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CALIFORNIA

In This Issue I
GOLD BEARING QUARTZ VEINS IN THE KLAMATH
GEOLOGY MOUNTAINS 35
MINING CALIFORNIA CALCITE CRYSTALS FOR THE OPTICAL
A PU8UCATJON OF THE RING SIGHT 45
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION LITERARY PROSPECTS 50
DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY TEACHER FEATURE 55
sus. 01 c.won.. PETe WILSON DMG OPEN-FILE REPORT RELEASES 56
Go~ PUBLICATIONS REQUEST FORM 57
n. R.sourcaI Agwq DOUGLAS P WHEELER
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY SUBSCRIPTION AND
Secre£iJt)l kx Resources CHANGE OF ADDRESS FORM 58
PRELIMINARY REVIEW MAPS OF PROPOSED SPECIAL
~ 01 c.c.r-- EOW,l,RO G HEIOK>
STUDIES ZONES OF JANUARY 1.1993 59
""Od~
JAMES F DAVIS
Stale Geofo9rst

CALIFORNIA GEOlOGY
NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE CONFERENCE IN MEMPHIS
May 3-5. 1993
Technoc:aI EOolors Elise Maruson

Copy Edllor
Gtaphlcs and Design
"""" "'"""
lena Tabolio
PeglJY Walker
RedJcing eanhquake hazards in the central and eastern United Slates is
the theme for this conference. The focus will be on me last decade·s effons to

""--
PubloealJOn$ SupeMSOl' ..18" lambert transfer seismologkal assessment and earthquake engineering information
from Califomia to the rest of the nation to encourage everyone---home
101 K SlIeel. 12lh FJoot MS 12-)0 0INI"leTS. teachers. building inspectors. poIiticians-to recognize seismic
S8cr_. CA 958143531 hazards and prepare for a mapr eanhquake.
(9151«5·1ll25
PubIiaDor'I& _ Io'IIOrmUOn 0It>0I Five topics will be addressed:
10\ K StrM\. 141!'l Floot US 14-33
SacratMl'lO. CA 95111.-3532
• hazard assessment
(1115) ..... S.S716 • damage mitigation
SouIIwm CaOtDf1ll& RIogIoMl on.:e • preparedness. awareness, and public education
101 Soult> Broaclway Roon 1065 • emergency response and recovery
los MgeleI, CA 90012·.uQ2
(213) 620-3S60
• socioeconomic and public policy impacts.
Bay Aru Regoonal 0Il.e.
Papers will be presented and workshops conducted throughout this cross-
1,.5 MlI,."e1 51'''1, 3<d Floot disciplinary conference.
San F,anc::i$.c:O, CA 901103·1513
(.'5)5511SOO Some sponsors: Central United Stales Earthquake Consonium. Federal
CA.lJFORNIA GEOLOGV (ISSN 0026 45551 II pobIosned i)i. Emergency Management Agency. National Institute for Standards & Technol-
~ tlV the OePfI"mt<'I1 o! ConservaTIOn. OMSIOfl ot 101,.... ogy. National Science Foundation. U.S. Geological Survey. and the Tennes·
and Geology n. Records Qtlooe 1$ at 1059 Vine Street, Sulle
see Valley Authority.
1OJ, sao........ to C'" 9S8'4 S«ond dlIss JIOS1aQII ill paool 8'
sacramento, CA POS\mflSl.. Send ..:!d,ess ctIlInges loCAlI·
FQflNlAGeOLOGV (USPS3S0840), 80.2980. Sacr........ ro For more information. contact: ROD Consultants. 1206 Crestmoor
CA 9S812·298(J Drive, Boulder. CO 80303. (303) 494-6131

_..
Repons
_
ClltlOIn'WIQ DMsoon of
artlOIloI _ _ ~ _
"'onn _
,ell*, 10 the ~Nnh pt<IjIICl5
..
~ ... inC*JdId .. 1M maQWIIII ConItollvled ~
p/>oUlgIr"llh5, _ ~ _ ~..-...g amounce·
~

TtE CONCLUSIONS AHO OPINIONS EXPRESSED IN AR·


TlCLES ARE SOLELY THOSE OF THE AUTl«)RS AND ARE
Cover photo: Interference ligure (aiming reticle) as seen through
t«)T NECESSARl.V ENOORSED BY TtE DEPAAT~ENl 1M Optical Ring Sight. Photo by CraJg WoJmertJauser.
Of'CONSERV"'TION
Corr_ _ 1/IOulcI De _ 1 0 Editor
c...LlFORI'/lA. GEOlOOY, 101 K s-. ~S 1.-33
s.c._ CA 9581.·35)2
~ $100011)'1 t6_ISltOO'2)'1S (lZ11-
_ I S2e0G'3)'1S ( I I - J 5endSl.OlCtJCllJOn~_ CORRECTION: MarchlApriI1992, page 49.
- . . 01 _ _ ........-.on 10 CALFORHL.\ G£OlOGY
P 0 eo. 2\Il1O. s.c._.
CA t5llIZ·2\IIIO The bar scale is incotTect on the map of Califomia·s north coast regk:lnal
eanhquake SOI.lrCe zones The scale is 100 short for me distances shown by
MAACHlAPRlll993 approximalely a factor of fiYl!. That Is. the l00-mUe mark should be about
VolUmB 461Number 2 20 miles: the end 01 the scale should be marked about 200 kilometefS. IlOl
CGeOA 46 (2) 33-60 (1993) 1.000 kiIomelefS.

CAUFOANIA GEOLOGV MARCH APRJlI993


Gold-Bearing Quartz Veins in the Klamath Mountains in the
Redding 1 x 2 Degree Quadrangle, Northern California
MILES L. SILBERMAN, Geologist. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado
JOANNE DANiElSON, Geologisl. Shasta College, Redding, California

Photo 1. Ribbon texture in quartz vein, Summit Mine, FrOrlCh Guk:h·Deadwood Mining District The ribbons consist of bands of
quartz separated by thin dark seams 01 chloritized, ptylllZed wall rock (black shale or argimtej. The banding IS believed 10 repre-
sent successive openings and movement along the fissures that contain the veins. Altha Summit Mme, the veins cut argillite and
graywacke 01 the Bragdon Formation. Gold contents 01 veins from this mine collected during our study were as high as 75 ppm
(parts per million) (2.2 ounces per Ion). and arsenic conlents were as high as 10,000 ppm (1 percent). Very high arsenIC eonlemls
typICal of veins hosted in argillite and graywacke in the quartz-veIn districts of the Klamath Mountains_ Phofo by M.L S!lberman.

INTRODUCTION

OUr studies 01 gold-bearing quartz


veins of the Klamath MountaIns are
We viSited many 01 the mines in lhe
larger gold-mining dlstnctS, collected
T ile Redding quadran91e contains
parts of three physiogmphic prov-
inces': Coast Ranges. Klamath Moun-
part of the U.S. GeologICal Survey's samples. and studied the mineralogy and
(USGS) Redcilng 10 I( 2" quadrangle chemiStry 01 the gold-bearing veins (Photo tains. and Great Valley (FIgure 1). The
Conterminous Uniled Stales Mineral 1). These studies helped us establish cri· Coast Ranges and Klamath Mountains are
Assessment Program (CUSMAP) teria that are favorable lor the occurrence part of the complex of accreted ter-
prOjeCt, initiated by the late John Albers 01 gold-vein deposits. and helped us Iden- ranes fonning the margin of North
and his USGS colleagues in the early Iity areas most worthy 01 being pros- America from Alaska to Mexico (Coney
1980s. They. and members 01 aca- pected. The overall assessment 01 the and others. 1980). The process of joining
demia and the mining industry, pub- quadrangle's mineral resources is com- these terranes to the Nonh American land
lished a summary of the geology and plete (Silberman, Hassemer, and Force, in mass, in the region of northern California.
genesis of massive sulfide copper-zinc press; Silberman, Hassemer, Force, and probably began in the Devonian and was
deposits ot the West Shasta District Tripp, In press). complete by the Late Cretaceous or early
that Albers had been studying SlllCe Tertiary (Blake and Harwood. 1989:
the 1950s (Skinner, 1985). In thiS artICle we summanze the geo- Irwin. 1989). The Great Valley province
logiC sertlng, production. mineralogy. extends from near Redding south to the
The project identified regions Within geochemistry, and hIstory of mining lode- Tehachapi Mountains. Made of Jurassic
the Redding quadrangle favorable lor gold deposits In the Redding quadrangle.
to Holocene sedimentary rocks and sedi-
the occurrence of mineral deposits. the A more detailed presentahon of the char-
ments (Hackel. 1966). it is an elongate
most important of which have been aclerislics and geochemIstry of the gold-
gold, copper, and zinc. The gold occurs bearing veins in the major districts can
down-warp. or syncline, formed alter
maInly in placer deposils and quartz be round In USGS Open-File Report the accretion of the Coast Range and
veIns, the copper and zinc occur 91·595 (Silberman and Damelson, 1991) Klamath Mountains to Nonh America.
mainly in massive sulfide deposits. ...authors. • Te,ms in boldface JyPfI are In the glQSsary
on page 43

CALIFORNIA GEOlOGY MARCH/APRIL 1993 35


1lle gold deposits described here are lode gold produced was a byproduct GENERAL GEOLOGY
in the Klamath MOUIltains. More than 3 from copper-zinc massive sulfide deposits
million ounces of gold has been produced such as those of the West Shasta District 1he southern Klamath Mountains
from several terranes within the Klamath (Albers. 1966). Additionally. a small quan- in the Redding lOx :P quadrangle are
Mountains province, mostly in the eastern tity of gold was from copper-bearing a series of terranes that lie as generally
half of the Redding quadrangle. In this quartz-sulfide and sulfide veins in ultra- ea5tward-dipping plates separated by
province, which extends into Oregon. mafic rocks (serpentinite) in the west- thnast faults (Irwin 1981. 1985)
about tvJo-thiros of the gold produced was ern half of the quadrangle. This type of (Figure 1). The terranes consist of island
from placer deposits. The most common deposit is cormnon but not weD studied arc and oceanic volcanic and sedimen-
Iode-gold deposits are mesothennaJ (Eric. 1948: Silberman and Danielson. ta'Y rocks including sandstone. mudstone.
quartz or quartz-car"bonate veins similar 199 I). Because the goId-quartz veins are shale, greenstone. chert. minor lime-
to tOOse of the Mother Lode belt to the the most common source of lode gokl. it stone. and these rocks' metamorphic
southeast (Albers. 1966: Silbennan and is likely they are the principal source of equivalents. that fomled in Ordovician
Danielson, 1991). Most of the rest of the gold in the placer deposits (Clark. 1970). through Jurassic time. 1he Eastern

'0":..· ....
"r
.....
.......

~-;..
'?
'. 0,

'~

"0 ,
'. l'
'?
...• Younger Sedunentary

.."
Volcanic Rocks 01

The Greal Valley

'~I__:.,,:-_~'-,,---,'C,,,::,~. Miles
o 2 • 61(~
PROVINCES

LEGEND
Terranes made
ITI05Ify 01:
• PllItons thalml1Uded alter
ac:c:rebon 01 terranes
Approximate boundary 01 gold
mining distrICt

D
Oceanic rocks

Rocks lomllld In Island


,,~ • ""'......
Plutons thatlnlruded before
itCCfet;on oIlerranes

Physiographic ptOVlIlce
+ Lode gokl depos~ with greater
than 5,000 ounces production

La Grange Mme (largest placer


deposit In Klamath Mountains)

Terrane boundasy ApproXlrnate botindary 01


copper-zinc district

Figure 1. Generalized geology of the Redding 10 II 2" quadrangle showlTlg pre- and post·accretlon plUlons. lode gold mining diSlricts. major
copper-zinc districts, and gold·quartz vein mines With greater than 5.000·ounce productIOn. Lode mine locations Irom Hotz (1971). Terranes:
EKT. Easlem Klamath: n.
Trimty: CMT. Central Metamorphic: NFT. Northfork: HT. Hayfork: RCT. Ranlesnake Creek: WJT. Western
JurassIc. Modified from Fraricelll and orhers (ISB7).

36 CALIFORNIA GEOLOGV MARCH APRIL 1993


, PAC/FIC
•Eureka OCEAN

Glen Creek Beh McCloud Belt


(Lale JuraSSIC (Permian
:- ISO m.y.) ::- 255 my.)

Mule Mountain Stock


(Devoman
:' 400 m.y.)
Shasta Baity Bell
EXPLANATION (Early C,etaaJOUS
:-136 m.y.)
Plutonic Belts
Ironside Mountain Beh
flIT] Intruded alter terranes (mid-Middle Jurassic
were JOined ::' 170m.y.)

~ Inlruded belore terranes Star Mountain Belt·'-.o:,,,,,-


~ were loined
(Early Jurassic
::- 200 m.y.)
- - Outline of individual pluton

""L ~ ~ --'
Figure 2. Map of the Klamath MountainS in the Redding 1 x 2 quadrangle prOVlllce showing outlines 01 major plutons and trends of
plutonic belts. Modified from Irwin (1985).

