (x 10-2 m (X 10-2m (X 10-2m
n
n+5
n+10
.
Page 74

.
n+40
Page 75

From these readings, the mean width of one fringe β is calculated. Using the travelling
microscope, the distance l between the edge of contact and the wire is measured. The
observed readings are tabulated in Table E.2, and therefore, the thickness of the wire is
calculated by using Eq. (E.1).

Table E.2 To find the distance between the edge of contact and thin wire
Microscope Reading Width of 20 l  R1  R2
Position MSR VSC X LC Total Reading fringes (X 10-2m
(X10-2m) (x 10-2 m) (x 10-2 m (X 10-2m
At the edge
of contact R1
At the wire
R2

Thickness of the wire t=………m


Page 76

UNIT – III:

LESSON – 5
CONTENTS

5.0. Aims and Objectives


5.1. Magnetic Induction (B)
5.1.1. Relation between the three magnetic vectors B, Hand M
5.1.2. Magnetic susceptibility
5.1.3. Magnetic Permeability
5.2.Properties of diamagnetic materials .
5.2.1. Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism.
5.3. The Electron Theory of Magnetism
5.3.1.Explanation of Diamagnetism
5.3.2.Explanation of Paramagnetism
5.3.3.Explanation of Ferromagnetism
5.4. Langevin's Theory of Diamagnetism
5.5.Weiss's Theory of Ferromagnetism
5.6 Let us sum up
5.7 Check your progress
5.8 Lesson end activities
5.9 Points for discussion
5.10 References

5.0 Aims and Objectives

In this lesson you will understand about the magnetic induction (B), magnetic
susceptibitliy and magnetic permeability. Also you will learn about different types of
magnetic materials namely dia, para, and ferromagnetic materials and their applications,
properties and importance in magnetism. Different theories putforward by different
scientists will also be discussed.
Page 77
Page 78

5.1. Magnetic Induction (B)

The magnetic induction is defined through its action on a moving charge. If a


positive test charge q moving with velocity v through a point in a magnetic field
experiences a force F. then the magnetic induction B at that point is defined by
F=qv X B.
F
The Magnitude of the magnetic induction =B=
qv sin 
Here, θ is the angle between v and B. Unit of B is weber/m2. The magnetic field can be
represented by lines of induction. The tangent to the line of induction at any point gives
the direction of B. The number of lines of induction per unit area normal to their direction
is equal to the magnitude of B.

Magnetisation (M).

When a magnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, the elementary current-loops in


the material become aligned parallel to the field. The material is then magnetized, and
acquires a magnetic dipole moment.
Magnetization M of the material is defined as the magnetic dipole moment induced per
unit volume of the material. Unit of M is Am-1. Let m be the magnetic dipole moment of
a specimen of volume V, then
m
M 
v

In an unmagnetized material M will be zero. In a uniformly magnetized material, each


atomic magnetic dipole will point in the same direction and magnetization M win be
constant throughout.

5.1.1. Relation between the three magnetic vectors B, Hand M


Page 79

Consider a Rowland ring having a toroidal winding of N turns around it. When a current
i0 is sent through the winding, the ring is magnetized along its circumferential length. The
current i0 is the real current which rnagnetises the ring.
This magnetization arises due to the alignment of the elementary current-loops (magnetic
dipoles) resulting from electronic motions in the material. Fig 5.1.1 shows a section of
the magnetized ring. The small circles represent the current-loops. These internal tiny
circular electron currents tend to cancel each other due to the fact that adjacent currents
are in opposite directions. As such, there is no net current inside the core. The currents in
the outer portion is of the outer most loops remain uncancelled. The numerous tiny
localized surface currents can be replaced by single closed current is, along the surface.
Such a current is called Amperian current.

Fig.5.1.1

Let A = area of cross section and l  circumferential length of the ring. Then volume of
the ring = lA
The ring behaves like a large dipole of magnetic moment isA.
is A is
 magnetization = M = magnetic moment per unit volume  
la l
The magnetization M, therefore, is the surface current per unit length of the ring. This is
commonly called magnetization current.
Page 80

Now, the magnetic induction B within the material of the ring arises due to the free
current io in the winding, as well as due to the magnetization of the ring itself which can
be described in terms of Amperian surface current.
 Ni i   Ni  is
 B  0  0  s   0  0  M   M
 l l  l  l

 Ni  i 
Here  0  is the free current per unit length and  s  is the Amperian surface current
 l  l
perunit length.
B Ni
M  0
0 l
…(1)
B
The quantity -  M is called magnetizing field or magnetic field intensity H i.e.,
0
B
H  M
0
or B  0 ( H  M )

in vector form,
B  µ ︵H  M︶ ……(2)
0
This is the relation between the three vectors B. H and M. H points in the same direction
as that of B or M. Its unit is Am-1.
Ni0
Eq. (I) can. be written as H   nl0
l
Where n is the number of turns per unit length. Thus the value of H depends only on the
free current and is independent of the core material.
When no magnetic material is present in the core of the Rowland ring. i.e., there is
vacuum in the core, M =0. Therefore Eq. (2) becomes
B=0H …..(3)
In vacuum, the magnetic field strength H is related to the magnetic induction Bo by the
above relation.
When a magnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the specimen is
magnetized by producing (or reorienting) magnetic dipoles in the specimen. This will
Page 81

produce additional field. Thus the resultant field B is greater than Bo. In such a case, H is
related to B by the relation.
H  B 0  M

5.1.2. Magnetic susceptibility

For isotropic linear para-and diamagnetic materials it is found experimentally that


the rnagnetization M is proportional to the magnetic field intensity H. That is,
MH or M   m H

The constant  m is called the magnetic susceptibility of the material. It may be defined as

the ratio of the magnetization M to the magnetic field intensity H.


m  M H

Therefore, the magnetic susceptibility of a material is defined as the intensity of


magnetization acquired by the material for unit field strength.
We can classify magnetic materials in terms of susceptibility  m . If  m is positive, the

material is called paramagnet. If  m is negative, the material is diamagnetic. The

characteristic of ferromagnetic materials is that  m is positive and very large. However,

in ferromagnetic materials, M is not exactly proportional to H, and so  m is not a

constant. M may even be finite when H = 0.


In most hand books on physical data  m is not listed directly, but instead is given as the

mass susceptibility  m, mass or the molar Susceptibility,  m, molar these are defined by,

 m   m , mass 


 m   m , molar
A
where  and A arethe density and molecular weight of the material respectively. Here
 m ,  m, mass and  m, molar are known as volume, mass and molar susceptibilities

respectively.

5.1.3. Magnetic Permeability


Page 82

Consider the relation


B=0(H+M)
=0(H+  m H)

=0(1+  m )H

=H
where =0(1+  m ) is called the magnetic permeability of the material.

B=H
magnetic permeability () of the medium is defined as ratio of magnetic induction to the
intensity of the magnetising field.
B

H
for vacuum  m =0 and =0

Hence the magnetic induction in vacuum is B0=0 H


B 
The ratio 
B0 0

is called the relative permeability r obviously r=1+  m

we may also classify magnetic materials in terms of the relative permeability r


Diamagnetism: r < I (For Bi. r = 1 - 0.000 17)
Paramagnetism: r > I (For Al, r = 1 + 0.0002)
Ferromagnetism: r > > I (For pure Fe, r = 200,000)

5.2.Properties of diamagnetic materials : .

(i) For diamagnetic substances r is slightly less than unity.


(ii) The susceptibility (m) of a diamagnetic material has a low negative value. It is
independent of temperature.
(iii) In an external magnetic field, they get magnetized in a direction opposite to the field
and so they have a tendency to move away from the field.
Page 83

(iv) If suspended freely. they set themselves r to the field. Sb, Bi, Zn. Ag, Au. Ph etc ..
are examples of diamagnetic materials.

Properties of paramagnetic materials:

(i) These substances have r > 1 and m+ ve. The susceptibility decreases with rise in
temperature.
(ii) In an external magnetic field, these substances get magnetized in the direction of the
field. Hence they move from weaker to stronger part of the external field.
(iii) If suspended freely, they set themselves  to the field. Platinum, aluminum,
chromium, manganese, copper sulphate, liquid oxygen and solutions of salts of iron and
nickel are examples of paramagnetic substances.

Properties of ferromagnetic materials

(i) The values of r and m of these materials are very large.


(ii)They get strongly magnetized in the direction of the external field and so they are
strongly attracted by magnets.
(iii) They set themselves parallel to the external field if suspended freely.
(iv) These materials exhibit the phenomenon of hysteresis.
(v) As temperature increases, the value of m decreases. Above a certain temperature,
known as Curie temperature, ferromagnetics become paramagnetics.
Iron, nickel and cobalt are some examples of Ferro-magnetic substances.
There exist two other types of magnetism, closely related to ferromagnetism. These are
antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism.

5.2.1. Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism.

The only type of magnetic order which has been considered is ferromagnetism, in which,
in the fully magnetized state, all the dipoles are aligned in exactly the same direction
(Fig.3.2.1(a)). There are, however, substances which show different types of magnetic or-
Page 84

der. In antiferromagnetic materials such as Cr and MnO, the dipoles have equal moments,
but adjacent dipoles point in opposite directions (Fig.3.2.1(b)). Thus the moments
balance each other, resulting in a zero net magnetization. The gross magnetic effects of
such materials are very small. When heated above critical temperature, called the Neel
temperature, the exchange interaction ceases to exist and these materials become
paramagnetic.

In ferrimagnetic materials (also called ferrites) such as Mn, Fe2 and O4 the magnetic
moments of adjacent ions are Antiparallel and of unequal strength (Fig 3.2.1.(c)). So
there is a finite net magentisation. Thus results in net magnetism, which lies in between
ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism. Here again, when the temperature is above a
critical value, the material becomes paramagnetic.

By suiitable choice of rare-earth ions in the ferrite lattices it is possible to design


ferrimagnetic substances with specific magnetizations for use in electronic components.
Ferrites are good insulators and have very small eddy current losses when subjected to
high fields. For this reason, ferrites are often used in microwave systems.
Page 85

5.3. The Electron Theory of Magnetism

The paramagnetic, diamagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviour of substance can be


explained in an elementary way in terms of the electron theory of mutter.

Each electron is supposed to be revolving in an orbit around the nucleus. Each moving
electron behaves like a tiny current loop and therefore possesses orbital magnetic dipole
moment. Furthermore, each electron is spinning about an axis through itself. This spin
also gives rive to a magnetic dipole moment. In general, the resultant magnetic dipole
moment of an atom is the vector sum of the orbital and spin magnetic dipole moments of
its electrons.

5.3.1.Explanation of Diamagnetism

Diamagnetism occurs in those substances whose atoms consist of an even number of


electrons. The electrons of such atoms are paired. The electrons in each pair have orbital
motions as well as spin motions in opposite sense. The resultant magnetic dipole moment
of the atom is thus zero. Hence when such a substance is placed in a magnetic field, the
field does not tend to align the atoms (dipoles) of the substance. The field, however,
modifies the motion of the electrons in orbits which are equivalent to tiny current-loops.
The electron moving in a direction so as to produce a magnetic field in the same direction
as the external field is slowed down, while the other is accelerated (Lenz's law). The
electron pair, and hence the atom, thus acquire an effective magnetic dipole moment
which is opposite to the applied field. Hence for diamagnetic materials M is opposite to
H. So the susceptibility m of a diamagnetic substance is negative and is very small.

