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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

A New Approach for Model based Gait Signature


Extraction
Mohamed Rafi Shanawaz Ahmed J Md. Ekramul Hamid R.S.D Wahidabanu
Dept. of CS&E Dept. of Computer Science Dept. of Computer Network Engg. Dept. of E&C
HMS Institute of Tech. College of Computer Science College of Computer Science Government college of Engg
Tumkur, Karnataka, India King Khalid University, KSA King Khalid University, Abha, KSA Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.
mdrafi2km@yahoo.com jshanawaz@gmail.com ekram_hamid@yahoo.com drwahidabanu@gmail.com

Abstract— Identifying individuals for security purposes are Gait is defined as, “A particular way or manner of moving
becoming essential now-a-day. Gait recognition aims essentially on foot”. Early psychological studies into gait by Murray [2],
to address this problem by identifying people at a distance based suggested that gait is a unique personal characteristic, with
on the way they walk. In this paper, a model is proposed for gait cadence and is cyclic in nature. Gait recognition as a
signature extraction consists of gait capture, segmentation and physiological biometric technique has become popular in
feature extraction steps. We use Hough transform technique that recent times. Gait as a biometric can be seen as advantageous
helps to read all parameters which are used to generate gait [3] over other forms of biometric identification techniques for
signatures that may result a better gait recognition rate. In the it is unobtrusive, can be captured at a distance, does not require
preprocessing steps, the picture frames taken from video
high quality images and it is difficult to disguise. The first
sequences are given as input to Canny edge detection algorithm
to detect edges of the image by extracting foreground from
scientific article on animal walking gaits has been written
background also it reduces the noise using Gaussian filter. The 350BC by Aristotle [4]. He observed and described different
output from edge detection is an input to the Hough transform to walking gaits of bipeds and quadrupeds and analyzed why all
extract gait parameters. We have used five parameters to animals have an even number of legs. Recognition approaches
successfully extract gait signatures. It is observed that when the to gait were first developed in the early 1990s and were
camera is placed at 90 and 270 degrees, all the parameters used evaluated on smaller databases and showed promise. DARPA’s
in the proposed work are clearly visible. Then using Hough Human ID at a Distance program [5] then collected a rich
transform, a clear line based model is designed to extract gait variety of data and developed a wide variety of technique and
signatures. The utility of the model is tested on a variety of body showed not only that gait could be extended to large databases
and stride parameters recovered in different viewing conditions and could handle covariate factors. Since the DARPA program,
on a database consisting of 15 to 20 subjects walking at both an research has continued to extend and develop technique, with
angled and frontal-parallel view with respect to the camera, both especial consideration of practical factors such as feature
indoors and outdoors and find the method to be highly successful. potency.
Keywords- Biometric, Gait signature extraction, Hough In Silhouette Analysis-Based Gait Recognition for Human
Transform, Canny Edge detection, Gaussian filter Identification [6] a combination of background subtraction
procedure and a simple correspondence method was used to
segment and track spatial silhouettes of an image, but this
I. INTRODUCTION method generates more noise which leads to poor gait signature
extraction. Therefore the rate of recognition was low. In gait
The demand for automatic human identification system is recognition by symmetry analysis[7], the Generalized
strongly increasing and growing in many important Symmetry Operator was used which locates features according
applications, especially at a distance and it has recently gained to their symmetrical properties rather than relying on the
great interest from the pattern recognition and computer vision borders of a shape or on general appearance and hence does not
researchers for it is widely used in many security-sensitive require the shape of an object to be known in advance. The
environments such as banks, parks and airports. Biometrics is a evaluation was done by masking with a rectangular bar of
new powerful tool for reliable human identification and it different widths: 5, 10 and 15 pixels in each image frame of the
makes use of human physiology or behavioral characteristics test subject and at the same position. The area masked was on
such as face, iris, fingerprints and hand geometry for average 13.2%, 26.3% and 39.5% of the image silhouettes,
identification. However, these biometrics methodologies are respectively. A recognition rate of 100% was obtained for bar
either instructive or restricted to many controlled environments. size of 5 pixels. For a bar width of 10 pixels the test failed as
For example, most face recognition methods are capable of the test subject could not be recognized as subject was
recognizing only frontal or nearly frontal faces, other completely covered in most of the image frames. This suggests
biometrics such as fingerprint and iris are no longer applicable that recognition is likely to be adversely affected when a
when the persons suddenly appears in the surveillance. subject walks behind a vertically placed object. There were also
Therefore, new biometrics recognition methods are strongly other limitations, Mark Ruane Dawson [8], like the legs were
needed in many surveillance applications, especially at a not being tracked to a high enough standard for gait
distance [1]. recognition. The segmentation process leads to a very crude

