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Implementation

IEC
Time

GOOSE
61850 OSE
GO OSE GOOSE GOOSE

GO

GOOSE GOOSE GOO


E SE GO
OS OS
GO E
GO O SE GOOSE GOOSE
GOO
OOSE SE
G
by Hachidai Ito and Kenichiro Ohashi , Toshiba Corporation, Japan

40 41

protection
of High Performance

and Protection
Relay Testing
EAF
Transformers

IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging is applied for Substation Automation


Systems and for status interactions between IEDs by replacing the conventional
method of using binary inputs/outputs and wires with communication over
Ethernet cables/fibres. With its fast transfer characteristics, it is also applied for
GOO protection testing purposes.
SE In
IEC 61850, the new communication standard for power
order to confirm the basic substations, is now being widely used in practical applications. In particular,
GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Events) messaging has
functionality of IEC 61850 and been applied not only for SAS (Substation Automation System) control
and monitoring of primary equipment and IED status, but also for status
GOOSE messaging, conformance interactions between IEDs including protection relays by replacing the
conventional method of using binary inputs/outputs and wires with
tests are mandatory for basic communication by GOOSE messages over Ethernet cables/fibres. This is
achieved through much simpler engineering based on the multi vendor
multi-vendor interoperability. interoperability described in the IEC 61850 standard, which enables the
easy connection of different IEDs, including relays supplied by different
vendors.

PAC.WINTER.2008
by Hachidai Ito and Kenichiro Ohashi , Toshiba Corporation, Japan

42protection
In order to confirm the basic functionality of GOOSE Connection between IEDs provided by different
messaging in protection relays, functional conformance vendors is much easier to achieve.
testing at an independent test laboratory is mandatory for Modification or addition of data communications
multi vendor interoperability. However, an IEC 61850 between IEDs can be easily achieved by the simple
device certificate does not fully ensure conformity to the re-configuration of the IEDs’ GOOSE settings, rather than
IEC 61850 standard. Furthermore, in some cases, the by complex metallic wiring.
correct behaviour of an IED is not clearly described in the Figures 1 and 2 show an example of the differences
standard. Hence, performance testing for GOOSE messaging between the conventional method and that utilising GOOSE
must be considered as an important item in the product messages where communication between a protection
type test and/or the routine test because this is critical for relay and a primary CB (Circuit Breaker) is required for an
IEC 61850

practical substation applications. It should be noticed that Autoreclose function.


performance testing for GOOSE messaging is not covered Possible GOOSE application for protection and
by conformance tests at present. related ongoing activities
In order to replace the conventional method of using GOOSE messaging in IEC 61850 can also be utilised in
contacts and wires, the performance of the GOOSE the following protection functions:
messaging, i.e. transfer time should be less than 3ms for Autoreclose (between relay and CB)
a Trip GOOSE command and 20ms for a Block GOOSE Intertripping (between relay and relay)
command as specified in IEC 61850-5 'Communication Interlocking (between bay control unit and relay)
requirements for functions and device models’. It is clear Some utilities consider and plan contingencies in
that new methods for testing GOOSE messaging including the case of a protection failure in a system. In order to
Hachidai Ito performance and interoperability must be carefully minimize the damage caused in the case of a primary fault
was born in Osaka, considered, not only by vendors but also by the end users to the zone protected by the equipment that has failed,
Japan, in September who evaluate system performance in the field. messaging between protection relays is very important.
15, 1956. He joined GOOSE APPLICATIONS FOR PROTECTION This subject is being discussed in CIGRE/SCB5/WG16:
Toshiba in 1981, Advantages of GOOSE for protection devices Busbar protection. There is a possibility to use GOOSE
and worked as a GOOSE messaging is a very important function in messages for information communication between
development engi- achieving multi-vendor interoperability as described in the various items of equipment contained within the
neer and a manager IEC 61850. The purposes and associated advantages are substation
of Protection and considered as follows: ACHIEVING INTEROPERABILITY
Control Develop- Instead of connecting conventional metallic wiring and Functional conformance test See Figure 3.
ment Department. other ancillary equipment between protection devices, or UCAIUG (http://www.ucausersgroup.org) defines
He is now a Chief between protection devices and primary equipment, only a the conformance test procedure which is detailed in IEC
Specialist in Power single LAN cable/fibre is required. This results in a reduced 61850 part 10 (Conformance testing). The test procedure
System Protection & total cost of building a system in a substation. contains two types of test;
Control and is princi-
pally responsible
for technology and
overseas marketing
of protection and
control products
11 Connections between Relay 22 Connections between Relay
in Toshiba Corpora- and CB by conventional methods and CB by GOOSE
tion. He is a senior
member of IEEE, and Protection Relay
a member of CIGRE,
IEEJ and IEICE. Also Binary output
he is a secretary of
Japanese National Trip/Autoreclose
Committee of IEC/ Binary GOOSE for Trip/Autoreclose
TC95, a convenor input 100 BASE/10 BASE HUB
of its MT1 (Main-
tenance Team 1) Primary CB GOOSE for CB Condition
and a member of
its other 3 working
CB Condition
groups, and also a
member of several
working groups in Dedicated metalic cable (s) A LAN cable
IEEE/PSRC...