5.3.2.Explanation of Paramagnetism

In paramagnetic materials, the magnetic fields associated with the orbiting and spinning
electrons do not cancel out. There is a net intrinsic moment in it. The molecules in it
behave like little magnets. When such a substance is placed in an external magnetic field,
Page 86

it will turn and line up (with its axis parallel to the external field. Thus it tends to move
further into, the field. i.e., there is force of attraction. The diamagnetic force of repulsion
is also present, but it is not so strong as the attracting force arising from the magnetic
properties of the material. Since M and B (and hence H) are in the same direction in
paramagnetics, the susceptibility m is positive. When a paramagnetic substance is
heated, the thermal agitation of its atoms increases. So the alignment of the dipoles
becomes more difficult. This is why the magnetization of paramagnetic substances
decreases as the temperature of the substance increases.  m  1 T

5.3.3.Explanation of Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetic substances are very strongly magnetic. The best-known examples of


ferromagnets are the transition metals Fe, Co, and Ni. A ferromagnet has a spontaneous
magnetic moment - a magnetic moment even in zero applied field. The atoms (or
molecules) of ferromagnetic materials have a net intrinsic magnetic dipole moment which
is primarily due to the spin of the electrons. The interaction between the neighbouring
atomic magnetic dipoles is very strong. It is called spin exchange interaction and is
present even in the absence of an external magnetic field. It turns out that the energy of
two neighbouring atomic magnets due to this interaction is the least when their magnetic
moments are parallel. The neighbouring magnetic moments are, therefore, strongly
constrained to take parallel orientation (Fig. 5.3.3). This effect of the exchange
interaction to align the neighbouring magnetic dipole moments parallel to one another
spreads over a small finite volume of the bulk. This small (1 - 0.1 mm across) volume of
the bulk is called a domain (Fig. 3.3.3). All magnetic moments within a domain will point
in the same direction, resulting in a large magnetic moment. Thus the bulk material
consists of many domains. The domains are oriented in different directions. The total
magnetic moment of a sample of the substance is the vector sum of the magnetic
moments of the component domains.
Page 87

Fig 5.3.3
In an un magnetised piece of ferromagnetic material, the magnetic moments of the
domains themselves are not aligned. When an external field is applied, those domains
that are aligned with the field increase in size at the expense of the others. In a very
strong field, all the domains are lined up in the direction of the field and provide the high
observed magnetization.
If a ferromagnetic material is heated to a very high temperature, the thermal vibrations
may become strong enough to offset the alignment within a domain. At such temperature,
the material loses its ferromagnetic property and behaves like a paramagnetic material.
The critical temperature above which a ferromagnetic material becomes a paramagnetic
is called the Curie temperature.

5.4. Langevin's Theory of Diamagnetism

Consider an electron ( mass=m, charge=e) rotating about the nucleus(charge=Ze)


in a circular orbit of radius r. Let ω0 be the angular velocity of the electron. Then

F0  mo2 r  Ze 2 4 0r 2 
Ze 2
or 0  …(1)
4 0 mr 3

The magnetic moment of the electron is


 e0 e
m =current X area =  r 2  0 r 2 ….(2)
2 2
Let a magnetic field of induction B be now applied.(Fig.5.4)
Page 88

Fig.5.4.

An additional force FL called Lorentz force acts on the electron.


FL=-e(v X B)=-eBrω
The condition of stable motion is now given by
Ze 2
mr  2   eBr …(3)
4 0 r 2
or
eB Ze 2
2   0
m 4 0 mr 3
Solving the quadratic equation in ω,
2
 eB  eB   Ze 2 
    4 
3 
m m  4 0 mr 
 …(4)
2
2
 eB 
2 eB
   
0   …(5)
 2m  2m

 1
Where L( )  coth    is called the Langevin function.
 
The variation of M with  is Shown in Fig.3.4.1.
Page 89

Case (i)At low temperatures or large applied field, L ()1.


Hence, magnetisation M in this case will be
M=mn …(6)
So saturation is reached when all the atomic dipoles are parallel to B.

Fig 5.4.1

Case (ii). Under normal conditions  is very small. Then.


1 
L( )  coth    ..(7)
 3
 nm 2 0 H
 M  mn  …(8)
3 3kT
M 0 nm 2 C
m    …(9)
H 3kT T
where C  0nm 2 3k is called the Curie Constant.

1
Eq.(9) shows that  m  , which is Curie’s law.
T
Page 90

5.4.1. Failure of Langevin Theory. (i) Langevin's theory was unable to explain, a more
complicated dependence of susceptibility upon temperature exhibited by several
paramagnetics such as highly compressed and cooled gases, very concentrated solutions
of salts etc.
(i) Langevin's theory could not account for the intimate relation between para- and ferro-
magnetism.

5.5.Weiss's Theory of Ferromagnetism

Langevin's theory of paramagnetism was extended by Weiss to give a theoretical


explanation of the behaviour of ferromagnetics. He made the following two assumptions:
(i) Weiss assumed that a ferromagnetic specimen contains a number of small regions
(domains) which are spontaneously magnetized. The total spontaneous magnetization is
the vector sum of the magnetic moments of the individual domains.
(ii) The spontaneous magnetisation of each domain is due to the existence of an internal
molecular field. This tends to produce a parallel alignment of the atomic dipoles.

Weiss also assumed that the internal molecular field Hi is proportional to the
rnangnetisation M. i.e ..Hi=γ M where γ is a constant called Weiss constant. If now an
external field H acts on the dipole, then the effective field Heff is given by
Heff = H + Hi = H + γ M ... (1)
According to Langevin's theory of paramagnetism, at high temperatures,

nm 2 0 H
M 
3kT
Where k is Boltzmann Constant and T is absolute temperature.
Weiss suggested that, the corresponding result for ferromagnetics could be obtained by
replacing H by Heff. Hence for ferromagnerics,
nm 2 0
M  H  M 
3kT
Page 91

or M  nm 2 0 H …(2)
 nm20 
3k  T  
 3k 

The Susceptibility m is ,
M nm2  0 C …(3)
 ferro   
H  nm20  T   
3k  T  
 3k 

nm 2 0 0
Here, is called the Curie Constant.
3k
nm 2 0 0
 is called the Curie temperature.
3k
It is the temperature below which the material shows ferromagnetic behavior.
For values of temperature above θ, the ferromagnetic substance behaves like a
paramagnetic substance. Eq. (3) is called the Curie-Weiss law for ferromagnetics.

5.6 Let us sum up


In this lesson you have learned about the magnetic induction, magnetic susceptibility and
magnetic permeability. Also you learned about different magnetic materials such as dia,
para and ferro and their properties and importance in magnetism. Also you learned about
different theories putforth by different scientists.
5.7 Check your progress
1) Define magnetic induction
2) Find the relation between the three vectors B, H and M
3) Define magnetic susceptibitliy and permeability
4) Give the properties of dia magnetic materials
5) What is anti ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism

5.8 Lesson end activities


1) A rod of magnetic material 0.5 m in length has a coil of 200 turns over it uniformly.
IF the current of 2 amp is sent through it calculate a) the magnetic field b) the intensity of
magnetization c) Magnetic induction and d) relative permeability of the material.
Page 92

5.9 Points for Discussion


1. (i) Explain dia, para and ferromagnetism on the basis of Electron theory

(ii) Write a note on Antiferromagnetism and ferri magnetism.

2. (i) Explain Weiss theory of ferromagnetism

(ii) Derive an relation between the three magnetic vectors

5.10 References
1) Electricity and magnetism by R. Murugesan

LESSON - 6

CONTENTS
6.0. Aims and Objectives
6.1. Hysterses
6.1.1. Experiment to draw M·H curve (Horizontal model)
6.1.2. Experiment to draw B-H curve (Ballistic method)
6.1.3. Energy loss due to hysteresis
6.2. Importance of hysteresis curves
6.3. Choice of Magnetic materials
6.4. Let us sum up
6.5 Check your progress
6.6 Lesson end activities
6.7 Points for discussion
6.8 References

6.0 Aims and Objectives


In this lesson the hystereses, energy loss due to hystereses, its importance and
choice of magnetic materials are given.

6.1 HYSTERSES
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6.1.1. Experiment to draw M·H curve (Horizontal model)

The lagging of the intensity of magnetisation M (or magnetic induction B) behind the
magnetising field H is known as hysteresis.
The variation of M with H can be studied by the following experiment. A deflection
magnetometer can be used for drawing the M - H curve for iron in the form of a rod.
Description: Fig. 3.6 shows the experimental set up. A solenoid SS and compensating
coil (C) are connected in series through a commutator to a battery, ammeter and rheostat.
The solenoid is mounted horizontally in the east-west direction. The sample rod AB is
placed well within the solenoid along its axis. The magnetometer M set in end-on
position [Tan A ] is placed in level with the axes of SS and C. The magnetometer is
adjusted to read zero-
zero.

Fig. 6.1.1

Working. The sample rod AB is removed from SS. The compensating coil placed on the
other side of the magnetometer in such a way that its magnetic field is opposite to the
solenoid's field at the magnetometer. A current is passed through the solenoid. The
Page 94

position of the compensating coil C is adjusted until the magnetometer deflection


becomes zero. The position of C is, then fixed throughout the experiment. The current is
switched off.
The sample rod AB is then introduced in SS. A current i is passed through it. To get the
hysteresis loop we need a series of values of M and H (or θ and i). The current is
gradually increased to 0.5 A. The readings of the two ends of the pointer of the
magnetometer are noted and the average deflection θ is calculated. The current through
the solenoid is gradually increased in steps of 0.5 A noting the deflections in each case
upto the maximum current of 3A. Then the current is gradually decreased in steps of 0.5
A to zero. Now the current is reversed in its direction by changing the commutator and
increased upto –3A. Then the current is brought to zero in steps of 0.5, reversed to the
original direction and increased upto 3A. The deflections are noted in each case. Thus the
specimen has been taken through a complete cycle of magnetization.

Theory: The magnetising field H is calculated from the equation


H = ni
where i is the current and n is the number of turns per unit length of the solenoid.
The value of M is calculated as follows. The deflection in M ' is now due to the
magnetism acquired by the sample alone. Let it be measured as θ . The field at M ' is
B = Bo tan θ .. (1)
where Bo is the horizontal induction of earth’s field.
Let d = distance between the centre of the rod AB and the centre of the magnetometer M
',
2L = length of the rod AB.
m = magnetic dipole moment developed in the rod.
Then, the field at M' producing the deflection θ is given by
0 2md
B …(2)
4 d 2  L2 2

From Eqs (1) and (2)


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0 2md
 B0 tan 
4 d 2  L2 2

4 (d 2  L2 ) 2
 m B0 tan 
0 2d
Let r be the radius of the rod. Then,
Volume of the rod = V=( r2) 2L
 intensity of magnetization of the rod
M=m/V
 4  (d 2  L2 ) 2
 M    2
B0 tan 
 0  2d (r )2 L
Knowing Bo, the intensity of magnetisation M is calculated for various deflections 8
corresponding to different values of current i.
A graph is drawn plotting H along the x-axis and M along the y-axis. The graph obtained
is in the form of a loop ABCDEFA (Fig.6.1.1(a)). The loop is called the hysteresis loop.
From the graph the following properties of the material can be calculated.

Fig. 6.1.1(a)
Page 96

(i) Retentivity. When the magnetisiug field becomes zero, the magnetisation does not
become zero but retains a value OB. This value of M is called the retentivity of the
material. Retentivity=OB
(ii) Coercivity. The field DC which should be applied to the material in the direction
opposite to its magnetisation, to remove its residual magnetism and make the
magnetisation zero is called coercivity (or coercive force).
Coercivity=OC
The chief sources of error in this method arc (i) uncertainty in the location of the poles of
the magnetised rod, and (ii) insensitiveness of the deflection magnetometer.

6.1.2. Experiment to draw B-H curve (Ballistic method)

Circuit Description: A specimen of the given ferromagnetic material is taken in the


form of a ring (Rowland ring). The experimental arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.7.
A primary coil P1 is wound closely over the specimen ring. This winding is connected in
series with a battery B, an ammeter A, a rheostat R1 and a resistance R through a
reversing key K and a two-way key K1.
Page 97

Fig.6.1.2

A tab key K connected across R' facilitates either its inclusion or removal from the
circuit. The secondary winding S1 over the specimen, consists of a few turns of closely
wound wire. This winding S1 is connected in series with a rheostat R, a ballistic
galvanometer and the secondary winding S2 of a standard solenoid through a key K2· Kg
is the damping key across the ballistic galvanometer. P2 is the primary winding of the
standard solenoid. The two way key K1 connects either P1 or P2 to the battery circuit.