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
model fitting procedure which in turn adversely affects the rate A. Gait Capturing
of recognition. In other method of gait recognition, the subjects At this step the subjects are asked to walk for capturing of
in the video are always walking perpendicular to the camera gait. This is a very important step as the total results depend on
[9]. This would not be the case in real life as people would be the quality of the gait captured. So the care should be taken to
walking at all angles to the video camera. Using of fewer see that the quality of gait capturing is maintained, this step
parameters for gait signatures was another major drawback includes video sequence and XML data store. In our proposed
which has to be addressed. research the following preprocessing steps are carried out
The motivation behind this research is to find whether before segmenting a captured Image
increase in number of gait signature can improve the • [Reading a RGB image]
recognition rate? Improvement over model fitting can give us
better results? What factors affect gait recognition and to what • [Converting an RGB image to Gray Scale]
extent? And what are the critical vision components affecting
gait recognition from video? The objective of this paper is to • [Converting Gray Scale Image to Indexed Image]
explore the possibility of extracting a gait biometric from a The indexed image is the input to the segmentation algorithm
sequence of images of a walking subject without using for further processing. The above preprocesses of an image is
markers. Sophisticated computer vision techniques are shown in figure 2.
developed, aimed to extract a gait signature that can be used for
person recognition. B. Segmentation
In computer vision, segmentation refers to the process of
Using video feeds from conventional cameras and without
partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (sets of
the use of special hardware, implicates the development of a
pixels, also known as super pixels). The goal of segmentation is
marker less body motion capture system. Research in this
to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into
domain is generally based on the articulated-models approach.
something that is more meaningful and easier to analyse. Image
Haritaoglu et al. [10] presented an efficient system capable of
segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries
tracking 2D body motion using a single camera. Amos Y.
(lines, curves, etc.) in images. More precisely, image
Johnson[11] used a single camera with the viewing plane
segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel
perpendicular to the ground plane, 18 subjects walked in an
in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain
open indoor-space at two view angles: a 45◦ path (angle view)
visual characteristics.
toward the camera, and a frontal-parallel path (side-view) in
relation to the viewing plane of the camera. The side-view data The Canny Edge Detection Algorithm:
was captured at two different depths, 3.9 meters and 8.3 meters
from camera. These three viewing conditions are used to The picture frames taken from video sequences are given as
evaluate our multi-view technique. In this research, we use input to Canny edge detection algorithm to detect the edges of
images captured at different views as the image captured from the image frames.
the frontal or perpendicular view does not give required The algorithm consists of 5 steps:
signatures. Segmentation is done on the captured image in
order to extract foreground from back ground using Canny 1. Image Smoothing:
edge detection technique, as the purpose of edge detection in Image smoothing is used to reduce noise within an image.
general is to significantly reduce the amount of data in an The Canny edge detector uses a filter based on the first
image, while preserving the structural properties to be used for derivative of a Gaussian, in the form:
further image processing. In order to obtain the gait model the
output of segmentation is processed using Hough transform,
which is a technique that can be used to isolate features of a
particular shape within an image (1)
2. Finding gradients
II. MODEL FOR GAIT SIGNITURE EXTRACTION
We propose a gait signature extraction model having the The edges of the image is marked where the gradients of
the image has large magnitudes. The Canny algorithm basically
following steps- Picture frame capture, Segmentation, feature
finds edges where the grayscale intensity of the image changes
Extraction which leads to gait signature identification which
the most. These areas are found by determining gradients of the
shown in figure.1. image. First step is to approximate the gradient in the x- and y-
direction respectively by applying the kernels. Then the
gradient magnitudes (also known as the edge strengths) are
determined as an Euclidean distance measure by applying the
law of Pythagoras is given by equation
|G| = SQRT(Gx2 + Gy2) (2)
It is simplified by applying Manhattan distance measure is
given by |G| = |Gx| + |Gy|, where Gx and Gy are the gradients in
Figure1. Components of the proposed model for Gait Signature Extraction
System.
Identify applicable sponsor/s here. (sponsors)