Klamath Terrane (Hgure l}. the part of subsurlace boundaries extending \.Veil Batholith and the belt of plutons in which
the Klamath Mountains to which the beyond the outcrops (Griscom and others. il is found are post-joining (In.dn. 1985:
other terranes were joined. formed dur- in press). rtgure 2).
ing a period of volcanic-arc activity that
extended from Devonian through Jurassic Granitic and mafic plutons and associ- The regional metamorphic grade of
time {Irwin. 1981). This Eastern Klamath ated hypabyssal rocks of Devonian the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of
Terrane was built on Ordovician oceanic through Cretaceous age intrude the rocks the tem'lnes ranges from unmetamor-
crust and upper mantle. IlOVJ represented of the terranes. Many of these plutons are phased. through lov..>-grade (greenschist
by the Trinity Terrane, The Central Meta- in belts that generally follow the trends 01 facies). to moderate-gracle metamor-
morphic Terrane developed along the the joined terranes (Irwin. 1985: Agure phism (amphibolite facies). Metamor·
western edge of the Eastern Klamath 2). Some intrusive bodies were emplaced phosed rocks of variable grade are in
Terrane during Devonian subduction \.Vithin the host terrane before another every terrane (Davis. 1966). Contact
beneath the Trinity Terrane. Subse- terrane was attached. Most of these are metamorphism has affected rocks ad}il'
quently. during Middle 10 Late Jurassic parts of ophiolites or are comagmatic cent to plutons. particularly post-joining
time. the Northfork. Hayfork. Rattlesnake with volcanic rock sequences that formed intrusions. as exemplified by the banded
Creek. and Western Jurassic terranes in the same island arc. An example of gneiss zones along the contacts of the
were pined to the combined Eastern the latter is the Micklle Jurassic Ironside Shasta Bally Batholith and the country
Klamath and Central Metamorphic ter· Mountain Batholith belt in the Hayfork rock (Albers. 1964).
ranes by successive subduction events Terrane. which is comagmalic with a
(Irwin. 1981. 1985). regionally extensive meta·andesite unit Superjacent rocks include Creta-
that underlies much of the terrane (Irwin. ceous and Tertiary sedimentary and volca-
Defonnation dUring accretion led to 1985; rlgure 2). nic rocks. Most 01 these are in the Great
dismemberment. remobilization. and em- Valley province (F"Lgure I).
placement of ultramafic rock (With alter- Some plutons and plutonic belts
ation to serpentinite) along many terrane clearly intruded after terranes joined; Most of the terranes of the Klamath
boundaries. The ultramafic rocks are either lhey are significantly younger than Mountains province have similar litholo-
ophiolites formed from the deeper parts the rocks lhat surround them. as deter· gies. although the prO]'Xlrtions of the
of the oceanic and island arc terranes. mined by isotopic daling. or they cut rock types differ. A lew. such as the
Because serpentinite bodies are strongly across terrane boundaries (Irwin. 1985). Ralliesnake Creek (mostly dismembered
magnetic. aeromagnetic maps delineate The Early Cretaceous Shasta Bally ophiolite) and Central Metamorphic

CAUFORNIA GEOlOGY MARCH APRIL \993 37


(a complex of mafic and felsic gneiss and the Sierra Foothills (Shasta COW1ty His- (oxidized parts of the massive sulfide
schist) terranes, are exceptions. Some torical Society. written communication, deposils) that lAleT"e first mined in the
terranes. such as the Northfork Terrane 1991). In the literature there is some 1860s (Photo 2). Lode-gold production
and the eastern part of the Hayfork Ter- disagreement about the location of the lagged far behioo that of placer unlilthe
rane. are melanges of varied oceanic or Klamath discovery site. Ferguson (1912) 1880s. From then until World War I.
island-arc rock types in a shaly matrix. and Hotz (1971) quoted an earlier report at least as much gold was produced by
FraticelH and others (1987) described by Raymond (1874) that indicates Read- quartz-lode mining as by placer mining.
individual fonnations. including plutons. ing made the discovery along Clear Creek wid production dropped considerably
in the terranes (Figure 1). in Shasta County. Brovm (1916) and in the 19205. During the 19305 the bulk
Irwin (1960) suggested, however. that of gold extraction was from dredging
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS OF THE Reading discOV(!red gold earlier. along the operations, although quartz-lode mining
KLAMATH MOUNTAINS Trinity River near Douglas City. Trinity activity continued and mining of gossans
County. From the description in Brown for gold increased (Albers. 1966). In
History (1916), it seems that Reading was the first 1942, gold production was stopped for
to find gokl at lx>th sites. the duration of the war by President
Gok:I was discovered in the Klamath Roosevelt's Executive Order. II never
Mountains in 1848 by Major Pierson B. At first. gold was produced primarily again reached prior levels.
Reading. Reading was a colorful character from placer deposits. The first lode min-
who participated in the Bear Rag Revolt. ing in the Klamath Mountains was at Small-scale and recreational placer
and prior to his diSCO\lery of gold. worked the Washington Mine in French Gukh mining continues in the Klamath Moun-
at Sulter's Fort and visited the Marshall in 1852. Placer mining led to the discov- tains. but most quartz-lode mines. particu-
Mill at the Coloma gold discovery site in ery of gokl- and silver-bearing gossans larly in the Redding quadrangle. are inac-
tive. 1llere is development. exploration.
and small-scale mining, hoI.uever. at the
Washington Mine. the Klamath Moun-
tains' earliest producer. aoo the Summit
Mine. both in the French Gukh District.
aoo at the Yankee John Mine. near 19o.
in the Shasta-Redding District. Explora-
tion aoo development wcre carried out
at the Reid Mine. Old Diggings Districl
in the mid-1980s, but the mine is now
inactive.

The placer deposits. some of VJhich


contain minor platinum and platinum
group elements. are along the major riv-
ers and their tributaries, particularly the
Trinity and Klamath rivers. and Oear
Creek. Tertiary aoo Quaternary gravel
deposits have produced gold, as have
beach deposits along the coast in Del
Norte and Humooldt counties. in the
Coast Ranges province Orwin. 1960:
Oark. 1970: HOlz. 1971). One of the
largest placer mines in the United Stales
is in the Klamath Mountains. at the La
Grange deposit (Figure 1) in the Central
Metamorphic Terrane. near Weaverville.
It was active intermittently from 1861
through the 19405 and produced
390.000 ounces of gold (Oark. 1970).

Photo 2. Massive pyrite. lower leh. and gos-


san. or iron o~lde. upper nght.lormed by the
oxidation 01 the pyrite durnlQ weathering.
Bnck Ftat ore body, Iroo Mountain Mine.
West Shasta Copper·Zinc District. Pharo by
M.L. Silberman.

38 CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRIL 1993


Distribution of Gold-Beanng belt; in the Hayfork Terrane. the districts wood and other districts in the Eastern
Quartz Vein Deposits and Their are within the Ironside Mountainbelt. Klamath Terrane. ranges in composition
Relationship to Plutonic Rocks from quartz diorite to diorite and is of
In most of the gold-mining districts. several different ages (Photo 3) (Danielson.
Lode gold deposits 01 the Klamath two or more petrographically distinct sets 1988).
Mountains are primarily in the eastern of intermediate to felsic hypabyssal intru-
part of !he province in terranes contain- sions are spatially associated with the Districts such as South Fork. Canyon
ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary gold-bearing quartz veins. These dikes and Creek-East Fork. Hayfork. and Harrison
rocks generated in island arcs (Figure 1). sills are believed to be offshoots of the Gulch probably are within individual p1u·
The most common lode deposits are larger plutonic bodies (Hotz. 1971: tonic belts rather than bet\ll€en them. At
quartz or quartz-carbonate veins similar Danielson and Silberman. 1988). The Canyon Creek-East Fork. quartz por-
to those of the Mother Lode (Silberman French Gulch-Dead'.VOCXl District. which phyry. pegmatite. aplite. and diorite are
and Danielson. 1991). with production was the largest gold producer in the associated with many of the quartz veins
totals varying from a few tens of ounces Klamath Mountains. and the nearby (Hou. 1971; Hotz and others. 1972).
to more than 400.000 ounces. Massive VJhiskeytown District are good examples
sulfide deposits hosted in volcanic rocks of the relationships between plutonic The Old Diggings District. which is
and gold-bearing skarn depos- between the Devonian Mule
its have produced less lode Mountain Stock and the Per-
gold (Hou, 1971). The large mian McCloud belt intrusions.
mines are in quartz-vein sys- including the Pit River Stock
tems. for example the Brown (ptgures I and 2), appears to
Bear Mine in the French corroborate the suggestion
Gulch District (Albers. 1965: that important districts are
Hotz. 1971). bet\ll€en plutonic belts. How-
ever. a recent K-Ar age deter-
GoId-bearing quartz veins mination on sericilic alteration
are spatially associated with adjacent to one of the large
granitic plutons of various veins at the Reid Mine shaIN'S
ages. In most of the larger that the mineralization is
districts. hypabyssal dikes and Devonian. and approximately
sills related to the plutons are the same age as the Mule
intimately associated with. Mountain Stock (Photo 4)
and in many places host. (Danielson and others. 1990).
gold-bearing quartz veins
(Ferguson. 1912: Albers. Although similar island arc
1%5: Horz. 1971). In addi- Photo 3. Birdseye porphyry dike. French Guk:h·Deadwood District. terranes are present in the
tion to the distributKln of Gold-bearing quartz veins are associated With these dikes and fre- VJestem Klamath Mountains
plutons. Ptgure 1 shows quently contained Within lhem. The dikes vary in compoSition from in the Redding quadrangle
daCite to diorite. but all compositional vanelles contain the large
quartz-vein deposits that pro- rounded plagioclase phenocrysts or birdseyes shown above. The (P'9ure 1). no large vein
duced more than 5.000 association between dikes and quartz veins is so marked that pros- deposits have yet been identi-
ounces of gold in the pectors were advised to search all contacts 01 the birdseye porphy- fied there. HOI.'Je\IeT. small.
Klamath Mountains in the ry dikes to lind minera~zed veins. The dikes are believed to be goId-quartz and gold-copper
Redding quadrangle. offshoots 01 the Shasta Bally and other plutons (Danielson. 1988). sulfide-rich vein systems
K-Ar dallng suggests that at least some of the dikes are approxi- abound. and there has been
We suggest that most of mately 160 rna (JurassIc). older than the early Cretaceous Shasta considerable placer mining. In
the productive gold-bearing Bally Batholith. Photo oy Joanne Damelson. fact. there are placer gold
quartz-vein districts are situ- deposits throughout the Kla-
ated between pre- and post-joining pluton belts, plutons. and hypabyssal intrusions. math Mountains and they are not re-
belts and are within a few miles of the The most productive mines in these dis- stricted to lode mine areas (hwin, 1960:
contact between their nost rocks and one tricts are between the pre-joining. Dev0- Hotz. 1971).
or more granitic plutons (Danielson and nian Mule Mountain Stock and the post-
Silberman. 1988). This associatk>n is joining. Early Cretaceous Shasta Bally Production
most evident in the Eastern Klamath Ter- Batholith. The gold-bearing quartz veins
rane where many of the quartz-vein dis- are closely associated Wlth dikes and sills More than half of the 7 miRion ounces
tricts are between the Cretaceous Shasta of quartz porphyry. quartz dk>rite. and of gold produced from the Klamath Moun-
Bally belt and either the Oe\.a1ian Mule diorite (Albers. 1%5; Danielson and tains (64 percent) was from placer depos-
Mountain Stock or plutons belonging to Silberman. 1988). The "birdseye por-
M its. Gold-bearing quartz veins produced
the Permian McCloud belt (Ptgures 1 and phyry described by Albers (1961. 1%5). 27 percent. and the remaining 9 percent
2). In the Central Metamorphic Terrane. so frequently associated with gold-bearing was produced as a byproduct of copper-
the districts are within the Shasta Bally quartz veins at the French Gulch-Dead- zinc massive sulfide smelting. The develop-

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCHiAPAIL 1993 39


ment of copper smelting in 1896 was age. The host rocks are metamorphosed of the Whiskeytown District (Albers.
imponant for gold production (Albers, to the greenschist fades. Examples are 1965: Lydon and O·Brien. 1974: Hotz.
1966). Gold-bearing vein quartz from the the Old Diggings and Dog Creek districlS 1971). In the Backbone District. quartz
Old Diggings and other districts was used in the Eastern Klamath Terrane (Hotz. veins are in a Devonian metarhyoolite intru-
as smelter flux. TIle recovery of gold from 1971). sion some distance from the contact of the
these flux ores and sulfide-copper ores Mule Mountain Stock. but we include
greatly enhanced gold production in the 2. Steeply dipping veins In graywacke them in this category (Lydon and O'Brien,
region (Aubrey. 1908). and argillite of Late Devonian to early 1974).
Carboniferous age and moderately dip-
LOOe gold production from mining ping quartz veins along the thrust contact 4. Steeply dipping silver-rich quartz
districts in the Redding quadrangle is of the graywacke-argillite rocks and under- veins in the Early Cretaceous Shasta Bally
SlDTlmarized in the table below. Because lying Devonian greenstone (Photo 5). Batholith. The South Fork District is the
production was reponed only in dollar Both selS of veins are associated with only precious metal. quartz-vein district
amounts. loVe used gold prices at the time dikes and sills of quartz-porphYTY and in the Klamath Mountains that was silver
of mining to calcu1ate production in birdseye porphyry of diorite to quartz rich and had Utile gold production (Tucker.
ounces. We estimate that total gold pro- diorite composition (Photo 3) (Albers. 1926: Albers. 1965: Hotz. 1971).
duction from the Redding quadrangle, 1965: Hotz. 1971). Examples are French
including kx:Ies and placers. exceeds Guk:h-Deadwood, Eastman Gulch. and 5. Gently to steeply dipping quartz
3 million ounces or almost half the gold Minersville districlS and parts of the veins in amphibolite-facies schist and
produced in the Klamath Mountains Whiskeytown District. aU in the Eastern gneiss. The steeper veins are associated
(Silbennan and Danielson, 1991). The Klamath Terrnne. with pegmatite, aplite. and quartz por-
available production figures vary consider- phYTY dikes (Photo 6). Examples are the
ably. We calculated gold produced from 3. Steeply dipping quartz veins in the Canyoon Creek-East Fork and Bully Choop
the French Gulch-Deadwood District, the Devonian Mule Mountain Stock and districts in the Central Metamorphic Ter-
largest district in the Klamath Mountains. comagmatic metarhyolife and greenstone rane (Ferguson, 1912: Averill. 1941:
as 800.000 ounces from Hotz's data near contacts with the stock. Examples O·Brien. 1965: Hotz, 1971).
(1971). and 1.500,000 ounces from are the Shasta-Redding District and pans
Clark's data (1970). Thorough records
were not kept during most of the placer
gold production. In fact. no data were Lode Gold Production from Mining Districts and Terranes of the Klamath Mountains.
found from some of the smaller districts
such as Dog Creek and Bully Choop. DISTRICT TERRANE GOLD REFERENCE
(ounces)
Production data discrepancies for
silver are on the order of 20 million French Gulch-Deadwood EKT 800.000 1
ounces for a single mine (Lydon and 1,500,000 2
O·Brien. 1974). Silver was produced as Minersville EKT 39.000 1
a byproduct of the copper-zinc massive
sulfide deposits and is present with gold in Whiskey10wn EKT 54,000 1
quartz-vein deposits. The South Fork 70,000 3
District (Figure 1) had the only significant Backbone EKT 50,000 1
silver production from quartz veins. It Shasta-Redding EKT 25,000 1,2
produced about $1 million of silver. Old Diggings EKT 200,000 1
mostly before 1900 rrucker. 1926:
Albers, 1965). Shasta copper-zinc belt l EKT 560,000 2
Canyon Creek·East Fork GMT 192,000 4
Geologic Sening Harrison Gulch HT 200,000 1

Gold-bearing quartz veins are in a Hayfork HT 5,000 1


variety of host rocks and geologic senings
throughout the Klamath Mountains, but TOlal 2,125.000 (low estimate)
the largest deposilS and the most produc- 2,841.000 (high estimate)
tive districts are in the Eastern Klamath.
Central Metamorphic. and Hayfork ter- EKT • Eastern Klamath Terrane
ranes (Figure 1). Gold·bearing quartz veins CMT • Central Metamorphic Terrane
are common in seven geologic settings. HT • Hayfork Terrane
We defined these settings using published
descriptions and our obselVations. , Mostly byproduct 'rom massive sulfide depoSits. East and West Shasta districts.
References f. Hou (1971). 2. Clark "970): 3. Albers (1965): 4. /-Iou and olhers (1972)
1. Steeply dipping veins in greenstone
with or without metarhyolite of Devonian

