Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

www.elsevier.com/locate/jafrearsci

The geology, SHRIMP U–Pb geochronology and metallogenic


significance of the Ankisatra-Besakay District,
Andriamena belt, northern Madagascar
a,*
J. Kabete , D. Groves b, N. McNaughton b, J. Dunphy b

a
Ashanti Exploration (Tanzania) Ltd., P.O. Box 744, Mwanza, Tanzania
b
Centre for Exploration Targeting (formerly Centre for Global Metallogeny), University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia

Received 15 February 2005; received in revised form 11 January 2006; accepted 18 January 2006
Available online 15 March 2006

Abstract

The Ankisatra-Besakay District (A-BD), located about 200 km north of Antananarivo and 75 km east of Maevatanana in central-
northern Madagascar, hosts two historical mines, the Ankisatra Pb–Zn ± Au and Besakay Pb–Ag mines. These shear-hosted en echelon
quartz veins at Besakay and deformed tensional quartz veins at Ankisatra produced a total of 4446 t of lead and 156 t of zinc in the early
1940s. In addition, there is Pb–Zn–Cu mineralisation in both quartz-feldspar leucosome veins/bands and metasomatised granulite-facies
mafic orthogneiss, Cu–Zn and associated Fe–Mn mineralisation in magnetite–pyrite enderbite breccia, and Cu–Zn mineralisation in ret-
rograde shear zones in granulite-facies paragneiss in the A-BD. The country rocks in the A-BD consist of amphibolite to granulite-facies
mafic and granitoid orthogneisses and paragneisses with horizons of silicate-facies BIF. The paragneissic rocks in the district tectonically
overlie the biotite–granitoid hornfels and sub-volcanic mangeritic rocks, which are separated from amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar
granitoid and enderbitic rocks by a major structure. The A-BD is structurally characterised by: (1) E–W-trending tensional fractures,
quartz veins and dolerite dykes; (2) buckling-related axial-planar fractures; and (3) N–S, NE–SW and NNE–SSW trending dextral
strike-slip shear zones, dolerite sills and quartz veins in transpressional extensional zones.
Uranium–Pb SHRIMP II geochronology of zircon constrains the peak of magmatic, metamorphic, deformational and metasomatic
events in the A-BD. An important constraint is whether hosting terranes contain signatures of the ca. 1690–1590 Ma critical age window
for world-class BHT Pb–Zn–Ag deposits elsewhere in the world. At least two magmatic events are recorded from the A-BD. An early
magmatic event is recorded by a 2725 ± 12 Ma single xenocrystic magmatic zircon in the >2676 ± 6 Ma precursor to the granulite-facies
mafic orthogneiss. A ca. 2503–2460 Ma event is recorded by a 2465 ± 6 Ma minimum age of magmatism for the precursor to metaso-
matised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss and 2483 ± 20 Ma for the precursor to biotite–granitoid hornfels. Zircons extracted from both
the metasomatised and unaltered granulite-facies mafic orthogneisses record peak metamorphic ages of 2465 ± 12 and 2390 ± 10 Ma,
probably representing compressional deformation, partial melting, and associated local magmatic events within the ca. 2475–2380 Ma
period. Inherited zircons from the quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses return ages of protolithic supracrustal rocks ranging
from ca. 2870 to 1700 Ma. A widespread period of rifting, anatectic magmatism, basic-ultrabasic and mangerite magmatism, and related
granulite-facies metamorphism occurred between ca. 820 and 780 Ma. The possible exhalative units (silicate-facies BIF and metasomatic,
garnet–quartz–plagioclase rock) are of late-Archaean to early-Palaeoproterozoic, rather than Mesoproterozoic age. The terrane lacks the
critical evolution age window of ca. 1770–1550 Ma, characteristic of well-documented BHT Provinces in the Broken Hill Block and Mt.
Isa Block, Australia and ca. 1959–1135 Ma from the Bushmanland Ore District, South Africa. This suggests that either such an event did
not occur in the crust now forming the A-BD or that the equivalent supracrustal rocks containing these age signatures were eroded dur-
ing Proterozoic times. It is less likely that the intense 780–820 Ma event destroyed evidence for their prior existence.
The galenas from the Ankisatra and Besakay deposits have signatures characteristic of small-scale mineralised systems which derived
most of their lead from local crustal rocks older than ca. >2.7 Ga. They are thus atypical of BHT deposits and associated vein-style min-
eralisation from well-endowed terranes.

*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +255 28 2500323; fax: +255 28 2500322.
E-mail address: joas.kabete@ashantiexploration.com (J. Kabete).

1464-343X/$ - see front matter Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.01.008
88 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

It is concluded that there are neither direct signs nor indirect temporal signals of giant stratiform/stratabound BHT Pb–Zn–Ag min-
eralisation, nor clear evidence for the presence of characteristic transitional sequences and alteration styles associated with BHT miner-
alisation in the A-BD, thus downgrading its prospectivity.
Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Madagascar; Ankisatra-Besakay; Zircon geochronology; BHT deposit; Tectonic evolution

1. Introduction rocks and an upper sequence of psammo-pelitic rocks, sep-


arated by transitional sequences of hydrothermal exhala-
There have been dramatic advances in geological tive origin (Roche, 1994). Thin siliceous units, magnetic
research and mineral exploration in strategic areas of Mad- lode horizons, including BIF, calc-silicate units, gahnite
agascar since 1992 (Ashwal, 1997; Tucker et al., 1999; quartzite and other unusual chemical sedimentary rocks,
Kröner et al., 2000; Collins and Windley, 2002). These and most importantly BHT stratiform/stratabound Pb–
advances have so far upgraded: (1) understanding of the Zn–Ag deposits, typify these transitional sequences. There
crustal growth history of the Malagasy Shield (Collins are narrow, small-scale cross-cutting mineralised veins and
et al., 2001; Collins et al., 2003; De Wit, 2003); (2) its posi- shear zones in these BHT Provinces (Gulson et al., 1985;
tion as part of the Meso- and Neoproterozoic Rodinia and Reid et al., 1997). Based on Pb-isotope data, vein-type
Gondwana continents, respectively (e.g. Windley et al., Pb–Zn–Ag deposits in some of these provinces are shown
1994; Yoshida and Santosh, 1996; Ashwal, 1997; Handke to be genetically related to giant stratiform/stratabound
et al., 1999; Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005); and (3) impor- Pb–Zn–Ag deposits (e.g. Aggeneys, Gamsberg, Broken Hill
tantly an understanding of its metallogenic potential (e.g. and Black Mountain in the Bushmanland Ore District,
Augé and Legendre, 1992; Windley et al., 1994). Reliable Namaqua Metamorphic Province, South Africa: Reid
geochronological data have been acquired, mostly by con- et al., 1997). Based on this knowledge, it is possible that
ventional U–Pb and Pb–Pb evaporation methods and, vein-type mineralisation in potential BHT provinces could
most recently, by U–Pb sensitive high-resolution ion micro- be used as pathfinders for locating giant stratiform/strat-
probe (SHRIMP) analytical techniques (Ashwal, 1997; abound deposits, which may have been structurally relo-
Tucker et al., 1999; Collins et al., 2003). These data have cated at depth or along strike during polydeformation
gradually replaced the old and unreliable Rb–Sr and K– events. However, in the world-class BHT Provinces of
Ar ages (Cahen et al., 1984). Broken Hill Main Lode in New South Wales, and the
Significant mineralisation styles situated in the strongly Cannington deposit in Queensland, Australia, stratiform/
reworked high-grade metamorphic belts of the A-BD stratabound Pb–Zn–Ag deposits are not apparently
(Fig. 1) include Ni–Cr (Co) with PGE potential hosted genetically linked to the cross-cutting mineralised veins
by the ca. 790 Ma Andriamena mafic–ultramafic complexes and shear zones, at least based on Pb-isotope signatures
(Ohnenstetter et al., 1991), the Besakay Pb–Ag deposit in (Gulson et al., 1985; Stevens et al., 1990), so Pb-isotope
shear-hosted quartz-veins, and the Ankisatra Pb–Zn–Au data are equivocal. In addition to the Palaeoproterozoic
deposit in deformed quartz-veins (Besairie, 1961). In addi- and Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts, some analogous,
tion, there is high exploration potential for Zn–Cu in goss- but much smaller and less economic BHT deposits have
anous magnetite–pyrite enderbite breccia and Pb–Zn–Cu been recognised in younger mobile belts (e.g. Cambrian
in both metasomatised mafic orthogneisses and quartzo- Kanmantoo Belt of southern Australia: Willis, 1996).
feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses. These mineralisa- These occurrences suggest some metallogenic cyclicity for
tion styles are related to the last intense geotectonic cycle in BHT deposits, but the younger examples are not primary
the region, the ca. 800–520 Ma Neoproterozoic orogenic exploration targets.
cycle represented by Pan-African events (Kröner et al., The timing of formation of BHT deposits and precur-
1997; Goncalves et al., 2003). sors to the hosting metamorphic rocks are difficult to
Of all deposit styles in high-grade metamorphic belts, determine due to high-grade metamorphism, intense meta-
BHT (Broken-Hill Type) Pb–Zn–Ag deposits are the most somatism and polydeformation (Walters, 1998; Nutman
highly targeted (e.g. Walters, 1998). They represent a dis- and Ehlers, 1998b). In consequence, dating of the BHT
tinct category of Pb–Zn–Ag mineralisation commonly mineralisation has relied on two indirect approaches: (1)
associated with unusual exhalative chemical sedimentary Sm–Nd-isotope modelling of primary crustal-formation
rocks (lode horizons) situated in polydeformed amphibo- age together with SHRIMP U–Pb dating of high-grade
lite- to granulite-facies orogenic belts (Kerr, 1994; Reid peak-metamorphic zircons; and (2) isotope modelling of
et al., 1997; Giles et al., 2004), specifically of early Meso- Pb in pristine galena and sphalerite assumed not to contain
proterozoic age e.g. Groves et al., 2005). BHT provinces significant U and Th (Reid et al., 1997).
commonly display an extensive meta-supracrustal stratig- In this paper, key geological factors (i.e. lithostratigra-
raphy, comprising a lower sequence of quartzo-feldspathic phy, mineralisation styles, SHRIMP II U–Pb zircon dates
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 89

Fig. 1. The main tectonic domains and belts comprising the central and north-eastern Madagascar Province.

and Pb-isotope signatures) of the A-BD are presented then was adjacent to any of the world-class BHT provinces dur-
examined in terms of its potential to host large BHT Pb– ing BHT mineralisation.
Zn–Ag deposits, thus highlighting the potential mineral
base-metal endowment of the A-BD. It is stressed that it 2. Rationale for the study
is the temporal evolution of the District that is considered,
not its spatial position, relative to BHT provinces else- Criteria for the recognition of mineral districts or prov-
where in the world. It is nowhere implied that the A-BD inces which are prospective for BHT mineralisation have
90 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

been summarised by many workers including AGCRC 3. Regional geological setting


(1995), Giles and Ehlers (1997) and Reid et al. (1997).
These features are used here to determine whether the Two-thirds of the island of Madagascar is underlain by
A-BD has the potential to host BHT deposits. Such Precambrian rocks of the Malagasy Shield (Besairie, 1961;
an assessment is warranted, because most giant BHT De Wit, 2003). Windley et al. (1994) and Windley and
Pb–Zn–Ag deposits occur in extensive Palaeoproterozoic Razakamanana (1996) originally split this shield, along
and Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts with various types of the sinistral Ranostara Shear Zone, into the central-north-
vein-type and young intrusion-related mineralisation styles ern Madagascar Province (CNMP) of predominantly
(Nutman and Ehlers, 1998b; Reid et al., 1997). Some of Archaean age components and the southern Madagascar
these orogenic belts have an Archaean to Palaeoprotero- Province of largely Proterozoic cover (Fig. 1). The CNMP
zoic geological history that is comparable to that of the has since been subdivided into several tectonic units based
A-BD (e.g. ca. 2700–2100 Ma events in both the Broken on available robust geochronology data. Collins et al.
Hill Block of Australia and A-BD: Nutman and Ehlers, (2000) distinguish five tectonic units in the CNMP, whereas
1998a). They also occur in high-grade metamorphic belts De Wit (2003) split the shield into three major belts to illus-
which were involved in poly-deformational and multiple trate the growth history from the Archaean, through Meso-
magmatic events, comparable to the Pan-African Belts of Neoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic belts.
Madagascar. Furthermore, galenas extracted from vein- In the Maevatanana–Andriamena Belts (Fig. 2), the
type Pb–Zn–Ag mineralisation in the A-BD indicated Pb greenstone belts (De Wit, 2003), also referred to as the
model ages of ca. 1850 Ma and 1750 Ma (Besairie, 1961), Tsaratanana Thrust Sheet (Collins et al., 2001), are sepa-
which are within the ca. 1920–1570 Ma terrane evolution rated by N–S trending lower-crustal level migmatites,
age window for BHT Pb–Zn–Ag deposits in the Broken which are conformable with the ca. 600–550 Ma granitoids
Hill Block of Australia. (Nédélec et al., 1994; Windley et al., 1997; Kröner et al.,
Based on these factors, BHP Minerals International 1997; Paquette and Nédélec, 1998). In the Maevatanana
Exploration Inc. decided to target BHT deposits in the Greenstone Belt, thin greenstone lithologies are interca-
A-BD, and this research study arose from the ensuing lated within the 2518–2505 Ma (U–Pb zircon: Tucker
exploration-based work. et al., 1999) granodiorites and tonalites. All of these are