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ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
the x- and y-directions, respectively. The direction of the edges parametric form, the classical Hough transform is most
is determined and stored as given by the equation below commonly used technique for the detection of regular curves
such as lines, circles, ellipses, etc. A convenient equation for
∂ = arctan |Gy|/|Gx| (3) describing a set of lines uses parametric or normal notion:
3. Non-maximum suppression x cosθ + ysin θ = r (4)
In the proposed study, only local maxima are marked as where r is the length of a normal from the origin to this line
edges. The purpose of this step is to convert the “blurred” and θ is the orientation of r with respect to the x-axis. For any
edges in the image of the gradient magnitudes to “sharp” edges. point (x,y) on this line, r and θ are constant.
Basically, this is done by preserving all the local maxima in
the gradient image, and deleting everything else. In an image analysis context, the coordinates of the point(s)
of edge segments (i.e.(xi,yi)) in the image are known and
The algorithm for each pixel in the gradient image: therefore serve as constants in the parametric line equation,
a. Round the gradient direction to nearest 45 degrees, while r and θ are the unknown variables we seek. If we plot the
corresponding to the use of an 8-connected possible (r,θ) values defined by each (xi,yi), points in Cartesian
neighborhood. image space map to curves (i.e. sinusoids) in the polar Hough
parameter space. This point-to-curve transformation is the
b. Compare the edge strength of the current pixel with Hough transformation for straight lines. When viewed in
the edge strength of the pixel in the positive and Hough parameter space, points which are collinear in the
negative gradient direction, i.e., if the gradient Cartesian image space become readily apparent as they yield
direction is north (θ =90 degrees), compare with the curves which intersect at a common (r, θ) point.
pixels to the north and south.
The transform is implemented by quantizing the Hough
c. If the edge strength of the current pixel is largest; parameter space into finite intervals or accumulator cells. As
preserve the value of the edge strength. If not, the algorithm runs, each (xi,yi) is transformed into a discretized
suppress (i.e. remove) the value. (r,θ ) curve and the accumulator cells which lie along this curve
4. Double thresholding are incremented. Resulting peaks in the accumulator array
represent strong evidence that a corresponding straight line
Potential edges are determined by thresholding. exists in the image.
5. Edge tracking by hysteresis The main advantage of the Hough transform technique is
Finally edges are determined by suppressing all edges that that it is tolerant of gaps in feature boundary descriptions and is
are not connected to a very certain (strong) edge as shown in relatively unaffected by image noise. We use this technique to
figure 2 extract lines from the segmented image. The Hough transform
can be used to identify the parameter(s) of a curve which best
fits a set of given edge points. This edge description is obtained
from the Canny edge detector and may be noisy, i.e. it may
contain multiple edge fragments corresponding to a single
whole feature. Furthermore, as the output of an edge detector
defines only where features how many are in an image, the
work of the Hough transform is to determine both what the
features are (i.e. to detect the feature(s) for which it has a
parametric (or other) description) and of them exist in the
image.
Hough Transform Algorithm for Straight Lines:
1. Identify the maximum and minimum values of r and θ
2. Generate an accumulator array A(r, θ) and set all
values to zero
3. For all edge points (xi, yi) in the image
a. Use gradient direction for θ
b. Compute r from the equation
Figure 2: [a] Original Image [b]. RGB to Grayscale [c] Grayscale to Indexed c. Increment A(r, θ) by one
Image [d] Edge Detected Image.
4. For all cells in A(r, θ)
C. Gait Feature Extraction
The Hough transform is a technique which can be used to a. Search for the maximum value of A(r, θ)
isolate features of a particular shape within an image. Because b. Calculate the equation of the line
it requires that the desired features be specified in some

92 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
5. To reduce the effect of noise more than one element
(elements in a neighbourhood) in the accumulator array
are increased.
The edge detected image and the image after Hough
transform are shown in figure 3.
Table 2: Parameters and percentage of clarity when camera placed at 270
degree angle to the subject for frame 1.

Figure 3: Images before and after the Hough Transform


Figure 5. Graphical representation of clarity for frame 1, when camera placed at
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 270 degree.
One of the most important aspects of this research is to Table 1 and Table 2 show the result. While the camera is
extract the gait signatures for a successful recognition rate. placed at 90 degrees and 270 degrees, it is found that for frame
Below table shows the number of parameters which are used to 1 the clarity for the parameter distance between the legs is
generate a gait signature for different view of a subject(90 higher; the y axis is taken as the reference axis for the subject.
degree and 270 degree).The attempts column shows how many Therefore this can be used to extract gait signatures for better
persons are used to extract the signature. The success column recognition. It is also observed that the parameter right thigh
shows how many of the subjects give successful gait length can also be considered for extraction of gait signature. It
signatures. is also observed that while the camera is placed at 90 degrees
and 270 degrees for frame 2, the clarity for the parameter right
thigh length is higher. Therefore, this can be used to extract
gait signatures for better recognition. While placing camera at
90 degrees and 270 degrees for frame 3, it is found that the
clarity for the parameter left thigh length is higher. Therefore
this can also be used to extract gait signatures for better
recognition.
Table 1: Parameters and percentage of clarity when camera placed at 90 degree CONCLUSIONS
angle to the subject for frame 1.
The presented research has shown that gait signatures can
be extracted in a better way by using Hough transform. When
the camera is placed at 90 and 270 degrees it is found that most
parameters listed in the research are providing us clarity. Since
the lines are clearly visible they can easily be labeled and the
distance and angle between them can be measured accurately.
The proposed research gives best results if the camera is
placed at 90 degrees to the subject and it is recommended that
the subjects must be made to pass through an area which has a
white background because it will help in getting a better gait
signature extraction model. The research achieved 100 percent
clarity if the parameters length of left, right thigh and distance
between the legs are analyzed at 90 degree angle. The
signatures thus extracted can be used to get better gait
recognition rate. In future work it is recommended that the
lines extracted from Hough transform should be labeled by
Figure 4. Graphical representation of clarity for frame 1,When camera placed at using an effective line labeling algorithm to calculate the
90 degree.
angles and distances between the various parameters to get
effective gait recognition.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

