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1) Which of the following structures has as its 6) The integrity of an epithelium as an intact
basic structure a phospholipid bilayer? permeability barrier regulating passage of
a) Endoplasmic reticulum materials is dependent upon
b) Ribosomes a) Connexons
c) Chromatin b) Desmosomes
d) Cytoskeleton c) Tight junctions
e) All of the above d) Adherens junctions
e) Basal lamina
2) Passive diffusion of Na+ ions into the cell
from extracellular fluids occurs via 7) Which specializations would typically be
a) Channels observed along the apical surfaces of an
b) Na+/K+ ATPase absorptive epithelium ?
c) Gap junctions a) Secretory vesicles
d) Passage through membrane b) Cilia
e) Endocytosis c) Microvilli
d) Desmosomes
3) The enzyme ATPase is directly necessary e) Gap junctions
a) Na+/K+ exchange via pumps 8) There are mitochondrial dysfunctions which
b) Synthesis of ATP in the mitochondrion contribute to some inherited diseases and
c) Facilitated diffusion of glucose symptoms involving muscle cells, neurons
d) Na+ movement through channels and the receptors in the eye are most
e) All of the above common. Reduction in mitochondrial
activity directly affects which cellular
4) During aerobic respiration in human cells, process?
the energy for ATP synthesis requires a a) Glycolysis
proton gradient b) Protein synthesis
a) Between the cytoplasm and c) Aerobic respiration
mitochondrial matrix d) Anerobic respiration
b) Between the extracellular and e) ATP hydrolysis
intracellular compartments
c) Across the plasma membrane 9) Concentration gradients provide the energy
d) Across the inner mitochondrial for cellular work. Which of the following
membrane most directly contributes to building and
e) Across the outer mitochondrial maintaining gradients across cell
membrane membranes?
a) Facilitated diffusion
5) The accumulation of proteins in an area of b) Active transport
microbial proliferation and cell damage may c) Exocytosis
lead to d) Endocytosis
a) Osmosis and swelling of cells in the e) Passive diffusion
b) Osmosis of fluids from that area into the 10) Macrophages have a high capacity for
circulation internalizing and destroying infectious
c) Movement of fluids from the debris. These cells are enriched in which
bloodstream into that area organelle critical to the digestion of
d) Movement of large proteins into internalized materials?
bloodstream by passive diffusion a) Secretory vesicles
along the gradient b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
e) Decrease in osmolarity of the blood c) Lysosomes
circulating in that area d) Channels
e) Chromatin
11) What is required for the movement of e) Superficial fascia
glucose across the apical surface of the 16) Herniated intervertebral discs result from
intestinal epithelial cell via Na+/glucose damage to
symporters ? a) Dense regular connective tissue
a) Na+ gradient across the apical b) Osseus tissue
membrane c) Fibrocartilage
b) Availability of transporters in the apical d) Hyaline cartilage
membrane e) Elastic cartilage
c) Hydrolysis of ATP for Na+ exchange at
the basal membrane 17) Lack of vitamin C interferes with the ability
d) Active transport of Na+ across the basal of cells to produce collagen. Which tissues
membrane would be directly affected by reduced
e) All of the above synthesis of collagen?
a) Loose areolar connective tissue
12) The primary function of synovial b) Cartilage
membranes is to c) Bone
a) Line all the hollow organs that open to d) Dense regular connective tissue
the outside of the body e) All of the above
b) Minimize friction at opposing surfaces
as organs move in body cavity 18) All of the following correctly describe the
c) Carry out absorption and secretion perichondrium except
d) Provide protection and support on the a) Separates cartilage from surrounding
outside of the body tissues and attaches it to other structures
e) Secrete fluid into joint cavities to b) Is a two layered structure
lubricate and nourish cells of the c) Mechanically supports and protects
articular cartilage cartilage
d) Contributes new cells for the growth
13) The presence of cilia and mucous secreting and maintenance of cartilage
Goblet cells are typical of e) Is comprised of chondrocytes
a) Cutaneous epithelia embedded in ground substance with
b) Serosa collagen fibers
c) Respiratory mucosa
d) Intestinal mucosa 19) TRUE or FALSE Bone tissue generally
e) Synovial membranes heals faster than cartilage since bone is
richly vascularized while cartilage is
14) The peritoneum, pleura and pericardium avascular.
a) Are examples of mucosal membranes
b) Consist of simple squamous epithelium 20) An interwoven network of dense collagen
c) Line the hollow organs of the fibers oriented in different directions would
intestine, lung and heart, respectively by typical of connective tissue found in
d) Line the thoracic and abdominal a) Ligaments
cavities and cover the organs in these b) Basal lamina
cavities c) Superficial fascia
e) Are comprised of dense regular d) Dermis
connective tissue e) Adipose tissue