Fig. 2. Geological map of central and northern Madagascar Province showing known geochronology and mineral deposit potential. Age dates are U–Pb
zircon conventional/SHRIMP unless otherwise stated.
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 91

intruded by the ca. 780 Ma arc-magmatic gabbro and intruded by conformable granitoids and post-tectonic per-
granitoids, part of the ca. 870–740 Ma arc-magmatic gab- alkaline complexes during the late Pan-African (Fig. 2:
bro and granitoids in the ca. 2550–2500 Ma Antananarivo Nédélec et al., 1995; Goncalves et al., 2003).
Block (Fig. 1).
The Andriamena Belt is underlain by mafic–felsic gran- 4. Lithology and structure of the A-BD
ulites and gneisses including unspecified Archaean base-
ment rock (ca. 2.7 Ga: Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron: The major lithotectonic units of the A-BD are grouped
Windley and Razakamanana, 1996) and the ca. 3.2– under three major sub-terranes: (1) the orthogneissic thrust
2.4 Ga tonalitic gneisses (Collins et al., 2001). These base- sub-terrane in the west; (2) the tectonic corridor sub-ter-
ment rocks are unconformably overlain, and in most places rane in the east; and (3) the tectonic boundary sub-terrane
deformed together with, cordierite–sillimanite–garnet and in the centre (Fig. 3). The orthogneissic thrust sub-terrane
graphitic paragneisses and granulites exposed along the comprises gneissic basement rocks such as voluminous dio-
Andriamena-Alaotara synclinal structure (Fig. 2). The rite to granodiorite gneiss, orthopyroxene–quartz–feldspar
787 ± 6 Ma (step-wise Pb-evaporation U–Pb in zircon: gneiss (e.g. tonalitic gneiss), granitoid gneiss, thin units of
Guerrot et al., 1993) layered mafic–ultramafic complexes interbanded quartz-magnetite–amphibolite gneiss (cf. sili-
in the belt are interpreted to have intruded in the back- cate-facies banded iron formation: BIF) and thin green-
arc intracratonic rift setting related to subduction of the stone belts (e.g. Fig. 4N). These rocks are folded and
Mozambique Ocean. The synformal structure in the Andri- faulted and intruded by early Neoproterozoic mafic–ultra-
amena Belt is probably a result of thrusting and imbrica- mafic complexes (see Guerrot et al., 1993), orthopyroxene
tion of the supracrustal rocks and associated ultramafic alkali-feldspar granitoid and minor late-Neoproterozoic
complexes following the ca. 600–550 Ma collision between per-alkaline granite (sensu stricto) sheets and Cretaceous
Neoproterozoic India and the Congo/Tanzania/Bangwe- mafic dykes (Besairie, 1961).
ulu Block (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). This is consistent In the eastern A-BD, the tectonic corridor comprises
with the suggestion by Windley and Razakamanana (1996) thrust-transported quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies par-
that the ca. 2517–2494 Ma (Ashwal, 1997) Andriamena, agneiss, biotite–granitoid hornfels and mangerite (Fig. 3).
Masora, Beforona and Androna Greenstone Belts are North–south-trending mafic–ultramafic intrusive rocks,
thrust belts which were part of a thrust nappe that was dolerite dykes and conformable granite (sensu stricto)
probably a once-continuous sheet. The high-grade meta- bodies intrude quartzo-feldspathic paragneiss in the south,
morphic rocks underlying the Andriamena Belt were finally whereas N–S trending gabbroic sills and NNW-trending

Fig. 3. The geology of the Ankisatra-Besakay District showing areas of mineral occurrences and locality of samples dated by the U–Pb SHRIMP
technique in this study.
92 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

pink granites (sensu-stricto) intrude the northern portion amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid, strongly
(Fig. 3). The tectonic boundary sub-terrane comprises an deformed and intruded by mangerite, diorite and basaltic
extensive N–S to NNE-trending structure consisting of dykes. Ubiquitous Cretaceous basalt dykes are common

Fig. 4. A. Greenish-grey pyroxene-amphibole-rich melanosome and quartzo-feldspathic leucosome bands in mafic orthogneiss. B. Photomicrograph of
amphibolite to transitional granulite facies mafic orthogneiss. C. Laminated quartz-magnetite amphibole gneiss (cf. silicate facies BIF). D. Silicate–
magnetite and quartz-magnetite interbands in C. E. Strong metasomatism in deformed mafic orthogneiss. F. Photomicrograph of a magnetite-plagioclase
bands in mafic orthogneiss. G. Mineralised orthopyroxene-quartzo-feldspathic gneiss. H. Photomicrograph showing biotite–garnet–orthopyroxene
mineral assemblage typical of granulite facies metapelitic rock with a basic component. I. Sugary and mottled texture of biotite granitoid hornfels. J.
Mangerite typified by uralitised and biotite-altered pyroxenes, plagioclase and minor quartz. K. Field relationship between alkali-feldspar granitoid and
syn-deformation mangerite. L. Photomicrograph showing near granoblastic texture of quartz-feldspar uralitised and biotite-altered green hornblende and
magnetite in alkali-feldspar granitoid. M. (i) Strong brittle–ductile shear fabric and pervasive hydrothermal alteration in enderbite; (ii) mylonitic to
ultramylonitic enderbite. N. Photomicrograph of moderate to strongly sheared enderbite. O. Laterite (gossan) expression of the manganiferous Cu–Zn
hosting enderbite. P. Amphibolite greenstone lithology intercalated within mafic orthogneiss, after diorite and granodiorite.
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 93

Fig. 4 (continued)

at all lithotectonic levels, implying that they are roots to and NNE-trending regional structural grain (Figs. 3 and
plateau basalts mapped in the west (Fig. 3). The degree 4A). Axial traces to these folds and the shear plane fabric
of metamorphism and deformation across the A-BD dip at moderate angles to the east. These rocks contain
increases from east to west (Kabete, 1999). local, yet extensive, zones of parallel to crosscutting shear
and fault zones ranging from 50 cm to up to 40–60 m wide
4.1. Orthogneissic thrust sub-terrane comprising smoky quartz, plagioclase, magnetite, garnet
and altered pyroxenes. Petrographic study of these struc-
The orthogneissic thrust sub-terrane comprises region- tures indicates that they are zones of strong metasomatic
ally extensive tectonically-juxtaposed late-Archaean dio- alteration in granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss (Fig. 4E
ritic to granodioritic gneisses and thin greenstone and F). The intensity of deformation and mineralogy of
lithologies of basaltic andesite composition (Kabete, the metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss sug-
1999). The late-Archaean basement rocks contain composi- gests that the structures which accessed the hydrothermal
tional inter-layering possibly evolved during earlier partial fluids were detachment zones related to early thrusting
melting events related to metamorphism. These basement events and were reactivated during younger events. The
rocks and the ultramafic complexes appear to have been metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss typifies
juxtaposed before the open to tight isoclinal folding and the nature and fabric of the bulk-shear structure of the
penetrative bulk-shearing events responsible for the N–S A-BD, which is further crosscut by NW-trending dextral
94 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

faults (Fig. 6). The relatively younger, Cretaceous basalt granulite-facies metamorphism. Intense uralitisation of sil-
dykes are aligned along NE to N–S and NNW–SSW struc- icate minerals is interpreted to result from retrograde
tures (Fig. 3). metamorphism.

4.1.1. Amphibolite–granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss 4.1.3. Metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss


The granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss constitutes a Metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss com-
thick unit of dominantly uralite-amphibole and biotite- prises metre-scale layering of massive and dark-grey gar-
altered, pyroxene-rich melanosome bands, interlayered net-bearing magnetite–quartz–feldspathic rock (Fig. 4E
and/or tectonically deformed together with centimetre- and F) cropping out in the southwestern A-BD (Fig. 3).
to metre-scale quartz-feldspar leucosome veins/bands These garnet-bearing magnetite–feldspathic layers and
(Fig. 4A and B). There are local shear zones, developed units are located in parallel to sub-parallel structures
particularly in the vicinity of interpreted deep-seated struc- within granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss. They are strongly
tures, which define zones of intense deformation and meta- fractured and consist of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, inclu-
somatism. They comprise smoky and blue-quartz and sion-free euhedral garnet porphyroblasts and intergranular
uralitised orthopyroxene together with fracture-filling pyr- magnetite containing pyrrhotite exsolutions. Elongate to
rhotite, pyrite after pyrrhotite and magnetite. stubby-prismatic pyroxenes form a weak foliation alternat-
Petrographic studies also reveal hornfelsic decussate ing with quartz–feldspar-rich areas. Uralite, garnet and
features shown by green hornblende and subordinate bio- magnetite appear to be concentrated in areas of high strain
tite, forming as clusters with granular quartz, suggesting and abundant orthopyroxene. These petrographical fea-
prograde amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism. tures suggest that at least garnet, and possibly orthopyrox-
Orthopyroxene and hornblende generally show preferred ene, are the result of metasomatism following interaction
orientations consistent with the regional fabric (Fig. 4A between hydrothermal fluids and mafic granulite interac-
and B). The growth of biotite and hornblende along inter- tion along low-angle thrust faults splaying off deep-rooted
granular spaces, and amphibole and biotite rimming of detachment zones. In addition, uralite and biotite are tran-
stubby pyroxenes, possibly represents retrograde meta- sitional, partial replacement products of orthopyroxene
morphism (e.g. Opx + Pl + Kfs + Vapor ! Hbl + Bt + from granulite to lower amphibolite facies (Miyashiro,
Qtz) following exhumation of granulites. Field and petro- 1994).
graphic investigation and geochemical analyses (Kabete,
1999) show that the granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss 4.2. Tectonic corridor sub-terrane
resulted from partial melting of diorite to granodioritic
rocks. The tectonic corridor sub-terrane is underlain to the
north by granulite-facies biotite–granitoid hornfels and
4.1.2. Quartz-magnetite–amphibolite gneiss granulite-facies quartz–monzonite (i.e. mangerite), and to
Quartz-magnetite–amphibolite gneiss is essentially an the south by quartzo-feldspathic paragneiss and sporadic
amphibolite- to granulite-facies, silicate-facies BIF crop- ultramafic intrusive complexes (Fig. 3). A greater number
ping out extensively as thickly bedded units within the of N–S trending basalt dykes and faults crosscut NNE–
granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss and metasomatised SSW trending fabrics which are coincident, and/or parallel,
granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss (Figs. 3 and 4C and with the alignment of mangerite and gabbro outcrops in the
D). The rock comprises millimetre to centimetre-scale, north. These structures are further crosscut by late NW-
quartz-magnetite, shear-foliated siliceous units that are trending dextral faults. In the southern part, there are
inter-laminated with centimetre to metre-scale, magnetite- numerous closely-spaced NNE-trending major shear and
supported silicate breccia. In the magnetite-supported fault zones, locally ranging from mylonite to ultra-mylonite
silicate breccia bands, coarse-grained uralitised pyroxene zones that traverse the tectonic corridor (Fig. 4H).
contains plagioclase and quartz inclusions, a feature absent
in uralitised pyroxenes in shear-foliated silica-rich bands. 4.2.1. Quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss
Laminations, chemical composition and petrographic Quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss is a leuc-
features suggest that the quartz-magnetite–silicate gneiss ocratic orthopyroxene- and sillimanite-bearing lithotec-
is a chemically precipitated silicate-facies BIF. The bulk tonic unit extending along the N–S trending Andriamena
C-S shear fabric is of contrasting micro-textural–structural Belt in the southern part of the tectonic corridor sub-
features, possibly related to post- to syn-deformational terrane (Figs. 3 and 4G). Petrographic studies show that
metasomatism and magnetite flooding along bands domi- sillimanite overgrows garnet and orthopyroxene overgrows
nated by the S-fabric (see lower portion in Fig. 4D). garnet and biotite (Fig. 4H), consistent with upper-
Inter-layering and the mineralogy suggest an exhalative amphibolite to granulite metamorphic facies (Miyashiro,
volcanic origin, before the rock was subjected to granu- 1994). The retrogression of biotite and garnet to chlorite
lite-facies metamorphism. Inclusions of elongate quartz is common along local, but late, dextral shear zones, which
and feldspar grains, which are parallel to internal cleavage also contain graphite, rutile and sulphide mineralisation
planes in uralitised orthopyroxene, provide evidence for the (Fig. 5D).
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 95

Fig. 5. A. Photomicrograph illustrating the structural controls and galena textures in quartz from the Besakay Pb–Ag deposit. B. Remobilised galena in
closely-spaced fractures in quartz at the Ankisatra Pb–Zn–Au deposit. C. Photomicrograph showing texture and ore mineralogy of Pb–Cu–Zn sulphides in
metasomatised mafic orthogneiss. D. Photomicrograph showing pyrrhotite and pyrite in late anastomosing shear zones in quartzo-feldspathic
paragneisses. E. Sheared enderbite showing coincidence of sulphides in areas of abundant garnet. F. Photomicrograph illustrating the structural controls
pertaining to pyrrhotite and pyrite in mineralised enderbite. G. Metre-scale quartzo-feldspathic leucosome bands with ribbons of quartz containing Pb–Ag
mineralisation. H. Strongly altered quartz-epidote and Pb-bearing leucosome bands in mafic orthogneiss.

The mineral assemblage Bt + Grt + Sil + Kf suggests (Figs. 4H and 5D). Graphite along shear zones may have
that the main component of the precursor quartzo-feld- either precipitated from CO2-rich hydrothermal fluids
spathic granulite-facies paragneiss contained significant (Miyashiro, 1994), or be related to organic matter in the
pelitic components. Orthopyroxene in this assemblage sug- precursor rock (Rajesh-Chandran et al., 1996).
gests the presence of a basic component in the precursor
rock, which further implicates a supracrustal volcano-sed- 4.2.2. Biotite–granitoid hornfels
imentary rock. Both garnet and orthopyroxene show Biotite–granitoid hornfels crops out in the northern part
syn- to post-metamorphic deformation and retrograde of the tectonic corridor sub-terrane as elongate slices of
metamorphism by their hydration to biotite and chlorite moderately to strongly weathered basement rock intruded
96 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