PAC.WINTER.2008
by Hachidai Ito and Kenichiro Ohashi , Toshiba Corporation, Japan

43

protection
Conformance with Importance of performance testing for GOOSE
messaging
the performance criteria In order to achieve multi vendor interoperability in
defined in IEC 61850-5 GOOSE messaging in consideration of an actual practical
situation within a substation, it is important that not only
should be tested. the functional conformity to IEC 61850 be tested, but also
performance conformity to IEC 61850 must be tested, by
vendors, as a type test of the IED.
Performance criteria examples of GOOSE messaging
Positive test: Checks with correct parameters. defined in IEC 61850-5 'Communication requirements for

IEC 61850
Negative test: Checks with incorrect parameters. functions and device models’ are given as follows:
However, there are some points that we must be 3ms: ‘TRIP’ GOOSE information (class P2/P3)
cognizant of with regard to conformance testing; 20ms: ‘BLOCK’ GOOSE information (class P2/P3)
‘Conformance’ does not mean ‘Interoperability’. The transfer time definition is described in IEC 61850-5 Kenichiro
Only basic functional tests are undertaken, no (see Figure 4). IEC 61850-5 states that the transfer time Ohashi
performance tests are carried out at present. of GOOSE messaging for a Trip command shall be such was born in Miyagi-
IEC 61850 communication interfaces in the IED form that the command should arrive at the destination IED Pref., Japan, on
the main part of the test, but the connections between within 3ms. For a single IED, by assuming the time for March 5, 1973. He
prot ec t ion applic at ions and their IEC 61850 the publishing process and the subscribing process are joined Toshiba in
communication interfaces are too complex and varied to be approximately equal and if ‘tb’ can practically be ignored, 1995. He is cur-
comprehensively tested. then at least half of the defined time is needed for the IEDs rently responsible
Regarding standardisation and guidance on testing, to process the message (i.e. 1.5ms for ‘TRIP’ GOOSE). See for product devel-
functional testing of IEC 61850 based systems is now Figure 4. opment of protec-
being discussed in CIGRE Subcommittee B5 Task Force PROTECTION RELAY TESTING USING GOOSE tion and control
92. The technical brochure will define the functional Comparison with the conventional method systems as a quality
aspects of testing which are not defined in IEC 61850-10 Figures 5 and Figure 6 simply show the difference assurance/testing
(Communication networks and systems in substations between the conventional test method used to measure engineer in Toshiba.
-Part 10: Conformance testing). It deals with the functional tripping time and the method used to measure the ‘Trip’ He is a member
parts not covered by the IEC 61850 device certificate GOOSE transfer time using an IEC 61850 GOOSE of IEC/TC95/MT2
which is based only on IEC 61850-10. This will have an enabled test set. In order to simulate network traffic, (Maintenance Team
impact on the work of the protection engineer, and this possibly caused by other equipment connected to the same 2: EMC standards
kind of functional testing approach should naturally be network, a network traffic simulator running on a PC is for measuring relays
carried out for all existing IEC 61850 conformant devices used. It is considered very important for the product type and protection
and systems. test to have a similar environment to that found within the equipment).