REFERENCES
[1] Jiwen Lu A, Erhu Zhang B .”Gait recognition for human identification
based on ICA and fuzzy SVM through multiple views fusion”, School of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological
University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, 25 July 2007.
[2] Murray, M. P., “Gait as a total pattern of movement”, American journal
of Physical medicine, 46(1):290-333, 1967. Shanawaz Ahmed J received his MCA
[3] Davrondzhon Gafurov ,Einar Snekkenes ,Patrick Bours , “Improved Gait degree from the Department of Computer
Recognition Performance Using Cycle Matching”, In proceedings of Science Bharathidasan University, India. After that he
IEEE, 24th International Conference on Advanced Information
Networking and Applications Workshops, 2010. obtained the Masters of Philosophy degree from Periyar
[4] Aristotle (350BC), “On the Gait of Animals”, Translated by A. S. L. University, India. He is presently pursuing his PhD degree
Farquharson 2007. in Anna University, India. During 2004-2007, he was a
[5] Sarkar, S. , Phillips, P. J., Liu, Z.,Vega I. R., Grother, P., and Bowyer, lecturer in the Department of Computer Science The New
K., “The humanID gait challenge problem: Data sets,performance and College, Chennai, India. Since 2007, he has been serving as
analysis”, IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 27, no. 2,pp.
162–177, Feb. 2005.
a Lecturer in college of computer science at King Khalid
[6] Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan, Huazhong Ning, and Weiming Hu, “Silhouette
University, Abha, KSA. His research interests include
Analysis-Based Gait Recognition for Human Identification”, IEEE image processing and image retrieval.
Transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, vol. 25, no.
12, december 2003. Md. Ekramul Hamid received his B.Sc
[7] James B. Hayfron-Acquah, Mark S. Nixon, John N. Carter, ”Automatic and M.Sc degree from the Department of
gait recognition by symmetry analysis”, Image, Speech and Intelligent
Systems Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Applied Physics and Electronics, Rajshahi
University of Southampton, Southampton, S017 1BJ, United Kingdom. University, Bangladesh. After that he
[8] Dawson, M. R., ”Gait Recognition”, Imperial College of Science, obtained the Masters of Computer Science
Technology & Medicine, London, June, 2002. from Pune University, India. He received his PhD degree
[9] Han, X.,”Gait Recognition Considering Walking Direction”, University from Shizuoka University, Japan. During 1997-2000, he
of Rochester, USA, August 20, 2010. was a lecturer in the Department of Computer Science and
[10] Haritaoglu, I., Harwood, D., Davis, L.”A real-time system for detecting Engineering, Rajshahi University. Since 2007, he has been
and tracking people in 2.5D”, Proceedings of the 5th European Conf.
Computer Vision 1998, Freiburg Germany, 1, pp.877-892 ,1998. serving as an associate professor in the same department.
[11] Amos Y. Johnson and Aaron F. Bobick. “A Multi-view Method for Gait He is currently working as an assistant professor in the
Recognition Using Static Body Parameters”.Electrical and Computer college of computer science at King Khalid University,
Engineering Georgia Tech., Atlanta, GA 30332. Abha, KSA. His research interests include Digital Signal
Processing and Speech Enhancement.
AUTHORS PROFILE
Dr. R.S.D Wahidabanu received her BE (Electronics &
Communication) and ME degree (Applied Electronics)
Mohamed Rafi received his BE and ME from University of Madras Chennai, India. Obtained PhD
degree in Computer Science & Engineering from Anna University, Tamil nadu, India. Having more
from Bangalore University, India. Presently than 30 years of experience in Teaching and research.
Pursuing PhD from Vinayaka Mission Working as Professor & Head, Dept of Electronics &
University, Salem, Tamil nadu, India. From communication engineering, Government college of
August 2007 to till date working as a Professor, Dept of Engineering, Salem. More than 13 students obtained phd
Computer Science & Engineering, HMS institute of and more than 20 students are pursuing phd under the
Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka, India. From November guidance. Published more than 30 papers in international
2001 to July 2007 Worked as Assistant Professor in the journals.
Department of Computer Science and Information
Technology, at Adama University, Ministry of Education,
Ethiopia. His research interests include Image Processing,
Database system and software engineering.

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