Theory.
Number of turns of the winding P1 = n1 turns per metre
Total number of turns of the winding S1 =n2 turns
Number of turns of the winding P2 = n3 turns per metre
Total number of turns of the winding S2 = n4 turns
Area of cross-section of the specimen = A sq. metres
Area of cross-section of the standard solenoid = a sq. metres
Page 98

When the key K1 is closed to the left, a current i passes through the magnetizing coil P1.
The ring is magnetized.
The intensity of the magnetizing field =H=n1i .... (1)
The rnagnetisation of the specimen develops a magnetic flux density B inside the ring.
Then,
The total flux linked with the secondary ==n2 BA.
This is the change of flux in the secondary. It sets up an induced emf in the secondary
circuit. If R is the total resistance of the secondary circuit, then the charge passing
through the ballistic galvanometer
q =n2 BA/R.
If θ is the first throw of the ballistic galvanometer coil, then
q = n2BA/R = Kθ(1 + λ/2). . .. (2)
where K is the ballistic constant and λ the logarithmic decrement of the ballistic
galvanometer.

To eliminate K and λ

A known current i is passed through the primary of the standard solenoid by closing the
key K1, to the right. .
Magnetic flux linked with the secondary =  '  0n3ian4 Weber

0n3n4ia
This change in the magnetic flux sends a charge q  through the
R
galvanometer.
If θ is the first thorw in the galvanometer coil, then
0n3n4ia  
q   K 1   …(3)
R  2
Dividing Eq.(2) by (3), we have,
n2 BA 

0 n3n4ia  
0 n3n4ia 
or B  Wb/m2 …(4)
An2  
Page 99

Eq. (4) gives the magnetic induction B induced in the specimen corresponding to the
magnetic intensity H, given by Eq. (1).

Procedure: The key K1 is first closed to the left and the resistances R1 and R' are
decreased until on Closing the commutator K, the galvanometer gives a full-scale
deflection from the zero. The current required to do this is noted and is used as maximum
current in the main experiment.
The residual magnetism in the specimen is reduced to zero as follows: The galvanometer
circuit is first broken and the resistances Rl and R are reduced to the minimum. The
current passing through the primary of the ring solenoid is then reversed many times by
means of the commutator K, and R and R are gradually increased the current which is
reversed is very small.
The galvanometer is again put in the circuit by
closing key K2. The key K is closed and
resistance R1 is given a value corresponding to
the maximum current. The commutator K is
closed to the right and the first throw θ1 of the
galvanometer is noted. 'The current i1 is also
noted from the ammeter. The values of B1 and
H1 are calculated by using Eq. (4) and (1)
respectively. The corresponding point on the B-
H curve is a (Fig. 6.1.2) Fig. 6.1.2
The galvanometer circuit is again broken and the specimen is again demagnetized by
reversing rapidly the commutator K as described before. The ballistic galvanometer is
again put in the circuit. Now R' is given a small value and K' is opened.The magnetising
force is thereby decreased to H2, producing a ballistic throw θ2 in the galvanometer. This
throw corresponds to a decrease in induction, B1 - B2.

The value of magnetising field H2 is calculated by noting ammeter reading. The


corresponding point on the graph is ,denoted by the point b. This process is repeated by
Page 100

gradually increasing R, until current and hence H becomes zero. The graph corresponding
to these readings is ‘ac’. After each measurement, the specimen is returned to the state a
by the reversal of maximum current. Hence point ‘a’ works as the reference point.

The key K' is now closed and commutator is reversed several times and finally left to the
right. R' is given a large value and galvanometer is a again put in the circuit. The
commutator K is then thrown, over to the left and at the same time K' is opened, so that
the current is reversed and at the same time made of small value. This gives a point on
the part ‘cd’ of the curve. The starting point is again ‘a’ and change in magnetic induction
is measured every time. The process is repeated in many steps until finally R' is zero
when the point ‘e’ on the curve is reached.

The part ‘efga’ can be drawn by symmetry or by repeating the, experiment using ‘e’ as
the reference point and leaving the commutator now on the left.

The two way key K1 is closed to the right. A known current i ' is passed through P2.
The corresponding throw θ' in the B.G, is noted. This auxiliary experiment is used to
calculate H from Eq. (4).

6.1.3. Energy loss due to hysteresis

According to Ewing's theory of molecular magnetism, a magnetic material even in the un


magnetised condition consists of an indefinitely large number of molecular magnets
endowed with definite polarity. When a magnetizing field is applied, the molecular
magnets align themselves in the direction of the field.
During this process, work is done by the magnetizing field in turning the molecular
magnets against the mutual attractive forces. This energy required to magnetize a
specimen is not completely recovered when the magnetizing field is turned off, since the
magnetization does not become zero. The specimen retains some magnetization because
some of the molecular magnets remain aligned in the new formation due to the group
forces. To tear them out completely, a coercive force in the reverse direction has to be
Page 101

applied. Thus, there is a loss of energy in taking a ferromagnetic material through a cycle
of magnetization. This loss of energy is called hysteresis loss and appears in the form of
heat.

Consider a magnetic material having ‘n’ molecular magnets per unit volume. Let m be
the magnetic moment of each magnet and θ the angle which its axis makes with the
direction of magnetizing field H.

The magnetic moment m of the molecular magnet can be resolved into a component m
cos θ in the direction of H and m sinθ perpendicular to H. The component m cosθ alone
contributes to the magnetising field and the component m sin a has no effect on the
rnagnetisation of the specimen.

If M be the intensity of rnagnetisation, then


M=m cos θ …(1)
Differentiating Eq (1), dM= d(m cos θ)=- m sin θ.dθ …(2)
When M increases to M + dM, θ decreases to θ - d θ.
The work done by the field in decreasing θ by d θ is given by
dW =C d θ …(3)
Here, C= torque for unit deflection =0mHsin θ
 dW=0mHsin θ X (-d θ)=- 0mHsin θdθ ….(4)
The work done by the applied field is

 dW   H  ( m sin d


0

= 0 H  dM (From Eq.(2)

Thus work done by the magnetizing field per unit volume of the material for completing
a cycle is,
W   0 HdM   H0 dM …(5)

Now B=0(H+M). For ferromagnetics, M>>H. So B=0M


i.e., dB=0dM …(6)
From Eqs.(5) and (6).
Page 102

W   HdB …(7)

The area of the B-H loop or 0 times the area of the M-H loop gives the energy spent per
cycle.
When H is in Am-1 and B is in Wb m-2, the energy is in joules per cycle per m3 of the
material.

6.2. The Importance of hysteresis curves

The magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic substance can he obtained from the size and
shape of the hysteresis loop. Fig. 6.2 shows the hysteresis loops for soft iron and steel.

Fig 6.2
(i) The retentivity of soft iron (OC) is greater than that of steel (OC ') i.e., soft iron retains
more magnetism than steel, when the magnetising force is totally removed.
(ii) The coercive force for son iron (OD) is smaller than that for steel (OD), i.e iron is
more readily demagnetised than steel.
(iii) The permeability  = (B/H) for soft iron is greater than that for steel.
(iv) The susceptibility  (=M/H) for soft iron is greater than that for steel.
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(v) The area of the B - H loop for steel is much larger than that for soft iron. Thus the
energy loss per unit volume per cycle of magnetisation is greater for steel than that for
soft iron.

6.3. Choice of Magnetic materials

(i) Permanent Magnets. Materials used for making magnets are never taken through a
cycle. So hysteresis loss is a minor consideration in these cases. These materials should
have high retentivity and high coercivity. So steel is a suitable material for permanent
magnets. Recently a number of alloys, having large values of coercivity have been
developed for the purpose of construction of permanent magnets. The very suitable alloy
of highest coercivity is names as vicalloy (vanadium, iron and cobalt).

(ii) Electro-magnets. The material for the cores of electromagnets should have
maximum flux density with comparatively small magnetizing field and low hysteresis
loss. Soft-iron is an ideal material for electro-magnets.

(iii) Transformer cores. Materials for transformer cores, telephone diaphragms and
chokes etc., (which are meant for obtaining high magnetic flux) are frequently subjected
to many cycles of magnetisation in one second. So the material selected for the purpose
must be associated with high magnetic induction and low hysteresis loss.
Soft-iron is better than steel for these purposes. By alloying soft-iron with 4% silicon,
'transformer steel' is produced. It has a higher initial permeability and is an ideal material
for cores of transformers. Alloys of iron and nickel, called permalloys have also very
large initial permeabilities.

(iv) Ferrites. Their permeability is very high. Ferrites are made by


sintering powders consisting of a mixture of ferric oxide and the
oxides of other metals like lithium, nickel and manganese. Their
hysteresis loop is almost rectangular [Fig. 6.3] which enables these
to be used for memory circuit in computers. These have a high
Fig. 6.3
Page 104

electrical resistivity unlike the ferromagnetic materials which are very good conductors.
So ferrites are widely used in the manufacture of components for radio and electrical
communication equipments.

6.4 Let us sum up


In this lesson you have studied the importance of Hysterisis and its use in selecting
materials by drawing M-H and B-H curve. Also you learned about the energy losses due
to hysterises and the importance of hysterises curves.

6.5 Check your Progress


1) What is hysteresis ?
2) What is coercivity
3) State the reason as to why energy losses taking place in hysteresis
4) Give any two importance of Hysteresis curves
5) What are ferrites

6.6 Lesson end Activities


1) An iron rod of density 7700 kg m-3 and specific heat capacity 460 J Kg-1K-1 is
subjected to cycles of magnetization at the rate of 60c/s. If the area of B-H curve for the
specimen is 5000 Joules, calculate the rise in temperature per minute of the specimen.

6.7 Points for Discussion


1. What is Hysterises? Explain an experiment to dra M-H and B-H curve.

2. Write short notes on

(i) Energy loss due to hysterises

(ii) Discuss the choice of materials on the basis of Hysterises curve.

6.8 References
1) Electricity and Magnetism by Srivastava
2) Electricity and Magnetism by R. Murugesan
Page 105

UNIT – IV

LESSON – 7
CONTENTS

7.0 Aims and Objectives


7.1 Laws of Thermo e.m.f.
7.2 Seebeck Effect.
7.2a Measurement of Thermo EMF using Potentiometer
7.3 Peltier Effect -
7.3a Determination of the Peltier Co-efficient at a junction
7.4 Thermo dynamical consideration of Peltier Effect
7.4a Explanation of Seeback, Peltier and Thomson effects on the Electron theory
7.5 Thomson Effect
7.6 Thermodynamics of Thermocouple (Expression for Peltier and Thomson
coefficients).
7.7 Let us sum up
7.8 Check your Progress
7.9 Lesson end Activities
7.10 Points for Discussion
7.11 References

7.0 Aims and Objectives

AIM: In this less the laws of thermo emf and different types of thermoelectric effects are
discussed. These are Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects. Also you will come to know
about the applications of the above effects. These effects are explained on the basis of
electron theory.

7.1 Laws of Thermo e.m.f.

(i) Law of Intermediate Metals. The introduction of any additional metal into any

thermoelectric circuit does not alter the thermo emf provided the metal introduced is

entirely at the same temperature as the point at which the metal is introduced.
Page 106

If aEb is the emf for a couple made of metals A and B, and bEc that for the couple

of metals B and C, then the emf for couple of metals A and C is given by,

aEc = aEb + bEc

(ii) Law of Intermediate Temperatures. The thermo emf E13 of a thermocouple

whose junctions are maintained at temperatures T1 and T3 is equal to the sum of the emfs

E12 and E23 when the junctions are maintained at temperatures T1, T2 and T2, T3

respectively. Thus,

E13 = E12 + E23

7.2 Seebeck Effect.

When two dissimilar metal wires are joined together so as to form a closed circuit

and if the two junctions are maintained at different temperatures, an emf is developed in

the circuit (Fig 7.2). This causes a current to flow in the circuit as indicated by the

deflection in the galvanometer G.. This phenomenon is called the Seebeck effect. This

arrangement is called a thermocouple. The emf developed is called thermo emf. The

Fig. 7.2

thermo emf so developed depends on the temperature difference between the two

junctions and the metals chosen for the couple. Seebeck arranged the metals in a series as

follows:
Page 107

Bi, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Mn, Hg, Pb, Sn, Au, Ag, Zn, Cd, Fe, Sb.

When a thermocouple is formed between any two of them, the thermoelectric

current flows through the hot junction from the metal occurring earlier to the metal

occurring later in the list. The more removed are the two metals in the list, the greater is

the thermo emf developed. The metals to the left of Pb are called thermoelectrically

negative and those to its right are thermoelectrically positive.