23 An IEC 61850 device certificate 24 GOOSE transfer time


IEC 61850 -5

The UCA International


Transfer time t = ta + tb + tc
Users Group defines ta tb tc

the conformance test

procedures required for f1 Communi- Communi- f2


cation cation GOOSE
issuing IED conformance processor processor transfer time
is the time
certificates. between
Physical device PD1 Physical device PD2 fuctions in two
devices

PAC.WINTER.2008
by Hachidai Ito and Kenichiro Ohashi , Toshiba Corporation, Japan

44protection
Implementation and test In the same way, GOOSE can be applied for testing
purposes. All signals, even those used internally in the
results satisfying the execution process of software for a numerical protection
relay, can be assigned to GOOSE. This results in reduced
performance criteria are wiring during testing and also facilitates the realisation of
described along with methods more detailed testing.
Figure 7 shows a practical example of the test result of
for evaluation. a switch-on-to-fault case utilizing GOOSE for a certified
IEC 61850 conformant numerical transformer protection
relay.
IEC 61850

In this case, the COMTRADE waveforms calculated


by RTDS with a simulation of both CT saturation and
substation, and this is a key point in GOOSE testing. See transformer inrush under a switch-on-to-fault condition
Figure 5/ Figure 6. were played on a test set. At the same time the relay’s
The advantages in testing with GOOSE messaging are internal signals for 2nd harmonic inrush current detection
considered as follows: and CT saturation detection which are used to block
Dedicated metallic cables in the connection between tripping were observed along with the trip signal, without
the relay and test equipment and/or cables used for testing any wiring connection but by monitoring GOOSE
can be reduced. messages on the network.
Performance evaluation is more accurately achieved The waveform can be seen to consist of fault current
in GOOSE messaging since hardware overhead time on and transformer inrush components. In response to
conventional binary inputs/outputs can be ignored. this unusual waveform, the relay firstly detects second
The limitation in the number of binary inputs/ harmonic to temporarily block tripping and then
outputs can be covered by GOOSE. subsequently issues a trip, which is considered to be the
The timing of all GOOSE can be monitored by an expected result.
external IEC 61850 protocol analyzer connected to the In the past, there would have been many limitations in
network. the flexibility of this kind of test, e.g. resulting from the
Expanding flexibility in testing with GOOSE delay time of mechanical contacts.
IEC 61850 GOOSE, with its fast transfer characteristics PERFORMANCE AND ITS EVALUATION
within a network environment (<3ms as defined by GOOSE messaging implementation to achieve
the standard), is now being widely used for protection satisfactory performance
purposes in place of conventional dedicated wiring. As It is important to minimize the transmission time of
described, this brings great benefits to the user since the GOOSE packet within the IED in order to achieve
dedicated wiring can be reduced. the GOOSE performance of class P2/P3 which is defined

15 Example of physical 26 Example of physical


connections for a conventional test connections for GOOSE based test
Communi- Protection Relay Protection Relay Network Testing
traffic simulator Tool
cation Testing
Binary output Tool
messages Trip/Autoreclose

replace hard- Binary GOOSE for Trip/Autoreclose


input
Binary HUB
wired signals
input
GOOSE for CB condition
CB Condition
between a
Binary output
relay and
Voltage/Current Voltage/Current
test device. Test Device
Dedicated metalic cable (s) A LAN cable Test Device

PAC.WINTER.2008
by Hachidai Ito and Kenichiro Ohashi , Toshiba Corporation, Japan

45

28
in the standard. One area in which we have been able to
make significant savings in processing time is in the way Simplified sequence model It is important
in which we process the sending and receipt of GOOSE of procedures in a time crucial proces
messages. Another opportunity was taken to reduce the to reduce the
time overheads incurred between the GOOSE packet
receiving process, the interpret/response/generate GOOSE GOOSE packet IED primary GOOSE packet time between
packet process and the sending process. Implementation receive process send
of the application software is designed such that the three the GOOSE
processes referred to above are executed in series in a task
activated in a very short period of time together with the receive and
primary protection/measurement etc. functions as shown. Table 1
See Figure 8. Test results for GOOSE transfer time response.
Methods for performance evaluation in GOOSE Network
communication Traffic Maximum response time Autoreclose by
of GOOSE (*2) GOOSE (*2)
Figure 9 and table 1 show a test result for the ‘Trip’ (*1) (*2)
GOOSE transfer time in a certified IEC 61850 conformant 50 Kb/S < 0.7 MS Successful
numerical distance protection relay as a performance 100 Kb/S < 0.7 MS Successful
type test. An IEC 61850 GOOSE enabled test set is used 200 Kb/S < 0.7 MS Successful
with 0.1ms resolution. During the performance type test *1 Simulated only by GOOSE which were all captured and processed by
of an IED, transmission traffic must also be considered. GRZ100 at the same time
*2 Test condition/hardware configuration is same as Figure 6
By calculating the maximum possible traffic on the LAN
to which the IED is intended to be connected, or stating
the maximum traffic value for which the IED can either
publish or subscribe to GOOSE within the specified time, Table 1 shows an example of the test result
the performance criteria must be stated by the vendor.
In practical situations, there are many kinds of GOOSE for GOOSE transfer time (‘ta’ in Figure 4) and
published by other IEDs and by primary equipment. All of
these frames and also frames of other protocols could be on of the result of Autoreclose utilizing GOOSE
the same LAN network simultaneously. This point must,
therefore, be considered when the possible maximum for all interaction signals in a certified IEC
network traffic is calculated. A performance calculation
example is also included in Appendix I of IEC 61850-5. 61850 conformant numerical distance pro-
Table 1: An example of the test result for GOOSE
transfer time. tection relay with simulated network traffic.