or juxtaposed with mangerite (Fig. 4J) and gabbro (Fig. 3). form thin layers in these bands, despite their occurrence
Biotite–granitoid hornfels is a pink to pinkish-grey, med- along fractures and intergranular spaces in other ender-
ium-grained recrystallised rock consisting of granoblastic bite varieties.
quartz, plagioclase and feldspars (Fig. 4I). The clustering It is evident that enderbite in the A-BD represents two-
of biotite and finely recrystallised granular quartz, the typ- pyroxene bearing tonalitic to dioritic sub-volcanic rocks,
ical decussate texture of local overgrowths of biotite by which were emplaced, crystallised and deformed at mid-
clinopyroxene, and triple-junction textural features dis- crustal levels.
played by granoblastic quartz and feldspars are evidence
for high-temperature low-pressure amphibolite- to granu-
4.3. Tectonic boundary sub-terrane
lite facies metamorphism (Miyashiro, 1994; Blat and
Tracy, 1996). This is a contact metamorphic facies, com-
The tectonic boundary sub-terrane (Fig. 3) is defined by
monly referred to as pyroxene-hornfels facies (Miyashiro,
the structurally-bound, amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar
1994), characterised by serrated margins and recrystallisa-
granitoid, comprising buckling-related radial axial planes
tion of fine granular quartz along quartz grain boundaries.
and strong N–S trending faults and shear zones through
Accessory titanite, zircon and opaque minerals are com-
which subsequent dolerite and basalt dykes intruded
monly located along intergranular spaces, with sub-
(Fig. 6). These structures are evidence for horizontal com-
rounded and sub-angular zircons enclosed in quartz and
pressional tectonics, which created zones of extension in
feldspars. However, minor zircons and titanites that occur
the tectonic corridor basement-rocks, through which later
as inclusions in biotite show radiogenic coronas.
sills intruded (Figs. 3 and 4L). Rejuvenation of these exten-
Field and petrographical work suggest that biotite–gran-
sion zones during progressive and subsequent orogenic
itoid hornfels resulted from high-temperature low-pressure
events may have allowed further zones of extension in the
pyroxene-hornfels metamorphism of the granitoid. The
basement through which emplacement of ca. 590–560 Ma
intrusive character of the extensive granulite-facies mange-
conformable granites (sensu-stricto) and Cretaceous basalt
rite potentially explains the source of heat.
dykes took place (Figs. 2, 3 and 7).
4.2.3. Enderbite
Enderbite is a moderately to strongly deformed, two- 4.3.1. Amphibolite facies alkali-feldspar granitoid
pyroxene-bearing quartzo-feldspathic tonalitic to quartz- Amphibolite facies alkali-feldspar granitoid forms a N–
dioritic sub-volcanic rock cropping out extensively in the S to NNE-oriented fold structure defining a possible tec-
southern extension of the tectonic boundary (Fig. 4K). It tonic boundary, which wraps around a tectonic corridor
forms a brittle–ductile structural transition from the of quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses, bio-
amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid to the orthog- tite–granitoid hornfels and quartz monzonite to the east
neissic thrust sub-terrane. The rock is generally coarse (Figs. 3 and 6). Parallel, N–S-trending shear zones and dol-
grained and granoblastic, consisting of about 20–40% erite dykes, which further cut and intrude the granitoid
orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, 35–55% plagioclase, (Fig. 4O), are possibly related to the extensive N–S to
15–35% quartz, and minor garnet, biotite and alkali- NNE-trending dextral shear and extension zones in the
feldspar (Fig. 4L). These major diagnostic textural and nearby orthogneissic thrust sub-terrane (Fig. 6).
metamorphic features suggest an igneous precursor, over- The alkali-feldspar granitoid is a coarse-grained pinkish-
printed by retrograde metamorphism. A strong foliation, grey and moderately magnetic rock consisting of abundant
possibly secondary, is shown by pyroxenes that are elon- perthitic-alkali-feldspars, uralitised pyroxenes, and green
gate parallel to garnet, biotite and opaque minerals. and brown hornblende (Fig. 4O). The relatively minor
However, in some places, orthopyroxene and plagioclase magnetite and other opaque minerals, and other silicates,
preserve relic igneous textures locally mimicked by uraliti- form thin bands mainly at granoblastic quartz-feldspar
sation, biotite and sericite alteration (Fig. 4L). Garnet is intergranular spaces and in anastomosing shears
inclusion-free and lacks chemical zonation, diagnostic evi- (Fig. 4P). In places, hornblende shows decussate texture
dence for a high-grade metamorphic overprint (Miyashiro, indicative of contact metamorphism at amphibolite to
1994). granulite facies, whereas strain features in quartz and
In the field, enderbite shows significant brittle–ductile abundant exsolution lamellae in feldspars are evidence
structures, parts of which are mineralised (Fig. 5E and for deformation. These features, as well as corona textures
F). The age of these structures is not constrained, as shown by biotite around uralite and hornblende, suggest
the age of the rocks themselves is not known. Enderbite post-metamorphic deformation with subsequent retrograde
exhibits high strain features in which dextral shearing metamorphism. At outcrop and specimen scales, amphibo-
progressively forms mylonite and ultra-mylonite zones lite–granulite facies alkali-feldspar granitoid shows igneous
producing granulated pyroxenes in silicate-rich bands morphology with weak metamorphic overprints of incipi-
(Fig. 4K and L). These silicate bands alternate with ent gneissic banding. However, in contrast, petrographic
bands or ribbons of recrystallised granular quartz wrap- observations show clear metamorphic textures (Fig. 4P),
ping around rotated feldspars (Fig. 4L). Opaque minerals thus presenting ambiguities on how granulite-facies
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 97

Fig. 6. A. Landsat image band-five image showing lithologic and structural interpretations. B. Proposed lithostructural evolution of the ca. <810–780 Ma
Ankisatra-Besakay District based on A and field mapping results.

metamorphic and igneous rocks form (see Windley, 1995, crystallisation of precursor magma at deeper crustal levels;
for comments). (2) intensive metasomatism by CO2-rich fluids emanating
Possible origins for the protolith of the amphibolite- from high-grade metamorphism of basement rocks,
facies alkali-feldspar granitoid include: (1) intrusion and focussed from deep seated structures; and (3) formation
98 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

Fig. 7. Detailed geology of the area around the Besakay Pb–Ag Deposit.

of a residue of a partially melted precursor basement rock 5.1. Hosting lithology characteristics
that remained and recrystallised at deeper crustal levels
(e.g. Tarney and Weaver, 1987). Critical geologic features of BHT ore deposits and their
hosting terranes in the Broken Hill Block, Mt. Isa Block
5. Common features of BHT deposits and the Bushmanland Ore District are largely outlined
from Gulson et al. (1985), Ryan et al. (1986), Joubert
BHT deposits are discussed here as a basis for discussion (1986), Skrzeczynski (1993), Solomon and Groves (1994),
of the U–Pb geochronology and Pb-isotope data from the Kerr (1994), AGCRC (1995), Walters (1996), Willis
A-BD, which follows. BHT districts are commonly charac- (1996), Giles and Ehlers (1997) and Reid et al. (1997).
terised by their: (1) intracratonic rift basin setting; (2) BHT districts typically display the following features:
upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism, with
strong metasomatic overprints; (3) multiple episodes of (1) They are Palaeo- to Mesoproterozoic intracratonic
deformation and magmatism; and (4) unique transitional mobile belts with evidence of extensional tectonic
lode horizons (Gulson et al., 1985; Kerr, 1994). Debate and long-lived orogenic evolution (e.g. it took
on the genesis of BHT deposits highlights two main contro- 100 m y for the Willyama Supergroup to evolve from
versial models: (1) the syn- to post-metamorphic, mag- 1690 to 1590 Ma: Giles et al., 2004).
matic-hydrothermal origin; and (2) the syn-sedimentary (2) These belts are metamorphosed to upper amphibolite
or diagenetic model (Giles and Ehlers, 1997). to granulite facies, with evidence of intense deforma-
The syn-metamorphic model involves scavenging of Pb– tion and metasomatism, which complicates precursor
Zn–Ag metals by pervasive partial melting of basement rock identification.
rocks during high temperature metamorphism and their (3) Regional stratigraphy comprises lower quartzo-feld-
deposition in structurally or chemically favourable sites spathic sequences and upper metapelitic, psammitic
(AGCRC, 1995). The syn-sedimentary model suggests ero- and psammopelitic sequences separated by transi-
sion and accumulation of base metals from the syn-rifting tional, syn-rift and thin siliceous and magnetic lode
quartz-feldspar basement rocks (Gulson et al., 1985; horizons of hydrothermal exhalative origin. These
Sawkins, 1989; Stevens et al., 1990; Solomon and Groves, horizons comprise BIF and gahnite quartzite and
1994). other unusual chemical sedimentary rocks.
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 99

(4) Deposits are strongly to less-deformed, disseminated- from the non-magnetic fraction were handpicked under a
sulphide stratiform ore- bodies, conformable mas- high-magnification binocular microscope. These grains
sive-sulphide stratabound deposits, and cross-cutting were mounted together with chips of a standard zircon
quartz and pegmatite vein-type deposits, the majority CZ3 (Nelson, 1996), polished and cleaned to expose half-
of which are commonly located in transitional zones. section zircon grains. The mounts were imaged by environ-
(5) There is extensive sillimanite–garnet metasomatism in mental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) using the
quartz-feldspar rocks (e.g. Cannington), and complex charge contrast technique (Griffin, 1997) to reveal detailed
Fe–Mn–Ca silicate haloes, expressed by garnet, internal morphological features. The samples were then
pyroxene and pyroxenoids (e.g. Broken Hill Block). cleaned and gold coated in preparation for SHRIMP ion-
microprobe analysis.
Metamorphosed siliceous Fe–Mn garnet–quartzite and
sandstones form a blanket around ore bodies. 6.2. Nature of U–Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology

5.2. BHT deposit characteristics The U–Pb and Th–Pb geochronology technique utilises
minerals with high U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios, such as zircon,
World class BHT districts show the following major titanite, apatite and monazite in order to determine reliable
BHT deposit-scale characteristics: (1) obvious gross con- and absolute ages of rock units. The U–Th–Pb isotope
cordance between ore bodies and hosting lithotectonic in situ analyses of 25–30 lm size spots on sectioned zircon
units; (2) original sedimentary features preserved in ore grains or titanite by SHRIMP are among the best high-pre-
bodies that are restricted in low-strain stratigraphic inter- cision dating techniques capable of resolving ambiguous
vals (Reid et al., 1997); (3) extensive regional stratigraphic U–Pb discordance patterns commonly obtained from anal-
correlation of the hosting terranes (Giles and Ehlers, 1997); ysing a mixture of zircon populations by conventional U–
and (4) Si–Mn–Fe and K-metasomatic geochemical, miner- Pb and Pb–Pb evaporation techniques. Compston et al.
alogical and Pb-isotopic haloes (e.g. Bushmanland Ore (1984), Nelson (1996) and Smith et al. (1998) describe in
District) associated with ore bodies (Walters, 1996; Willis, more detail the analytical methods applied to measure
1996; Reid et al., 1997). U–Th–Pb isotopes on SHRIMP and calculate ages. Ages
Apart from stratabound/stratiform deposits, vein-type quoted in the text are at 2-sigma error, whereas those in
and intrusion-related mineralisation occurs in these prov- the table of SHRIMP analytical results are reported at 1-
inces. The most critical features of the widely accepted sigma error.
syn-sedimentary genetic model for BHT deposits are: (1)
initial crustal extension of the Archaean to Palaeoprotero- 6.3. Imaging techniques
zoic basement; (2) older basement and associated basal
supracrustal sequences comprising quartz-feldspar rocks; Transmitted and reflected light photographs provide
and (3) long-lived orogenic cycles and evidence of transi- preliminary information about the zircon morphology, col-
tional syn-rifting depositional environments. our, size, and where appropriate, core–rim relationship
and zoning in the grains. In terms of zircon overgrowth
and damage complexities due to multiple deformation,
6. SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology of critical A-BD magmatic and metamorphic processes, it is important to
Rocks select specific geological targets to be analysed by the
ion-microprobe SHRIMP technique. Scanning Electron
6.1. Sample selection and preparation Microscope (SEM) imaging techniques, including back-
scatter electron (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL), pro-
A total of five samples comprising amphibolite to gran- vide far greater information about the detailed internal
ulite-facies mafic orthogneiss, metasomatised amphibolite morphology of the selected zircons. Essentially, these tech-
to granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss, quartzo-feldspathic niques employ a finely focused primary beam of electrons
amphibolite to granulite-facies paragneiss, amphibolite- which sweeps across the sample resulting in the generation
facies alkali-feldspar granitoid, and biotite-orthogneissic of several emissions from the sample: secondary electrons,
granitoid were selected for SHRIMP U–Pb analyses in backscattered electrons and CL. At the time of this
order to cover the entire history of the A-BD (Fig. 3). Sam- SHRIMP study, Griffin (1997) had developed the charge
ples were crushed, milled and sieved to retain the 60# mesh contrast technique (CCI) to be used within an environmen-
fraction, which was cleaned with normal tap water to tal scanning electron microscope (ESEM). As this tech-
remove finely clayey material. Retained silty material was nique was stated to produce images similar to those
dried and mixed with a 2.85 ± 0.02 g/mil heavy liquid produced by CL, but to be quicker, not to require carbon
(Lithium-Silica-Tungsten: LST) and allowed to settle, sep- coating, to have a better signal/noise ratio, and to high-
arating heavy from less-dense material. Distilled water fol- light details not visible in BSE and CL (Griffin, 1997), it
lowed by acetone was used to clean the heavy fraction. A was decided to use this technique to image zircons in this
magnetic separator was used on the dry fraction. Zircons study.
100 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

7. Dated rocks and morphology of their zircons bly related to mechanical abrasion or metamorphic
resorption.
7.1. Granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss
7.3. Amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid
The granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss (sample 67-04/
UWA mount 98-19B; Fig. 4A and B) was selected for geo- Sample 21380 represents an amphibolite-facies alkali-
chronological studies to constrain the age of the major host feldspar granitoid (Fig. 4O and P), which defines a tectonic
rock to the vein-type Pb–Ag mineralisation in the Besakay break between the orthogneissic thrust sub-terrane to the
area (Figs. 2 and 7). Zircons extracted from the sample are west and the tectonic corridor sub-terrane to the east
brown, anhedral and elongate, showing external igneous (Fig. 3). Its synclinal structural setting is interpreted to be
morphologic features. Reflected light and ESEM examina- a result of syn-deformational emplacement into a NE–SW
tion of zircons reveals external and internal morphologic transpressional stress regime (Fig. 6). Whereas field rela-
features as classified as: (1) least-modified igneous zircons tionships show its igneous granitoid features, it has weakly
comprising 100–300 lm long zircons with internal igneous gneissic textures, and petrographic examinations show that
growth zoning, some of which are mechanically fragmented it has experienced amphibolite- to transitional granulite-
and others have very thin colourless zircon overgrowths facies metamorphism (Fig. 4P). Its low SiO2 content (e.g.
(Fig. 8: grains 30 and 6); (2) moderately modified igneous 53.41%) and high alkalinity (Na2O + K2O = 7.9%) suggest
zircons with resorbed edges, lack of internal growth zon- that the rock is a monzodiorite.
ing, and presence of secondary internal features (Fig. 8: Zircons extracted from this rock are distinct transparent
grain 14); and (3) heterogeneously fragmented and feature- fragmental zircons. Some grains have internal growth zon-
less zircons with angular edges and homogeneous internal ing, as shown by ESEM charge-contrast (e.g. Fig. 9: grain
morphology (Fig. 8: grain 3). These morphological varia- 98), whereas others are featureless, with rounded external
tions are interpreted to be related to partial recrystallisa- morphologies (e.g. Fig. 9: grains 71 and 80). Both zircon
tion or annealing of primary igneous zircons during types have no overgrowth rims, whereas some show relic
subsequent magmatic and metamorphic events. external morphologies of primary igneous zircons with irreg-
ular to fragmented edges. There are others with oval external
7.2. Metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss morphologies comprising resorbed edges (Fig. 6: grain 80).