CALIFQANIA GEOLOGY MARCH.APAIL 1993


6. Steeply dipping quartz veins in tal gold is present in quartz and sulfide ation minerals and thin cakite or ankerite
argillite and chert of late Paleozoic Of minerals. mainly pyrite 0;012. 1971). veins are commonly developed within a
Jurassic age near the contact with Jurassic few yards (meters) of the larger gold-bear-
Hayfork Bally Meta-Andesite. Examples ll'le type of alteration minerals in wall- ing quartz veins in those host rocks (Helen
are Hayfork and Harrison Gukh districts rock adjacent to the quartz veins depends Folger. USGS. written communication.
(Hotz, 1971). in the Hayfork Terrane. on host rock lithology. In greenstone. 1986). Hornblende .schist generally is
metarhyolite. and granitic rocks. including chJoritized adjacent to veins.
7. Gold-bearing quartz veins cOlltain- dikes and sills. sericilic alteration products
ing copper sulfides and/or disseminated are most common. Chlorite and carbon- Trace element contents of the quartz
copper sulfides and carbonates with or ate minerals may also be present. Dikes veins show some differences related to
without quartz. in serpentinite. diorite. and sills ad,iacent to veins generally are host rock type. There are also differences
and gabbro in ultramafic in trace element contents of
rock complexes (Eric. veins hosted in the same
1948). lhese deposits are rock types in different dis-
common in many of the tJicts (Silberman and
terranes of the Klamath Danielson. 1991). Silver
Mountains and Coast content of mineralized
Ranges. including quartz veins is generally Jess
Franciscan terranes. the than 10 ppm. and the gokl-
Josephine Ophiolite of the silver ratio generally is
Western Jurassic Terrane, greater than I. The South
the Trinily Terrane, north Fork District is an exception:
of the Redding quadrangle. silver content of samples
and others that contain from the base metaVsilver
serpentine and dismem- veins ranges from 50 to
bered ophiolite. such as 5.000 ppm and the gokl-
the Rattlesnake Creek silV€r ratio is less than
Terrane. The most signifi- 0.01. Arsenic content is
cant example of this highest (>1.000 ppm) in
deposit type in the Redding veins hosted by argillite
quadrangle is the Horse and graywacke. Tellurium
Mountain District. (2-20 ppm) and boron
Photo 4. Banded quartz vem With streaks 01 pyrite and chlorltlzed wall (50-300 ppm) contents
Quartz veins in the rock inclUSions, Reid Mine, Old Diggings District The vein. which is are highest in veins hosted
approximately 1.5leet (0.5 m) wide (base 01 photo). cuts greenstone ot
above settings are generally the Devonian Copley Formation. The lootwall 01 the vein (lower lelt) is by greenstone. Copper
similar. They are mediwn sheared lor distances 01 up to 6 feet (2 m) trom the vein. Both the hang- (l0·100 ppm). and lead and
to coarse grained and con- ing wall (upper right) and loolwall of the veIn contain Irregular, thin quartz zinc (both 10-1.000 ppm)
tain variable amounts of veins. Gold contents as high as 70 ppm (2 ounces per too) were found in contents are highest outside
wall-rock fragments and samples of the veins collected at Reid Mine. The mineralized valns also the South Fork District in
lesser calcite. Ribbon tex- contarn up to 200 ppm copper. 300 ppm boron. and 21 ppm tellunum. veins hosted by hornblende
ture. bands of quartz sepa- The veins are surrounded by a halo ot saricltlC alteraIJon that yielded schist in the Canyon Creek-
a K-Ar age ot approximately 400 mao indicating the veins were formed
rated by seams of altered East Fork District. lhese
in Devonian time, and are related to the same magmatic eptsode that
wall rock. is common in produced their host rocks (Danrelsoo and others. 1990). Photo by veins also contain an aver-
the veins (Photo ll. The ML Silberman. age of 1.2 ppm of mercury.
sulfide mineral content is a much higher content than
generally low. from less that of gold-rich veins from
than 3 percent to approxi- other rock types and other
mately 5 percent. Sulfide contents are silicified and have sericitic alteration mining districts. At Horse Mountain. min-
much higher in the silver-rich veins of the slightly farther from the veins. Albitic eralized rocks contain more than 2 per-
South Fork District. Sulfides are generally alteration and cartxlnale minerals are cent copper and high amounts of nickel
concentrated in wall-rock inclusions and also common. and paragonite (sodium- and chromium (1.500·2,000 ppm).
in wall rocks immediately adjacent to bearing mica similar to muscovite) has Detailed trace element data from veins
veins. Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide been reported adjacent to some veins for many of the mining districts shown
mineral. Other sulfide minerals include (Ferguson. 1912: Albers. 1%5: Holz. in F'19ure 1 are summarized in Silbennan
arsenopyrite (particularly common in 1971). Wall-rock alteration in argillite and and Danielson (1991).
argillite-graywacke-hosted veins). galena. graywacke is not obvious, although local
sphalerite, chakopyrite. pyrrhotite. and silicification has occurred adjacent to Origin of Gold-Bearing Ouartz Veins
molybdenite (Hotz. 1971). Gold telluride veins. Petrographic study of wall rocks at
minerals are present in veins hosted in the Summit Mine in French Gulch shows. TIle mineralogy. texture. and associ-
greenstone (MacDonald. 1986). 8emen- na..vever. that sericite and chlorite alter ated alteration products of the wall rocks

CALlFQANIA GEOLOGY MARCH-APRIL 1993


plutons or hypabyssal inlrusions. as are many of the mineral-
ized quartz veins in the Redding quadrangle.

RESOURCE ASSESSMENT
One 01 the most important methods used in regional
mineral resource assessment is the chemical analysis of
stream sediments. High concentrations of minerals or ele-
ments in stream sediments can indicate a deposit of those
minerals in the drainage basin. From our studies 01 the kxIe-
gold deJX>sl15 and analyses of associated stream sediments.
VJe were able to identify groups of minerals and elements
thai indicated go1cl deposits.

We found many drainages that contained either


geochemical or mineral anomalies suggesting gold·lode
deposits throughout the terranes of the western Klamath
MOWltains and even in those of the Coast Ranges. We be-
lieve these western regions are VJ€1l \.YOrth prospecting be·
cause rock types and structures commonly found there are
like those associated with 1ode-go1cl deposits farther east.
Descriptions of the areas we think are most likely to contain
undiscovered deposits will be published this year (Silbemlan.
Hasseman. and Force. in press: Silbennan. Hasseman.
Force. and Tripp. in press).

Photo 5. Brecciated quartz vein wllh chlorilized, pyritic wall rock


inclusions. Summit Mme. French Gulch-Deadwood Mming District.
The steep vein cuts argillite and graywacke sandstone o! the
MIssisSippian Bragdon Formation. The brecclatJon and texture Indi-
cate that the 'issure hosting the quaf\2 vetn moved aller the vein
was initially formed, probably with the Iell wall moVing downward
retallve to the nghl. Brown staJns are iron oxide resulting 'rom the
weathering 01 pyrite and other sulfides. Photo by MoL. Silberman.

suggest that these gold-bearing quartz


veins are typical mesothermal veins. simi-
lar to those in the Mother Lode of Califor-
nia southeast of the Klamath Mountains.
Stable isotope studies of Mother Lode
veins similar to veins in the Redding quad-
rangle suggest they formed from the activ-
ity of early. CO 2 ·bearing fluids of deep
origin and later fluids of probable mete-
oric origin (BOhlke and Kistler. 1986).

Elder and Cashman (1991) suggested.


on the basis of fluid inclusion data. that
mineralized quartz-carOOnate veins at
~rtz Hill (in the Oro Ano District 01 the
central K1amalh Mountains) \.\/eTe fonned
by the partial mixing of IWO fluids. One of
these fluids was of metamorphic origin
and the other possibly of meteoric origin.
The veins at Quartz Hill are similar to
many of the veins in the Redding quad-
Photo 6. Ouartz'rlch pegmatite vein cutting hornblende gneiss. upper level of the Chlonde
rangle: however. the Quartz Hill veins are Mine, Canyon Creek·East Fork Olstnct. Brown stammg is Irom oxidation of pYrite and other
associated with a major transcurrent sulfides At Canyon Creek·East Fork. quanz veins are spatially associated With dikes of a
fault (Elder and Cashman. 199 I). They vanety 0' compoSitionS. Includmg pegmatite. The pegmalltes we collected In Ihls area ale
are nOI spatially associated with granitic frequently anomalous in gold. but are not economICally mmerallzed Photo by ML SIlberman

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRIL 1993


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to dedicate this paper Miles l. Silberman is a geologist with the Branch of Geochemistry of
to three men whose work in the Klamath the U.S. GeologiCal Survey. He has 25 years ellpenence In research and
Mountains served as the foundation lor ellploralion of base and precious metal deposits in the western United States,
most. if not all. recent studies. The late Alaska, Mellico. Australia, China. and Israel. In 1982 and 1983, between tours
John Albers initiated the geochemical at the USGS, Dr. Silberman deSigned and ran exploration programs for pre-
study of the origin of the gold deposits in cious metal deposits in the Great BaSin for the Anaconda Minerals Company.
the Klamath Mountains as part of the Recenlly, he and Joanne Danielson compiled a field gUide to the minerai
Redding CU$MAP project of the USGS. depoSits of the eastern Klamath Mountams for the 15th International Meellng
John's earlier work. along with that of oftha Association of Ellploration Geochemists.
W. Porter Irwin on the geology and tec- Joanne Danielson's geological experience Indudes lielcl work In the
tonics. and Preston Hotz on the gold AntarctiC and geochemical studies of the moon, Mars. meteorites. kimberlite
deposits. turned the mystery of the origin nodules. and metallferous mineral depoSits.
of the Klamath Mountains into a dynamic.
She teaches geology. earth science, and chemistry at Shasta college
evolving mOOeI. It is \.\lith this mOOeI and
in Redding. California. Her current endeavors Inetude developing an
their inspiration tnat we continue to work
Associate Science degree, operating a goat dairy. raising pack mules and
on lhe original mission.
donkeys, and researching the mineral deposits of northern California as a
USGS volunteer

GLOSSARY

Acctetion (accteted) - The addillon of tams commonlV assoaated With gold·beanng Superjacent sequence or tock - A
conflnenfal land mass to another confln&nt vems are hVpabvssal inlfUSlOns vounger sequence of rocks situated imme-
by colliSIOn. Island atc (volcanIc arc) - A genelally dlalelV upon or over a lower. older se-
curved belt of volcanoes above a sutJduclion quence. as 00 an unconlormlty. In the
ComagmaUc -Igneous rocks thaI have a
Klamafh MountaJns. sUper}acent relers
common set 01 chemICal and mineralogICal zone. and the volcaniC and plutonIC rocks that
form there. The volcanIC rocks are accompa· 10 locks deposited alter the accretion
'eatures and are denved Irom a common
processes were complete.
parent magma An eKampie Irom Redding nled by sedimentary rocks larmed bV erosion
is the Mule MOUntaln Stock and Balaklala 01 the volcanIC rocks Terrane - A body of rock 01 regIonal
Rhvohte wtuch occur In the same lerran& Melange - A bodV 01 rock ctIaract9flzed by edenl characterized bV a geologIC hisfory
and are beheved to be the same age tack 01 mtema! contmUity 01 contacls or strata diller-ent Irom that of adlacent terranes
NormallV, faults form lhe boundary
Facies - tn metafflOfphlSrTl, a group ot and bV dlsorl9flted blocks 01 alt Slzes (exotIC
and native) embedded In a matriK 01 liner between adjoining terranes.
minerals lormed under certain pressure-
temperalure conditions thaI can be used grained mateflal. Thrustlault - A lault With a dip 01
as an indtealor 01 these conditIOns: Mesothermal- A hydrothermal rmneral
45 degrees or less over much 01 ItS eKlen!.
on which the upper plate appears to have
• AmphIbolite faaes- A sUite 01 meta- dePOSit found at considerable depfh (probably
morphic mln&rals typical of moderate to grealer than 1 or 2 miles [2 or 3 kmJ) and '" moved upward and over the lower plate
hlQh pressure (greater than 43,500 the temperature range of400 G 10 800 F (200 Transcurrent laull- a steeplv Inclined,
pounds per square Inch. or 3.000 bars) to 400 C). The term is commonlv used for the large-scale. strike-slip lault.
and tempetatures between 850 and types 01 gold·quartz verns of the Mother lode Ultramafic rock - An igneous rock made
1.300 F (450 and 700 C). and lhe Klamalh MountainS. mostlV 01 the magnesium-iron SilICate
• GreenschIst faoes- A sUite 01 mela- Ophiolite - A sequence 01 rocks character· mInerals oliVine and pvroxene EKamples
morphlC mmerals typical 0'
low to mod-
elate pressure and lemperatures 600
lZed by ultramafic and malic rocks, IrequenOv
8SSOCIafed With deep sea sediments. These
are dunOite (contains mostly olIVIne).
pyrOKenite (contains mostly PVfOKeoe),
to 900 F (300' 105OO"C). are segments 01 fhe ocean lloor. Includmg and serpentiOlle (largely made of the ser-
oceanIC crust and upper mantle rocks, uphfted pentine group of minerals). These hvdrous
Greenstone - Any compact. dark green magnesium-iron minerals are formed by
onto a continent dUfing teHan& col~slotl
altered or melamorphosed mafic IQneous lhe alleratlotl of original. non-hvdrous
rock. The color IS from chlorite. actinolite, PhysIographic province - A legloo whose ultramafic rocks such as dunmle and
or epI<tote. pallern of land forms IS signlficanliV dillerent pvroKeOlle.
Irom that 01 adjacent reglotIS (e.g. Great
Hypabyssal- An igneous lnlfUSlon
Valley and Klamath Mountams).
between p1utontC. which is deep. and
surface volcanIC rocks Dikes. $IUs. and SubdUcllon - The process bV which one Modififld from ~ry 01 Geology. 3td Edition.
trregular InlfUSIOl'\S of the Klamath Moun- lithosphenc plate slides beneath another at a t987. b,r &ll/$ and Jl'CkJon
convergenf contlnenfal margin.