7.2a Measurement of Thermo EMF using Potentiometer

Thermo emfs are very small, of the order of only a few millivolts. Such small

emfs are measured using a potentiometer. A ten-wire potentiometer of resistance R is

connected in series with an accumulator and resistance boxes P and Q. A standard cell of

emf E is connected in the secondary circuit. The positive terminal of the cell is connected

to the positive of Q. The negative terminal of the cell is connected to a galvanometer and

through a key to the negative of Q. (Fig.7.2(a))

Fig. 7.2(a)

A resistance of 100 ER ohms is taken in Q. The resistance in P is adjusted so that

on closing the key, there is no deflection in the galvanometer. Now, the PD across 100

ER ohms is equal to E.

PD across R ohms of the potentiometer =( ER100ER) volt = (1100) volt = 10 millivolt


Page 108

Thus the fall of potential per metre of the potentiometer wire is 1 millivolt. So we

can measure thermo emf up to 10 millivolt.

Without altering resistances in P and Q, the positive of the thermocouple is

connected to the positive terminal of the potentiometer and the negative of the

thermocouple to a galvanometer and jockey. One junction is kept in melting ice and their

other junction in an oil bath or in a sand bath. The jockey is moved till a balance is

obtained against the small emf e of the thermocouple. Let AJ = l cm be the balancing

length. Then,

Thermo emf e = 1  100 l millivolt.

Keeping the cold junction at 0C, the hot junction is heated to different

temperatures. The thermo emf generated is determined for different temperatures of the

hot junction. A graph is drawn between thermo emf and the temperature of the hot

junction (Fig 7.2b). The graph is a parabolic curve.

Fig. 7.2(b)

The thermo emf E varies with temperature according to E = at + bt2, where a and b are

constants. The thermo emf increases as the temperature of the hot junction increases,
Page 109

reaches a maximum value Tn, then decreases to zero at a particular temperature Ti. On

further increasing the difference of temperature, emf is reversed in direction.

For a given temperature of the cold junction, the temperature of the hot junction

for which the thermo emf becomes maximum is called the neutral temperature (Tn) for the

given thermocouple.

For a given temperature of the cold junction, the temperature of the jot junction

for which the thermo emf becomes zero and changes its direction is called the inversion

temperature (Ti) for the given thermocouple.

Tn is a constant for the pair of metals. Ti is as much above the neutral temperature

as the cold temperature as the cold junction is below it.

Note: For experiment refer Annexure – I

7.3 Peltier Effect -

Consider a copper-iron thermocouple (Fig 7.3). When a current is allowed to pass

through the thermocouple in the direction of arrows (from A to B), heat is absorbed at the

Fig. 7.3

junction B and generated at the junction A. This absorption or evolution of heat at a

junction when a current is sent through a thermocouple is called Peltier effect. The Peltier

effect is a reversible phenomenon. If the direction of the current is reversed, then there

will be cooling at the junction A and heating at the junction B.


Page 110

When an electric current is passed through a closed circuit made up of two

different metals, one junction is heated and the other junction is cooled. This is known as

Peltier effect.

The amount of heat H absorbed ir evolved at a junction is proportional to the

charge q passing through the junction. i.e.,

Hq or H  It

Or H =  It

Where π is a constant called Peltier coefficient.

When I = 1A and t = 1s, then H = π.

The energy that is liberated or absorbed at a junction between two dissimilar

metals due to the passage of unit quantity of electricity is called Peltier coefficient.

It is expressed in joule/Coulomb i.e., volt. The Peltier coefficient is not constant

but depends on the temperature of the junction.

The Peltier effect is different from the I2R Joule heating effect. The main

differences are given below.

S. No. Peltier effect Joule effect


1. It is reversible effect. It is an irreversible effect.

2. It takes place at the junctions only. It is observed throughout


the conductor.

3. It may be a heating or a cooling effect. It is always a heating effect.

4. Peltier effect is directly proportional to I (H = ± Amount of heat evolved is


πIt). directly proportional to the
square of the current.

5. It depends upon the direction of the current. It is independent of the


direction of the current.
Page 111

7.3(a) Determination of the Peltier Co-efficient at a junction

A copper-iron junction is immersed in a calorimeter containing water. The Cu-Fe

junction is joined to a battery, a rheostat, ammeter and a commutator (fig 7.3a).

Fig. 7.3a

A current of i ampere, measured by an ammeter A, is passed for t second. The resulting

rise in temperature of water in the calorimeter is noted. Let R be the resistance of the

junction. If H1 Joules us the heat produced, then

H1 = i2 Rt + π it ---(1)

The same current is now passed for the same time in the reverse direction. The

rise of temperature is again noted. Let H2 Joules be the heat produced. Then,

H2 = i2 Rt - π it ---(2)

From Equs. (1) and (2), we have

(H1 - H2) = 2πit


Page 112

or π = (H1 - H2) / 2it

Let M be the mass of water in calorimeter and W the thermal capacity of the

calorimeter.

Let θ1 and θ2 be the rises in temperature in the two cases respectively. Then,

H1 = (M + W) θ1 and H2 = (M + W) θ2

(H1 - H2) = (M + W) (θ1 – θ2)

Therefore, π = (M + W) (θ1 – θ2) / 2it

Hence π is determined from the above relation.

7.4 Thermo dynamical consideration of Peltier Effect

Consider a Cu-Fe thermocouple with the cold junction at the absolute temperature

T1 and the hot junction at the absolute temperature T2 (fig 7.4). The thermoelectric

current i flows in the direction as shown in fig 4.4. The flow of this current provides the

necessary condition for the Peltier effect to take place and consequently the heat is

absorbed at the hot junction and generated at the cold junction. Let π1 and π2 be the

Peltier coefficients of the cold and the hot junctions respectively.

Fig. 7.4

Heat energy absorbed in t seconds at the hot junction = π2 i t.

Heat energy evolved in t seconds at the cold junction = π1 i t.

Therefore, Net energy absorbed = (π2 – π1) it ---(1)

This energy is used in setting up a thermo emf Ep in the circuit.

The electrical energy developed in the thermocouple = Ep it.


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Therefore, (π2 – π1) it = Ep it

Or Ep = (π2 – π1) ---(2)

The thermocouple acts like a heat engine in which an amount of heat energy π2 is

absorbed from the source at a higher temperature T2 and an amount π1 is rejected to the

sink at the lower temperature T1. Applying second law of thermodynamics, we have

(π1 / T1) = (π2 / T2) or (π2 / π1) = (T2 / T1)

or (π2 - π1) / π1 = (T2 - T1) / T1

or (π2 - π1) = (π1 / T1) (T2 - T1)

or (π2 - π1)  (T2 - T1) [Since, (π1 / T1) is constant] ---(3)

From Equs. (2) and (3), we have

Ep α (T2 - T1) ---(4)

Thus the emf developed in the thermocouple is directly proportional to (T2 - T1),

the temperature difference between the two junctions. The graph between Ep and T

should be a straight line.

But it has been found experimentally that the graph between Ep and T is a

parabolic curve. This shows that Peltier effect alone cannot explain the thermo-electric

phenomenon in a thermocouple. This led to the discovery of Thosmson effect. Thomson

said that there must be some additional source of EMF which has not been taken into
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account in Peltier effect. This additional EMF is due to the different parts of the same

metal being at different temperatures. The combined EMF due to the Peltier effect and

Thomson effect showed agreement with the experimental results.

7.4a Explanation of Seeback, Peltier and Thomson effects on the Electron theory

The concentration of electrons at the interface in the two metals is not the same as

it depends upon the nature of the metal and its temperature. A potential difference exists

across the junction of two dissimilar metals, the concentration of the free electrons in the

metals on either side of the junction being different. So the free electrons diffuse across

the junction from the metal where their concentration is higher to the metal where it is

lower. Therefore, one metal becomes negatively charged while the other becomes

positively charged when a state of dynamical equilibrium is reached. This resulting

potential difference depends on the nature of the metals forming the junction. In the case

of Cu-Fe junction, let V1 and V2 be steady potential differences across the hot and cold

junctions. When the two junctions are at the same temperature, V1 = V2. Therefore, the

resultant P.D. in the complete circuit is zero. If the temperature of one junction is greater

than that of the other, V1 > V2 and resultant E.M.F. (V1 - V2) exists in the couple. It is this

resultant E.M.F. that makes the thermo-electric current to flow from Cu to Fe at the hot

junction and Fe to Cu at the cold junction. This explains Seebeck effect.

Suppose a charge Q coulomb is passed from Cu to Fe at the junction where the

P.D. is V1. The charge goes up a gradient of potential absorbing energy in the form of

heat from the junction. The junction is cooled. At the other junction where the P.D. is V2,
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the charge flows down a gradient of potential. Therefore, energy is liberated as heat at

this junction. The junction is heated. This explains Peltier effect.

In an unequally heated metal rod like copper, the hotter parts are assumed to be at

a higher potential than those at a lower temperature. Therefore when a charge is passed

from the hot end to the cold end of a copper rod, the charge moves down a gradient of

potential. This results in the liberation of energy as heat in the copper rod. If on the other

hand, the charge is passed from colder to hotter parts, it goes up a gradient potential and

therefore absorbs energy from the metal as heat. This explains the existence of Thomson

effect in a metal like copper.

7.5 Thomson Effect

Consider a copper bar AB heated in the middle at the point C (fig 7.5a). A current

is passed from A to B. It is observed that heat is absorbed in the part AC and evolved in

the part CB. This is known as Positive Thomson effect. Similar effect is observed in

metals like Ag, Zn, Sb and Cd.

Fig. 7.5 (a) Fig. 7.5 (b)

In the case of an iron bar AB, heat is evolved in the part AC and absorbed in the

part CB (fig 7.5b). This is known as Negative Thomson effect. Similar effect is observed

in metals like Pt, Ni, Co, and Bi.


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For lead, the Thomson effect is zero.

The Thomson effect is reversible.

In the case of copper, the hotter parts are at a higher potential than the colder

ones. It is opposite in the case of iron. Heat is either absorbed or evolved when current

passes between two points having a difference of potential. Therefore, the passage of

electric current through a metal having temperature gradient results in an absorption or

evolution of heat in the body of the metal.

When a current flows through an unequally heated metal, there is an absorption

or evolution of heat throughout in the body of the metal. This is known as’Thomson

effect’.

Thomson Coefficient. The Thomson coefficient σ of a metal is defined as the

amount of heat energy absorbed or evolved when a charge of 1 Coulomb flows in the

metal between two points which differ in temperature by 1˚C.

Thus, if a charge of q coulomb flows in a metal between two points having a

temperature difference of 1˚C, then

Heat energy absorbed or evolved = σ q Joule.

But if E volt be the Thomson emf developed between these points then this

energy must be equal to Eq Joule.

Therefore, σq = Eq

Or σ = E.
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Thus the Thomson coefficient of a metal, expressed in joule per coulomb per C,

is numerically equal to the emf in volt, developed between two points differing in

temperature by 1C.

Hence it may also be expressed in volt per C.

 is not a constant for a given metal. It is a function of temperature.

Demonstration of Thomson effect.

Fig. 7.5 (c)

Fig 7.5c shows Starling’s method of demonstrating the Thomson effect. An iron

rod ABC is bent into U shape. Its ends A and C are dipped in mercury baths. C1 and C2

are connected in the opposite gaps of a metre bridge. The bridge is balanced. Then the

mid-point B of the rod is strongly heated. A heavy current is passed through the rod.

Then this current will be flowing up the temperature gradient in one arm and down the

temperature gradient in the other arm. As a result, one of the coils will be cooled and the

other will be warmed. The balance in the bridge will be upset and the galvanometer in its

circuit will show a deflection. If the direction of the current is reversed, the deflection in

the galvanometer will be reversed.


Page 118

7.6 Thermodynamics of Thermocouple (Expression for Peltier and Thomson

coefficients).

Consider a thermocouple consisting of two metals A and B. Let T and T + dT be

the temperatures of the cold and hot junctions respectively (fig 7.6). Let  and  + d be

the Peltier coefficients for the pair at the cold and hot junctions. Let a and b be the

Thomson coefficients for the metals A and B respectively, both taken as positive. When a

charge flows through the thermocouple, heat will be absorbed and evolved at the

junctions due to Peltier effect and all along the metal due to Thomson effect.