A dark-grey garnet–magnetite–quartzo–feldspathic 7.4. Quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss


gneiss (sample 21349; Fig. 4E and F), interpreted to be
a metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss, is The quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss
located in the southwestern part of the A-BD (Fig. 3). This (Fig. 4G) comprises a garnet, sillimanite and orthopyrox-
rock was chosen for SHRIMP geochronology in order to ene-bearing leucocratic rock in the southern tectonic corri-
constrain the timing of the metasomatic event which is dor sub-terrane in the A-BD (Fig. 3). Petrographic study
hypothesised to have occurred along deep-rooted thrust- suggests that its protolith was a volcano-sedimentary rock.
fault splays from detachment soles developed during a tec- It overlies, or is juxtaposed against, granulite-facies mafic
tonic shortening event of unconstrained age. Based on field orthogneiss and granitoid gneisses, and together they form
observations, these faults and shear zones are proximal to part of older basement rocks in the study area. The ortho-
both the layered magnetite–silicate unit (cf. silicate-facies pyroxene–quartzo-feldspathic granulite hosts small-scale,
BIF) in the south and the eastern part of the Besakay locally mylonitic siliceous and ferruginous shear bands
Pb–Ag deposit in the northern part of the study area and irregular fracture planes with sulphide rich zones (see
(Fig. 3). inset in Fig. 4G) bounded by NNW-trending dextral shear
About 75% of zircons extracted from sample 21349 zones (Fig. 6). They comprise zones of Mn (400–850 ppm),
(UWA mount 98-19C) are brownish, relatively fine-grained Ni (85–120 ppm), Cu (80–210 ppm) and Zn (80–210 ppm)-
and have a well rounded, sub-spherical external morphol- bearing shear zones. Petrographical evidence suggests the
ogy (40 lm in diameter), whereas the rest are elongate mineralisation to be syn- to late-orogenic.
(up to 250 lm long). Following transmitted light and The SHRIMP study of sample 21337 was undertaken to
ESEM examination of these zircons, two major groups constrain the time of volcano-sedimentary accumulation
can be delimited: (1) oval and elongate zircons (Fig. 8: and/or magmatic emplacement of the precursor rock, as
grain 51), with simple to homogeneous internal structure well as subsequent metamorphic and deformation events
(Fig. 8: grain 114), locally with fragmented margins; and that affected this lithotectonic unit. Although most zircons
(2) near-spherical, well-rounded zircons ranging from extracted from this rock are colourless and have well-
homogeneous, featureless to simple internal morphologies rounded morphologies, they nonetheless show the follow-
(Fig. 8: grain 58). Some of these zircons show multifaceted ing internal morphologic variations: (1) elongate and
external features in reflected light images, with distinct prismatic, up to about 250 lm long (Fig. 9: grain 11) and
core–rim relationships (Fig. 8: grain 60). Both groups show stubby-prismatic, up to 450 lm long crystals with relic
variable degrees of irregular external morphologies, possi- internal growth zoning, which are probably original
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 101

Fig. 8. Charge-contrast environmental scanning-electron microscopy images illustrating ages from dating of least-modified igneous zircon morphologies
(A and B); moderately-modified (D) and featureless zircons (C) from sample 67-04, a granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss; subhedral and elongate zircons (E
and F); spherical and strongly overgrown metamorphic zircons (G and H), possibly illustrating metasomatic effects from sample 21349, a metasomatised
granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss.

igneous crystals; and (2) multifaceted grains with well- morphology showing prior recycling by either metamor-
rounded external morphology (Fig. 9: grain 33). phic or mechanical abrasion before their deposition. The
The zircon morphologies vary from those clearly show- zircon population shown by sample 21337 is common in
ing an igneous source (e.g. core of grains 33: Fig. 9) to volcano-sedimentary rocks which contain detrital grains
those with ovoid morphology and well-rounded external from a wide range of source rocks.
102 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

7.5. Biotite–granitoid hornfels between 2661 ± 6 Ma and 2566 ± 8 Ma (e.g. grain 6:


Fig. 8). Similarly, relatively younger ages, ranging between
Biotite–granitoid hornfels (Fig. 4I) occupies the lower 2621 ± 8 Ma and 2542 ± 8 Ma, are recorded in near-
part of the lithotectonic units underlying the tectonic corri- prismatic zircons lacking internal igneous zoning. An older
dor sub-terrane in the A-BD (Fig. 3). It crops out as slices concordant 207Pb/206Pb age of 2725 ± 12 Ma is preserved
of weathered brownish-grey granitoid gneisses juxtaposed in the core of grain 34-1, which is possibly a xenocryst.
against pyroxene-bearing quartz-monzonitic syenite and Three relatively unmodified igneous zircons form a popula-
amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoids. Their tectonic tion with a concordant statistical 207Pb/206Pb age of
juxtaposition obscures their prior relationships. Approxi- 2676 ± 6 Ma (Fig. 10A), defining a possible minimum age
mately 70% of the zircons in biotite–granitoid hornfels of protolith magmatism. The 207Pb/206Pb dates, which
are sub-rounded to oval, occurring as xenocrysts in feld- range between 2465 ± 8 Ma and 2390 ± 10 Ma, are con-
spars and quartz. The remaining 20–30% subhedral to cordant to disconcordant ages measured from fragmented
angular zircons and titanite overgrow secondary brown and featureless zircons containing concentrations of 64–
biotite located along granoblastic quartz and feldspar grain 776 ppm U. The 207Pb/206Pb age of 2390 ± 10 Ma, specifi-
boundaries. In addition, titanites and zircons show radia- cally, is preserved in a featureless and fragmented zircon
tion-damaged corona rims within biotite. Transmitted interpreted to be of metamorphic affinity (Fig. 10A and
and reflected light microscopic studies on zircons show Table 1). Therefore, the 2390 ± 10 Ma age (ca. 2400 Ma)
their elongate, multifaceted external morphology and inter- could be interpreted as a maximum age of metamorphism
nal structure. Further examination by charge contrast (i.e. partial melting) of the precursor granulite-facies mafic
ESEM techniques reveals detailed internal morphological orthogneiss, if Pb-loss in this sample is related to the pres-
features defining zircons with either external or relic inter- ent weathering processes. However, it is equally possible
nal igneous features, or both, and up to 120 lm long (e.g. that the ca. 2400 Ma represents the minimum age of proto-
grain 25: Fig. 9), and completely recrystallised featureless lithic magmatism which was reset during the ca. 800 Ma
zircons up to 140 lm long (e.g. grains 11 and 28 in Fig. 9). granulite-facies metamorphic event. This age is consistent
In addition, there are zircons whose internal structures with the age of ca. 2400 Ma preserved by the reset, but par-
indicate partial recrystallisation (e.g. grain 28: Fig. 9). tially healed zircons (e.g. grain 30, Fig. 8).
Some zircons in group 2 are extremely recrystallised, form- In summary, the 2725 ± 12 Ma age is interpreted to be
ing pseudo-rims (e.g. grains 11 and 28: Fig. 9). The U and of a xenocrystic zircon which was recycled during the ca.
Th contents of these rims are neither consistent with new 2676 Ma magmatic event responsible for the formation of
zircon growth nor overgrowth during high-grade metamor- the dioritic–granodioritic rocks. From the data above,
phism. The similar ages of the cores and rims (e.g. grain 28: these rocks appear to have been subsequently metamor-
Fig. 9) reflect high-grade metamorphic conditions at about phosed into granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss between ca.
this time. Importantly, zircon does not commonly record 2465 Ma and 2390 Ma. Lead-loss in this sample could be
retrograde metamorphic processes (Kröner et al., 1997). related to either the present weathering processes or to
intrusion of the ca. 800 Ma alkali-feldspar granitoid at
8. U–Pb SHRIMP results and interpretation amphibolite to granulite-facies conditions. The latter could
explain why the apparent age of granulite-facies metamor-
8.1. Granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss (67-04) phism recorded here is slightly younger than the ca.
2500 Ma recorded by Paquette et al. (2004) for similar
Table 1 presents corrected U–Th–Pb compositions and rocks elsewhere in Andriamena.
radiogenic isotope ratios processed from raw ion-micro-
probe SHRIMP analyses of 36 zircon grain-spots. The Bro- 8.2. Metasomatised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss
ken Hill 204Pb composition is used to correct common-Pb
effects (Wiedenbeck, 1995). The Pb/U calibration error The SHRIMP analyses and data from sample 21349 are
during the two sessions when the data were collected was presented in Table 2 and are plotted on a U–Pb concordia
±1.28% on 15 standards and ±1.34% on 14 standards: diagram (Fig. 10B). The analyses indicate relatively low
the more conservative value has been used in the calcula- common-Pb corrections, high U contents and low Th/U
tion of the ages reported here. Fig. 10A shows the data ratios in the least-modified, subhedral to elongate zircons
on a U–Pb concordia diagram. (e.g. grain-spot 51-1: U = 352 ppb and Th/U = 0.436);
The data produce a 207Pb/206Pb age range of 2725– grain 114: U = 335 ppb and Th/U = 0.405: Table 2), which
2390 Ma. The spread of ages is consistent with the morpho- have textures more typical of igneous grains (Fig. 8E). In
logical classification, showing a general decrease of contrast, the near-spherical multifaceted zircons record
207
Pb/206Pb ages with increase in the degree of crystal low U and higher Th/U ratios (e.g. metamorphic over-
annealing. For example, the irregular, but most igneous- growth in grain-spot 58-1: U = 20 ppb and Th/U = 0.666:
like faintly-zoned zircon grains give older ages (e.g. Table 2, Fig. 8F).
2678 ± 8 Ma in grain 3: Fig. 8), whereas their frag- In the concordia plots (Fig. 10B), the data define a large
mented equivalents preserve relatively younger ages of spread along, above and below the concordia. Analyses
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 103

Fig. 9. Charge-contrast environmental scanning-electron microscopy images of zircons extracted from an amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid,
sample 21380. I. Showing internal growth zoning and external morphological features are neither typical of igneous nor metamorphic zircons, but could be
related to crystallisation at granulite-facies. J and K. Featureless, oval to near-spherical homogenous metamorphic zircons typical of high-grade
metamorphism. L. Elongate prismatic zircons of igneous origin M. Zoned inherited core with featureless overgrowth and sub-rounded external
morphologies typical of metamorphic zircons. N. Well-rounded oval-shaped detrital zircons extracted from a quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies
paragneiss. N. A biotite hornfels with zircons showing relic igneous features, external overgrowth morphologies (O) and recrystallised features (P).

with P5% discordance are not considered in the following processes. The >95% and <105% concordant data for sam-
discussion, as their isotopic systems have been disturbed ple 21349 show that most zircons with relic igneous features
by complex Pb-loss, possibly related to either the ca. give older ages, with the 207Pb/206Pb age of 2465 ± 12 Ma
800 Ma metamorphic resetting and/or recent weathering considered to be the minimum age for magmatism that
104
Table 1
Results of U–Th–Pb SHRIMP analyses of part of the mafic-granulite (i.e.sample 67-04, Mount UWA 98-19B) from Ankisatra-Besakay District, Andriamena Belt, central-northern Madagascar
Th 207 Pb 208 Pb 206 Pb 207 Pb 208 Pb 207 Pb 206 Pb
Grain-spot U (ppm) Th (ppm) U % comm 206 Pba 206 Pb 238 U 235 U 232 Th % conc. Age (Ma) 206 Pb Age (Ma) 238 U

2-1 458 757 1.654 0.008 0.1783 ± 6 0.4515 ± 16 0.4570 ± 57 11.236 ± 150 0.1248 ± 17 92 2637 ± 6 2426 ± 25
2-2 371 527 1.422 0.036 0.1787 ± 6 0.3874 ± 15 0.4828 ± 61 11.892 ± 160 0.1316 ± 18 96 2640 ± 6 2539 ± 26
3-1 1237 142 0.115 0.003 0.1797 ± 3 0.0310 ± 3 0.4853 ± 58 12.021 ± 149 0.1307 ± 20 96 2650 ± 3 2550 ± 25
3-2 803 275 0.342 0.000 0.1827 ± 4 0.0939 ± 5 0.4874 ± 59 12.279 ± 155 0.1338 ± 18 96 2678 ± 4 2559 ± 26
4-1 337 307 0.911 0.000 0.1580 ± 6 0.2502 ± 12 0.4291 ± 55 9.348 ± 129 0.1179 ± 17 95 2434 ± 7 2302 ± 25
5-1 847 118 0.140 0.032 0.1766 ± 5 0.0375 ± 4 0.4922 ± 60 11.986 ± 154 0.1323 ± 23 98 2621 ± 4 2580 ± 26
6-1 417 113 0.272 0.000 0.1492 ± 6 0.0785 ± 6 0.3426 ± 43 7.048 ± 96 0.0988 ± 15 81 2337 ± 7 1899 ± 21

J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122


6-2 366 335 0.914 0.000 0.1802 ± 6 0.2440 ± 11 0.4920 ± 62 12.223 ± 165 0.1313 ± 18 97 2654 ± 5 2579 ± 27
6-3 223 72 0.324 0.144 0.1779 ± 10 0.0879 ± 15 0.4915 ± 65 12.058 ± 179 0.1334 ± 30 98 2634 ± 9 2577 ± 28
7-1 776 202 0.261 0.034 0.1539 ± 4 0.0722 ± 5 0.4200 ± 51 8.913 ± 114 0.1163 ± 17 95 2390 ± 5 2260 ± 23
7-2 636 306 0.481 0.006 0.1473 ± 5 0.1322 ± 9 0.3344 ± 41 6.792 ± 90 0.0918 ± 13 80 2315 ± 6 1860 ± 20
7-3 871 568 0.653 0.022 0.1557 ± 4 0.1801 ± 7 0.4066 ± 49 8.728 ± 111 0.1123 ± 15 91 2409 ± 4 2199 ± 23
8-1 280 502 1.793 0.022 0.1820 ± 7 0.4917 ± 20 0.4978 ± 64 12.492 ± 175 0.1365 ± 19 98 2671 ± 7 2604 ± 28
8-2 1121 225 0.201 0.022 0.1609 ± 3 0.0621 ± 4 0.4488 ± 54 9.954 ± 124 0.1386 ± 19 97 2465 ± 4 2390 ± 24
9-1 540 205 0.379 0.000 0.1684 ± 6 0.1067 ± 7 0.3486 ± 43 8.095 ± 107 0.0982 ± 14 76 2542 ± 6 1928 ± 21
9-2 772 58 0.075 0.026 0.1684 ± 4 0.0186 ± 4 0.4149 ± 51 9.635 ± 123 0.1026 ± 24 88 2542 ± 4 2237 ± 23
10-1 1228 600 0.488 0.002 0.1809 ± 3 0.1381 ± 5 0.4988 ± 60 12.444 ± 154 0.1411 ± 18 98 2661 ± 3 2609 ± 26
10-2 342 37 0.107 0.058 0.1605 ± 7 0.0249 ± 8 0.4103 ± 52 9.078 ± 127 0.0957 ± 34 90 2461 ± 8 2216 ± 24
14-1 196 152 0.773 2.435 0.1461 ± 25 0.2365 ± 56 0.3016 ± 41 6.074 ± 141 0.0923 ± 26 74 2300 ± # 1699 ± 20
15-1 637 423 0.665 0.021 0.1769 ± 5 0.1889 ± 8 0.4530 ± 56 11.049 ± 143 0.1288 ± 17 92 2624 ± 5 2409 ± 25
16-1 343 182 0.531 0.021 0.1652 ± 8 0.1436 ± 12 0.3681 ± 47 8.387 ± 118 0.0996 ± 16 81 2510 ± 8 2021 ± 22
18-1 1578 147 0.093 0.102 0.1720 ± 3 0.0257 ± 4 0.4468 ± 53 10.598 ± 131 0.1234 ± 24 92 2577 ± 3 2381 ± 24
19-1 707 223 0.315 0.118 0.1710 ± 6 0.0827 ± 8 0.3996 ± 49 9.424 ± 123 0.1048 ± 17 84 2568 ± 5 2167 ± 23
21-1 405 680 1.679 0.013 0.1786 ± 7 0.4650 ± 18 0.4683 ± 59 11.533 ± 158 0.1297 ± 18 94 2640 ± 6 2476 ± 26
30-1 64 95 1.485 0.000 0.1447 ± 15 0.4001 ± 43 0.3271 ± 55 6.526 ± 136 0.0881 ± 19 80 2284 ± # 1824 ± 27
30-2 225 80 0.357 0.000 0.1589 ± 8 0.0980 ± 9 0.4171 ± 55 9.136 ± 134 0.1146 ± 20 92 2444 ± 8 2247 ± 25
34-1 253 179 0.710 0.045 0.1880 ± 7 0.1930 ± 12 0.5285 ± 72 13.698 ± 200 0.1436 ± 23 100 2725 ± 6 2735 ± 30
35-1 234 84 0.360 0.000 0.1482 ± 7 0.0979 ± 9 0.3034 ± 41 6.197 ± 93 0.0824 ± 14 73 2325 ± 8 1708 ± 20
36-1 872 59 0.067 0.015 0.1563 ± 4 0.0168 ± 3 0.4203 ± 54 9.057 ± 120 0.1052 ± 23 94 2416 ± 4 2262 ± 24
37-1 1623 98 0.060 0.000 0.1812 ± 3 0.0164 ± 1 0.4972 ± 63 12.421 ± 160 0.1355 ± 20 98 2664 ± 2 2602 ± 27
37-2 867 258 0.298 0.043 0.1708 ± 4 0.0847 ± 5 0.4037 ± 52 9.509 ± 126 0.1147 ± 16 85 2566 ± 4 2186 ± 24
38-1 1167 131 0.112 0.029 0.1825 ± 3 0.0309 ± 2 0.4910 ± 62 12.351 ± 161 0.1350 ± 21 96 2675 ± 3 2575 ± 27
31-1 320 109 0.341 0.111 0.1806 ± 7 0.0905 ± 9 0.4652 ± 62 11.585 ± 165 0.1236 ± 21 93 2659 ± 6 2462 ± 27
32-1 231 235 1.020 0.130 0.1687 ± 9 0.2850 ± 19 0.4200 ± 58 9.768 ± 149 0.1173 ± 19 89 2545 ± 9 2260 ± 26
39-1 2114 2277 1.077 0.010 0.1728 ± 2 0.2964 ± 5 0.4492 ± 57 10.701 ± 138 0.1236 ± 16 93 2585 ± 2 2391 ± 25
40-1 589 143 0.242 0.086 0.1757 ± 5 0.0659 ± 6 0.4411 ± 57 10.683 ± 145 0.1199 ± 20 90 2612 ± 5 2355 ± 26
41-1 686 83 0.121 0.279 0.1473 ± 6 0.0341 ± 9 0.3256 ± 42 6.610 ± 92 0.0913 ± 28 79 2314 ± 7 1817 ± 20
Samples listed in numerical order.
% comm. = common Pb.
% conc. = measure of concordance (Pb-loss and U-loss).
a
Broken Hill 204Pb common-Pb corrected isotopic composition.
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 105