27 Example of utilizing GOOSE 29 Trip GOOSE transfer time


for protection testing purpose measurement results

PAC.WINTER.2008
by Hachidai Ito and Kenichiro Ohashi , Toshiba Corporation, Japan

46protection
As another aspect of performance evaluation for a single
[ Time period ] / [ Number of GOOSE issued ] =
IED, the GOOSE response time shall be checked since it
[ Average response time ]
directly affects the system performance.
As part of system evaluation, an easy way to test the
response time of an IED could be by the ‘Ping-Pong’ Here is a test result captured by an IEC 61850 protocol
technique as described below. This method is very efficient analyzer, which was carried out between two certified IEC
because it can check the subscribing time (‘Tc’ of Figure 61850 conformant devices (Figure 11). Furthermore in
4) and publishing time (‘Ta’ of Figure 4) at the same time this case, once the ‘Ping-Pong’ is set, the IEDs start playing
without other external inputs or triggers. ‘Ping-Pong’ as soon as the IEDs are connected to the
Set the IED to publish GOOSE (A) when GOOSE (B) network. Therefore, it could be used also for the purpose
IEC 61850

is subscribed. of increasing the network traffic.


Arrange external equipment connected to the LAN to Note that cases utilizing GOOSE introduced here can be
publish GOOSE (B). basically also applied to all IEC 61850 conformant devices
Observe the behaviour of GOOSEs with external which support the service for GOOSE.
equipment connected to the LAN. In order to obtain the expected benefits of IEC 61850
Figure 10 shows the test result of an IED, a certified IEC it is of critical importance to apply IEDs which provide
61850 conformant numerical distance protection relay, sufficiently high performance of GOOSE messaging.
with an IEC 61850 GOOSE enabled test set.
As shown, the response time here is sufficiently fast
to adhere to the requirements defined in the standard
(Figure 10). However, as it is only a single test result then IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging is now widely used
to actually verify the performance, we must repeat the
same case at least e.g. 100 times and check the maximum in substation applications replacing methods using
response time under simulated network traffic.
As an extension of these procedures, this ‘Ping-Pong binary inputs/outputs and wires. GOOSE messaging
GOOSE’ can be played continuously between two or
more IEDs without any external equipment. In case of performance evaluation for certified IEC 61850 con-
two IEDs, the same settings as shown above are sufficient
with the exception of exchanging GOOSE (A)/GOOSE formant devices is one of the critical issues in achie-
(B) and inverting their logic at one IED. An IEC 61850
network analyzer could observe the continuous ‘Ping-Pong ving required substation functions such as sending
GOOSE’ rally, and as for evaluation, it is only necessary to
determine how many GOOSEs were issued to the network trip commands or exchanging interlock status.
in a certain time period, i.e.

To obtain
10 Single 'Ping-pong GOOSE' 11 Rally of 'Ping-pong GOOSE'
the expected for performance evalation of an IED between two IEDs
benefits of Protection Relay Test Device with IEC 61850 Protection Relay Protection Relay

IEC 61850,it 2. GOOSE (A) GOOSE (A)


1. GOOSE (B) GOOSE (B)
is critical to

apply IEDs with

sufficiently high

performance

of GOOSE

messaging.

PAC.WINTER.2008