Fig. 7.6

Let 1 Coulomb of charge flow through the thermocouple in the direction from A

to B at the hot junction. Heat energy absorbed due to Peltier effect at the hot junction =

(+ d) joules. Heat energy evolved due to Peletier effect at the cold junction =  joules.

Heat energy absorbed in the metal A due to Thomson effect

= a dT Joules

Heat energy evolved in the metal B due to Thomson effect

= b dT Joules

Therefore, net heat energy absorbed in the thermocouple

= ( + d - ) + (a dT - b dT)

= d + (a - b) dT

This energy is used in establishing a P.D. dE in the thermocouple


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Therefore, dE = d + (a - b) dT ---(1)

Since the Peltier and Thomson effects are reversible, the thermocouple acts as a

reversible heat engine. Here,

(i) the heat energy ( + d) Joules is absorbed from the source at (T + dT) K

and a dT Joule is absorbed in metal A at mean temperature T Kelvin.

(ii) Also  Joule is rejected to sink at T K and b dT Joule is given out in

metal B at the mean temperature T K.

Applying Carnot’s theorem, we have

  d  a dT   b dT
  
T  dT T T T

  d  ( a   b )dT
Or  
T  dT T T

 T  d T   T   dT ( b   a )dT
Or 
T (T  dT ) T

Or d.T - .dT = (b - a) dT (T + dT)

Or d.T - .dT = (b - a) T dT + (b - a) dT2

Or d.T - .dT = (b - a) T dT

[Neglecting (b - a) dT2]

Or T [d + (a - b) dT] =  dT

But d + (a - b) dT = dE [from Eq. (1)]

Therefore, T dE =  dT

Or  = T . (dE / dT) ---(2)

The quantity (dE / dT) is called the thermoelectric power (P).


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Thermoelectric power (P) is defined as the thermo emf per unit difference of

temperature between the junctions.

 Peltier coefficient = Absolute temperature  thermoelectric power

d d 2 E dE
Differentiating Eq. (2), T 
dT dT 2 dT

Substituting the value of (dE/dT) from Eq. (1),

d d 2 E d
T   ( a   b )
dT dT 2 dT

Or (a - b) = -T . (d2E / dT2)

Or (b - a) = T . (d2E / dT2) ---(3)

If the first metal in the thermocouple is lead, then a = 0

 b = T . (d2E / dT2) ---(4)

Thomson coefficient = absolute temperature of the cold junction 

first derivative of thermoelectric power.

From Eq. (3), (d2E / dT2) = [(b - a) / T]

Or (d / dT) (dE / dT) = [(b - a) / T]

Putting (dE / dT) from Eq. (2), we have

(d / dT) ( / T) - [(b - a) / T] = 0 ---(5)

This gives the relation between Peltier and Thomson’s coefficients.

7.7 Let us sum up


In this lesson you learned about the laws of thermo emf and different types of
thermoelectric effects namely Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effect. Also you learned
about the applications of these effects. All these effects were explained on the basis of
electron theory.
Page 121

7.8 Check your Progress


1) State the laws of thermo emf
2) What is Seebeck effect ?
3) Stat the differences between Peltier and Joule effect
4) What is Thompson effect ?

7.9 Lesson end Activities


1) When an electric current is passed through a closed circuit made of two different
metals, one junction is heated and the other junction is cooled. This is known as
………….
2) ……………. Is a reversible effect and ---------------- is a irreversible effect.
3) Thermocouple acts as a ………………..
4) Thompson coefficient of a metal expressed in …………….

7.10 Points for Discussion


1) What is meant by Peltier effect ? How do you demonstrate it experimentally ?

How does it differ from Joule’s heating effect ? Define Peltier co efficient

2) (i) Prove that the Peltier coefficient of a pair of metals is the product of the

absolute temperature and thermo electric power

(ii) Define Thompson effect and Thompson co efficient

7.11 References
1) Electricity and Magnetism by R. Murugesan
2) Electricity and Magnetism by Brijlal and Subramanyam
Page 122

LESSON – 8
CONTENTS
8.0 Aims and Objectives
8.1 Thermo-Electric diagrams
8.1.1 (i) Determination of Total emf
8.1.2 (ii) Determination of Peltier emf.
8.1.3. (iii) Determination of Thomson emf
8.1.4 (iv) Thermo emf in a general couple, neutral temperature and temperature
of inversion.
8.2 Thermoelectric Refrigerator
8.3 Thermoelectric effect in p- and n-type semi-conductors
8.4 Let us sum up
8.5 Check your Progress
8.6 Lesson end Activities
8.7 Points for Discussion
8.8 References

8.0 Aims and Objectives


In this lesson you learn about the importance of thermoelectric diagrams formed from

two metals A and B. In the diagram namely the graph, you will be able to understand the

characteristics of different metals by thermoelectric line for Cu-Pb couple and Fe-Pb

couple having respectively positive and negative slope. Also you will learn about the

thermoelectric effect in the thermoelectric refrigerator.

8.1 Thermo-Electric diagrams

A thermocouple is formed from two metals A and B. The difference of

temperature of the junctions is TK. The thermo emf E is given by the equation

E = At + Bt2
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Where A and B are constants.

A graph between E and T is a parabola.

(dE/dT) = a + 2 bT

dE/dT is called thermoelectric power.

A graph between thermoelectric power (dE/dT) and difference of temperature T is

a straight line. This graph is called the thermo-electric power line or the thermo-electric

diagram. Thomson coefficient of lead is zero. So generally thermo-electric lines are

drawn with lead as one metal of the thermo-couple. The thermoelectric line of a Cu-Pb

couple has a positive slope while that of Fe-Pb couple has a negative slope. Fig 4.7 shows

the power lines for a number of metals.

Fig. 4.7

Uses of Thermoelectric Diagrams

8.1.1 (i) Determination of Total emf. MN represents the thermo-electric power line of a

metal like copper coupled with lead (fig 4.7.1). MN has a positive slope.
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Fig. 4.7.1

Let A and B be two points corresponding to temperatures T1 K and T2 K respectively

along the temperature-axis. Consider a small strip andc of thickness dT with junctions

maintained at temperatures T and (T + dT).

The emf developed when the two junctions of the thermocouple differ by dT is

dE = dT (dE/dT) = area abdc

Total emf developed when the junctions of the couple are at temperatures T1 and

T2 is
T2
 dE 
Es   dT  dT   area ABDC
T1

8.1.2 (ii) Determination of Peltier emf. Let 1 and 2 be the Peltier coefficients for the

junctions of the couple at temperatures T1 and T2 respectively.

The Peltier coefficient at the hot junction (T2) is

 dE 
 2  T2    OB  BD  area OBDF
 dT  T2

Similarly, Peltier coefficient at the cold junction (T1) is

 dE 
 1  T1    OA  AC  area OACE
 dT  T1
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1 and 2 give the Peltier emfs at T1 and T2 respectively.

Peltier emf between temperatures T1 and T2 is

Ep = 2 - 1 = area OBDF - area OACE = area ABDFECA

8.1. 3 (iii) Determination of Thomson emf. Total emf developed in a thermocouple

between temperatures T1 and T2 is


T2

E s   2   1    a   b  dT
T1

Here a and b represent the Thomson coefficients of two metals constituting the

thermocouple.

If the metal A is copper and B is lead, then b = 0.

T2

 E s   2   1    a dT 
T1

T2

Or   a dT     2   1   E 
T1

Thus, the magnitude of Thomson emf is given by,

Eth = (2 - 1) – E = Area ABDFECA – Area ABDC

= Area CDFE

8.1.4 (iv) Thermo emf in a general couple, neutral temperature and temperature of

inversion. In practice, a thermocouple may consist of any two metals. One of them need

not be always lead. Let us consider a thermocouple consisting of any two metals, say Cu

and Fe. AB and CD are the thermo-electric power lines for Cu and Fe with respect to lead

(fig 8.1.4). Let T1 and T2 be the temperatures of the cold and hot junctions corresponding

to points P and Q.
Page 126

Fig. 8.1.4

Emf of Cu – Pb thermocouple = Area PQB1A1

Emf of Fe – Pb thermocouple = Area PQD1C1

 the emf of Cu – Fe thermocouple is

Fe
E Cu  Area PQD1C1  Area PQB1 A1  Area A1 B1 D1C1

Fe
The emf ECu increases as the temperature of the hot junction is raised and

becomes maximum at the temperature Tn, where the two thermoelectric power lines

intersect each other. The temperature Tn is called the neutral temperature, at T = Tn,

(dE/dT) = 0.

Suppose temperatures of the junctions, T1 and T2, for a Cu – Fe thermocouple are

such that the neutral temperatures Tn lies between T1 and T2 (fig 4.7.4 a).

Fig. 8.1.4 (a)

Then the thermo emf will be represented by the difference between the areas A1NC1 and

B1D1N because these areas represent opposing emf’s. In the particular case when Tn = (T1
Page 127

+ T2)/2, these areas are equal and the resultant emf is zero. In this case, T2 is the

‘temperature of inversion’ for the Cu – Fe thermocouple.

8.2 Thermoelectric Refrigerator

Peltier effect has been used to develop thermo-electric refrigerator. According to

this effect we know that heat is absorbed at one end and liberated at the other junction of

a thermocouple when a current is passed into a thermocouple having its two junctions at

different temperature is about 1 millivolt/degree. Also its thermal conductivity is very

much lower than that of metals. Hence a semiconduct5or can be used as an effective

refrigerator using the Peltier effect.

On this principle a refrigerator 1 cu. Ft. cold box has been designed. It consists of

182 thermocouples and reduces the temperature of air by 20-30C. It takes about 5-10

amperes from a battery or mains.

8.3 Thermoelectric effect in p- and n-type semi-conductors

When one end of a semi-conductor is hotter than the other, electrons leave the hot

end and tend to flow to the cold end. The cold end soon becomes negatively charged with

respect to the hot end. The negative charge at first increases till, owing to repulsion, the

flow of electrons from the hot end is in equilibrium with the return flow from the cold

end. The fewer the electrons available for the return flow the higher will be the voltage at

the cold end, before equilibrium is reached. It is for this reason that thermoelectric power

is much greater in a semiconductor than that of metals. Also the voltage difference

between the hot and cold ends of a semi-conductor is set up not only by the flow of

electrons but also by the flow of electrons but also by the flow of holes. In n-type semi-

conductors the hot end is positive. In p-type the cold end is positive. In both types,
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however, the direction of electron flow is from the positive to the negative end. The flow

of current in such a combination is shown in fig 4.11. Such a thermoelectric cell produces

only 10th of a volt, and to obtain higher voltage, a pile of such semi-conductors is used.

Such a thermoelectric generator is now widely used in supplying power to radio

transmitters in rockets and satellites.

8.4 Let us sum up


In this lesson you learned about the importance of thermoelectric diagrams formed from
the metals A and B. In the diagram namely graph, you were able to understand the
characteristics of different metals by thermoelectric line for Cu-Pb couple and Fe-Pb
couple having positive and negative slopes respectively. You have also studied about the
thermoelectric effect in the thermoelectric refrigerator.

8.5 Check your Progress

1) What is thermoelectric diagram ?


2) What is neutral temperature and temperature of inversion ?
3) Mention the uses of thermoelectric diagram

8.6 Lesson end Activities

1) The emf of a thermo couple, one junction of which is kept at 0oC is given by E = at
+bt2. Determine the neutral temperature, temperature of inversion and the Peltier and
Thompson coefficients.

8.7 Points for Discussion


1) (i) Apply thermodynamic considerations to the working of the thermo couple

show that ,

 = T . (dE / dT)
Page 129

and (d2E / dT2) = [(b - a) / T]

(ii) Explain any two uses of thermo electric diagrams

2) (i) Describe the loss of thermo emf. Explain Seebeck effect

(ii) Explain how you determine thermo emf using potentio meter

8.8 References
1) Electricity and Magnetism by D. N. Vasudeva

2) Electricity and Magnetism by R. Murugesan


Page 130

Annexure – I

Experiment:

THERMO EMF MEASUREMENT USING POTENTIOMETER

Aim: To measure thermo emf using potentiometer

Apparature Required:

Potentiometer, jockey, 2 V battery, copper – constantan thermocouple, galvanometer,

decade resistance box (DRB), thermometer, ice, beaker, sand bath or hot water, tripod,

wire gauge, Bunsen burner, meter bridge and accessories.