Fig. 10. Concordia plot of SHRIMP data for (A) sample 67-04 illustrating the maximum age of metamorphism (i.e. 2400 and 2300 Ma) from grain-spots
30-1 (core) and 30-2 (rim) elaborated by a dashed line, suggesting metamorphic resetting at ca. 800 Ma: (B) sample 21349 illustrating possible major
geological events. Darker error boxes represent weakly-modified igneous zircons, whereas hatched boxes show metamorphic zircons. Ages are quoted at 2-
sigma for single analyses and 1-sigma for average ages.

produced the protolith. The 207Pb/206Pb ages older than ca. age of magmatism was at 2465 ± 6 Ma, defined from a con-
2465 Ma (n = 3) are coincidentally preserved in irregular to cordant, least modified zircon, that incorporated older
sub-rounded zircons with possible relic inherited cores. xenocrysts which indicate a minimum protolith age of
Rims to these pseudo-cores give relatively younger ages, 2475 ± 12 Ma (grain 51, Fig. 8); (2) metamorphic resetting
consistent with ages measured from featureless, low- caused a spread in ages between 2465 ± 12 Ma and ca.
uranium metamorphic zircons (Table 2, and from grain 1900 Ma (Fig. 10B), suggesting intense metamorphism at
60, Fig. 8). The youngest zircon growth and overgrowth ca. 2465–2390 and possibly to 2262 ± 3 Ma, as measured
consisting of low-U and low-Th featureless zircon has from featureless, rounded to ovoid zircons interpreted as
206
Pb/238U ages of between 625 ± 8 Ma and 879 ± 27 Ma, metamorphic grains (Fig. 10B); and (3) the ca. 785 Ma
with a mean age of 785 ± 7 Ma (Table 2). The ca. 785 Ma age of peak granulite facies metamorphism.
event either caused metamorphic resetting of the older zir-
cons, in which a considerable amount of Pb- and U-loss 8.3. Amphibolite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid
occurred, or new zircon overgrowths formed at this time.
The ca. 785 ± 2 Ma age recorded in featureless new and The U–Th–Pb SHRIMP results for sample 21380 are
overgrowth zircons is interpreted to be due to granulite summarised in Table 3 and plotted on a U–Pb concordia
facies metamorphism (Fig. 10). diagram in Fig. 11A. Despite morphological differences,
In summary, U–Th–Pb isotopic ratios from zircons all zircons contain consistently low U and Th concentra-
extracted from sample 21349 suggest that: (1) the minimum tions and high Th/U ratios.. The high common-Pb
106
Table 2
Results of SHRIMP U–Th–Pb analyses of part of the metasomatised mafic granulite (sample 21349, mount UWA98-19B) from Ankisatra-Besakay District, Andriamena Belt, central-northern
Madagascar
207 208 206 207 208 207 206
Th Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb
Grain-spot U (ppm) Th (ppm) U % comm 206 Pba 206 Pb 238 U 235 U 232 Th % conc. Age (Ma) 206 Pb Age (Ma) 238 U

1-1 575 213 0.371 0.014 0.1504 ± 5 0.1044 ± 8 0.3706 ± 48 7.685 ± 107 0.1042 ± 16 86 2350 ± 6 2032 ± 23
1-2 316 133 0.422 0.000 0.1591 ± 6 0.1152 ± 7 0.4884 ± 66 10.713 ± 154 0.1334 ± 21 105 2446 ± 6 2564 ± 29
3-1 2033 221 0.109 0.010 0.1522 ± 2 0.0310 ± 2 0.3901 ± 49 8.184 ± 106 0.1115 ± 16 90 2370 ± 3 2123 ± 23
4-1 454 148 0.327 0.024 0.1622 ± 5 0.0896 ± 6 0.5452 ± 72 12.196 ± 169 0.1495 ± 23 113 2479 ± 5 2805 ± 30
5-1 658 228 0.347 0.000 0.1549 ± 4 0.0973 ± 5 0.3811 ± 50 8.138 ± 111 0.1069 ± 15 87 2401 ± 5 2081 ± 23
6-1 653 133 0.204 0.023 0.1450 ± 5 0.0565 ± 6 0.3213 ± 42 6.423 ± 89 0.0891 ± 15 79 2288 ± 6 1796 ± 20
7-1 1583 290 0.183 0.007 0.1514 ± 3 0.0500 ± 3 0.4549 ± 58 9.493 ± 124 0.1240 ± 17 102 2361 ± 3 2417 ± 26
8-1 352 132 0.376 0.028 0.1469 ± 6 0.1091 ± 10 0.3595 ± 48 7.280 ± 106 0.1043 ± 17 86 2310 ± 8 1980 ± 23
9-1 517 31 0.060 0.221 0.0616 ± 9 0.0167 ± 18 0.1018 ± 14 0.865 ± 18 0.0285 ± 30 95 661 ± 32 625 ± 8

J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122


10-1 565 44 0.077 0.099 0.1057 ± 6 0.0204 ± 8 0.2328 ± 31 3.393 ± 51 0.0613 ± 26 78 1727 ± 10 1349 ± 16
11-1 421 60 0.143 0.002 0.1262 ± 6 0.0442 ± 8 0.3404 ± 45 5.924 ± 86 0.1052 ± 24 92 2046 ± 8 1889 ± 22
12-1 211 105 0.498 0.032 0.1364 ± 11 0.1383 ± 21 0.2845 ± 40 5.353 ± 91 0.0791 ± 17 74 2182 ± 14 1614 ± 20
13-1 300 105 0.350 0.000 0.1475 ± 6 0.0984 ± 8 0.4052 ± 55 8.244 ± 121 0.1139 ± 19 95 2318 ± 7 2193 ± 25
14-1 288 131 0.455 0.000 0.1176 ± 8 0.1334 ± 14 0.2213 ± 31 3.590 ± 59 0.0648 ± 12 67 1921 ± 12 1289 ± 16
36-1 404 147 0.363 0.013 0.1642 ± 5 0.0906 ± 7 0.6386 ± 80 14.462 ± 192 0.1593 ± 24 127 2500 ± 5 3184 ± 31
36-2 2102 375 0.178 0.006 0.1428 ± 2 0.0519 ± 3 0.4194 ± 50 8.258 ± 101 0.1219 ± 16 100 2262 ± 3 2258 ± 23
36-3 413 157 0.381 0.002 0.1578 ± 6 0.1049 ± 9 0.4388 ± 55 9.548 ± 130 0.1209 ± 19 96 2432 ± 7 2345 ± 25
53-1 73 41 0.568 1.850 0.0693 ± 70 0.1742 ± 163 0.1326 ± 25 1.267 ± 134 0.0407 ± 39 88 907 ± 210 803 ± 14
52-1 70 24 0.342 0.201 0.1609 ± 16 0.0870 ± 28 0.6712 ± 107 14.893 ± 295 0.1705 ± 64 134 2465 ± 17 3310 ± 41
51-1 352 154 0.436 0.000 0.1618 ± 6 0.1240 ± 8 0.4535 ± 58 10.116 ± 139 0.1288 ± 19 97 2475 ± 6 2411 ± 26
51-2 730 590 0.808 0.023 0.1577 ± 4 0.2221 ± 9 0.4616 ± 56 10.039 ± 129 0.1268 ± 17 101 2432 ± 5 2447 ± 25
53-2 492 188 0.381 0.036 0.1528 ± 6 0.1028 ± 9 0.4209 ± 53 8.870 ± 122 0.1135 ± 18 95 2378 ± 7 2265 ± 24
55-1 61 20 0.330 0.090 0.1562 ± 21 0.0909 ± 40 0.4978 ± 85 10.719 ± 247 0.1373 ± 66 108 2415 ± 23 2604 ± 36
56-1 39 29 0.727 0.782 0.0642 ± 104 0.2166 ± 244 0.1262 ± 32 1.116 ± 187 0.0376 ± 44 103 747 ± 348 766 ± 18
57-1 22 18 0.838 0.892 0.0595 ± 185 0.2425 ± 432 0.1386 ± 48 1.136 ± 360 0.0401 ± 73 143 584 ± 561 837 ± 27
58-1 20 14 0.666 0.229 0.0779 ± 165 0.1995 ± 381 0.1461 ± 48 1.570 ± 342 0.0438 ± 85 77 1145 ± 430 879 ± 27
58-2 519 255 0.491 0.038 0.1579 ± 5 0.1369 ± 9 0.4559 ± 57 9.925 ± 133 0.1271 ± 18 100 2433 ± 6 2421 ± 25
58-3 243 53 0.217 0.102 0.1439 ± 11 0.0666 ± 18 0.3449 ± 46 6.845 ± 111 0.1060 ± 33 84 2275 ± 13 1910 ± 22
60-1 1139 135 0.118 0.004 0.1552 ± 4 0.0369 ± 4 0.4383 ± 53 9.377 ± 118 0.1368 ± 22 97 2404 ± 4 2343 ± 24
101-1 277 129 0.466 0.083 0.1629 ± 9 0.1291 ± 15 0.3921 ± 52 8.805 ± 132 0.1087 ± 20 86 2486 ± 9 2133 ± 24
102-1 901 164 0.182 0.023 0.1085 ± 5 0.0526 ± 7 0.2121 ± 26 3.173 ± 43 0.0615 ± 11 70 1774 ± 8 1240 ± 14
106-1 434 262 0.603 0.040 0.1609 ± 6 0.1649 ± 11 0.4710 ± 59 10.449 ± 142 0.1288 ± 19 101 2465 ± 6 2488 ± 26
114-1 335 136 0.405 0.098 0.1613 ± 7 0.1065 ± 11 0.4865 ± 63 10.821 ± 152 0.1278 ± 22 103 2470 ± 7 2555 ± 27
116-1 817 181 0.222 0.042 0.1462 ± 4 0.0612 ± 5 0.3692 ± 48 7.445 ± 101 0.1019 ± 16 88 2303 ± 5 2026 ± 22
116-2 820 84 0.103 0.008 0.1140 ± 4 0.0305 ± 4 0.3064 ± 40 4.815 ± 66 0.0908 ± 18 92 1864 ± 6 1723 ± 20
116-3 743 134 0.180 0.063 0.1155 ± 5 0.0496 ± 6 0.2652 ± 34 4.222 ± 59 0.0730 ± 13 80 1888 ± 7 1516 ± 18
117-1 396 132 0.335 0.032 0.1603 ± 6 0.0921 ± 8 0.4812 ± 64 10.632 ± 151 0.1324 ± 22 103 2458 ± 6 2532 ± 28
118-1 34 7 0.199 0.132 0.1466 ± 27 0.0528 ± 46 0.4107 ± 84 8.301 ± 241 0.1088 ± 100 96 2306 ± 31 2218 ± 39
119-1 330 211 0.640 0.088 0.1500 ± 7 0.1770 ± 13 0.3721 ± 50 7.696 ± 114 0.1029 ± 16 87 2346 ± 8 2039 ± 24
Samples listed in numerical order.
% comm. = common Pb.
% conc. = measure of concordance (Pb-loss and U-loss).
Errors reported at 1-sigma in the table are quoted at 2-sigma in the text (i.e. 95% confidence).
Normal text (not bold) for 207Pb/206Pb age for zircons with negligible common-Pb.
a
Broken Hill 204Pb common-Pb corrected isotopic composition.
Table 3
Results of ion-microprobe U–Th–Pb SHRIMP analyses of part of the pyroxene alkali-feldspar granitoid (sample 21380, mount UWA98-19A) from Ankisatra-Besakay District, Andriamena Belt,
central-northern Madagascar
a 204 a 207 208 206 207 208 207 206
Th Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb Pb
Grain-spot U (ppm) Th (ppm) U % comm a 206
Pb a 206
Pb a 206
Pb 238 U 235 U 232 Th %conc. Age (Ma) 206 Pb Age (Ma) 238 U