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH/APRIL t993


REFERENCES Damelson. Joanne. SllbelO13n. M L" and Irwin. W.P" 1985. Age and tectonICS 01 plutonIC
Shaflqualla, H.M. 1990, Age of mineral· bellS In accreted terranes 01 the Klamath
Albers. J.P.• 1961. Gold deposits In the French lzatlon 01 gold·quartz vems at the Reid Mountains, California and Oregon. in
Gulch. Deadwood D,strlCl, Shasta and Mme, Shasta County, northern California Howell. 0 G., edllor. TectonostratlQraphlC
Tmll1y counues, Cahlornla: US Geolog· Geological Society of Arnera Abstracts terranes 01 Ihe Clrcum-Pacllic region:
ICaI Survey Professional Paper 424·C. With Programs. v 22. no 3. p 17. Circum·PaClflc Counollor Energy and
p Cl·C4 Mineral Resources. Earth SCience Senes
DaVIS. G A. 1966. MetamorphIC and gramllC
vI.p 187,199
Albers. JP • 1964. Geology 01 the French history of the Klamath Mountams, In
Gulch quadrangle, Shasta and Tnnlty coun· Bailey. E H, editor. Geology 01 northern Irwin. W p. 1989, Terranes of lhe Klamath
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Bulletin 1141-J. 70 p. and Geology Bulletin 190. p. 39·50 Blake. M,C" Jr.. and Harwood. D.L..
leaders, TectonIC evolutIOn 01 northern
Albers, J.P., 1965, EconomIC geology of Ihe Elder. OR. and Cashman, S M, 1991, Tec·
California Amencan GeophySICal UflIQn.
French Gulch quadrangle. ShaSla and tonIC conlrol 01 lode gold depoSl1S, Ouartz
28th lnternallOnal Geological Congress.
Trinity counties, CalifornIa: Calltornia HIli, Klamath MountainS. California Geo·
Field Tnp GUidebook T·108, p 19·32
D,v'SIOn of Mines and Geology Special logical 50aety 01 Amenca Abstracts WIth
Report 85, 43 p. Programs. v 23. no 2. p. 21 Lydon. P A. and O·Brien. JC.. 1974. Mines
and minerai resources of Shasta County.
Albers. J.p. 1966. EconomiC deposns of the Eric. J H, 1948, Tabulation of copper depoSits Calilorma CallfQfn,a D'VIs,on 01 Mines
Klamath Mountams. In BaIley. E.H" editor, 01 California: Califorma 0rv,SlOn 01 and Goology County Report 6. 154 p
Geology of northern California California Mmes and Geology Bullelln t44. part 3.
o.vlSlOn ot Mines and Geology Bulletin 190. p 197·387 MacDonald, DC. 1986, Gold and Silver tellu·
p 51-62. nde mlnerallzallon allhe Reid Mme.
Ferguson, HG., 1912, Gold lodes of The Shasta County, Calilorrua: UnIVerSity of
Aubfey. L.E .. 1908. The copper resources of Weaverville quadrangle. Callforma Tennessee at KnOKVllle. MS theSIS, 123 P
California' Calilornla State MIn,ng Bureau U S Geological Survey Bullet," 540·A,
O·Bnen. J C" 1965. Mmes and mineral
BulieM SO. 366 p. p 22·79
resources 01 TnMy County Califorma
Avenll. J.C.• 1941. Minerai resources 01 Tnnlty Fratlcelli, LA. Albers. JP, Irwin. W P.. and D,VISIOn 01 Mines and Geology County
County: Calilornla Journal of Mines and Blake. MC. Jr. 1987. GeologIC mapal Report4.125p.
Geology. v. 37, no 1. p. 8·89. the Redding 1 ~ 2 quadrangle. Shasta.
Raymond, R.W., 1874, StallstlCS of mines
Tehama. Humboldt, and TnMy count,es.
Blake, M C., Jr., and Harwood, D.L.. 1989. and mining In the state and teffllones west
California: U.S GeoIogal Survey Open·
Teflanes 01 the Northern Coast Ranges. of lhe Rocky Mountains: U,S. Treasury
File Report 87·257,18 P
,nBlake, M.C .. Jr., and Harwood. D.L.. Department Annual Report 6. 585 P
leaders, TectonIC evolulJon of northern Gnscom, Andrew. Erdman, C.F" and Sauer. Silberman, M.L, and Damelson, Joanne, 1991.
California: InternatIOnal GeologiCal Con' P.E.• 10 press, Interpretation of magnetic GeologIC seltlng, charactenstlCS, and
gress. 28th. Field Tnp GUldebooll. T·108, and graVIty maps 01 the Redding I K 2 geochemistry 01 gold beanng quartz V8lns
Amencan GeophySical Union, p. 3·18. quadrangle, Cahforma-A contnbutlon 10 in the Klamath MountainS In the Reddmg
lhe CSUMAP program: U.S Geological I K 2 degree quadrangle, northern Caflfor·
BOhlke, J K., and Kistler, R W., 1986, Rb·Sr,
Survey Open·Flle Report nla: U.S. Geological Survey Open·Flle
K·Ar, and stable ISOtOpe eVIdence for the
ages and sources of fluid componenlS of Hackel, Otto. 1966. Summary of Ihe geology Report 91-595. 27 P
gold·beanng quartz vems 10 the northern 01 the Great Valley, in Bailey. E H.. editor. Silberman, M.L., Hassemer, J R., and Force,
Sierra Nevada foothills metamQfphlC bel1, Geology of northern CalifornIa California Jennifer, m press, Assessment of mmeral
California; EconomiC Geology, v 81, DlVlslOn 01 Mmes and Geology Bulletin resource potenhal 01 lhe eaSlern hall of
P 296·322. 190. p. 217·238 lhe Redding 12SO.OOO quadrangle. north·
Brown. G.C.. 1916. The counties of Shasta. Hotz. P,E .. 1971. Geology 01 the lode gold western cahlornia: U S. GeologICal Survey
SlskJYou. Tnnlty: Report XIV of the State depoSits of the Klamath MountainS. Call' Open·File Report.
MineralogiSt. Calilornia Slate MinIng forma and Oregon: US GeologICal Survey Silberman. M.L, Hassemer, J.R, Force,
Bureau. part 6. p. 746·924 Butle\Jn 1290,91 P Jennifer, and Tnpp. R.B, m press, Assess'
men! of minerai resource polenllal of the
Clark., W.B.. 1970. Gold d,SlrlClS of California' HOIl. P.E.• Thurber, H K_, Marks, l.Y., and
western hall 01 the Redding 1:2SO.ooo
California DIVision 01 Mmes and Geology Evans, RK, 1972. Minerai resources
Quadrangle, northwestern Callforma: U S
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Coney, P.J.• Jooes. D.l.. and Monger, J W H" Silberman, M.L., Hassemer, J.R ,and Smllh.
1371·B,267p
1980. Cord,lIeran suspect terranes S.M., 1991, Regional geochemical SIgna·
Nature, v. 288, p. 329·333 IrwIn. W P, 1960. GeologIC leconnaissance of tures of lode Au and Cu deposlls In the
the northern Coast Range and Klamalh western hall of the Reddmg 1 K 2 quad·
Danielson. Joanne. 1988.LJthology and
Mountains. Calilorma. With a summary of rangle. northern California: AsSOCIation
geochemlSlry of the French Gulch Inlier.
the mineral resources: Califorma D,VISIOn of E~p1oratlon Geochemists. 15th Interna·
Klamath Mounlams, nonhern Calilomla:
of Mines Bulletm 179. 80 P tlonal GeochemICal EKplorallon Sympo·
Calilornia Stale University at ChICO,
MS lhesls. 230 p. Irwin. W P.• 1972. Terranes ollhe western Slum, Programs With Abstracts, p 39.
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logical Survey ProfeSSional Paper BOO·C. Shasla D,stnct, California: EconomIC Geol·
gold beanng quartz vems 10 the southern
p. C103·C111 ogy, v 80. no. 8. p 2.067·2287.
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AbstraCI Sanes. no 23. p. 311·315 Jersev. p.29-49 p.201·210.

.. CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRIL 1993


Mining California Calcite Crystals
for the Optical Ring Sight
LEWIS ORRELL

INTRODUCTION

S oon after the United Slaies entered World War [I.


Navy personnel challenged Edwin Land of the
Pol<lroid Corporation to increase the accuracy of certain
weaponry. In response. he invented a new gun sight
caned lhe Infinity Sight. Later renamed the Optical Ring
Sight (DRS). it was unique because of the optical char-
octerlstics of Us basic element. a wafer of crystaUine
calcite (Photo 1 and inset. page 46). The DRS had
many advantages over conventional gun sights. A single
unit replaced the Iront and reaT elements. thus eliminat-
mg the need 10 align tI.VO gun sight elements with the
target. The increased speed and precision of sighting
was advantageous because the target was usually moving
fast. Furthennore, it was lightweight inexpensive, and
did not require electrical illumination. For these and
other reasons. the military applied it to several types of
W€apons (PhOlo 2}.

Rnal acceptance and large production orders materi-


alized slowly and. from the beginning of the program
to the end. the supply of calcIte crystals was a critkal
bottleneck in tne development and procLction of the
DRS. In early 1942 there was no working domestic Photo 1. Double images of line and circle illustrate birefringence (the sepa·
mine for calcite crystals nor a significant proven dep:lsit. ration 01 a light ray Into two unequally retracted beams) of calcl1e crystal.
yet the military optimistically anticipated using large Pholo by LeWIS Orrell.

quantities for the ORS. This created a


predicament. In the absence of large.
Photo 2. T95Hinng a firm orders. no federal agency could
20 mOl anti·alrcraft gun divert resources to locate crystals. WHh-
eqUipped With an early out assurance of an adequate. dependable
OAS. Photo courtesy supply of crystals. it was impru:!enr 10
of Polaroid CorporalKJll.
commH the ORS to combat use aoo to
place large production orders. With char-
acleristic decisiveness. land resolved the
impasse by directing his company 10
establish a supply of crystals.

The Search for Deposits

Polaroid retained Professor Harry


Berman. a mineralogist at Harvard
University. to find suitable sources. The
urgency of wartime did not permit tradi-
tional prospecting: Berman needed clues
that promised immediate results. After
considering several options. he turned 10
Harvard's extensiva mineral collc<:tion.
Here he found calcite crystals collected by

CAUrOANIA GEOLOGY MAACHJ"PAtL 1993


Edwin Land was the first to recognize that the interference
figure observed when a calcite crystal is viewed along its optic
axis and between crossed polars (as With a polarizing micro-
scope) could be the basis for an improved gun Sight. The
unmodified interference I1gure for calcite consists of a darX cross
and a series of concentric colored rings (photo to left). To make
the Navy's Mark 2 version of the CRS, land tOOk a calcite
wafer with laces perpendicular 10 the optic axis of the crystal.
He cemented polarizing him to each face of the calcite wafer,
with the polariZing plane of one lilm at nght angles to the polariz·
ing plane of the other. He then inserted this three-layer element
between quarter-wave retardatIOn plates 01 a proprietary Pola-
roid film. This removed the dark cross by altering the behaVior
of light passing through the sight. He then sandwiched the Sight
between protectIVe layers 01 glass. This 3/16-inch- (O.5-em-)
thiCk assembly of simple optical elements left only the concentriC
colored rings in the field of view (cover photo). Land added an
external red hlter to the f1ng sight assembly that, when moved
Into the line of sight. sharpened the rings and changed them
to blae!< and red (Wood, 1977). When sighting the target. the
circles (the gun-aiming rellcle) appear to be attne same diS-
tance as the target. The CAS enabled the gunner to aim a gun
more rapidly and with less visual strain than with cooventlonal
gun sightS. Photo courtesy of Jan Hinsch. Micro/ab, Leica Inc.

John Hilton of Thermal. Callfamia. Hilton. a desert artist. WIlter,


and rock seller. had gathered these from a spar location which was
weU knoom among local mineral collectors (Wright. 1957). It was
M

later named the Palm Wash field or "Hilton Deposil. Berman was
particularly interested in Hilton's crystals because their growth habit
(basal plates) was advantageous lar processing crystals into wafers
Photo 3). Because the optical axes of the flat crystal and wafer were
the same. the shape of the crystals greatly simplified their orienting
and slabbing.

Geology of the Palm


Wash Deposits

The Palm Wash calcite field is near the southern end of the
Santa Rosa Mountains in the northeastern comer of San Diego
County. It is about 12 miles (19 km) west of the Salton Sea.
1-1/2 miles (2.4 Ion) north of County Route S22, and inside the
eastern boundary of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park (see map).

During the mining of lhls cakite, the U.S. Geologkal Survey


studied the geology of the deposit three times (Gi1July. 1942;
Bramlette and Eakin. 1943; Durrell. 1944). Durrell (1944) stated
that the calcite crystals in the Palm Wash field were found in veins
and pockets in the Palm Spring Fonnation. a mid-Tertiary sedimen-
lary clastic (made of rock fragments) formation.

