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# CE 424/CE 524

## Structural Steel Design

Chapter 2
Design Philosophies: LRFD/ASD

## Dr. Mahmoud Reda Taha, P. Eng.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico

## © Dr. M. M. Reda Taha, 2007.

 Design philosophies

##  Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

 Reliability index

 LRFD
 ASD

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 2

Design Philosophies

## Allowable Stress Design

 Service loads are calculated as expected during service life.
 Linear elastic analysis is performed.
 A factor of safety (FOS) of the material strength is assumed
(usually 3-4)
Material Strength
Allowable Stress =
FOS

##  Design is satisfactory if (maximum stress < allowable stress)

 Limitations
 Case specific, no guarantee that our design covers all cases
 Arbitrary choice of FOS?! Can this be resolved ?!

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 4

New version of ASD
 The new AISC code introduces a new trend for ASD
Rn
Ra ≤

combinations and this can result in determining the required
strength Ra

##  A new factor of safety Ω is introduced. The new factor of safety

is > 1.0 and is derived using probabilistic methods
 By dividing the nominal strength Rn by the Ω factor of safety,
the concept of allowable stress is satisfied.

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 5

Plastic Design
 The structure is assumed to fail under these loads, thus,
plastic hinges will form under these loads “Plastic Analysis”.
 The cross section is designed to resist bending moments and
shear forces from the plastic analysis.
 Members are safe as they are designed to fail under these
 Limitations
 No FOS of the material is considered, neglecting the uncertainty in
material strength!
 Arbitrary choice of overall FOS?!

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 6

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
 LRFD is similar to plastic design in that it performs design with the assumption of
failure!
 Service loads are multiplied by load factors (γ) and linear elastic analysis is
performed.
 Material strength is reduced by multiplying the nominal material strength by a
resistance factor (φ)
 The design rule is

## This rule shall be attained

∑ γ i Q i ≤ φi R n for all limit states!!

 Where Rn is the nominal strength and Q is the load effect for the ith limit state

 Non-case specific, statistical calculations guarantee population behavior.
 Uniform factor of safety as both load and material factors are tied by reliability analysis.

## Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

 The basic statistical information we can get are the mean and the
standard deviation
 Mean of a sample population
µ 1 n
µ= ∑ xi
n i
 Standard deviation of a sample population
σ
1 n
σ= ∑
n i
( xi − µ )2
(n-1) for samples of less than 30 observations

##  We can also calculate the coefficient of variation (V)

V = σµ
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 8
Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

## Probability density Cumulative probability

function (PDF) b

1
⎛ − ( x − µ )2

⎜ 2σ 2

P( a < x < b ) = ∫ P ( x ) dx
P( x ) = e ⎝ ⎠ a

σ 2π

a b
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 9

##  In LRFD we assume that both loads and resistance are uncertain

and need to be dealt with through the theory of probability
 For example: Test results of a L 3 ½ x 3 ½ x 3/8 are:

(kips)
1 87.2
2 87.3
3 85.4
4 87
5 86.5
6 86.9
7 88
8 89
9 84.3
10 87

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 10

Probabilistic Basis for LRFD
 The mean and the standard deviations for the test results are:
 µ = 86.9 kips
σ = 1.29 kips Probability density function (PDF)

##  From the previous graph

we might assume normal
distribution of the test
results
 Thus by using the normal
“Gaussian” distribution
we get this curve
⎛ −( x − µ )2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟
1 ⎜ 2 σ 2 ⎟⎠
P( x ) = e⎝
σ 2π

## Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

 Materials and load distributions have been shown by researchers to follow
normal or log-normal distributions
 If normal distribution is used, then
P( R ≤ Q ) thus if x = R − Q then POF = P( x ≤ 0 )
 If log-normal distribution is used, then
⎛R⎞ ⎛R⎞
P( ln⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≤ 0 ) thus if x = ln⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ then POF = P( x ≤ 0 )
⎝Q⎠ ⎝Q⎠
Normal or Log-normal distribution
Mean (µ)

## POF = Area left to the line

x = zero
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 12
Probabilistic Basis for LRFD
 The reliability index “β” is tied to this distribution.
 It simply represents how far the mean from the critical point as multiples of
the standard deviation
 If we consider log-normal distribution for example

⎛R⎞
ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
β= T = ⎝ ⎠
x Q
σx σ ⎛R⎞
ln ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
Mean (µ)

⎝Q⎠

xT
Each β corresponds to a
specific probability of failure
x = zero
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 13

## Probabilistic basis for LRFD

 Looking at the two distributions of resistance and load effect

Resistance “R”

R
Frequency (%)

Q
R −Q
Q R

R-Q

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 14

Probabilistic Basis for LRFD
 If we have the probability distribution of the load effect (Q) and the
material resistance (R) then:
 The probability of failure can be represented by observing the probability of
the function (R-Q)
 The probability of failure PF can be represented as the probability that Q ≥ R:

Probability
of failure

## Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

 We can view the relation between these probabilities from another
prospective

## ( R − Q ) Cos45 On this line Q = R,

we are interested in
Q> R

N ( R − Q ) Cos 45
β= =
R σQ σQ
The higher the β, the bigger the safety radius
o
45

Q
N

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 16

Reliability Index
σR
 For lines inclined by an angle θ we can prove cos θ =
σ R2 + σ Q2

⎡σ ⎤
( R − Q ) ⎢ R ⎥Cosθ
⎢⎣σ Q ⎥⎦
β=
σQ
(R − Q )
β=
N
β=
σQ σ R2 + σ Q2

##  The reliability index “β” is a function of both

 The load effect “Q” and the resistance “R” and their probability distributions.
 It represents how confident are we in our decision that the resistance of the
material is higher than the load effects.