01-1 13 18 1.409 0.000 0.0715 ± 34 0.4412 ± 160 0.1287 ± 43 1.269 ± 78 0.0403 ± 22 80 972 ± 98 781 ± 25
02-1 36 97 2.734 2.660 0.0475 ± 87 0.8240 ± 267 0.1201 ± 29 0.787 ± 148 0.0362 ± 15 933 78 ± 383 731 ± 17
03-1 33 63 1.873 1.548 0.0582 ± 100 0.5494 ± 267 0.1260 ± 32 1.011 ± 178 0.0370 ± 21 142 538 ± 382 765 ± 18
04-1 30 54 1.799 2.243 0.0515 ± 92 0.5201 ± 251 0.1285 ± 33 0.913 ± 168 0.0371 ± 21 295 264 ± 366 779 ± 19
05-1 29 88 3.009 1.392 0.0566 ± 87 0.8736 ± 275 0.1345 ± 34 1.050 ± 167 0.0390 ± 17 171 476 ± 345 814 ± 20
06-1 38 72 1.885 0.000 0.0664 ± 18 0.5571 ± 105 0.1391 ± 31 1.274 ± 48 0.0411 ± 13 102 819 ± 58 840 ± 17

J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122


07-1 30 43 1.435 1.519 0.0525 ± 117 0.4197 ± 301 0.1271 ± 35 0.921 ± 210 0.0372 ± 29 249 309 ± 442 771 ± 20
08-1 30 91 3.031 0.670 0.0599 ± 109 0.9162 ± 327 0.1365 ± 36 1.128 ± 211 0.0413 ± 19 137 601 ± 401 825 ± 21
71-1 21 67 3.183 0.000 0.0741 ± 31 0.9773 ± 249 0.1347 ± 41 1.376 ± 75 0.0414 ± 18 78 1045 ± 85 814 ± 23
73-1 10 22 2.184 2.585 0.0427 ± 395 0.6255 ± 1014 0.1354 ± 81 0.796 ± 745 0.0388 ± 68 0 0 ± 130 819 ± 46
74-1 19 61 3.178 0.341 0.0644 ± 160 0.9408 ± 479 0.1399 ± 50 1.243 ± 317 0.0414 ± 27 112 755 ± 543 844 ± 28
75-1 8 14 1.805 0.000 0.0766 ± 51 0.5715 ± 275 0.1331 ± 60 1.405 ± 120 0.0422 ± 30 73 1110 ± 135 806 ± 34
80-1 18 37 2.097 0.000 0.0681 ± 32 0.6378 ± 197 0.1321 ± 42 1.241 ± 74 0.0402 ± 19 92 872 ± 97 800 ± 24
82-1 11 28 2.432 4.407 0.0455 ± 327 0.6004 ± 845 0.1373 ± 72 0.861 ± 626 0.0339 ± 52 0 0 ± 106 829 ± 41
82-2 14 33 2.360 3.701 0.0454 ± 335 0.7240 ± 882 0.1235 ± 64 0.772 ± 577 0.0379 ± 51 0 0 ± 103 751 ± 37
83-1 9 18 1.939 0.000 0.0774 ± 48 0.5789 ± 259 0.1420 ± 60 1.515 ± 121 0.0424 ± 28 76 1131 ± 124 856 ± 34
84-1 20 46 2.295 9.574 0.0134 ± 280 0.6050 ± 725 0.1252 ± 55 0.232 ± 484 0.0330 ± 43 0 0 ± 70 760 ± 31
85-1 8 16 1.896 4.741 0.0328 ± 586 0.5122 ± 1466 0.1261 ± 101 0.571 ± 1026 0.0341 ± 102 0 0 ± 143 766 ± 58
86-1 25 31 1.259 2.172 0.0494 ± 183 0.3478 ± 455 0.1283 ± 46 0.874 ± 328 0.0354 ± 48 467 167 ± 691 778 ± 26
87-1 14 35 2.420 0.000 0.0679 ± 36 0.7287 ± 245 0.1408 ± 50 1.318 ± 89 0.0424 ± 23 98 866 ± 110 849 ± 28
88-1 24 83 3.455 1.744 0.0666 ± 146 1.0555 ± 460 0.1300 ± 44 1.194 ± 270 0.0397 ± 23 95 825 ± 470 788 ± 25
90-1 17 25 1.464 0.000 0.0715 ± 34 0.4164 ± 153 0.1396 ± 47 1.375 ± 84 0.0397 ± 21 87 970 ± 97 842 ± 26
91-1 19 40 2.118 3.974 0.0357 ± 175 0.5749 ± 472 0.1266 ± 47 0.624 ± 310 0.0344 ± 32 0 0 ± 96 769 ± 27
94-1 9 16 1.700 1.254 0.0666 ± 457 0.4945 ± 1138 0.1356 ± 91 1.245 ± 869 0.0394 ± 95 99 825 ± 1012 820 ± 51
95-1 14 20 1.370 4.241 0.0386 ± 290 0.3662 ± 721 0.1251 ± 61 0.666 ± 506 0.0334 ± 68 0 0 ± 105 760 ± 35
97-1 9 17 1.990 0.000 0.0655 ± 46 0.6248 ± 286 0.1291 ± 58 1.167 ± 102 0.0405 ± 28 99 792 ± 147 783 ± 33
98a-1 36 130 3.658 0.000 0.0699 ± 23 1.0848 ± 207 0.1289 ± 33 1.243 ± 55 0.0382 ± 13 84 926 ± 68 781 ± 19
99-1 20 68 3.336 0.000 0.0719 ± 31 0.9643 ± 247 0.1362 ± 42 1.351 ± 75 0.0394 ± 17 84 984 ± 87 823 ± 24
100-1 25 95 3.798 4.381 0.0310 ± 213 1.0948 ± 633 0.1245 ± 47 0.532 ± 370 0.0359 ± 25 0 0 ± 86 757 ± 27
109-1 23 75 3.229 1.566 0.0599 ± 84 0.9364 ± 288 0.1331 ± 36 1.099 ± 161 0.0386 ± 17 134 600 ± 307 806 ± 21
110-1 19 61 3.276 2.010 0.0493 ± 161 0.9556 ± 477 0.1352 ± 46 0.920 ± 306 0.0394 ± 25 498 164 ± 626 817 ± 26
111-1 24 69 2.856 0.000 0.0643 ± 24 0.8503 ± 187 0.1347 ± 35 1.194 ± 57 0.0401 ± 15 108 753 ± 78 814 ± 20
112-1 21 27 1.311 0.000 0.0698 ± 26 0.4225 ± 121 0.1315 ± 37 1.265 ± 63 0.0424 ± 19 86 922 ± 77 796 ± 21
% comm. = common Pb.
% conc. = measure of concordance compositions (Pb-loss and U-loss).
Errors are reported at 1-sigma in the table.
Ages are quoted at 2-sigma in the text (i.e. approximately 95% confidence).
Bold% comm. refers to the 11 out of 33 zircons with high common Pb.
a
Broken Hill 204Pb common-Pb corrected isotopic composition.

107
108 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

Fig. 11. Concordia plot for ion-microprobe SHRIMP analyses of zircons extracted from (A) sample 21380, showing concordant age of peak
metamorphism and/or emplacement of an alkali-feldspar granitoid; (B) sample 21337 that suggest a range of possible sources of detrital zircons and
metamorphic resetting by the ca. 780 Ma granulite-facies metamorphic event and/or recent weathering. Ages are within 1-sigma error boxes.

contents measured from 12 out of 33 zircons extracted from 8.4. Quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss
sample 21380 appear primary, and such data are not used in
the age calculation. All data cluster at approximately SHRIMP analytical results from 37 zircon grains
800 Ma, with the 21 analyses grains unaffected by high com- extracted from sample 21337 (UWA mount 98-29D) are
mon-Pb defining a statistically concordant 206Pb/238U age summarised in Table 4. Most zircons contain moderate U
of 807 ± 13 Ma (Fig. 11A). This age can be interpreted as concentrations (e.g. between 137 and 549 ppm) and low
a robust peak granulite-facies metamorphic age, recording Th/U ratios. In addition, these zircons contain negligible
either the emplacement of the alkali-feldspar granitoid or common-Pb, and are mostly strongly discordant
the high-temperature low-pressure metamorphism of the (Fig. 11B), possibly due to extensive Pb-loss during youn-
precursor older basement rock as suggested above. ger metamorphic events and/or recent Pb loss.
The zircons extracted from this rock show growth fea- The varied morphology of the grains, and interpreta-
tures which are uncharacteristic of normal igneous zircons, tion that they have been derived from a number of source
possibly due to crystallisation and annealing in a high- rocks, suggest that their various protoliths have different
grade amphibolite to granulite facies environment (see ages. The SHRIMP data suggest that these lie between
zoning in grain 98, Fig. 9B). In contrast, the internal fea- ca. 2870 and 1750 Ma, as defined from 207Pb/206Pb ages.
turelessness and oval to near-spherical external zircon mor- This time window includes the age of the late-Archaean
phologies (see grains 71 and 80, Fig. 9C, D) are a result of granulite (e.g. sample 67–04) and the metasomatised
high-grade metamorphic modification of original igneous granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss (e.g. sample 21439),
zircons. which may have been part of the source rocks. This
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 109

Table 4
Results of SHRIMP U–Th–Pb analyses of zircons from quartzo-feldspathic granulite facies paragneiss (sample 21337) from Ankisatra-Besakay District,
Andriamena Belt, central-northern Madagascar
207 208 206 207 208 207 206
Th Pba Pba Pba Pba Pba Pb Pb
Grain-spot U Th U % 206 Pba 206 Pba 238 U 235 U 232 Th % conc. 206 Pb 238 U

(ppm) (ppm) comm


1-2 140 103 0.737 0.231 0.1594 ± 13 0.1954 ± 27 0.3256 ± 49 7.159 ± 129 0.0863 ± 18 74 2450 ± 14 1817 ± 24
1-3 185 142 0.767 0.050 0.1583 ± 10 0.2125 ± 19 0.3348 ± 48 7.308 ± 120 0.0927 ± 17 76 2438 ± 11 1862 ± 23
2-2 286 131 0.459 0.055 0.0890 ± 11 0.1430 ± 24 0.1547 ± 22 1.898 ± 38 0.0482 ± 11 66 1404 ± 23 927 ± 12
4-1 338 77 0.229 0.000 0.0745 ± 7 0.0674 ± 11 0.1413 ± 21 1.451 ± 27 0.0416 ± 9 81 1054 ± 20 852 ± 12
5a-1 345 441 1.277 0.017 0.1817 ± 5 0.3162 ± 12 0.6543 ± 90 16.390 ± 237 0.1619 ± 24 122 2668 ± 5 3245 ± 35
5b-1 186 94 0.503 0.064 0.0750 ± 15 0.1511 ± 34 0.1462 ± 22 1.513 ± 39 0.0439 ± 12 82 1069 ± 39 880 ± 12
6-1 184 114 0.620 0.204 0.1438 ± 10 0.1666 ± 20 0.3774 ± 54 7.481 ± 126 0.1014 ± 20 91 2273 ± 12 2064 ± 25
7-1 218 247 1.135 0.139 0.1147 ± 10 0.3027 ± 25 0.2626 ± 38 4.155 ± 72 0.0700 ± 12 80 1876 ± 15 1503 ± 19
8-1 182 95 0.522 0.014 0.1012 ± 16 0.1545 ± 34 0.1601 ± 24 2.234 ± 51 0.0474 ± 13 58 1647 ± 29 957 ± 13
9-1 408 301 0.738 0.029 0.1076 ± 8 0.2059 ± 17 0.1850 ± 25 2.743 ± 45 0.0516 ± 9 62 1758 ± 13 1094 ± 14
10-1 167 164 0.984 0.003 0.1522 ± 10 0.2689 ± 22 0.3384 ± 49 7.099 ± 119 0.0924 ± 16 79 2370 ± 11 1879 ± 24
11-1 214 225 1.053 0.008 0.1339 ± 9 0.2562 ± 21 0.2883 ± 41 5.321 ± 88 0.0701 ± 12 76 2149 ± 12 1633 ± 21
13a-1 147 101 0.684 0.005 0.2050 ± 13 0.2517 ± 24 0.3473 ± 51 9.818 ± 165 0.1278 ± 24 67 2867 ± 10 1922 ± 25
13b-1 312 223 0.714 0.017 0.1849 ± 8 0.2207 ± 14 0.3109 ± 43 7.925 ± 119 0.0961 ± 15 65 2697 ± 7 1745 ± 21
14-1 118 93 0.790 0.024 0.1260 ± 14 0.2289 ± 32 0.2649 ± 41 4.602 ± 93 0.0768 ± 17 74 2043 ± 20 1515 ± 21
15-1 549 250 0.455 0.026 0.1777 ± 5 0.1314 ± 7 0.4012 ± 54 9.829 ± 139 0.1159 ± 17 83 2631 ± 5 2175 ± 25
16-1 180 119 0.661 0.276 0.0780 ± 13 0.1948 ± 31 0.1566 ± 23 1.684 ± 39 0.0461 ± 10 82 1147 ± 32 938 ± 13
17-1 137 117 0.850 0.048 0.1690 ± 11 0.2267 ± 21 0.4201 ± 63 9.791 ± 166 0.1121 ± 21 89 2548 ± 11 2261 ± 28
18-2 181 147 0.815 0.138 0.1375 ± 9 0.2340 ± 20 0.3502 ± 51 6.641 ± 112 0.1006 ± 18 88 2196 ± 12 1936 ± 24
18-3 399 20 0.051 0.049 0.1451 ± 6 0.0141 ± 6 0.3657 ± 50 7.315 ± 108 0.1004 ± 48 88 2289 ± 7 2009 ± 24
19-1 171 129 0.757 0.207 0.1418 ± 13 0.2324 ± 28 0.2378 ± 35 4.649 ± 85 0.0730 ± 14 61 2249 ± 16 1375 ± 18
20-1 407 106 0.260 0.037 0.1506 ± 6 0.0736 ± 9 0.3341 ± 46 6.938 ± 102 0.0946 ± 18 79 2353 ± 7 1858 ± 22
21a-1 326 16 0.050 0.098 0.1274 ± 7 0.0127 ± 9 0.3084 ± 43 5.416 ± 84 0.0787 ± 57 84 2062 ± 10 1733 ± 21
21a-2 149 93 0.622 0.058 0.1651 ± 11 0.1619 ± 21 0.3902 ± 58 8.882 ± 151 0.1016 ± 21 85 2509 ± 12 2124 ± 27
21b-1 212 203 0.961 0.069 0.1594 ± 11 0.2689 ± 25 0.2822 ± 41 6.201 ± 104 0.0790 ± 14 65 2449 ± 12 1603 ± 20
22a-1 173 148 0.860 0.066 0.1861 ± 12 0.2510 ± 25 0.3325 ± 49 8.531 ± 143 0.0971 ± 18 68 2708 ± 11 1850 ± 23
23-1 213 132 0.620 0.000 0.1119 ± 8 0.1733 ± 17 0.1965 ± 28 3.031 ± 52 0.0550 ± 10 63 1830 ± 14 1157 ± 15
24a-1 219 161 0.732 0.086 0.0784 ± 13 0.2458 ± 34 0.1394 ± 20 1.506 ± 36 0.0468 ± 10 73 1156 ± 33 841 ± 12
26-1 143 83 0.578 0.198 0.1492 ± 12 0.1491 ± 23 0.3437 ± 51 7.071 ± 126 0.0887 ± 20 81 2337 ± 14 1904 ± 25
32-1 176 119 0.672 0.117 0.1241 ± 10 0.1518 ± 21 0.2915 ± 43 4.985 ± 88 0.0659 ± 14 82 2015 ± 15 1649 ± 21
31-1 217 118 0.543 0.094 0.1293 ± 10 0.1515 ± 20 0.2200 ± 32 3.921 ± 68 0.0614 ± 12 61 2088 ± 14 1282 ± 17
33-1 209 164 0.784 0.114 0.1442 ± 10 0.2229 ± 21 0.3096 ± 44 6.153 ± 103 0.0881 ± 16 76 2278 ± 12 1739 ± 22
33-2 174 106 0.610 0.053 0.1587 ± 12 0.1816 ± 22 0.2931 ± 43 6.412 ± 111 0.0872 ± 17 68 2442 ± 13 1657 ± 21
34-1 273 197 0.724 0.000 0.0785 ± 7 0.2172 ± 21 0.1299 ± 19 1.405 ± 25 0.0390 ± 7 68 1158 ± 18 787 ± 11
35-1 177 158 0.896 0.116 0.1706 ± 10 0.2559 ± 20 0.4340 ± 63 10.207 ± 166 0.1239 ± 21 91 2563 ± 10 2324 ± 28
36-1 188 155 0.823 0.075 0.1470 ± 10 0.2246 ± 20 0.3122 ± 45 6.329 ± 105 0.0852 ± 15 76 2312 ± 11 1752 ± 22
37-1 398 255 0.642 0.000 0.0863 ± 6 0.1959 ± 16 0.1393 ± 19 1.657 ± 27 0.0425 ± 7 63 1345 ± 14 841 ± 11
Data arranged in order of sample number.
% comm = % common Pb.
% conc. = measure of concordance (Pb-loss and U-loss).
Errors are reported at 1-sigma in the table whereas ages quoted in the text are at 2-sigma (i.e. approximately 95% confidence).
Normal text (not bold) for 207Pb/206Pb age for zircons with negligible common-Pb.
a 204
Pb corrected isotopic compositions.