He explained that diastrophic (related to crustal movement by


tectonic processes) activity had produced a grid of systems of trans-
verse normal faults and longitudinal tension joints. 1lle intersections Photo 3. Arturo Gonzalez hold1l19 large basal plate crystal at
of the faults and joints fanned cavities in which cak:ite was depos· Palm Wash. Photo courtesy of P. BlazovlC,

" CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH-APRIL 1993


be another year before President
ROO5e\IE'lt declared optical calcile a critical
, material. thereby confening preferred
"-• status on its supply and suppliers. [n the
•, meantime. the Hoffmans l.VI?I'e left with
ANZA - BORREGO . •
production demands but with lillie help in
securing materials and equipment. How-
ever. aid came from the Marines at Camp
Dunlap. who provided drivers. trucks, and
refrigeration for food storage. This unoffi-
cial arrangement alJoo.ved the inhospitable.
isolated camp to become more productive
and habitable. Raben Hoffman (1944)
characterized California cakite mining as
~more in the nature of gem extracUon. ~
It was aD open trenching instead of W'!der.
PA R K ground works. There was no 0Yerburden
to be rel'llOVed or ores to be blasted.
crushed. or chemically processed. There
, were only random vugs (sma! cavities) or
seams filled with crystals which had to be
carefully exposed and delicately removed.
, ., The shallow country rock had weath·
Location map showing the Palm Wash calcite field. ered to a soft and friable material which
was readily excavated with a pick to
expose the seams and vugs. Below the
surface decom(X)Sition. the sandstone
remained hard and removal reqJired
ited by hydrothennal activity. This miner- pfOgram for 3 months. HCM'e\Ief. the drilling (Hoffman. 1942). This was first
a.lization was accompanied by wan rock demand for crystals outgrew the prOOuc- done with Barro gasoline-~drills
aheration. tivity of the two amateur miners working (Photo 4). HCMoever. the gasoline engines
the mine. An organized effort led by produced toxic fumes in the deep. nanO'Al
DurreD (1944) described the crvstals experienced mining engineers was cuts. Sometime later, the din road 10 the
as predominantly basal plates. some as needed. Again. l..arKl turned to Hany mine was rough graded. making it pos.
large as 18 inches (45 em) in diameter Berman who contacted felloul Harvard sible to haul a compressor 10 the site.
and 3 inches (8 cm) in thickness. How- alumni, Robert and Amold Hoffman. Now 80'pound pavement breaker5 or
ever, the average size was between 2 and The Hoffman brothers had begun their jack hammers were used instead of the
3 inches (5 and 8 cm) in diameter and mining careers by prospecting and staking gasoline engines (Hoffman. 1943). thus
1/4 to 3/8 inches (6 to 9 mm) in thick- gold claims in Canada. By the time of eliminating the fumes.
ness. Massive c.ak:ite occurred in veins Bennan's approach in October 1942, the
several inches thick or as a coating on the Hoffmans were intematklnal mining con· At first. use of dynamite in breaking
walls of Jarge cavities. Because of the sultants and developers of metallic ore out benches was a\'Oided because of the
prevalenc:e of defects (l\vinning !crystal deposits. Nonetheless. Berman was able extreme fragility of calcite crystals. After
intergrOMhI. fractures. doudiness) in to recruit them ~for patriotism. not profit~ experimenting INith placements of differ-
the massive calcite. it was of linle or no (Ointon Young, Outlook Engineering ent charges. Calcite Operators. Inc. intro-
use. Crystals that filled spaces. perpen. Corporation. oral commlrlication. 1986). duced blasting. It is suspected thaI an
dicuIar to the walls. were of good quality. indeterminate amount of acceptable crys-
although none DurreD found were of Within days. Raben was assessing the tal was tacitly sacrificed lor quicker access
specimen or optkal gracIe. Hou.oever. Palm Wash field while AmoId was fann· to a greater number of vugs. In the first
since the ORS application tolerated minor ing a cak:ite mining company. They pro- months of operation, the miners exam·
imperfections (sub-optic.al grade). the posed a business plan for developing the ined and sorted the crystals as they VJere
Palm Wash District became an important. field. Polaroid countered on the same day removed from the seams. utero the crys·
usable source. and by nightfall, Calcite Operators, Inc. talline material was trucked to the camp.
began the nation's first engineered mining acid-.etched. washed. and then graded
The Mine Operation of optical cakite. for size and quality. Usable crystals were
carefully wrapped in paper. packed in
An adequate supply of calcite crystals With the country at war. labor and wooden boxes. and trucked to March
was recovered from the Palm Wash cal· materials l.VI?I'e in short supply and access Held in San Bernardino where an Army
dte field to sustain the POOroid ORS to both was on a priority basis. It would Air Force bomber lNhisked them to

CAliFORNIA GEOLOGY UARCH.APRIL 1993


Polaroid. Only crystals that VJere clear and
free of cracks. twinning. and major inclu·
sions VJere acceptable. Slight coloration
and VJeU-located, tiny inclusions (sub-opti-
cal grade) VJere allowable for the ORS.
(Where true optical-grade crystals VJere
found during WVJlI, the yield ratk> of sub-
optical to true optical crystals was about
10; 1,j Crystals v.oere paid for after they
were regraded at me factory, The accep-
tance rate VJ<lIS 60 percent.

TIle prevalence of milky or otherwise


defective crystals was such that about 10
pounds (4 to 5 kg) of ~usableM crystals
VJere required to obtain 1 ~ (454 g)
of ~acceptable. ~ Raben Hoffman (1944)
estimated that Calcite Operators, Inc.
had moved 15,000 pounds (6,804 kg) of
rock for each pound of acceptable crys-
tals. Durrell (1944) stated mey had re-
moved 4,800 cubic yards (3.670 ml)
of country rock in making 74 cuts or
trenches, Their total production of almost
7,000 pounds (3.175 kg) of accepted
crystals equated to 1.5 pounds per cubic
yard (890 g/m3) of excavation while
their successors produced as much as
8 pounds per cubic yard (4.8 kg/m3).
This may be an adverse reflection on the
Hoflmans' prospecting or mine manage-
ment, or both,

The Palm Wash operation seemed


to be going weU as the months wore into
mid-summer of 1943. Nevertheless,
sometime hetuJeen July and October of
1943, the Hoffmans struck the tents,
scattered the equipment, abandoned the
mine, and transferred their operation to
Montana.

This was not the end of mining at


Palm Wash. however. Jack Frost and
Bob Dye. who had prospected for Calcite Photo 4. Young miners openll'IQ Clll along calcite vein with Barco gaSOline-powered drill.
Operators, Inc. at Palm Wash and in Photo courtesy of P. B/azov/(;.
Montana. reappeared in the deserted
Palm Wash camp In November. They
negotiated an agreement wim Polaroid
and sporadically worked the deposits operation which employed 15to 30 men duction, so the Navy halted cak:ite crystal
during the next year. It is important to to produce 7,000 pounds (3.175 kg) of mining. New applications for the ORS
note that their hands-on training and acceptable crystals at a cost to Polaroid of surfaced in the postwar years. Some were
experience in mining VJ<lIS limited to the $17 per pound. military. such as capture sights (or photo-
several months they worked for the reconnaissance planes: others civilian,
Holfmans. Their production records are EPILOGUE such as view-finders for television cameras
incomplete. but it can be confidently esti- and cameras used in sky-diving. None.
mated that Polaroid accepted at least By late 1944, computing gun sights hOlNeYer, created a significant demand for
3.500 pounds (1,588 kg) of crystals from VJere introduced and the need for the optical cak:ite. Moreover. polarizing film
them at a price of $12 per pound. This ORS was minimal. Stockpiles of crystals replaced calcite crystals in certain optical
compares favorably with the Hoffmans' were adequate for remaining ORS pro- instruments, such as polarizing micro-

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH/APRIL 1993


"
scopes and devices to measure the sugar because artificial crystals cost aOOut four HoHman. A. 0 .. 1942. RepoJ1 on Palm
content of sera and other solutions times as much as natural crystals (Vino Wash calcite deposits. October 19:
(Deborah Huston. Leica. Inc.. Buffalo. Vats. Carl Lambrecht Co.. Chicago. oral UOIverSlty 01 Wyoming. laramie.
oral communication. 1993). As a result. Hortman Cotlec\lOn. 6 p.
communication. 1992).
~twar domestic use of sub-optical cal- Hollman, A. D., 1944. 25th anniversary
cite almost stopped. while that of true ACKNOWLEDGMENTS report 01 the Harvard UnIVersity class
optical crystals dropped to or below the of 1919. p.394.
200-pound j90·kg}. pre-v.rar level. New Many people contributed generously Hyman. Mark, Jr., 1948, CompoSite reSlllOUS
technologies. hovJever. have reversed the to the research data upon which this sheet of buelringent material and method
trend and created a growing market for article is based. However, a special debt of making the same, August 24: U.S.
cakite crystals. Lasers. fiber optics. and to Ross Whistler is gratefully acknowl- Patent 2,447.805. 6 p.
fiber communications require the superior edged. Without his insatiable thirst for West, Cutler 0 .. 1947. Process of crystal
optical perfonnance of calcite prisms facts and his ingenuity in lUlCovering lormatlon, January 21. U.S. Patent
(Vioo Vats. Carl Lambrecht Co.. Chicago. them. the story of the OptICal Ring Sight 2,414.679.1 p.
oral communication. 1992) and domestic would be woefully incomplete. Wood. E.A., 1977. Crystals and light. Second
use now approaches 2.000 pounds edition: Dover Publications. New York.
(900 kg) yearly (Miller. U.S. Bureau of REFERENCES New York. p. 147-149.
Mines. Washington. D.C.. oral communi- Wright. Lauren A., 1957, Calclle (optical
cation. 1992). Pre-war prices for crystals Bramlette. M M.. and Eakin, Thomas, 1943, grade): Minerai commoditieS of Calilor-
ranged from $10 to $20 per pound. Mines and mineral resources ot San nla. Calilornia Division ot Mines Bullelln
Current prices are about $200 per pound Diego County, California: Calilorma 176, p. 99-100.
with a few large. perfect crystals com- DIVISion 01 Mines and Geology County
manding almost $500 per pound (Vino RepoJ13. p. 52.
Vats. Carl Lambrecht Co.. Chicago, Durrell, Cordell. 1944. Report on lhe calcite
oral communication. 1992). There are mines in northeasl San Diego County.
CaMorllla In Calclle depoSIts in Imperial Lewis Orrell is a
no domestic suppliers for this market: retired ph~ical metallur-
and san Diego counties. Calilornia'
imports are from Mexico. Brazil. India. gist and bioengineer,
U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report
and South Africa. Beginning with the war 77-685.31 P He has taught metallurgy
years. attempts were made to grow calcite and bioengineering at
Giliuly. James. 1942. Calcite depoSits neat
crystals artificially (West. 1947) and to major universities. This
Truckhaven. Imperial Count~. California
devise synthetic substitutes (Hyman. In Calcite deposits In Imperial and San article reflects some of
1948). As the demand and price for crys- OlCgO counties. Calilorllla: U.S. Geologi- the results from a 7-year
tals has burgeoned. such efforts have cal Survey Open File RepoJ177- 685.2 p. study of the Optical Ring
been renewed. Until the Russians recently Hollman, Arnold. 1943. California property, Sight and cakite crystal
submitted a large. usable. synthetic crys- interim report June 21: UOIverSlty 01 supply.
tal. technical success was limited. Com- Wyoming, laramie. Hotfman Collec·
mercial success with substitutes is unlikely tlon, 4 p,

INTERNATIONAL MARINE MINERAL SOCIETY


Meeting Qnd Coli for Popers

The 24th annual Underwater Mining Institute (UMll meeting will be held on November 7-9.
1993 in Estes Park. Colorado. PresentatK>ns for tbis year's meeting are being sought for two
sessions. The first will focus on how studies of marine massive sulfide deposits can benefit the
exploration and development of land-based sulfide mines.
For the second session. the organizers are seeking papers concerning the exploration and
development of marine minerals worldVJide.
For more infollllatlon on attending UMI and/or presenting a paper, contact,
Karynne Chong Morgan
UMI Conference Coordinator
811 Olomeh3n1 Street
Honolulu, Ht96813-5513
'D' (808) 522-5611
FAX (808) 522-5618

CALIFORNIA GEOlOGY MARCH/APRIL 1993


"
offers separate discussiQllS of volcanic, lure, tsunamis. and dam failure. In ac\di·
plutoniC, and metamorphic textures and IlOn. there is a checklist for commercial
microstructures Part ThrC(> covers pre- property eanhquake protection, a list of
ferred orientations of mil'lerals In igllOOl.b 10pieal publicalions, and a list of resource
and metamorphiC rocks. 1l1ere is a Ibl of organIZatIOnS.
approximately 360 references folJou.<ed
by a combined glossary and Index I.\.tIlCh EARTI-IQUAKE COUNTRY; Tra~<cling
IIllroduces the texruraltenTl poikilomo-- Caliromia's Fault Unes, 1992. By
saic. EJeanor t-l Ayer. Renaissance House
N*shers, PO. Box 177. Frederick, CO
Earthquakes and BOS30 (800) 521-9221 4 p_ $4 95.
Earthquake Safety ",h ""'"
OptICal M,neralogy
and Petrology
mE COMMERCiAL PROPERTY Thb is one of the 9~ x 4~ California
OPTICAL MINERALOGY; Pnnciples & OWNERS GUIDE TO EARTHQUAKE T rol\!ek.>r guidebooks III lhe American
Practice By Colin D Gribble and Man J SAFETY 19'93, ByCalifomia'sSetsnuc Traveler Senes Color photographs and a
Hal. 1992 Chapman & HaD. 29 West Safety Commission, 1900 K Street, Sowle map of Cahlomia complement the disa.ts
35th Street. New York. NY WOOl 100, Sacramenlo. CA 958144186 SlOf'I of earthquakes and faults. damage
(212) 244-3336 303 p. United $tales' (916) 323-4213 32 p $3 25 each fOl" prevenlJOn. personal preparedness, and
$4250. soft cover; $99 95. hard cauer up 10 fi\.le copies, soft cover the likelihood of earthquakes. The book
Canada $5350. SOfl cover. $124 95. also descnbes places 10 see faulls and
hard cauer. EffectiYe January I 1993, Cabforma eanhquake damage, and lists agencies
law requires sellers of mosl commercial that provide eanhq.,iake IIlfonnabort,
This book is an introductoo to the buildings consllUCled before 1975 10 giYe
microscopic exalTunatlQn of rrnnerals. this book to l:Juyen;. The guide tughlighb Other books in the California series
Besides descriptionS and systemallC ]iSb of common weaknesses soch as Iiltup waD cauer gems and minerals. birds. wUd·
optM:al properties of minerals. there are anchorages, unremforccd masonry. and fkM.oers. missions. ghost tOOJrlS. parks
detailed accounts of transmined light Optl poorly reinforced concrete It will help and monuments, raIlroads, whale watch
cal crystallography and reflected-light o.vners, leaseholders. and potentJal buy- ing and tdal pools. day trips, historic
lheory, Transm1lted·light microscopy ers identify property weaknesses and Sltes and museums. and the wine country,
involves examinalion of Iransparent min- evaluale the financial Implications of TIle Colorado, AriZona. and South-
erals In thin section. while reflecled-light strenglhening them It also describes \\i{'S1 Traveler guidebooks COI.0" SImilar
microscopy involves examination of ground shaking. ground failure, fault rup- sub;ects,
opaque minerals in polished seclion
TIle laller is Important to ore mineraliza-
tion studies or any petrographic sludy 01 T.:;,,,,:;.POOR.Y AEN'ORCEO CO'lCRETE-r--'h_
rocks with high percentages of opaque

--- _.
,

---
minerals,

IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC


ROCKS UNDER THE MICROSCOPE;
........
"""",
"'-
ClassilicalK>n, Textures. Microstructures If tht' rt'U!-
and Mineral Preferred Orientalions, By ,\-,rc",,~ <'m "'.
David Shelley. 1993 Chapman & Halt. nl/Iln1U 1< /,.... fl'lJdl/
29 West 35th Street. New York, NY >/..."f'I /,11. ,/ ""II ''''/
10001 (2IZ) 244-3336. 445 p. Umte<! I>t' /I/>k I.'.....",''''
a,..nrl~,,, r/"'."
Stales, $45,00; Canada. $56.50. soft
"""'" It ,. <J",J..ro ""
• b
""nrlllqulll.. 'f!l "'rh.-
""'" aJJ,tl(lfl t1f -Im