Formulae:

The potential drop per unit length

ER p 1

( Rb  R p ) L

The thermo emf

ER p l
e  l 
( Rb  R p ) L

where E is emf of the batter, Rp the resistance of the potentiometer wire, L the length of

the potentiometer wire (10 m), Rb the value of the resistance introduced in series and l the

balancing length. If the fall of potential per unit length is made as 10 V/cm-1 then

e = 10 V x l (in cm) mV

Experimental procedure:

(i) Calculation of the value of Rb to make a potential drop of 10 V/cm of the

wire
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Measure the resistance (Rp) of the potentiometer wire using either a post office box or

a meter bridge experiment or a multimeter. Measure the emf (E) of the battery. A

potentiometer has a length of 10 m. If a potential of 10 V is dropped in 1 cm, then

the total potential to be dropped 10 x 10-6 x 1000 = 10-2 V = 0.01 V

If E is emf of the battery, then (E-10-2) volt has to be dropped by a series resistance

Rb employed. Thus, if Rb is the series resistance to be employed, then

Rb R
 p
( E  0.01) 0.01

( E  0.01) R p
Rb 
0.01

By measuring the resistance of the potentiometer wire, Rp and the emf of the battery,

the value of Rb is determined using the above formulae.

(ii) Measurement of thermo emf

The experimental arrangements used for the determination of thermo emf is shown

below. To make a potential drop of 10 V cm-1, the calculated value of resistance Rb

is introduced in the resistance box Rb. One junction of the thermocouple is kept in ice

bath and the other is placed in water bath. The temperatures are measured with
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thermometer T1 and T2. To begin the experiment the water is kept at room

temperature and ice at 0oC. The balancing length is measured and tabulated. The

thermoemf (mV) is found out by multiplying 10 V and the balancing length in cm.

Now the water is heated. Balancing length for every 10o rise is noted. From the

balancing length, thermo emf are determined.

A graph is plotted between the temperature and the thermo emf and is shown below.

From the curve the thermo electric power at ToC is given by

dV PQ
P  tan    .........V / o C 1
dT QR

Results:

(i) Resistance of the potentiometer wire = ….

(ii) Resistance to be introduce in series with a potentiometer wire, to make a

potential drop of 10 mV cm-1 = …….

(iii) Thermoelectric power at 50oC = …. V /oC-1

(iv) Thermo emf at 50oC = …. mV


Page 133

UNIT – V
LESSON - 9

CONTENTS
9.0 Aims and Objectives
9.1Growth and decay of current in an inductive - resistive circuit:
9.1.1: Decay of current in a circuit containing L and R
9.2 Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor:
9.2.2 Decay of charge (Discharging of a capacitance through Resistance):
9.3 Discharge of a Capacitor through an inductor and a Resistor in series:
9.4 Oscillatory Circuits – Growth of charge in a circuit with Inductance, Capacitance and
Resistance:
9.5 Measurement of High Resistance by Leakage:
9.6 Moving coil Ballistic Galvanometer:
9.6.1 Correction for Damping in Ballistic Galvanometer
9.6.2 Dead-beat and Ballistic Galvanometers
9.7 Let us sum up
9.8 Check your progress
9.9 Lesson end Activities
9.10 Points for Discussion
9.11 References

9.0 Aims and Objectives


In this lesson you will learn about transient currents in particular the growth and decay of
current in an L and R circuit, charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor
and inductor and a resistor in series. Also you will learn about the principle of oscillatory
circuits. Finally you will learn about the theory of Ballistic galvanometer.
Page 134

9.1Growth and decay of current in an inductive - resistive circuit:


Consider a circuit having an inductance L and a resistance R connected in series
to a cell of steady emf E (Fig 9.1). When the key K is pressed, there is a gradual growth
of current in the circuit from zero to maximum value I0. Let I be the instantaneous current
at any instant.

Fig. 9.1

dI
Then, the induced back emf    L
dt
dI
E  RI  L (1)
dt
When the current reaches the maximum value I0, the back emf,
dI
L 0
dt
Hence E  RI 0 (2)

Substituing this value for E in Eq. (1)


dI dI
RI 0  RI  L or R (I0 - I) = L
dt dt
dI R
or  dt
I0  I L
R
Integrating,  log ( I 0  I )  t C (3)
L
where C is the constant of integration,
When t = 0, I = 0,   log e I 0  C

Substituting this value of C in Eq. (3),


R R
 log( I 0  I )  t  log e I 0 or log e ( I 0  I )  log e I 0   t
L L
Page 135

(I 0  I ) R
log e  t
I0 L

I0  I I
 e ( R / L ) t or 1   e ( R / L ) t
I0 I0

 I  I 0 ( 1  e  ( R / L )t ) (4)

Eq. (4) gives the value of the instantaneous current in the LR circuit. The quantity (L/R)
is called the time constant of the circuit.
L  1
If  t, I  I 0 ( 1  e 1 )  I 0 1    0.632 I 0
R  e

Fig. 9.1 (a)


Thus, the time constant L/R of a L-R circuit is the time taken by the current to
grow from zero to 0.632 times the steady maximum value of current in the circuit.
Similarly, when t = 2L/R, 3L/R……, the value of current I will be 0.8647, 0.9502 of the
final maximum current when t=0, I=0 and when t   , I = I0. Greater the value of L/R
longer is the time (Ref. Fig. 9.1a)

9.1.1: Decay of current in a circuit containing L and R


dI
When the circuit is broken, an induced emf, equal to  L is again produced in
dt
the inductance L and it slows down the rate of decay of the current. The current in the
circuit decays from maximum value I0 to zero. During the decay, let I be the current at
time t. In this case E = 0. The emf equation for decay of current is
dI
0  RI  L (5)
dt
Page 136

dI R
   dt
dt L
R
Integrating, log e I   tC where C is a constant.
L
When t = 0, I = I0,  log e I 0  C

R I R
 log e I   t  log e I 0 , or log e  t
L I0 L
I
 e ( R / L ) t
I0

 I  I 0 e  ( R / L )t (6)
Eq. (6) represents the current at any instant t during decay. A graph between current and
time is shown in fig 5.1.1. (a)

Fig. 9.1.1 (a) Fig. 9.1.1 (b) Fig. 9.1.1 (c)

When t = L/R, I = I0e-1 = (1/e) I0 =0.365 I0


t = 2L/R, I = I0e-2 =0.1035 I0
t = 3L/R, I = I0e-3 = 0.05 I0
Therefore, the time constant L/R of a R-L circuit may be also defined as the time
in which the current in the circuit falls to 1/e of its maximum value when external source
of e.m.f. is removed.
The rate of decay of current is
dI R R
  I 0 e ( R / L )t   I
dt L L
Thus it is clear that greater the ratio R/L, or smaller the time constant L/R, the
more rapid does the current die away (fig 5.1.1.(b)).
Fig 5.1.1.(c) shows that the growth and decay curves are complementary.
Page 137

9.2 Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor:


9.2.1 Growth of Charge: A capacitance C and resistance R are connected to a cell of
emf E through a Morse key K. When the key is pressed, a momentary current I flows
through R. At any instant t, let Q be the charge on the capacitor of capacitance C. (Ref.
Fig. 9.2.1)

Fig. 9.2.1
P.D. across capacitor = Q/C
P.D. across resistor = RI
The emf equation of the circuit is
E = (Q/C) + RI (1)
E = (Q/C) + R (dQ/dt) (since I = dQ/dt)
The capacitor continues getting charged till it attains the maximum charge Q0. At that
instant I = dQ/dt = 0. The P.D. across the capacitor is E = Q0/C.
dQ Q
i.e., when, Q  Q0 ,  0 and E  0
dt C
Q0 Q dQ
  R
C C dt
dQ
(Q0  Q )  CR
dt
 dQ  dt
   (2)
Q
 0  Q  CR
Integrating, -loge (Q0 - Q) = t/CR + K
Where K is a constant.
When t = 0, Q = 0 therefore, -loge Q0 = K
t
  log e (Q0  Q)   log e Q0
CR
t
log e (Q0  Q )  log e Q0  
CR
Page 138

Q Q t
log e  0   
 Q0  CR
t t
Q0  Q  Q 
 e CR or 1   e CR
Q0 Q0
t
  
 Q  Q0 1  e CR  (3)
 
The term CR is called time constant of the circuit.
At the end of time t = CR, Q = Q0 (1 – e-1) = 0.632 Q0
Thus, the time constant may be defined as the time taken by the capacitor to get
charged to 0.632 times its maximum value.
The growth of charge is shown in fig 9.2.1 (a)

Fig. 9.2.1 (a)


The rate of growth of charge is
t
dQ Q0  CR 1
 e  Q0  Q 
dt CR CR
Thus it is seen that smaller the product CR, the more rapidly does the charge grow on the
capacitor.
The rate of growth of the charge is rapid in the beginning and it becomes less and
less as the charge approaches nearer and nearer the steady value.

9.2.2 Decay of charge (Discharging of a capacitance through Resistance):


Let the capacitor having charge Q0 be now discharged by realizing the Morse key
(Refer Fig 9.2.1). The charge flows out of the capacitor and this constitutes a current. In
this case
E = 0.
Page 139

dQ Q
R  0 (1)
dt C
dQ 1
or  dt
Q CR
t
Integrating , log e Q    K , where K is a constant
CR
When t = 0, Q = Q0 , therefore loge Q0 = K
t
log e Q    log e Q 0
CR
Q t Q
or log e  or  e  t / CR
Q0 CR Q0

 Q  Q0 e  t / CR (2)

This shows that the charge in the capacitor decays exponentially and becomes zero after
infinite interval of time (Refer Fig 5.2.1 (a))
The rate of discharge is
t
dQ Q  Q
I   0 e CR   (3)
dt CR CR
Thus, smaller the time constant CR, the quicker is the discharge of the capacitor.
In eq. (2), if we put t = CR, then Q = Q0 e-1 = 0.368 Q0.
Hence time constant may also be defined as the time taken by the current to fall
from maximum to 0.368 of its maximum value.
9.3 Discharge of a Capacitor through an inductor and a Resistor in series:
Consider a circuit containing a capacitor of capacitance C, an inductance L and a
Resistance R joined in series (fig 5.3). E is a cell, K2 is kept open. The capacitor is
charged to maximum charge Q0 by closing the key K1. On opening K1 and closing K2, the
capacitor discharges through the inductance L and resistance R. Let I be the current in the

Fig. 9.3
Page 140

circuit and Q be the charge in the capacitor at any instant during discharge. The circuit
equation then is
dI Q
L  RI   0
dt C
dQ dI d 2 Q
But, I and  2
dt dt dt
d 2Q dQ Q
 L 2 R  0
dt dt C
d 2 Q R dQ Q
  0 (1)
dt 2 L dt C
R 1
Let  2b and  k2, then
L LC
d 2Q dQ
2
 2b  k 2Q  0 (2)
dt dt
The general solution of this equation is
b2 k 2 )t b2  k 2 )t
Q  A e ( b   B e ( b  (3)
where A and B are arbitrary constants.
When t = 0, Q = Q0 and from Eq. (3), A + B = Q0 (4)

dQ b 2 k 2 )t b 2  k 2 )t
 A (b  b 2  k 2 ) e ( b   B (b  b 2  k 2 ) e ( b 
dt
dQ
When, t = 0, 0
dt

 A(b  b 2  k 2 )  B(b  b 2  k 2 )  0

 b ( A  B)  b 2  k 2 ( A  B)  0

 bQ0  b 2  k 2 ( A  B)  0

bQ0
AB  (5)
b2  k 2
From Eqs. (4) and (5), we get
Page 141

1  b  1  b 
A  Q0 1  and B  Q0 1


2  b2  k 2  2  
b2  k 2 
Putting these values of A and B in Eq. (3), we get

1  b  ( b2  k 2 ) t  b   ( b2  k 2 )t

Q Q0 e bt 1  e
  1  e
  (6)
2  b k2
2
  b k2
2
 

Case 1: If b2 > k2, (b 2  k 2 ) is real and positive and the charge of the capacitor decays

exponentially, becoming zero asymptotically (curve 1 of fig 9.3a). This discharge is


known as over damped, non-oscillatory or dead-beat.