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 17

Reliability Index
 By considering the previous graph
 The higher the parameter “β”, the lower the probability of failure “PF”
 The parameter “β” is known as “The reliability index”
Lognormal variables Normal variables
⎡ R ⎤
⎢ ln( Q ) ⎥ Rm − Qm
β = ⎣ ⎦m
OR β=
σ⎡ R ⎤
⎢ ln( Q ) ⎥
σ R2 + σ Q2
⎣ ⎦

##  The reliability index “β” is a function of both

 The load effect “Q” and the resistance “R” and their probability distributions.
 By targeting a specific “Reliability index” for all the design elements, a consist
tent level of safety in design can be achieved
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 18

##  As the load effect and resistance distributions can be determined by

measurements, the reliability index “β” (probability of failure) for any
combination of loads and materials can be determined.

##  However, determining the probability of failure for a specific load and

material combination is not the design target. The target is to determine the
load and resistance factors that can achieve a specific probability of failure

 The following equation can be used for determining the resistance factor φ
for a specific reliability index “β”:
R m − 0 .55 β V R
φ = e
Rn
 VR is the coefficient of variation of the resistance

##  The load factor “γ“ can be determined : see next example

CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 19

Example 1

##  For the shown connection:

 The 50 years wind records are used to calculate the maximum load effect
 Experimental results of the connection resistance are recorded
Test # R (kips) Record # Pw (kips)

1 23.5 1 14.8
2 28.1 2 14.1
PW
3 24 3 18.4
4 26.5 4 16.3
Rn = 25.4 kips 5 25.3 5 16.9
6 22.2 6 19.8
7 21.2
 Determine 7 25.3
8 26.2 8 18.4
 The probability of failure 9 14.8
9 24.9
 Load and resistance factors for a 10 22.3 10 19.1
probability of failure of 0.01%

Example 1

##  To determine the probability of failure we need to determine the

probability that Qm>Rm
 First: Determine the statistical parameters for Q and R

Rm = 24.83 kips
σ R = 1.87 kips
VR = 0.075

Qm = 17.38 kips
σ Q = 2.36 kips
VQ = 0.136

Example 1

##  The probability of failure represents the probability that Qm>Rm

Rm − Qm
β= β = 2.47 POF = 0.67%
σ R2 + σ Q2

##  This is relatively high POF, we need to determine the load and

resistance factors to achieve a specific POF (POF<0.01%)

## POFT = 0.01 % βT ≈ 3.75 “Inverse of cumulative normal

distribution”

RT − Qm = βT σ R2 + σ Q2

Example 1

##  The load factor can now be determined

RT
γ= γ ≈ 1.70
Qm

 We can also determine the load resistance factor φ from the equation below

Rm −0.55 β VR
φ= e φ = 0.83
Rn
 We can repeat the previous process for different POFs to examine the effect of
changing the POF or “β” on load and resistance factors
 See MATLAB code on the web
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 23

## AISC – Steel Design

 Historically,
in Europe since early 1980s.
 AISC adopted LRFD since 1986.
 AISC Introduces a combined method in 2007!

 The new design provisions in AISC (2007) version allows the design
using one of two methods
 Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
 Allowable Stress Design (ASD)
 AISC tries to establish a uniform method by introducing a new ASD
design method, where ASD safety factors are derived probabilistically.
Therefore, both methods are similar and shall yield close results
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 24
AISC – LRFD Design
 Design using AISC will target a specific probability of failure
“Reliability index” “β” to achieve a consistent design at the
different design load combinations and limit states

##  AISC Reliability index (β)

D + (L or S) D+L+W D+L+E
Members 3.0 2.5 1.75
Connections 4.5 4.5 4.5

 Where
 Earthquakes (E)
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 25

 Based on definitions by ASCE document on load and load combinations (2002),
AISC considers the following loads for designing of Steel structures.

 Lateral earth pressure (H)
 Fluid pressures (F)
 Self-restraining force (T)

## CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 26

 AISC considers the following load combinations in design
1− 1.4 D
∑γ i Qi ≤ φi Rn
2 − 1.2 D + 1.6 L + 0.5( Lr or S or R )

## 3 − 1.2 D + 1.6 ( Lr or S or R ) + 0.5L or (0.8W )

∑γ i Qi
4 − 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + 0.5 ( Lr or S or R )
5 − 1 .2 D ± 1 . 0 E + 0 . 5 L + 0 . 2 S

## 6 − 0.9 D ± (1.3 Wor 1.0 E )

 For garages, load factor for L in load combinations 3,4 and 5 shall be 1.0 and not 0.5 ( L = 100 psf)

φi Rn φ = 0.75 − 1.00 for yield φ = 0.9 and for bolt shear φ = 0.75

## ASD: Load and Resistance Factors

 AISC considers the following load combinations in design Rn
Ra ≤
1− D Ω
2− D+L
3− D + ( Lr or S or R )
Ra 4− D + 0.75 L + 0.75 ( Lr or S or R )
5− D ± ( W or 0.7 E )
6− D + 0.75( W or 0.7 E ) + 0.75 L + 0.75( Lr or S or R )
7− 0.6 D ± ( W or 0.7 E )

1.5
Ω Ω= for yield Ω = 1.67 and for bolt shear Ω = 2.0
φ
CE 424/524 - Chapter 2 Slide Number 28
Example 2

References

##  Segui, W. T., LRFD Steel Design, Fourth Edition, 2007, Thompson,

Brooks/Cole, USA.
 Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design, American
Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 13th Edition. 2005
 McCormac, J. C. and Nelson, J. K., Structural Steel Design: LRFD Method,
3rd Edition, 2003, Prentice Hall, NJ, USA
 Kulak, G. L. and Gilmor, M. I., Limit State Design in Structural Steel, 6th
Edition, 1998, Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Alliston, Ontario,