,_.....""""-..
fel LTp< Iwfi rrr.·

---
This pelrology book Is designed for aU
levels, but assune:s familiarity With the w/wTr It MooI.("-
NU"'i:"p fir
polarizing microscope and an abibty to k"U",.'{fJI
identify minerals in thin section Part One rC.1Ifl"1l1ll aq.rt
deals With igneous and metamorphic rock ......,/ ufT.. ",.,-t.· --
classification and leTminology, It folows loonl.
.......
an inlemationaDy accepted hierarchy of
,-
(:-~ ~

claSSlfication of igneous rocks and offers a


sinWM sysIern for metamofphic rocks.
r-
!_------_---!
--j
Part Twe covers genera!lextures such as
twinning, zoning. and inlergTOl.liths. lhen ,

50 CAUFORNlA GEOLOOY MARCH APAI.. 1993


EARTI-IQUAKE SURVNAL GU[DIO Peace of Mind in Earthquake Coun· of other continentol masses that VJere
Emergency Planning lor Family. Home. try will help evaluate a house's perlor Mwelded~ into their present position
Workplace. and School By F'Yar mance in an earthquake It is easy to through continental collision. The pivotal
Calhoun. 1990. Magnet Press. P.O. Box correct some of the most damage-prone question is whether these terranes are
3580. ""'keley. CA 94703-0580. details of Ilome construction. A few weak far-traveled oceanic fragments unrelated
(510) 540-0800 24 p. $1.95. soft cover. features in the typkal house tend to cause to each other and exotic to orth
most of the damage from earthquakes. America or \lJhether they formed along
Earthquake preparedness not only particularly in older homes. Many of the active margin of North America.
saves lives. but also means less personal these details can easily be corrected by Related controversy exists concerning
and professional ~doum time" following the resident. the paleogeography of highly broken
a big earthquake_This concise guide rocks to the east in evada and frag-
contains information about family safety. TectonICS mented metamorphic rocks 10 the west
emergency supplies. and structural in the Klamath-Sierra belt.
repairs. It also addresses special p1arming
STRATIGRAPHY. DEPOSITIONAL
for the disabled. Survrvallaetics for post- ENVIRONMENTS. AND SEDIMEN- The book is a collection of 25 techni-
quake concerns inducting gas leaks and TARY TECfONICS OF THE WESTER cal papers organized chronologically into
fires. fallen pou.oer hnes. shelter. and con- MARGIN. CRETACEOUS WESTERN fIVe groups. from the early Paleozoic into
taminated water and other sanitation I"~R SEAWAY. Special Paper the early Mesozoic.
problems are covered. The guide has 260. Edited by J. Dale Nations and
appendices containing earthquake facts. Jeffrey G. Eaton. 1991 The Gedogical GEOLOGY OF THE POINT SUR -
earthquake insurance information. and Society of Amenca. Inc.. P 0 &x LOPEZ POINT REGION. COAST
planning for the consequences of a bJg 9140. BoukJer. CO 80301-9140. RANGES. CAUFORNIA: A Part of the
quake. A bibliography includes a book (BOO) 472-1988. 216 p. WIth a 63-page Southern Califomia Allochthon. Special
about coping VJith children's reactions microfiche card $42.50. soft CCl'Ve'T. Paper 266. By Oarence A. HaD. Jr.
to disasters. 1991. The Geological Society of
This is a collectiOn of II articles on America. Inc.• P.O. Box 9140. Boulder.
PEACE OF MI 0 IN EARTHQUAKE CO 80301-9140. (BOO) 472-1988.
the near-shore marine rocks that devel-
COUNTRY. By Peter I. Yanev. 1991. 40 p. $17.50. soft cover.
oped along the western margin of the
Chronicle Books. 275 Afth Streel. San seaway during Ulte Cretaceous time.
Francisco. CA 94103. (800) 777-7240. Tectonic. paleocurrent. and provenence This report describes a band of rocks
218 p. $14.95. soft cover. interpretations shed light on the history lying west of the San Andreas Fault and
and development of the Sevier Thrust east of a group of faults including the Sur.
This book provKles the infOllT13lion
belt and its foreland basin. Significant Nacimiento. and Rinconada. which is
and safeguards thai every resident in
new paleoceanographic. paleoecologic. underlain by high--grade metamorphic and
earthquake country should study and plutonic rocks and late Mesozoic sedimen-
implement to minimize earthquake dam- and paleoclimatic interpretations have
been developed on the basis of foramin- tary rocks. A reconstnxlion is based on
age. Although earthquakes remain fright-
iferal and geochemical evidence. the structural relationships between the
fully destructive and unpredictable. their
older metamorphic and igneous rocks.
effects are highly predictable. Pre-earth- and the overlying marine sedimentary
quake plannir'IQ and preparation can PALEOZOIC AND EARLY MESO-
ZOIC PALEOGEOGRAPHIC rocks. restoration of the rocks offset by
dramaticaly mitigate the danger and
RElATIONS: Sierra Nevada. Klamath the San Andreas Fault System. and coun-
destructiveness. terclockwise rotation of the Transverse
Mountains. and Related Terranes.
The topics are grouped as follows: Special Paper 255. Edited by David S. Ranges. This block is hypothesized 10
Harwood and M. Meghan Miller. 1990. have been moved by the conveyer-belt-
• The causes and effects of earthquakes The Geological Society of America. Inc.. like action of obI)que subduction.
• The varying risks of different areas in P.O. Box 9140. Bookler. CO 8030 1-
the earthquake active regions of the 9140. [BOO) 472-1988 422 p. $62.00. THRUST TECTONICS. Edited by
wesl soft cover. K R. McClay. 1992. Chapman & Hall.
• The geologic and structural earth- 29 West 351h Street. New York. NY
quake hazards that every resklent The Paleozoic aM Mesozoic meta- 10001 1212) 244-3336. 447 p.
shouk:I investigate morphic rocks in the Klamath Mountains $149.95. hard cover.
• The basic repairs and alterations to and northern Sierra Nevada are now fauh-
upgrade the earthquake resislance and bounded blocks or terranes with unique The geologic grandeur of the Alps.
safety of a buikling stratigraphk and structural hIstories. the Himalayas. Pyrenees. aM the Rocky
• The considerations that will help the The tectonic evolution of these terranes Mountains are all rooted in thfUS! tecton-
property ()I"l,If'leT decide on earth- has been the subject of debate since ics. This branch of geology deals with
quake insurance before the plate tectonic revoIution_ but Iarge-sca1e fokls and thrust faults that
• The steps to take before. duong. aM the debate has intensihed and broadened result from compressional forces. During
after an earthquake to protect family in scope during the past decade. It is now the last decade there have been consider-
and propeny belia'ed these rocks may be fragments able advances in the study of thrust

CAUFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRil 1993


"
... more prospects
systems. incOTp:)rating new fiekl observa- The volume includes a glossary arxl an The chapters about southern Oregon
tions. modeling techniques. and geophysi- index. Reuiew by C.L Pridmore. mesh well with the geology in northern
cal studies. This book brings together key California but. unfortunately. there is no
papers from Thrust Tectonics 1990. an GEOLOGY OF OREGON. Fourth Edi- comparable California volume. This is a
intemational conference representing tion. By Elizabeth L. Orr. William N. Orr. fine piece of work and would be a wel-
expertS in the ftekl of advanced stnx:tural and M. Baldwin. 1992. Orr Publishers. come edition to anyone's library.
geology. P.O. Box 5286. Eugene. OR 97405.
TECTONIC SETTING OF FAULTED
15031345-2691. 254 p. $25.00. ",It
The 36 papers presented in this TERTIARY SmATA ASSOCIATED
cover. WITH THE CATAUNA CORE COM-
lIOlume cover the most recent
multidisciplinary research and theories Prior editions of this book have PlEX IN SOlJ1l-lERN ARIZONA. Spe-
of thrust tectonics in a clear. concise achieved the status of a standard on cial Paper 264. By William R. Dickinson.
manner. The articles are grouped into Oregon geologyarxl the current rewrite 1991. The Geological Society of
seven sections covering the theory is no exception. Block diagrams arxlline America. Inc.. P.O. Box 9140. Boulder.
and mechanics of thrust faulting. mcxlel- drawings are used throughout to clearly CO 80301-9140. 18001472-1988.
ing. geometries of thrust systems shOVJ the story of Oregon's geologic past 106 p. $38.75. soft cover.
and thrust related lokling. and New illustrations arxl photographs are
fiekl-based studies of the Pyrenees. used on every page. This Special Paper presents the stratigra·
the Alps. the Himalayas. and the phy. sedimentology. structure, arxl tec-
Northwest American Cordillera. tonic setting of a highly extended terrane
near Tucson. Arizona. The Catalina Core
Thrust Tectonics will appeal to Complex encompasses approximately
structural geologists in industry and 4.000 square miles and contains the com-
academia alike. Updated tech- ponents of a classical "metamorphic
niques and assumptions used for core complex." A salient characteristic
balancing cross sections and apply- of this terrane is the gently dipping
ing fault-bend fold analysis are detachment fault system which
supported by seismic data from places cover strata against myloni-
arourxl the world. These evoJv. tic rocks along the flank of the
ing techniques continue to complex.
prove essential for infer-
ring the creation. migra- With new mapping and observa·
tion. and trapping of i';) <~~.§;;;,_ tions from key exposures.
hydnocanbons. as~1 as Dickinson updates and
for understanding the refines lhe stratigraphic
structural and tectonic Fish-lIke IChthyosaurs swam elfortlessly framework allowing for regional
evolution of thrust terranes. through the broad shallow MesozoiC seas correlation within an area characterized
that covered much o( Oregon. by discontinuous exposures and complex
One article discusses the application of structural and stratigraphic relationships.
fault-bend fold theories to assess slip rates typical of many tectonically extended
along thrust faults. Specific fold geom- terranes. Dickinson's systematic presenta·
etries within stratigraphic sequences The book is organized by geologic· tion and synthesis of mid-Tertiary strata
deposited during the growth of a fold geomorphic provlflce with a chapter for this region help define the paleotopog'
can provide information about fault slip. devoted to each: Blue Mountains. raphy which in tum provides insights and
Even where fault geometry is poorly Klamath Mountains. Basin and Range. constraints for understanding regional
constrained. evaluation of the associated High Lava Plains. Deschutes-Columbia tectonic models.
fold geometry can be a valuable tool Plateau. Cascade Mountains. Coast
for assessing earthquake hazards. The0- Range. and Willamelte Valley. With a Dickinson introduces the study by
retical considerations are compared With user friendly text. lhe focus is on tectonics providing an updated discussion of the
seismic profiles from the Santa Barbara and paleoenvironments: Ihe assemblage following topics: I) pre·Laramide rock
Channel. the Los Angeles Basin. the San of Oregon from foreign terranes and the assemblages as background for consider-
Joaquin Basin. the Ventura Basin. as well relationship between tectonic plate rnoV(!- ing Tertiary history. 2) the nature of
as Oklahoma. offshore Texas. the ments. volcanic actMty. earthquakes. key Laramide events and their signifi-
Phillipines. and Venezuela. sedimentation. and the distribution of cance for later structural evolution. 3) the
fossil plants arxl animals. There arc also timing and spacial distribution of Tertiary
lhe material presented is advanced descriptions of areas of geologic interest. magmatism. 4} the geometry 01 the
and assumes the reader has a working a history of geologic study in Oregon. Catalina detachment system and the tim-
knowledge of dynamic structural analysis. and a comprehensive bibliography. ing of tectonic unroofing of the Catalina

52 CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRil 1993


core complex. and 5) alternate structural through the gold country. and across the Cretaceous time. During the earliest Cen·
models for detachment systems. Great Central Valley to the Coast Ranges ozoic. a north-facing arc·trench complex
and San Francisco. where the effects of collided and abducted this active margin
This publication woukl be of interest millions of years of geologic processes fonning the mcxlern Aleutian arc-trench
to anyone working in extended terranes. can be seen. to the south. Three structural episodes of
as well as those who have a general basin fonnation lollov..red which strongly
interest in tectonics and sedimentation. NEOTECTONICS OF NORTH control the lithology of basin strata.
Because the study covers a broad area. AMERICA. Edited by D.B. Slemmons,
it provides a large window into Tertiary E.R. Engdahl. M.D. Zoback. and D.O. The volume Is arranged into two main
tectonics of this region. Although this B1adwell. 1992. The Geological Society parts: the first part discusses regional
topic has routinely been investigated of America. Inc.. P.O. Box 9140. BouI· geology and the structural underpinnings
with an emphasis on structural and meta- der. CO 80301-9140. (800)472·1988. of the Bering Sea: the second part covers
morphic relationships. Dickinson pro- 508 p. $114.45 including 3 maps the evolution of the basins in the inner
vides a refreshing and much needed (1;5.000.000 scale). hard cover. and outer Bering Shelf.
example of how sedimentology and
stratigraphy can help constrain tectonic The text and maps of this volume GraOlloid Rocks
models for the evolution of metamorphic cover three topics-seismicity. stress.
core complexes. GRANITOID ROCKS. By D.B.
and heat flow-as they relate to the Clarke. 1992. Chapman & Hall.
An accompanying color geologic map
North American continent. 1llese topics
29 West 35th Street. New York. NY
(scale: 1: 125.000) is based on compila- are considered within the framework of 10001. (212) 244-3336. 283 p. $45.00
tion and reinterpretation of previous map- neotectonics. or geologic features of plus $2.50 shipping. hard cover.
ping supplemented by Dickinson's fiekl North America dew!loped since the
work throughout the past decade. close of the Miocene. about 5 million This book is a state-of-the-art sum·
years ago. mary of the many volumes written on
Dickinson is the recipient of the 199) granites and granitic intrusions. To this
Geological Society of America Penrose Neotectonic studies have increased end. the author presents a broad range
Medal for his outstanding contributions at an exponential rate in recent years due of geological knowledge. as well as physi-
to the science of geology. At the Univer- to advances in geological. paleoseismo- cal. chemical. and statistical knowledge
sity of Arizona he continues to be in logical, and geophysical techniques. needed to complete a granite study.
the forefront of reconstructing regional and to increasing population growth in Granitoid Rocks will be useful to anyone
relationships among sedimentation. seismically active. hazardous areas. Active involved in the study of granitic intrusion.
tectonics. and magmatism. Review by tectonics has been described as earth
C.L Pridmore. movements that are expected 10 occur Englneenng and
within a time span of concern to society. Engineering Geology
ASSEMBUNG CAUFORNlA. By John
McPhee. 1993. Farrar. Straus & Giroux. This volume of 28 artkJes. accompa- GEon;ERMAL DIRECT USE ENGI-
Inc.. clo Putnam Publishing. P.O. Box nied by three color maps. is one in the NEERING AND DESIGN GUIDEBOOK.
506. East Rutherford. NJ 07073. series of the Decade of North American Edited by Paul J. Uenau and Ben C.
(800) 631-8571.304 p. $21.00 plus Geology Project. Anyone interested in Lunis. 1991. Geo-Heat Center. Oregon
$4.25 shipping. hard cover. earthquakes. volcanoes. and other ge0- Institute of Technology. 3201 Campus
logic hazards will enjoy it. Drive. Klamath Falls. OR 97601.
New Yorker writer John McPhee (503) 885-1750. 445 p.. $20.00. soft
completes his continental tetralogy. TECTONIC HISTORY OF THE cover: $25.00. hard cover: foreign post-
"Annals of the Former Worki." with this BERING SEA AND THE EVOLlJnON age: $15.00. air: $3.00. surlace.
armchair geologic excursion across Cali- OF TERTIARY STRIKE-SUP BASINS
fornia. He and various geologists follovJed OF THE BERING SHELF. Special Paper This book is a comprehensive. practi-
Interstate 80. searching roadcuts for clues 257. By Dan M. Worrall. 1991. The cal reference guide for engineers and
to the global jigsaw puzzle of plate tecton- Geological Society of America. Inc" designers of direct heat projects. These
ics. He also traveled to Cypress and P.O. Box 9140. Boulder, CO 80301- projects coukl include the conversion of
Greece with tectonicist Ekiridge Moores 9140. (800) 472-1988. 120 p. plus four geothermal energy into space heating
of the University of California at Davis. oversized pocket plates and eight color and cooling of buildings. district heating.
McPhee explains that lhe North Ameri- plates. $42.50. soft cover. greenhouse heating. aquaculture. and
can continent acquired California. piece industrial processing. lbe book also cov-
by piece, from far parts of the world. He This paper. which was developed ers the nature and exploration of geother-
notes that the San Francisco earthquake from private exploration and oil company mal resources. drilling. and completion
of 1906 was just one of tens of thousands files. is concerned with the broad conti- of geothennal wells through well-testing
of great quakes that occurred dUring nental shelf that lies between Alaska and and reservoir evaluation. Engineers and
California's construction. His story lakes the Soviet Far East. Its southern edge developers will find technical information
you up the east side of the Sierra Nevada. was a south-facing active margin in on low- and moderate-temperature