observation further suggests that sedimentation occurred 8.5. Biotite–granitoid hornfels


in a foreland depository basin during or following the
tectonic shortening of the basement rocks between 1700 The processed SHRIMP data for sample 21323, as plot-
and 800 Ma (Fig. 11B). This event brought together the ted on a concordia diagram (Fig. 12A and B), are high-
Late Archaean mafic and felsic granulite-facies gneisses lighted by: (1) a population of 12 zircon grains that
before the ca. 780 Ma peak metamorphic event, which defines peak-granulite facies metamorphism at the lower
caused partial to near-complete Pb-loss in some of these part of the concordia; (2) the linear-spread of 20 other data
grains. points which defines a Pb-loss chord whose upper and
Overloading of the crust during the tectonic shortening lower intercepts with concordia are ages of magmatism
and sedimentation may have ruptured it and triggered and peak-granulite facies metamorphism, respectively
the volcanic activity. However, it is likely also that this (Table 5).
package was a result of syn-rifting volcanism. The interpre- For the first population, two alternative 206Pb/238U sta-
tation of SHRIMP data suggests that either of these events tistical ages of 778 ± 7 and 783 ± 8 Ma are deduced by sep-
occurred not earlier than ca. 1700 Ma (Fig. 8B). arating the data into two groups, one excluding the two
110 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

Fig. 12. Concordia plot of SHRIMP data from zircons extracted from sample 21323 illustrating: (A) the intercept of the discordia line with the upper
Concordia, interpreted as the precursor magmatic age, and the intercept on the lower Concordia, interpreted as peak granulite-facies metamorphism; (B)
expansion of Concordia plot near 800 Ma, as shown in Fig. 9. Peak metamorphic age possibly defined by relatively older zircons (open boxes) assumed to
contain inherited radiogenic isotope components from their igneous protoliths, as illustrated by their alignment with grains 9-1, 21-1 and 12-1.

older zircons and the other excluding the two youngest zir- high MSWD is that analysed zircons suffered Pb-loss due
cons with low U, respectively (Fig. 12B). For the first to present-day weathering processes. In addition, the time
group, the two older zircons are assumed to contain inher- window for the magmatic event may have been slightly
ited radiogenic isotope components and, given the common wider, but still within the same magmatic cycle, whose peak
occurrence of inheritance, the group excluding these zir- was at 2483 ± 20 Ma. Similarly, the concordia intercept
cons is considered the more likely to give the correct age age for the metamorphic event is within error of the statis-
(i.e. 778 ± 7 Ma for metamorphism). tically determined age for this population at 778 ± 7 Ma
The lower intercept of the chord with concordia may (Table 6).
also be calculated (Ludwig, 1990). The best-fit line has
Mean Squared Weighted Deviates (MSWD) of 12.6, sug- 9. Mineral deposits in the A-BD
gesting an excessive scatter or higher degree of misfit from
the regression line (Fig. 12A). The MSWD is much higher 9.1. Mineralisation styles
than the 2.5 suggested cut-off MSWD value (Dickin, 1995),
and is most likely due to geological rather than statistical From the several small-scale base metal and associated
influences. However, the 2483 ± 20 Ma and 785 ± 7 Ma precious-metal deposits in the A-BD, only the following
ages from the intercepts are nonetheless considered reliable are discussed in this section: (1) the vein-hosted Besakay
ages for magmatism and peak metamorphism, respectively, Pb–Ag, and Ankisatra Pb–Zn–Au deposits and leucosome
despite the high MSWD. The most likely reason for the veins hosted Cu–Zn mineralisation in tectonically
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 111

Table 5
Results of ion-microprobe U–Th–Pb SHRIMP analyses of zircons from biotite–granitoid hornfels (sample 21323) from Ankisatra-Besakay District,
central-northern Madagascar
Th 207
Pba 208
Pba 206
Pba 207
Pba 208
Pba 207
Pb 206
Pb
Grain-spot U Th U % comm 206 Pba 206 Pba 238 U 235 U 235 Th % 206 Pb 238 U

(ppm) (ppm) conc.


1-1 86 111 1.293 0.350 0.0600 ± 22 0.3953 ± 63 0.1261 ± 16 1.042 ± 41 0.0386 ± 8 127 602 ± 78 766 ± 9
2-1 165 141 0.850 0.177 0.0637 ± 14 0.2538 ± 37 0.1276 ± 14 1.120 ± 28 0.0381 ± 7 106 730 ± 46 774 ± 8
3-1 248 127 0.512 0.003 0.1444 ± 7 0.1282 ± 12 0.2962 ± 29 5.898 ± 69 0.0741 ± 11 73 2281 ± 8 1673 ± 15
4-1 152 169 1.110 0.038 0.0644 ± 13 0.3366 ± 39 0.1291 ± 15 1.147 ± 28 0.0391 ± 7 104 755 ± 42 783 ± 8
6-1 442 355 0.802 0.019 0.1349 ± 5 0.2030 ± 9 0.2764 ± 26 5.141 ± 54 0.0699 ± 8 73 2162 ± 6 1573 ± 13
7-1 315 126 0.398 1.069 0.0628 ± 14 0.1182 ± 33 0.1277 ± 13 1.107 ± 29 0.0379 ± 11 110 703 ± 48 775 ± 7
8-1 531 265 0.499 0.055 0.1433 ± 5 0.1268 ± 7 0.3188 ± 30 6.298 ± 64 0.0811 ± 9 79 2267 ± 5 1784 ± 14
9-1 370 172 0.466 0.133 0.0784 ± 7 0.1310 ± 15 0.1410 ± 14 1.525 ± 21 0.0396 ± 6 74 1157 ± 17 850 ± 8
10-1 349 125 0.358 0.039 0.0648 ± 7 0.1068 ± 15 0.1302 ± 13 1.163 ± 18 0.0389 ± 7 103 767 ± 22 789 ± 7
11-1 440 209 0.474 0.434 0.0648 ± 8 0.1349 ± 20 0.1275 ± 12 1.139 ± 19 0.0363 ± 6 101 769 ± 27 773 ± 7
12-1 412 136 0.330 0.057 0.0996 ± 6 0.1071 ± 11 0.1714 ± 16 2.353 ± 28 0.0556 ± 8 63 1617 ± 11 1020 ± 9
13-1 382 122 0.318 0.159 0.0643 ± 7 0.0903 ± 15 0.1297 ± 13 1.150 ± 18 0.0368 ± 7 105 752 ± 22 786 ± 7
14-1 394 107 0.271 0.000 0.1513 ± 5 0.0756 ± 5 0.3436 ± 33 7.169 ± 74 0.0959 ± 11 81 2361 ± 5 1904 ± 16
14-2 442 127 0.287 0.017 0.1525 ± 5 0.0777 ± 5 0.3596 ± 34 7.559 ± 77 0.0972 ± 12 83 2374 ± 5 1980 ± 16
15-1 554 166 0.299 0.080 0.1440 ± 5 0.0793 ± 7 0.3078 ± 29 6.111 ± 62 0.0816 ± 11 76 2276 ± 5 1730 ± 14
16-1 116 118 1.018 0.544 0.0658 ± 22 0.3207 ± 57 0.1314 ± 16 1.191 ± 43 0.0414 ± 9 100 799 ± 69 796 ± 9
17-1 347 253 0.729 0.025 0.1353 ± 6 0.2128 ± 12 0.2749 ± 26 5.129 ± 56 0.0802 ± 9 72 2168 ± 7 1565 ± 13
18-1 642 110 0.171 0.025 0.1522 ± 4 0.0478 ± 4 0.3659 ± 34 7.680 ± 75 0.1025 ± 13 85 2371 ± 4 2010 ± 16
19-1 361 164 0.455 0.022 0.1541 ± 5 0.1250 ± 7 0.3981 ± 38 8.460 ± 88 0.1095 ± 13 90 2392 ± 6 2160 ± 17
20-1 406 236 0.581 0.062 0.1360 ± 5 0.1668 ± 10 0.2691 ± 26 5.044 ± 54 0.0772 ± 9 71 2176 ± 7 1536 ± 13
21-1 506 248 0.490 0.002 0.0879 ± 5 0.1628 ± 11 0.1546 ± 15 1.874 ± 22 0.0513 ± 6 67 1381 ± 11 927 ± 8
22-1 473 489 1.032 0.167 0.1343 ± 6 0.2483 ± 12 0.2593 ± 24 4.800 ± 52 0.0624 ± 7 69 2155 ± 7 1486 ± 13
23-1 421 167 0.398 0.063 0.1450 ± 5 0.1125 ± 8 0.3285 ± 31 6.567 ± 69 0.0929 ± 11 80 2288 ± 6 1831 ± 15
24-1 174 199 1.145 0.000 0.0659 ± 7 0.3605 ± 30 0.1275 ± 14 1.160 ± 19 0.0401 ± 6 96 804 ± 22 774 ± 8
25-1 451 177 0.391 0.016 0.1519 ± 4 0.1095 ± 6 0.3846 ± 36 8.052 ± 82 0.1077 ± 12 89 2367 ± 5 2098 ± 17
26-1 367 134 0.364 0.076 0.0645 ± 6 0.1097 ± 14 0.1300 ± 13 1.156 ± 17 0.0391 ± 6 104 757 ± 20 788 ± 7
27-1 399 484 1.211 0.075 0.1358 ± 5 0.3282 ± 14 0.2701 ± 26 5.058 ± 55 0.0732 ± 8 71 2174 ± 7 1541 ± 13
28-1 101 102 1.011 0.213 0.0638 ± 20 0.3168 ± 56 0.1261 ± 16 1.109 ± 39 0.0395 ± 9 104 735 ± 67 765 ± 9
28-2 447 129 0.289 0.256 0.0656 ± 8 0.0888 ± 18 0.1316 ± 13 1.190 ± 20 0.0405 ± 9 101 792 ± 26 797 ± 7
29-1 507 121 0.239 0.001 0.1409 ± 5 0.0630 ± 5 0.2993 ± 28 5.814 ± 60 0.0789 ± 10 75 2238 ± 6 1688 ± 14
30-1 673 109 0.161 0.001 0.1440 ± 4 0.0445 ± 4 0.3160 ± 29 6.276 ± 62 0.0871 ± 12 78 2276 ± 5 1770 ± 14
Data arranged in order of sample number.
% comm. = common Pb.
% conc. = measure of concordance (Pb- and U-loss).
Errors are reported at 1-sigma in the table whereas ages quoted in the text are at 2-sigma (i.e. approximately 95% confidence).
Normal text (not bold) for 207Pb/206Pb age for zircons with negligible common-Pb.
a 204
Pb Broken Hill corrected isotopic compositions.

Table 6
Summary of the geochronological framework for the Ankisatra-Besakay District
Sample Rock type Ages (Ma) Interpretation
67-04 UWA 98-19B Mafic granulite 2725 Single xenocryst (from basement)
2676 ± 6 Magmatism to generate protolith
2465–2390 Older metamorphic event
21349 UWA 98-19C Metasomatised mafic granulite 2465 ± 6 Minimum age for magmatism to generate protolith
2465–1900 Metamorphic resetting
785 ± 2 Juvenile granulite-facies metamorphism
21380 UWA 98-19A Alkali-feldspar granitoid (granulite) 807 ± 13 Peak granulite-facies metamorphism
21337 UWA 98-19A Quartzo-feldspathic paragneiss/granulite 2870 Maximum age of detrital zircons from protolith
1750 Minimum age of detrital zircons from protolith
(also maximum age for sedimentary sequence)
780 Granulite-facies metamorphism related to severe Pb- and U-loss
21323 UWA 98-19A Biotite-orthogneiss/granulite 2483 ± 20 Magmatism to generate protolith
785 ± 7 Granulite facies metamorphism
112 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