15) The lining of the nasal cavity is normally 21) The striations of skeletal muscle fibers result
moist, contains numerous epithleial cells and from
rests on a layer of areolar connective tissue a) Wrapping of muscle fiber with
called the lamina propria. This is an connective tissue
example of a b) Organization of cytoskeletal
a) Synovial membrane elements, actin and myosin
b) Mucosal membrane c) Fusion of myocytes into multinucleated
c) Serosal membrane synctia
d) Cutaneous membrane d) Presence of intercalated discs
e) Joining of cells by gap junctions

22) The intercalated discs 28) One effect of aging on the skin is reduction
a) Are characteristic of smooth muscle in vitamin D production by about 75%.
layers Which of the following may result from this
b) Contain numerous tight (occluding) deficiency?
junctions a) Lowered intestinal Ca++ absorption
c) Produce a structural synctium in heart b) Reduction in bone density and strength
muscle c) Muscle weakness
d) Contain gap junctions
e) All of the above
d) Lowered plasma Ca++
e) All of the above
23) Dandruff is caused by excessive shedding of
cells from the outer layer of skin in the 29) Which of he following is a TRUE
scalp. This is composed of cells from which statement?
skin layer? a) The epiphyseal plate consists of
a) Dermis hyaline cartilage
b) Stratum germinativium b) Long bones are comprised of only
c) Stratum spinosum compact bone
d) Stratum lucidum c) Spongy bone has different bone matrix
e) Stratum corneum than compact bone
d) The diaphysis of long bones contains a
24) Adipose tissue is found in the center of spongy bone surrounded by
a) Stratum granulosum compact bone
b) Epidermis e) All of the above
c) Dermis
d) Subcutaneous layer of skin 30) The process of endochondral ossification
e) Mucosal epithelium a) Occurs when osteoblasts differentiate
from mesenchymeal or fibrous
connective tissue
25) The cells on the exposed surfaces of the skin b) Produces the flat bones of the skull
accumulate which of the following c) Is responsible for the remodeling and
substances to form a protective, dry, tough maintenance of bone
barrier resistant to penetraton by microbes d) Involves deterioration of
and particulates. chondrocytes and replacement by
a) Cholecalciferol osteoblasts
b) Keratin e) In bone elongation involved ossification
c) Melanin of the articular cartilage
d) Carotene
e) Collagen 31) During endochondral ossification, which
cells move into the primary ossification
26) TRUE or FALSE The hair follicles, sweat center with the invading blood vessels and
and sebaceous glands and nails derive from differentiate into osteoblasts?
germinal layers of the dermis. a) Fibroblasts
b) Chondrocytes
27) Sensible perspiration provides a mechanism c) Osteocytes
to relieve the body of excess heat by d) Osteoclasts
secretion of e) Mesenchyme
a) Endocrine glands
b) Sebaceous glands 32) At puberty rising levels of sex hormones,
c) Eccrine sweat glands growth hormone and thyroid hormone
d) Apocrine sweat glands produce a dramatic growth spurt in bone
e) Ceruminous glands which involves
a) Osteoblast formation of bone exceeds 38) Weight-bearing exercise which increases
advancing of epiphyseal cartilage mechanical stress to bone will
b) Width of epiphyseal cartilage decreases a) Activate mitosis at the epiphyseal plate
c) Eventual ossification of epiphyseal b) Promote elongation
plate into an epiphyseal line c) Promote loss of bone mass
d) Completion of elongation of long bones d) Thicken bone along stress lines
e) All of the above e) Trigger excessive bone resorption in
33) TRUE or FALSE Bone remodeling and areas of stress
growth only proceeds while there is an 39) TRUE or FALSE If radiographs of an 18
epiphyseal plate. year old basketball player show epiphyseal
lines and no clear epiphyseal plates, she will
34) A Osteoprogenitor cells are stem cells that likely not grow taller.
maintain a population of osteoblasts for
bone remodeling and repair. They are found 40) TRUE or FALSE Adequate dietary Ca++
in the and vitamin D are necessary to achieve
a) inner layers of periosteum and maximal peak bone mass and density which
endosteum occurs between age 20 and 30 years.
b) epiphyseal plate
c) articular cartilage
d) fibrous periosteum
e) bone marrow of the medullary cavity COMMENTS (ON EXAM QUESTIONS)

35) A Hematopoeisis, blood cell formation,

occurs in the
a) Bone marrow of spongy bone
b) Yellow bone marrow in the diaphysis
c) Central canal of the osteon
d) Bone matrix
e) All of the above

36) The repair of a fracture of a long bone

involves which of the following steps?
a) Fracture hematoma develops during
several hours following the injury
b) Cells migrate from endosteum and
periosteum into the fracture site
c) Fibrocartilaginous callous is laid down
between the broken ends of the bone
d) Osteoblasts and osteoclasts remodel the
bone for several months to a year
e) All of the above

37) A deficiency in which of the following is

correctly matched to the effect on bone?
a) Lowered estrogen in adults – lowered
bone density
b) Lack of vitamin C – lowered collagen
content, brittle bones
c) Lack of vitamin D – reduced bone
density and strength
d) Lack of growth or thyroid hormone in
children - shortened stature
e) All of the above