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MAACH,APAIL 1993


"
·..and more prospects Case histories are used throughout to greatest value in serving the needs of
emphasize construction site experiences. the non-geologist who requires summary
Sources of Information are listed at the information on geologic methods and
(100"· 300') geothermal applications and procedures.
end of each chapter.
equipment.
THE HERrrAGE OF ENGINEERING FORENSIC ENGINEERING. By Gerard
This revised version of the guidebook Shuirman and James E. Slasson.
was prepared for the U.S. Depanment GEOLOGY; THE ARST HUNDRED
YEARS. Centennial Special Volume 3. 1992. Academic Press. [nc .• 6277
of Energy. It represents a two-year coop- Sea Harbor Drive. Orlando. FL 32887.
erative effon by the Oregon Institute Edited by George A. Kiersch. 1991.
The Geological Society of America, [nc._ (800) 321-506.3. 296 p. $49.95. hard
of Technology. Idaho National Engineer-
P.O. Box 9140. Boulder. CO 80301- cover.
ing Laboratory. University of Utah
Research Institute. Battelle Pacific NW. 9140.18001472-1988.605 p $62.50.
hard cover. Increasingly. architects. engineers.
Laboratories, Radian Corporation, and geologists. and landscape architects are
Washington State Energy Office. This compendium reviews the called upon to be expert witnesses in liabil-
changes in engineering geology Ihrough- ity suits resulting from flood. erosion. land-
ENGINEERING UNrr CONVERSIONS. out history.The rationale for the sub;ects slide. muds/ide, or other type of natural
Second edition. 1990. By Michael R. of history. geologic processes. natural hazard-related damage. They may have to
Undeburg. Professional Publications. [nc.. materials, investigations for engineering defend their actions or those of their orga-
1250 Fifth Avenue. Depanment55. works. and the geologists' responsibilities nization. Or. they may act as independent
Belmont. CA 94002. (415) 593-9119. in litigation are covered in 25 ankles by expens for individuals and their attorneys
160 p. $19.95 plus $3.75 shipping. experts in each fiekl. The articles also who are bringing suits or defending them·
hard cover. detail the reaction of works to the ge0- selves against such suits. Forensic Engi·
logic environs including early dam con· neering will be of great value to expen
Engineers use Wlits common to math- struction. seismotectonic research. and witnesses. It explains the needs of an
ematics. physics. chemistry. and construc· landmark litigation decisions involving expen. the relationship of the expen to
tion Irades. This book was wrillen 10 landslide damage to buildings. the client and to the attorney. and the
assist readers in converting familiar units cha[1enges that may be faced.
to those used in other disciplines or coun-
ForenSIc Geology and Engineering
tries and vice versa. It eliminates the need The first chapter gives a concise but
to develop compound Wlit conversions FORENSIC GEOLOGY. By Raymond C. thorough summary of duties an expen
(e.g.. gram-ealorie-centimeters per square Murray and John C.F. Tedrow. 1992. may have in trial work. duties which are
centimeter-second-c\egree centigrade to Order Processing Center. Prentice-Hall. unusual to most with technical training
BTU-feet per square foot-nour-c\egree Inc.. P.O. Box 11073. Des Moines. [A and experience. The bulk of the volume
Fahrenheit) from basic units. Conversions 50381-1073. (515) 284-6751. 203 p .. deals with case histories involving Iand-
in the first edition have been reviewed for $56.00. hard cover. sliding. flocxiing. land subsidence. and
accuracy and hundreds more added. [n stream morphology. Each case has been
this second edition. more than 4.500 The authors address three separate chosen because it illustrates a number of
conversions cover traditional English. and diverse audiences. The first includes geologic and \egal problems. The final
conventional metric, and SI units in the forensic scientists, attorneys. and law chapter is a discussion of ethics for the
fields of civil. mechanicaL electrical. and enforcement offkers. To these profes- scientist considering work as an expert
chemical engineering. sionals the book conveys the basic lan· witness. The reference list is not exhaus-
guage of gooIogy and soil science and the tive but includes many basic papers in
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY; Rock in ideas that should be applicable to their both forensic geology and legal decisions.
Engineering Construction. By Richard particular problems. The second audience
E. Goodman. 1993. John Wiley and comprises professional geologists. The Relerence
Sons. Inc.. 1 Wiley Drive. Somerset. NJ book applies geology to criminology and
08875-1272. (800) 225-5945. 412 p. shoVJS the geologists hoo.v their l.\.'Ofk may EARTH SCIENCES REFERENCE.
$70.95. hard cover. be used for forensic problems. Making up By Mary McNeil. 1991. Flamingo Press.
the third group are practicing forensic 2958 State Street. Carlsbad. CA 92008.
This textbook is geared to the geologists who want to expand their 709 p. $55.00 plus $5.00 shipping. hard
advanced undergraduate or graduate knowledge of types of problems and ge0- oove<.
student. It introduces geology (especially logical methods used to solve them.
the properties and behavior of rocks) to This is an introductory research tool
future civil engineers. It focuses on the Many sample cases are cited in the covering ecology. energy. environment.
experience record of different types of lext and are used to illustrate particular geography, oceanography, meteorology.
rocks in the construction of civil engineer- legal points. Forensic Geology contains and mineralogy. Middle-school students as
ing works. Most interesting is the discus- input from many agencies including the well as adults will find it readable. Entries
sion of rocks that tend to pose special Federal Bureau of Investigation, stale and are alphabetized and cross referenced.
problems because they are weak, blocky. local police depanments, and geological The volume has an extensive bibliography.
alterable. highly soluble. or pervious. consulting firms. The book may have its a geographical index. and a general index.

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MAACH,,\PRll1993


Teacher THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIE1Y OF AMERICA
Feature Science Awareness through Geoscience Education
SAGE
The SAGE program represents The WOMEN AND ETHNIC MINORITIES IN GSA also encOUJageS student earth
Geological Society of America's (GSA) THE EARTH SCIENCES science research by av.'aJliing grants 10
commitment to improving earth science graduate students for original projects in the
education and enhancing scientific under- One oJ GSA's top educational priorities laboratory and the fieki.
standing lor all citizens. SAGE includes is to encourage women and ethnic minori-
educational initiatives in the areas of ties to pursue careers in science and engi- COLLECTING AND DISSEMINATING
partnering, teacher preparation and neering. In conjunction with GSA's Women INFORMATION
enhancement, women and ethnic minor- and Minorities Commillee. the SAGE pro-
ities. leacher and student awards. edu- gram is working toward this goal by involv-- GSA pnxloces high-quality earth science
cation materials development, networking. ing women and minority scientists in the books, periodicals. field guidebooks. maps.
and information dissemination. Partnering program. Professional scientists videos. and posters for earth scientists and
and graduate students are encouraged to teachers. The SAGE program will expand
mentor individual students. and sponsor this resource base so it can beller accommo-
teachers and students so they may allend date precollege science teachers and stu-
GSA's Annual Meeting dents. This will be accomplished through a
multi-organizational Earth Science Informa·
AWARDS FOR TEACHERS AND tion Clearinghouse and the development of
STUDENTS vkieos and brochures. For more information
on 5.t\GE programs. contact,
To encourage and acknowledge excel-
lence in precollege earth science teaching, Or. Edward E. Geary
the SAGE program recognizes OlD' nation's Coordinator for Educational Programs
outstanding earth science teachers ulith The Geological Society of America
$1.000.00 awards. These teachers are
P.O. Box 9140
selected from across the COUltry by the
Boulder, CO 80301-9140
National Association 01 Geology Teachers.
1f (303) 447-2020 or (800) 472,1988
Recipients may use their awards to attend
GSA meetings, purchase materials for their
FAX (303) 447-1133
EDUCATION INITIATIVES earth science classrooms. or help create InlotmlllO:ln lltI<ton 110m E.m s.:.en.:. E_fIOIl ~
Partners tor Excellence: new earth science activities and curricula. 199,·20(}1 nw~SocofIyol~

Teachers + Students + Scientists


Partners for Excellence is a program
developed by SAGE to bring together
leachers. students. and earth scientists and
help them fann creative and mutually Dinah Shumway. DMG
beneficial educational partnerships. SAGE geologist working on
partnerships offer teachers and students mineral land classltica-
the opportunity to gain relevant. up-to-date tion project in the Cali·
knowledge about diverse earth science fornia desert. Photo oy
topics. while at the same time giving Cindy Pn(}more.
earth scientists opportunittes to contribute
10 and Ieam about the precollege sdence
education system. Pannering acfkiities
inclu:le dassroom presentations. laboratOfy
demonstrations. fidei trips. and mentor·
ing. Partnering often inYoIves groups of
scientists. teachers. and students working
together, or one"'Ofl'OOe sessionS beNleen
the scientist and teacher or between the
scientist and student. Participants in this
program are encouraged to develop the
type 01 partner.ihip that best matches their
unique needs, interests. and skills. GSA
supports all Partners for Excellence by
providing training. materials. and foUoorup
support.

CALIFORNIA GEOLOOY MARCH/APRIL 1993 55


DMG Open-FUe Report Releases I officials in land-use planning and evalua-
tion of building-permit applications.

The study area is approximately


15 miles northeast of downtown Santa
Ana and 35 miles southeast of dovmtown
Reference copies of the OFRs listed Over-the-counter sales are available at the Los Angeles, in northeastern Orange
here aTe aooilable at aI/three DMG Sacramento and San Francisco oflices. County and westem Riverside County.
offices. in addition. they are oooilable It lies within the northwestemmost part
for prepaid moil order from the Sacra· DMG OFR 92-05 LA.NDSUDE HAZ- 01 the Santa Ana Mountains in the Penin-
menta office. Over·the-counter sales ARDS IN THE TASSAJARA AND sular Ranges geomorphic province of
Quailability differs with each OFR. and BYRON HOT SPRINGS 7 1/2' QUAD- southem Califomia, and covers about
is indicated immediately following its RANGl£S. ALAMEDA AND CONmA 30 square miles. Terrain ranges from
release annoullcement. COSTA COUNllES. CALIFORNIA. the nearly level floodplain of the Santa
By Hasmukhrai H. Majmundar. 1991. Ana River on the nonh to the steep and
3 plates. Scale: 1:24.000. $7.00. rugged Santa Ana Mountains on the
DMG OFR 92-09 MINERAL LAND
south. Access to the eastem pan is pro-
CLASSIRCAnON OF THE BOULDER
CREEK AGGREGATE SITE. FlLU\10RE This set of three maps constitutes vided boy a network of unpaved fire and
Landslide Identification Map 1127. The ranch roads. On the west. paved city
QUADRANGLE. VENTURA COUNTY.
CAUFORNIA FOR PORTLAND maps provide infonnation about slope roads provide access south of State High-
stability for use boy local officials for land· way 91 that crosses the northem part of
CEMENT CONCRETE. ASPHALTIC
use planning and evaluation of building- the area. Current land use. outside of the
CONCRETE AGGREGRATE. AND
permit applications. Cleveland National Forest. includes cattle
BASE AGGREGATE. By Rudolph G.
Strand. 1992. $5.00. grazing. sand and gravel mining. and
The study area covers about 15 re<:ent residential development in Ana-
In response to a petition. the Southern square miles of mostly undeveloped. heim on the nonhwest and Corona on
Pacific Milling Company Boulder Creek landslide-prone. grass-covered hill country the northeast.
SHe. covering approximately 553 acres of with few oak-studded rounded hills and
land within the Fillmore 7.5-minule quad- forested mountains {Black Hills)_ The Over-the·counter sales are available at the
rangle. Ventura County. was classified for area is dissected boy Hog. Curry. Rigs. Los Angeles and Sacramento otlices.
portland cement concrete. asphaltic con- Doolan. and Collier canyons and the
crete aggregate. and base aggregate. A valleys along Marsh. Sycamore. DMG OFR 92-02 MINERAL LAND
majority of the property is classified MRZ- Tassajara. Cayetano. Kellogg. and Brushy CLASSIFICAnON OF THE WINCHES-
2a, areas of identified significant mineral creeks. The mapped area lies aboul TER AGGREGATE SITE. ROMOLAND
resources. A small portion of the property 50 miles east-southeast of San Francisco AND WINCHESTER QUADRANG1£S.
is classilied MRZ-4. areas of no known and the Alamc<ia/Contra Costa county RIVERSIDE COUNTY. CAUFORNIA
mineral occurrence. The property consists boundary crosses its southern portion. FOR ASPHALTle-CONCRETE-GRADE
of contiguous parcels of land in Sections Although only two small towns. Bryon AGGREGATE AND BASE-GRADE
27.28. and 34 of Township 4 North. and Byron Hot Springs. lie within the AGGREGATE. By Rudolph G. Strand.
Range 20 West. San Bernardino Base and area. it abuts the rapidly developing areas $5.00.
Meridian. of Livermore. Danville. Dublin. San
Ramon. Blackhawk. Alamo. Clayton. In response to a petition. the
Over·the·counter sales are availab1e at the Antioch. and Brentwood. Access to the Crestmore Materials Company Winches-
San Francisco and Sacramento offices. region is via Interstate 680 on the west ter Site. covering approximately 155
and Interstate 580 on the south. acres of land within the Romoland and
DMG OFR 92-07 RECENTLY ACIlVE Winchester 7 .5-minute quadrangles.
TRACES OF THE RODGERS CREEK Over·the·counter sales are available at the Riverside County. was classified for
FAULT. SONOMA COUNTY. CAUFOR· San Francisco and Sacramento offices_ asphaltic-concrete-grade aggregate and
NIA. By Earl W. Hart. 1992. $8.00. base-grade aggregate. Part of the prop-
DMG OFR 90-19LANDSUDE HAZ- erty is classified MRZ-2a. areas of identi-
OFR 92-07 identifies re<:ently active ARDS IN THE NORTH HALF OF THE fied significant mineral resources: pan
traces of the Rodgers Creek Fault. an BLACK STAR CANYON QUAD- is classified MRZ-3a. areas of undeter-
active member of the San Andreas Fault RANGLE. ORANGE AND RIVERSIDE mined mineral resource signifiance: and
System. The traces are shown on an COUNTIES. CALIFORNIA. 3 plates. part is classified MRZ-4. areas of no
annotated map (scale: 1:24.000). which Scale: 1: 12.000. By Siang S. Tan. 1992. known mineral occurrence. The property
documents the evidence for re<:ency. It $8.00. consists of the Southeast 1/4 Section 19.
also identifies associated landslide and Township 5 South. Range 2 West. San
lateral-spread features that may be acti- This set of three maps constitutes Bernardino Base and Meridian.
vated during a major earthquake. The Landslide Hazard Identification Map
repon should be of interest to geoscientists No. 17. The maps provide infolTIlation Over-the'counter sales are available althe
and planners. about slope stability lor use boy local Sacramento ollice.