Fig. 9.3(a)

Case 2: When b2 = k2, Q = Q0 (1 + bt) e-bt


This represents a non-oscillatory discharge. This discharge is known as critically damped
(curve 2 of fig 9.3a). The charge decreases to zero exponentially in a short time.

Case 3: If b2 < k2, (b 2  k 2 ) is imaginary.

(b 2  k 2 ) = iω, where ω = (b 2  k 2 )

1  b   b  
 Q Q0 e bt 1   e it  1   e it 
2  i   i  
 e it  e it  b  e it  e it 
 Q0 e bt     
 2   2i 
Q0 e bt
  cos t  b sin t 


Let ω = k sin α and b = k cos α so that tan α =
b
Page 142

Q 0 e  bt k
Q cos  t sin   cos  sin  t 

Q 0 e  bt k
 sin  t   

R
 t
Q0 e   1
2L
R2  
Q sin    2  t   
 1 R2    LC 4 L  
  2  LC  
 LC 4 L 
 
This equation represents a damped oscillatory charge as shown by the curve 3 of fig 5.3
(a). The charge oscillates above and below zero till it finally settles down to zero value.
The frequency of oscillation in the circuit is given by

 k 2  b2 1 1 R2
     2
2 2 2 LC 4 L
1
When R = 0,  
2 LC
The condition for oscillatory discharge is
R2 1 L
2
 , or R2
4 L LC C

Importance in Wireless Telegraphy: The discharge of a capacitor through an


inductance is oscillatory if the resistance R of the circuit is less than 2 ( L / C ) . During

the discharge, the energy of the charged capacitor is stored in the magnetic field produced
in the inductance coil, then again back in the magnetic field between the capacitor plates,
and so on. If the fields are caused to alternate rapidly, some energy escapes from the
circuit permanently in the form of electro-magnetic waves which travel through space
with the speed of light. These waves form the basis of wireless telegraphy.
Messages can be transmitted from one place to another with the help of codes.
Page 143

9.4 Oscillatory Circuits – Growth of charge in a circuit with Inductance,


Capacitance and Resistance:
Consider a circuit containing an inductance L, capacitance C and resistance R
joined in series to a cell of emf E (fig 9.4). When the key K is pressed, the capacitor is
charged. Let Q be the charge on the capacitor and I the current in the circuit at an instant t
during charging. Then, the p.d. across the capacitor is Q/C and the self induced emf in the
inductance coil is L (dI/dt), both being opposite to the direction of E. The p.d. across the
resistance R is RI.

Fig. 9.4

The equation of emf ‘s is


dI Q
L  RI   E (1)
dt C
dQ dI d 2Q
But I and 
dt dt dt
d 2Q dQ Q
 L 2
R  E
dt dt C
d 2Q R dQ Q  CE
or   0
dt 2 L dt LC
R 1
Putting  2b and  k 2 , we have
L LC
d 2Q dQ
2
 2b  k 2 Q  CE   0 (2)
dt dt
dx dQ d 2 x d 2Q
Let x = Q – CE. Then  and  2
dt dt dt 2 dt

d 2x dx
Eq. (2) becomes, 2
 2b  k 2x  0 (3)
dt dt
Hence the most general solution of Eq. (3) is
Page 144

( b 2  k 2 )]t ( b 2  k 2 )]t
x  A e [ b   B e[ b 
Now, CE = Q0 = final steady charge on the capacitor.
Therefore, x = Q – CE = Q – Q0
( b 2  k 2 )]t ( b 2  k 2 )]t
Hence Q – Q0 = A e[ b   B e[ b 
( b 2  k 2 )]t ( b 2  k 2 )]t
Or Q = Q0 + A e[ b   B e[ b  (4)
Using initial conditions:
At t = 0, Q = 0
Therefore, 0 = Q0 + (A + B) or A + B = - Q0 (5)
dQ 2 2 2 2

 A [b  (b 2  k 2 ) ] e[  b( b k )]t


 B [b  (b 2  k 2 ) ]e[  b(b k )]t
dt

dQ
At t =0, 0
dt

0 = A [b  (b 2  k 2 ) ]  B [b  (b 2  k 2 ) ]

(b2  k 2 ) ] [ A  B]  b ( A  B)   b Q0

Q0b
or A  B   (6)
(b 2  k 2 )

Solving Eqs (5) and (6),

1  b 

A Q0 1  (7)
2  (b 2  k 2 ) 

1  b 

B Q0 1  (8)
2  2 2 
(b  k ) 

Substituting the values of A and B in Eq. (4), we have

1  b   b  
Q0 e  bt 1  e  1  e
( b 2  k 2 )t ( b 2  k 2 )t
Q  Q0   (9)
2  (b 2  k 2 )   (b 2  k 2 )  
  

Case 1. If b2 > k2 , (b 2  k 2 ) is real. The charge on the capacitor grows exponentially


with time and attains the maximum value Q0 asymptotically ( curve 1 of fig 9.4a ). The
charge is known as over damped or dead beat.
Page 145

Fig. 9.4 (a)

Case 2: If b2 = k2, the charge rises to the maximum value Q0 in a short time ( curve 2 of
fig 5.4a ). Such a charge is called critically damped.

Case 3: b2 < (b 2  k 2 ) is imaginary.

Let (b 2  k 2 ) = i ω

where i =  1 and ω= (k 2  b 2 )
Eq. (9) may be written as
1  b  it  b  it 
Q  Q0  Q0 e  bt 1  i  e  1  i  e 
2     


 e it  e it b e it  e  it 
Q  Q0  Q0 e bt  


 2  2i 
 b 
Q  Q0  Q0 e bt  cos t  sin t 
  
 e  bt 
Q  Q0 1   cos t  b sin t 
  
Let ω = k sin α and b = k cos α so that tan α = ω/b.
 e bt 
Q  Q0 1  k sin  cos t  k cos  sin t 
  

 ke bt 
or Q  Q0 1  sin t    (10)
  
Page 146

  Rt
1 
1  e 2 L  1   
 LC  R2 t    
Q  Q0 . sin   2
 1 R2  LC 4 L 
  
  2 
 LC 4 L 
This equation represents a damped oscillatory charge as shown by the curve (3) of Fig.
5.4 (a). The charge oscillates above and below Q0 till it finally settles down to Q0 value.
The frequency of oscillation in the circuit is given by

 k 2  b2 1 1 R2
     2
2 2 2 LC 4 L
1
when R = 0,  
2 LC

9.5 Measurement of High Resistance by Leakage:


When a capacitor of capacitance C and initial charge Q0 is allowed to discharge
through a resistance R for a time t, the charge remaining on the capacitor is given by
Q  Q0 e t / CR
Q
 e t / CR
Q0
Q0 t
log e 
Q CR
t t
R 
 Q  2.3026 C log 10 (Q0 / Q)
C  log e 0 
 Q 
If R is high, CR will be high and the rate of discharge of capacitor will be very
slow. Thus if we determine Q0/Q from experiment, then R can be calculated.
Connections are made as shown in fig 5.5. C is a capacitor of known capacitance,
R is the high resistance to be measured, B.G. is a ballistic galvanometer, E is a cell and
K1, K2, K3 are tap keys.
Keeping K2 and K3 open, the capacitor is charged by depressing the key K1. K1 is
then opened and at once K3 is closed. The capacitor discharges through the galvanometer
Page 147

Fig. 9.5
which records a throw θ0 is proportional to Q0. The capacitor is again charged to the
maximum value keeping K2 and K3 open and closing K1. K1 is then opened and K2 is
closed for a known time t. Some of the charge leaks through R. K2 is opened and at once
K3 is closed. The charge Q remaining on the capacitor then discharges through the
galvanometer. The resulting throw θ is noted. Then Q α θ
Q0  0
Now, 
Q 
t
 R
 
2.3026 C log 10  0 
 

 
A series of values of t and θ are obtained. A graph is plotted between t and log10  0 
 
t
which is a straight line. Its slope gives the mean value of . As C is known,
log 10 ( 0 /  )
the value of R can be calculated.

9.6 Moving coil Ballistic Galvanometer:


Principle: When a current is passed through a coil, suspended freely in a magnetic field,
it experiences a force in a direction given by Fleming’s left hand rule.

Construction: It consists of a rectangular coil of thin copper wire wound on a non-


metallic frame of ivory (fig 9.6). It is suspended by means of a phosphor bronze wire
between the poles of a powerful horse-shoe magnet. A small circular mirror is attached
Page 148

Fig. 9.6
to the suspension wire. Lower end of the coil is attached to a hair-spring. The upper end
of the suspension wire and the lower end of the spring are connected to terminals T1 and
T2. A cylindrical soft iron core (C) is placed symmetrically inside the coil between the
magnetic poles which are also made cylindrical in shape. This iron core concentrates the
magnetic field and helps in producing radial field.
The B.G. is used to measure electric charge. The charge has to pass through the
coil as quickly as possible and before the coil starts moving. The coil thus gets impulse
and a throw is registered. To achieve this result, a coil of high moment of inertia is used
so that the period of oscillation of the coil is fairly large. The oscillations of the coil are
practically undamped.

Theory:
(i) Consider a rectangular coil of N turns placed in a uniform magnetic field of magnetic
induction B (fig 9.6a). Let  be the length of the coil and b its breadth.

Fig. 9.6 (a)


Page 149

Area of the coil = A = lb


When a current i passes through the coil,
Torque on the coil = τ = NiBA (1)
If the current passes for a short interval dt, the angular impulse produced in the coil is
τ dt = NiBA dt (2)
If current passes for t seconds, the total angular impulse given to the coil is
1 1

  dt  NBA i dt  NBAq
0 0
(3)

1
Here,  i dt  q  total charge passing through the galvanometer coil.
0

Let I be the moment of inertia of the coil about the axis of suspension and ω its
angular velocity. Then,
Change in angular momentum of the coil = Iω (4)
Therefore, Iω = NBAq (5)

1 2
(ii) The kinetic energy of the moving system I is used in twisting the suspension
2
wire through an angle θ. Let c be the restoring torque per unit twist of the suspension
wire. Then,
1 2
work done in twisting the suspension wire by an angle θ = c
2
1 2 1 2
 I  c
2 2
or I  2 = c 2 (6)

(iii) The period of oscillation of the coil is

I 2 4 2 I
T  2   or T 
C  c

T 2c
 I (7)
4 2
Page 150

2 c 2T 2 2
2
Multiplying Eqs. (6) and (7), I ω =
4 2
cT
or I  (8)
2
cT
Equating (5) and (8), NBAq =
2

T  c 
or q     (9)
 2   NBAq 
This gives the relation between the charge flowing and the ballistic throw θ of the
galvanometer. q α θ.
T  c 
    is called the ballistic reduction factor (K)
 2   NBAq 
Therefore, q=Kθ (10)

9.6.1. Correction for Damping in Ballistic Galvanometer:


We have assumed that the whole of the kinetic energy imparted to the coil is used
in twisting the suspension of the coil. In actual practice, the motion of the coil is damped
by air resistance and the induced current produced in the coil. The first throw of the
galvanometer is, therefore, smaller than it would have been in the absence of damping.
The correct value of first throw is however obtained by applying damping correction.
Let θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4,….. be the successive maximum deflections from zero position to
the right and left (fig 5.6.1). Then it is found that

Fig. 9.6.1

1  2  3
  d (1)
2 3 4
The constant d is called the decrement per half vibration. Let d = e so that = loge d.
Here is called logarithmic decrement.
For a complete vibration,
Page 151

1  1  2
   d 2  e 2
 3 2 3

Let θ be the true first throw in the absence of damping.


θ > θ1. The first throw θ1is observed after the coil completes a quarter of vibration. In this
case, the value of the decrement would be eλ/2.
  
  e /2  1  
1  2

 
or    1 1   (2)
 2
We can calculate λ by observing the first throw θ1 and the eleventh throw θ11.
 1 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
  e10 
11  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10  11
1  2.3026 
or  log e 1  log 10 1 (3)
10  11 10 11

 T  c   
 q   1 1   (4)
 2   NBA   2
Dead-beat and Ballistic galvanometers:
Galvanometers are classified as (i) dead-beat or aperiodic and (ii) ballistic
galvanometers.
A moving coil galvanometer in which the coil is wound on a metallic conducting
frame is known as a dead-beat galvanometer. It is called “dead-beat” because it gives a
steady deflection without producing any oscillation, when a steady current is passed
through the coil.