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRIL 1993


DMG OFR 91·05 LANDSUDES AND reconnaissance geologic maps were avail- metric base at a scale 011:100.000
OTHER GEOLOGIC FEATURES IN able for this area. The report was pro- (l inch equals about 1.6 miles).
THE SANTA CRUZ MOUNTAINS. duced by the Division of Mines and
CAUFORNIA. RESULTING FROM THE Geology's Regional Geologic Mapping The map shows the general geologic
LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE OF Pro)ecl. Reid VJOrk was supported in part framework of the area and provides basic
OCTOBER 17. 1989. Compiled by by tile U.S. Geological Survey Coopera- geologic infonnation on the age. distribu-
Michael W. Manson. David K. Keefer. tive Geologic Mapping Program. tion. and description of the rocks. location
and Mary Anne McKittrick. 16 plates. of fault and other geologic structures. The
Scale: 1:48.000. 1991. $12.00. "The map area includes part of the area is underlain primarily by Neogene
Modoc Plateau and Basin and Range volcanic rocks that OV€r1ie an older and for
This set of maps depicts nearly 500 geomorphic provinces of northeastern the mosl part concealed basement. con-
numbered localities where earthquake· California and covers approximately sisting 01 Cretaceous and pre-Cretaceous
induced landslides. or other surface effects 1.850 square miles of east-centralLassen granitic and metamorphic rocks. Base-
of the Oclober 17. 1989 Lorna Prieta County. ment rocks are exposed in an uplifted.
earthquake were observed by geologists. fault-bounded block in the Gallatin Peak
building inspectors. and other contribu- DMG OFR 92-14 has a geologic map area. southeast of Eagle Lake in the
tors. 1he text consisls of annotations for plate and explanation explaining geologic southwest quarter of the map. The bulk of
each locality that describe earthquake- units. map symbols. references. and the rock units within the map are Miocene
triggered geologic features such as rock sources of data used in the compllation. to Pliocene-aged volcanic rocks of rhyolitic
falls. rock slides. soil slides. s1wnps or The geologic map is compiled on a plani- to basaltic composition. These rocks occur
block slides (in natural or fill materials):
liquefoction effects Oateral spreading.
settlement. saOO boils); and ground cracks
-----------------------~----
or fissures.

Over-the-counter sales are available at the


iI DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY
Publications Request Form
san Francisco and Sacramento oHices. Number 0' copI9S
I AEROMAGNETIC MAP (Ic.le; 1:250.000)
I __ AMM005 San FrancIsco-san Jose quadrangle. 1993 (NEW) sa.OO
DMG OFR 91-03 MINERAL lAND
GEOLOGIC ATLAS OF CALlFQflNIA (reprlnts) (1(:818: 1:250.000)
CLASSIACATION OF THE SOlffi-l
GAM007 Long Beach Sheet. 1962 . ........................................ $7.00
TRACY Sill:. SAN JOAQUIN GAM019 Santa Ana Sheet. 1965 . ........................................... $7.00
COU!'fIY. CAUFORNIA . FOR PORT· GAM020 Santa Cruz Sheet. 1959 . .......................................... $7.00
LAND CEMENT CONCRETE AGGRE- GAM026 Walker Lake Sheel. 1963 . ........................................ $7.00
GATE. By Richard Eh;Ian and Ralph
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
Loyd. 1991. $6.00.
SP074 Mineral commodity report· sulphur. 1984 55.00
SP075 Minerai commoclJty report - zeolites. 1984 $5.00
This report presents the results of SP076 Mineral commodity report - barite. 1985 $5.00
DMG's mineral land classification study of spon Minerai commodity report - magnesium compounds. 1985.... ._. $5.00
Teichert Aggregates' South Tracy site in SP079 Mineral commodity repol1 - anhydrous ammonia (mlrogen). 1985 $5.00
response to a petition submitted under SP080 Mineral commodity report - calcium chloride. 1985 $5.00
the provisions of SMARA. This study is a SP081 Mineral commodity report - sodium sulfate. 1985 $5.00
re-evaluation of the portland cement con- SP082 Mineral commodity report - salt. t985 55.00
crete aggregate potential of the 325-acre SP083 Minerai commodity report - sodIum carbonate. 1985 55.00
SP084 Mineral commodity report - phosphate rock. 1985... . 55.00
South Tracy site. between Hospital and
SP089 Mineral commodity report - slhca. 1986 55.00
Lone Tree creeks in southwestern San SP090 Mineral commodity report - talc and related minerals. t 986 .. ... 55.00
Joaquin County. SP111 Minerai commodity report - diatomite. 1991 .. . $6.00
CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY
Over-the-counter sales are available at the
Sacramento and san Francisco oHices. Back Issue (specify volume and month) . . . ... $2.00
OTHER
List ot Available Publications . ... Free
DMG OFR 92-14 GEOLOGIC MAP
OF TJ-IE EAGLE LAKE QUADRANGLE. AMOUNT ENCLOSED (Price includes postage and sales lax.) $
LASSEN COU!'ITY, CAUFORNIA. A CHECK OR MONEY ORDER MUST ACCOMPANY THIS ORDER. All non·U 5 orders muSI be paid
By T.L.T. Grose. G.J. Saucedo. and With an InternatIOnal money Ofdel' Of dral1 payab~ In US (loIlals and made out to DIVISION OF MINES
AND GEOLOGY send Ofdel' to DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY. P 0 80x 2980. Sacramento.
D.L. Wagner. 1992. $8.00. Ca~tornia 95812·2980
NAME
DMG OFR 92-14 makes existing
geologic data for the Eagle Lake 30 x 60 STREET
minute quadrangle available to the public. _ _ _ _ _ STATE Z,p _
Prior to its release. only unpublished

CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH APRIL 1993 57


primarily as flows but include pyroclastic GEOLOGIC ATlAS OF CAUFORNlA ADDRESSES OF DMG OFFICES
deposits. breccias. and vent facies that Reprints Available
(scale: 1:250,000) Publications and Information Office
originated from local mountain peaks as
801 K Street, MS 14-33
v..rell as from sources outside the map
Long Beach Sheet. 1993. Compiled by Sacramento. CA 95814-3532
area. The intelV€ning lowlying areas are
Charles W. Jennings. 1962 $7.00 (916) 445-5716
underlain by alluvial. fluvial. and lacustrine
deposits as well as younger volcanic flows. Santa Ana Sheet. 1993. Compiled by Southern California Regional Office
Faults offset most of the units in the area. Thomas H. Rodgers. 1965 $7.00 107 South Broadway. Room 1065
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Generally. they are north to northwest Santa Cruz Sheet. 1993. Compiled by
(213)620-3560
trending nonnal faults with down to the Charles W. Jennings and Rudolph G.
west displacements. In many cases, how- Strand. 1959 ... $7.00 Bay Area Regional Office
ever. east dipping nonnal faults combine 1145 Market Street. 3rd Floor
Walker Lake Sheet. 1993. Compiled by San Francisco. CA 94103·1513
to create basin and range type structures.
JamesB. Koenig. 1963 $7.00 (415) 557·1500
Over the counter sales are available at the
Sacramento and San Francisco offices. AEROMAGNETIC MAP RELEASE
(scale 1:250.000)

The follOl.ving maps may be ordered The Aeromagnetic Map of the San 29th FORUM
on the Publications Request Fonn on Francisco-San Jose Quadrangle is avail· ON THE GEOLOGY OF
page 57. able for $8.00. INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
Sponsored by
---~------------------------I The California Department
CAUFORNIA GEOLOGY I 01 Conservation
Subscription and Change of Address Fonn I DIVISION OF MINES AND GEOLOGY
and THE U.S. BUREAU OF M!NES
NAME (Please print or type) _ I Aplil 25·30. 1993
STREET _ I Long Beach. California
CITY STATE ZlP _ I
1 yr. $10.00 2 yrs. $19.00 3 yrs. $28.00
I The 29th Forum will emphasize
D (6 issues) D (12 issues) D (18 issues) I industrial mineral deposits of the south·
I em Califomia region and will include

D NEW SUBSCRIPTION: Allow 60 days for delivery of first issue.


I 2 days of technical sessions and 3 days
of fiekl tlips.
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I 1993) (banquet included)- $150
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I
D GIFT: RECIPIENT NAME
STREET I
included)- $50
Tuesday Field Trips: $45 per
CITY STATE ZIP _ I trip. 111 Lompoc Diatomite:
GIFT CARD FROM _ I 112 Irwindale Aggregate {CaIMat
AMOUNT ENCLOSED (Includes postage and sales ta•.) $ _ I Company)lLuceme Valley Lime
sfone: 113 Irwindale Aggregate
I {Livingston-Graham. Inc.)lSoledad
I Canyon Ilmenite
I Thursday-Friday Field Trips:
ATTACH LABEL I $100 per tlip. 114 Mojave Desert
I Borate/Brines/Hectolite:
I 115 Mojave Desert Hectolife/
BorateIBrines
D ADDRESS CHANGE: send a recent address label and your new address. I
Allow 60 days to rellect address change. I For more infonnation, contact:
A CHECK OR MONEY ORDER MUST ACCOMPANY THIS ORDER. All non·U S orders must be paid I Ralph Loyd
wah an rrllemallOnaJmoneyordero.dra!lpayable.n U_S dollars and made oullO DIVISION OF MINES 29th Forum
AND GEOLOGY send all orders and/or address change to: I 801 K Street. MS 08-38
'X
DIVIStON OF MINES AND GEOLOGY
P.O eo. :?980. I
Sacramento. CA 9S6'4-'353'
1r (916) 322·9207 FAX (916) 327·1853
_____________ _ _ _Caltlom,a
Sacramento. ___ 9581_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ---.JI
:?·<!980.

58 CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY MARCH/APRIL 1993


PREI1MINARY REVIEW MAPS OF
PROPOSED SPECIAL SnJDlES ZONES OF JANUARY 1. 1993

Preliminary Review Maps issued January I.


1993 (map numbers keyed 10 index map)
1. Mark Wasl Spnngs
2. M1. George
j n, ...
3. Cordelia
....c.'
.,-cc-±'r'
- -\....r.-r- -'-. ~ 4. Fairfield South
5. Vine HIli (formerly Port ChICago)
" "1- -..1
6. Walnut Creek
.. ·.. El.". , ..",
, . ..... ' 7. Clayton
8. Landers
9. Yucx:a Valley North
" O. Yucca Valley South
11. Joshua Tree South

• Rel'lSed ZonB map

CilleS and coumies affected


........
... .' . t ..
"; 1'
, . . ·' '"
by proposed new or proposed
Special Sludies Zones shov.m ~,., ,

1
on preliminary Revicw Maps
. ,
of January I. 1993;

Cities Counties ,
Benicia Contra Costa "" J
Concord
Fairfield
Riverside
San Bernardino JL--._~ .. .. -+ ,
",
Walnut Creek Solano -, "
Yucca Valley Sonoma
1
.......
"
PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL /)
OF SPECIAL STUDIES
ZONES MAPS

The lwO Olfici<ll Special ......


{
..•
-n
, J

t ;,",
Studies Zones Maps listed below ,!
aTe proposed for withdrawal

.""'"
following the same schedule as

A. AntIoch North
B. Antioch South
\.---f"'C'--"""'C"~-Wr-' -'-' •. ....:..r '-:".
,

1lle propos«! new and revised Special Studies Zones Maps are issued for review purposes pursuant to tne Alqwsl Priolo Spe<:ial Studies Zones Act
Following a review perkxl thai ends April I. 1993. they ...;11 be superseded by OffICial Maps on July 1. 1993. I'It which time the roning beeorrM.':S
effectiYe
Review copies of the Preliminary Review Maps are in the offices oltne affected Cities and counties and the DMG olliceslisled above. Copies llllIy
be purchased from Blue Print SelVice Company. 1147 Mission Streel. San Frot'ICisco. CA 94103. (415) 512-6550
For infonTlatlon on Officiol Mops of Special Studies Zones previously issued. and lor provisions of tne l\Iquist·PrioIo Special Studies Zones Act. see
DMG Special Publication 42. Fault-rupture Hazard Zones in Califomia 11 Is ovaiiable from DMG. PO Box 2980. Sacramento. CA 95814. or
from the offices listed aboYe. lor $3 00.
PUblICatIons and InlormabOn 0II1Ce Bay Area RegIonal 0It1Ce Southern Calrlorma Regional OffICe
80t K Streel. MS 14·33 1145 M,lIket Slreet, 3rd Floor 107 South Broadway. Room 1065
Sacramenlo. CA 958t4·3532 San Franosco. CA 94103·1513 los Angele$. CA 90012
(916)445·5716 l415l557·1500 (213)612-3560

MARCH.APRlll993
CAlIFQflNIA GEOlOGY
"