Conditions for a moving coil galvanometer to dead beat:


(i) Moment of inertia of the system should be small.
(ii) Coil should be mounted on a conducting frame.
(iii) Suspension fibre should be comparatively thicker.
Page 152

9.7 Let us sum up


This lesson dealt with the transient currents namely the growth and decay of current in a
L and R circuit, charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor and inductor
and a resistor in series. Also it dealt with the principle of oscillatory circuits. Finally it
dealt with the theory of Ballistic galvanometer.

9.8 Check your Progress


1) Define the time constant L/R of R-L Circuit.
2) Write a note on the importance of oscillatory circuit in wireless telegraphy.
3) Write the equation for the maximum possible resistance of oscillatory discharge
4) Write the equation for the frequency of oscillation for circuit containing L, C and R.

9.9 Lesson end Activities


1) Find out whether the discharge of a capacitor through a circuit containing the
following elements is oscillatory.
C= 0.2 micro farad, L = 10 mH and R = 250 Ohms.

2) If the charge on a capacitor of capacitance 2 micro farad leaking through a high


resistance of 100 Megaohms is reduced to half its maximum value. Calculate the time of
leakage.

9.10 Points for Discussion


1) (i) Discuss the growth of current in a circuit containing a resistance and inductance
(ii) Find the decay current in a circuit containing L and R

2) (i) Derive an expression for the growth of charge in a circuit with inductance,
capacitance and resistance
(iv) Explain how you would measure the high resistance by leakage

9.11 References
1) Electricity and Magnetism by R. Murugesan
Page 153

LESSON - 10
CONTENTS
10.0 Aims and Objectives
10.1 Dynamics of Charged particles
10.1(a). Motion of Charged Particle in Uniform Electric Field (Longitudinal):
10.1(b) Motion of Charged Particle in Electric Field. Field applied perpendicular
to the direction of motion of particles (Transverse electric field):
10.2 Motion of Charged Particle in Alternating Electric Field:
10.3 Motion of Charged Particle in Uniform Constant Magnetic Field:
10.4 Motion of Charged Particle in crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields:
10.5 Let us sum up
10.6 Check your progress
10.7 Lesson end activities
10.8 Points for discussion
10.9 References

10.0 Aims and Objectives


In this lesson you will able to know about the motion of a charged particle in uniform
electric field when it is applied perpendicular to the direction of motion of particles. In
the same way the motion of charged particle in uniform magnetic field and finally the
motion of charged particle in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

10.1 Dynamics of Charged particles

10.1(a). Motion of Charged Particle in Uniform Electric Field (Longitudinal):


Consider a charged particle of mass m and charge q in uniform electric field of
strength E.
The force experienced by charge q is Fe = qE (1)
The experienced in the direction of force is
d 2 r qE
a  (2)
dt m
Page 154

Now, integrating Eq.(2), velocity of the particle is


dr qE
v .t  C1
dt m

where C1 is a constant.
Let u be the initial velocity of the particle at t = 0. Therefore, C1=u. Substituting this in
the above equation
dr qE
v .t  u (3)
dt m
Displacement of the particle is obtained by integrating Eq. (3)
qE t 2
r  ut  C 2
m 2
where C2 is another constant of integration.
Let at t = 0, initial position r = r0. Thus C2 = r0

qE r 2
 r  ut  r0 (4)
m 2
or displacement
1 qE 2
s  r  r0  ut  t (5)
2 m

10.1(b) Motion of Charged Particle in Electric Field. Field applied perpendicular to


the direction of motion of particles (Transverse electric field):
Let the charged particle be moving with an initial uniform velocity u in the X-
direction and the constant electric field be applied in the Y-direction (Fig 10.1).

Fig. 10.1
Page 155

Then at time t = 0, we have


v x  u, v y  v z  0 and x  y  z  0

Also E x  E z  0 and Ey  E

There is no acceleration along X and Z-directions (ax = az = 0).


qE y qE
ay   (1)
m m

Here, m is the mass and q is the charge of the particle.


But the particle has got an initial velocity in the X-direction. Hence, it will continue to
move in the X-direction with the same velocity.
qE
 v x  u, v y  .t , v z  0 (2)
m
Integrating these equations w.r.t. time t, we get displacements along the three axes,
1 qE 2
x  ut , y .t , z0 (3)
2 m

Eliminating t between the equations of x and y,


2
1 qE  x 
y . 
2 m u 

2mu 2
x2  . y  Ky (4)
qE
where K is a constant. This equation represents a parabola.
The transverse displacement suffered by the particle during passage through the
plates of length l is
2
1 1 qE  1  qEl 2
y1  at 2  . .   (5)
2 2 m u 2mu 2
When the particle leaves the field, it follows a straight line path which is tangent
to the parabola. Its direction of travel after emerging from the field is inclined to the
original of travel (x-axis) by an angle θ given by
vy qE qEl  l
tan    .t   t   (6)
vx mu mu 2  u
This principle is used in cathode ray oscillographs and in television picture tubes.
Page 156

10.2 Motion of Charged Particle in Alternating Electric Field:


Let E =E0 sin ωt, represents the alternating electric field. Let it act on
charged particle of charge q and mass m.
d 2r dv
F m 2
m
dt dt
But F  qE  qE0 sin t

mdv
  qE0 sin t (1)
dt
On integrating with the condition v = 0 at t = 0, we get
dr qE qE 0 qE 0
v   0 cos t   1  cos t  (2)
dt m m m
On integrating with the condition r = 0 at t = 0, we get
qE 0 qE 0 qE 0  sin t 
r sin t  t t (3)
m 2
m m   

This gives the displacement of the particle in time t in alternating electric field.

10.3 Motion of Charged Particle in Uniform Constant Magnetic Field:


The magnetic field on a particle having a charge q moving with a velocity v in a
magnetic field of magnetic induction B is given by
F = q (v x B) (1)
F  qvB sin  (2)

(i) If the particle is at rest (v = 0), F = 0

(ii) If v and B are parallel or anti parallel, then F = 0

Let us now discuss two cases:


Case 1: When the particle enters the magnetic field at right angles to the direction of the
field.
Let v be the initial velocity of the particle normal to the direction of the magnetic
field. The force due to magnetic field acting on the charged particle is perpendicular to
both, the direction of motion of particle and the direction of field. Hence, no work is done
by the magnetic field on the charged particle. Thus the particle gains no kinetic energy
and hence its velocity remains unchanged.
Page 157

The magnetic force acting on the charged particle gives rise to centripetal force
qvB. Hence, the path traversed by the particle will become a circle of radius r, as shown
in fig 10.2

Fig. 10.2
Here the magnetic field is shown perpendicular to the plane of the paper and
directed into it.
Let m be the mass of the particle. Then,
F = qvB = mv2/r (3)
The radius of the path is r = mv / qB (4)
The radius r is called the gyro radius or cyclotron radius.
v qB
The angular velocity is ω =  (5)
r m
 qB
The frequency is n  (6)
2 2m
This is called gyro frequency or cyclotron frequency of the charged particle.

Case 2: When the charged particle enters the magnetic field in any direction i.e., at an
angle θ.
Let the charged particle of charge q and mass m enter the magnetic field making
an angle θ with the direction of B (Fig 10.3).
Page 158

Fig. 10.3

The velocity of the particle v may be resolved into components v cos θ and v sin θ, along
and perpendicular to the direction of the applied magnetic field. The component v cos θ
remains unaffected by the field. Hence the particle continues to move along the field with
a speed of v cos θ. The velocity component v sin θ is in a plane perpendicular to the
direction of the magnetic field. Hence the field exerts a force F on the particle making it
to move along a circle in this plane with a constant speed v sin θ. The radius of the
circular path is
mv sin 
r (7)
qB
Thus the charged particle possesses two concurrent motions – one circular motion
with a constant speed v sin θ in a plane perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field
and another linear motion with constant speed v cos θ along the direction of the field.
The resultant path of the charged particle is a helix(fig 5.9b).
The time taken by the particle for one revolution is given by
2r 2  mv sin   2
T    (8)
v sin  v sin   qB  qB
The distance traveled by the particle parallel to the magnetic field in one
revolution i.e., in time T, is the pitch of the helix p.
2 mv cos
p  (v cos ) T  (9)
qB
Page 159

10.4 Motion of Charged Particle in crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields:


Consider a particle of charge q and mass m, emitted at the origin with zero initial
velocity into a region of uniform electric and magnetic fields. Let the electric field aclong
the Y-axis and magnetic field along Z-axis: i.e., E = jE and B = kB.
Let v be the velocity of particle at any instant.
v  vxi  v y j  vz k

The resultant force (Lorentz force) acting on the particle is


F  q [ E  v  B]
= q [ jE + ( iv x  jv y  kv z ) x kB]

d
 m iv x  jv y  kv z  iqB y  j (qE  qBv x )
dt
Thus the component acceleration along the three co-ordinate axes are
dv x qB
 vy (2)
dt m
dv y qB qB
  vx (3)
dt m m
dv z
and 0 (4)
dt
From Eq. (4) we understand that vz is a constant. If this component velocity is
zero initially, the motion of the particle is completely in X-Y plane.
Now we find out vx and vy
Differentiating Eq. (3) with respect to t, we have
d 2vy qB dv x
2

dt m dt
Substituting for dvx / dt from Eq. (2), we get
d 2vy q2 B2 d 2v y
2
 vy or   2v y  0
dt m2 dt 2

where ω =qB / m = angular frequency of particle.


This is the general equation of S.H.M. Its solution is
v y  A sin t    (5)

At t = 0, v y = 0. Hence  = 0
Page 160

 v y  A sin t (6)

Substituting this value of vy in Eq. (3), we have


d
A sin t   qE  qB v x
dt m m
qE qB
A cos t   vx
m m
AqB qE qB
cos t   vx
m m m

E
vx   A cos t (7)
B
Now, vx = 0 at t = 0. Hence A = E/B
E E E
 vx   cos t  1  cos t  (8)
B B B
E
From Eq. (6), vy  sin t (9)
B
vz 0 (10)
dx dy
Since v x  and vy  , x and y can be found by integrating Eqs (8) and (9)
dt dt
respectively.
E  sin t 
x t    c1
B  
Here c1is constant integration.
At t = 0, x = 0 therefore, c1 = 0
E
x t  sin t  (11)
B
E
y cos t  c 2
B
Here c2 is constant of integration.
E
At t = 0, y = 0  c2 
B
E
y 1  cos t  (12)
B
Page 161

Eqs. (11) and (12) are the equations for a cycloid. Cycloid is the curve traced out
by a point on the circumference of a circle rolling along a straight line. In present case,
the radius of the rolling circle is E / (Bω). Thus the particle executes a cycloidal motion
in XY plane (Fig 10.3).

Fig. 10.3

The maximum displacement (ymax) in the Y-direction is obtained for cos ωt = -1 (i.e., ωt
=  ).
2E
y max  (13)
B

10.5 Let us sum up


In this lesson you were able to know about the motion of a charged particle in uniform
electric field, when it is applied perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particles.
In the same way the motion of charged particles in uniform magnetic field and finally the
motion of charged particle in crossed electric and magnetic field is discussed.

10.6 Check your Progress

1) The principle of motion of the charged particle when electric field is applied
perpendicular is used in ……………..
2) Write the equation for the displacement of the particle in time t in alternating electric
field
Page 162

3) Give the equation of cyclotron frequency of the charged particle

10.7 Lesson end Activities


3) (i) Derive an expression for the discharge of a capacitor through an inductor and a
resistor in series
(iii) Give the theory of moving coil ballistic galvanometer

4) Discuss the motion of the charged particle in electric field when


(i) the field applied longitudinal (ii) the field applied perpendicular

10.8 Points for Discussion


1) (i) Derive an expression for the motion of charged particle in alternating electric field
(ii) Discuss the different cases with regard to the motion of charged particle in
uniform constant magnetic field.
10.9 References
1) Electricity and Magnetism by R. Murugesan