reworked ca. 2676 Ma amphibolite to granulite-facies Zn–Au mineralisation are extensional fracture-filling veins.
mafic orthogneiss; (2) significant Cu–Zn and associated These veins and associated dolerite sills were possibly re-
Fe–Mn mineralisation in brittle–ductile shear zones in end- oriented during late-orogenic NNW-trending dextral
erbite of unknown emplacement- and metamorphic-ages; shearing as a result of progressive compressional deforma-
and (3) localised Cu–Zn mineralisation in retrograde tion. In addition, a post-tectonic sub-volcanic rock, inter-
shear-zones with intense silicification and iron oxide stain- preted east of the Ankisatra mineralisation, may have
ing in quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss had an influence on the mineralisation. Although these
(Table 7). mineralised structures have been attributed to late-Neopro-
terozoic orogenic events, it is also possible that some of
9.1.1. Pb–Ag in shear-hosted quartz veins (Besakay) these structures were developed during older orogenic
This mineralisation style is defined by Pb–Ag-bearing events, such that their present regional setting and associ-
quartz veins 1 cm to 1.5 m wide locally which dip northerly ated controls are due to late-Neoproterozoic tectonic
at 65–80° (Figs. 3 and 7), and contain patches of coarse- reactivation.
grained galena infilling fractures, voids and interstitial
spaces (Fig. 5A). On the regional scale, the veins hosting 9.1.3. Pb–Zn–Cu in mafic orthogneiss
the Besakay Pb–Ag mineralisation occur in the dilational Lead–Zn–Cu mineralisation occurs in 1 mm to 15-metre
jogs situated in zones of convergent linear features sited thick quartz-feldspar leucosome veins/bands in granulite-
closer to the interpretative post-tectonic sub-volcanic rock facies mafic orthogneiss at Besakay (Fig. 7). They occur
(Fig. 6). In light of this structural pattern, it is most likely as closely interbanded, tight to isoclinal folded bands and
that the Besakay quartz veins formed as arrays of en eche- mylonite to ultramylonite ribbons of recrystallised blue
lon stepping quartz veins within Riedel shears consistent quartz and deformed feldspars in melanosome bands. Leu-
with shear development in wrench systems (Colvine et al., cosome bands with Pb mineralisation contain yellowish
1988 and references therein). patches of epidote-altered amphibole, pyroxene and plagio-
The bulk NE-trending shear fold and fault fabric in the clase and possible Pb-bearing yellowish-green plagioclase.
orthogneissic sub-terrane is post ca. 800 Ma, as the ca. These zones contain magnetite and fine-grained fracture-
>2700 Ma granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss and the ca. filling pyrrhotite (Fig. 5C). Chalcopyrite is microscopic,
800 Ma ultramafic complexes are structurally juxtaposed occurring as discrete inclusions in pyrrhotite, whereas pyr-
and deformed. It is possible that mineralisation was intro- rhotite forms fine exsolution lamellae in coarse-grained
duced into the system after development of the NE-trend- magnetite. Locally, fine-grained galena occurs along micro-
ing shear zones, which are related to ca. 580–560 Ma fractures in these altered leucosome bands. Based on lim-
compressional tectonic events (Windley et al., 1997; Tucker ited geochemical analyses from Pb-bearing leucosome
et al., 1997). This mineralisation and the hosting struc- veins, this Pb–Zn–Cu mineralisation style is insignificant.
tures were subsequently re-oriented and concentrated by
deformation and metamorphism during late-orogenic, 9.1.4. Pb–Zn–Cu in mafic orthogneiss
NNW-trending dextral shear and faulting events in the The dark-green to grey, 20 cm to 30-metre wide bands of
late-Neoproterozoic. smokey garnet-magnetite quartzo-feldspathic rock occur in
a local, but extensive, NE-trending dextral shear zone
9.1.2. Pb–Zn–Au in deformed quartz veins (Ankisatra) (Figs. 4E, F and 6). These shear zones are defined by
The Pb–Zn–Au mineralisation at Ankisatra occurs in strongly deformed, plagioclase-quartz, magnetite, pyrrho-
deformed and metamorphosed quartz-galena-chalcopyrite tite and fine-grained pyrite. Secondary pyrite cubes occur
veins (e.g. Fig. 5B, Table 7), up to 2 m thick, cropping along micro-shear zones and crosscut silicate minerals,
out along river-channels and in old trench workings. These fine-grained pyrite and magnetite (Fig. 4E).
quartz veins trend NE–SW and are mostly located adjacent Shear zones in deformed and metasomatised granulite-
to dolerite sills. Both quartz veins and dolerite sills crosscut facies mafic orthogneiss commonly dip between 58° and
the N–S to NE-trending regional fabric, but have, in turn, 70°E and are proximal to exhalative BIF and Pb–Ag min-
been crosscut by the NNW-trending dextral shear zones eralisation at Besakay (Figs. 3 and 4C). The structures
(Fig. 3). The quartz vein has a sugary texture and contains along which intense metasomatism occurred are low-angle
deformed fine-grained galena and chalcopyrite. Fine- thrust faults or detachment zones, related to the ca. 2.4 Ga
grained galena commonly forms pervasive, dark-grey accretion of the late Archaean granitoid-greenstone belts,
haloes in fractured quartz, whereas coarse-grained galena through which fluid migration and associated metasoma-
occurs locally in fractured massive recrystallised quartz tism occurred at ca. 2200 Ma. The steep dip of this struc-
veins. These textural and mineralogical features suggest ture is probably due to Pan-African collisional tectonics.
that quartz veins and contained galena formed before the Local metasomatic zones are interpreted to result from
latest significant deformation event recorded in the area mineral replacement due to the movement of deeply
(Fig. 5B). sourced hydrothermal fluids along zones of structural
Regional structural data extracted from Landsat images weakness. At a district scale, the metasomatised granu-
(Fig. 6) suggest that structures hosting the Ankisatra Pb– lite-facies mafic orthogneiss may represent a detachment
Table 7
A summary table showing assay results of selected mineralised systems sampled from the Ankisatra-Besakay District, northern Andriamena, Madagascar
Sampid Eastings Northings Deposit/ Area Au Ag As Bi Fe Cu Zn Pb Ba Cd Co Ni Mg Ca Na Mn P
host terrane (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (%) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (%) (%) (%) (ppm) (%)
21315 509680 1013030 Ribbon-type Area A <0.01 3.5 15 <0.1 33.2 10 190 325 350 <0.5 5 60 1.2 0.16 0.36 510 0.06
qtz-feld
21345 511320 1008150 Brecciated Area C <0.01 2.0 <5 0.2 10.0 195 40 11 410 <0.5 <5 25 0.2 0.13 0.35 215 0.09
enderbite

J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122


21346 511215 1009450 Brecciated Area C <0.01 <0.5 <5 <0.1 12.2 425 100 21 100 <0.5 50 145 1.4 0.49 0.28 790 0.18
enderbite
21349 509942 1010162 Magnetite Area D <0.01 0.5 <5 <0.1 8.0 50 70 48 680 <0.5 15 40 1.6 1.18 1.55 820 0.06
quartzite
21350 509880 1010420 Magnetite Area D <0.01 0.5 <5 <0.1 6.8 180 50 115 185 <0.5 15 120 0.6 0.53 0.68 880 0.08
quartzite
21351 509900 1010301 Silicate- Area D <0.01 <0.5 <5 <0.1 32.0 25 50 54 105 <0.5 10 35 1.4 1.10 0.50 530 0.10
magnetite
gneiss
21356 510460 1010530 Galena Area B 0.25 83 <5 1.0 0.2 25 80 31500 105 4.5 <5 70 <0.1 0.03 0.44 30 <0.01
quartz vein
21357 510460 1010530 Galena Area B 0.57 250 <5 2.8 0.4 45 20 118000 15 17.0 <5 50 <0.1 0.02 0.31 60 0.02
quartz vein
21358 510520 1010650 Galena-cpy Area B 0.20 12.0 <5 0.6 1.4 960 720 3350 90 11.0 15 65 0.2 0.08 0.62 175 0.37
quartz vein
21363 510770 1010400 Py-cpy in Area B <0.01 1.5 <5 <0.1 3.0 65 50 300 3300 <0.5 10 15 0.6 1.28 2.48 450 0.03
a breccia
21375 509000 1012720 Wall-rock Area A <0.01 1.0 <5 <0.1 2.6 20 50 52 940 <0.5 10 55 0.6 3.81 4.00 580 0.04
to 21376
21379 511120 1009255 Brecciated Area C <0.01 1.5 <5 0.1 5.8 480 40 22 830 <0.5 35 150 0.4 0.30 0.56 630 0.19
enderbite
21382 511150 1008425 Brecciated Area C <0.01 1.0 <5 <0.1 24.8 1410 290 17 25 <0.5 135 445 4.4 0.43 0.42 1920 0.55
enderbite
Areas sampled are shown in Fig. 3.
Abbreviations:
Area A, Shear-type Besakay Pb–Ag deposit;
Area B, Shear-type Ankisatra Pb–Zn-Au deposit;
Area C, Breccia-type enderbite hosted mineralisation;
Area D, Breccia-type magnetite-quarzite hosted mineralisation;
Area E, Vein-stringered banded paragneissic granulite;
qtz, quartz;
feld, feldspar.

113
114 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

splay, related to the detachment zone defined by the base- Fig. 4G and H), suggesting that the anastomosing struc-
ment amphibolite–granulite-facies alkali-feldspar granit- tures are post-peak ca. 785 Ma granulite-facies metamor-
oid, which intruded at 807 ± 13 Ma. phism (Fig. 5D). Thus, the NNW-trending dextral shear
zones are late in the orogenic history of the district, and
9.1.5. Cu–Zn–Co in brecciated enderbite are responsible for re-orienting pre-existing zones of miner-
The brittle–ductile magnetite–pyrite quartz-plagioclase alisation of unknown age to their present sites (Fig. 5D).
enderbitic rock, with Cu, Zn, Co, Fe–Mn mineralisation,
crops out between the tectonic boundary and the late- 10. Lead-isotope studies of mineral deposits
Archaean basement rocks underlying the orthogneissic
thrust sub-terrane (see area C, Fig. 3). In this area, miner- 10.1. Introduction
alisation is exposed sporadically along the edges of the
ridge and more extensively as a manganiferous–ironstone The success of radiogenic Pb isotopes as significant trac-
laterite cap extending for at least 1 km (Fig. 4M). Hand ers of geological source regions and for dating the timing of
specimen examination shows that a late anastomosing C- mineralisation is related to variations in the abundance of
S shear-foliation overprints the earlier pyrite–magnetite the isotopes, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb, which are derived from
breccia texture in the mineralised enderbite. In less radiogenic decay of 238U, 235U and 232Th isotopes, respec-
deformed bands, sulphides and magnetite are remobilised tively, at different rates. The fourth Pb isotope, 204Pb, used
in veinlets or occur as infillings along silicate–quartz or pla- as a normalising isotope, is an indicator of the initial Pb.
207
gioclase mineral boundaries. In these areas, weakly devel- Pb evolves faster than 206Pb, causing fractionation in
oped C-S fabric contains disseminated sulphides at grain the Earth with time. Minerals such as galena, pyrite and
boundaries and along the S-fabric. In the C-planes, sulp- potassium-feldspar are Pb-rich and contain insignificant
hides and garnet form thin elongate bands parallel to foli- amounts of U and Th, so that their U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios
ated plagioclase and elongate quartz (Fig. 5E and F). are effectively zero. Therefore, there is no additional source
The pyrite–magnetite mineralisation and brecciation of of radiogenic 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb in these minerals from
enderbite are probably related to young intrusions inter- the time of their first formation. Their present Pb-isotopic
preted as post-tectonic sub-volcanic rocks. In the field, end- compositions are thus due to common-Pb which was
erbite enclaves in younger feldspathic pyroxenite intrusions trapped at the time of their initial formation. Because
are very common. The intrusion-related brecciation and galena and pyrite are common ore-forming minerals, they
associated pyrite and magnetite mineralisation in the brec- are routinely used to help identify different possible metal
cia matrix is primary, but was overprinted by a secondary, sources for ores as well as to provide model ages for ore
C-S anastomosing shear fabric related to the late-orogenic deposition (e.g. Cumming and Richards, 1975; Stacey
NNW-trending structures (Figs. 4L, 5E, F and 6). Hydro- and Kramers, 1975; Gulson et al., 1985; McNaughton
thermal fluids responsible for pervasive garnet flooding et al., 1993; Reid et al., 1997). These isotopic systems have
along the C-S fabric are possibly responsible for Cu, Zn, been successfully used to examine the source and genetic
Co and Fe–Mn mineralisation. Similarly, these fluids may relationships between stratabound, stratiform and vein-
have leached metals related to the magnetite–pyrite breccia type Pb–Zn–Ag deposits in BHT districts (e.g. Gulson
and deposited them into late-orogenic structures (Fig. 4G). et al., 1985; Reid et al., 1997), as well as for different
sources of metals in other mineral deposits (e.g. Archaean
9.1.6. Cu–Zn in quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies lode-gold deposits: McNaughton et al., 1993).
paragneiss A reconnaissance Pb-isotope study was carried out on
Quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss in the five galena samples extracted from Pb-bearing deposits
southern portion of the tectonic corridor sub-terrane con- located within 15 km of each other in the A-BD (Fig. 6).
tains structurally controlled Cu–Zn mineralisation The major aim was to trace the nature and origin of metals,
(Fig. 3). Significant Cu–Zn mineralisation and elevated to estimate model ages of mineralisation based on assump-
concentrations of Co–Ni and Ag occur in strongly shear- tions explained above, and to compare the isotopic compo-
foliated zones ranging from 5 to 50 m wide. They are sitions of galenas from the A-BD with those of vein-type
locally mylonitic, very siliceous and ferruginous, and deposits in BHT provinces.
locally contain sulphide rich zones (Table 7). At a meso-
scopic to microscopic scale, these zones contain closely 10.2. Lead-isotope compositions
spaced, irregular fracture planes (Fig. 4G and H). Micro-
scopic examination of these structures reveals alternating The initial Pb-isotope compositions from two vein-type
grey bands of blue quartz (ribbon quartz), patches of Pb deposits of the A-BD are given in Table 8 and presented
deformed garnet and sulphide mineralisation, retrograde in Fig. 13. Galena analysed from Besakay is coarse-
chlorite, graphite and titanite bands and pyrrhotite and grained, occurring along fractures in massive en echelon
magnetite. They occur in a strongly ductile anastomosing quartz veins. At Ankisatra, both galena and quartz veins
fabric wrapping around peak-metamorphic garnet and are fractured into thin cleavage planes cutting recrystallised
feldspar and strongly deformed orthopyroxene (e.g. sugary quartz and galena, and filled with late-stage chalco-
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 115

Table 8
Lead-isotope compositions of galena from the Ankisatra-Besakay District, Madagascar and the BHT Gamsberg and Broken Hill deposits of the
Bushmanland Ore District, South Africa (Reid et al., 1997), used for comparison with the lithospheric growth model of Stacey & Kramers (1975)
206
Sample Deposit Description Pb/204Pb 207
Pb/204Pb 208
Pb/204Pb
21356 Ankisatra, Madagascar Sugary, fractured quartz vein with 16.316 15.828 37.718
21357 Ankisatra, Madagascar galena sheared and overprinted by late, 16.307 15.817 37.679
21358 Ankisatra, Madagascar chalcopyrite 16.322 15.841 37.736
21369 Besakay, Madagascar Coarse-grained galena in voids 16.353 15.707 37.434
21376 Besakay, Madagascar and fractures in massive quartz vein 16.374 15.729 37.508
GAM91 Gamsberg, S. Africa 16.780 15.571 36.669
GAM56 Gamsberg, S. Africa 16.789 15.561 36.648
GAM54 Gamsberg, S. Africa 16.776 15.565 36.648
BH3 Broken Hill, S. Africa 16.746 15.581 36.692
BH4 Broken Hill, S. Africa 16.736 15.573 36.687
BH5 Broken Hill, S. Africa 16.718 15.566 36.647
*BH 8/23 Broken Hill, S. Africa 16.756 15.585 36.698
*BH 8/29 Broken Hill, S. Africa 16.732 15.572 36.694
#
BH 8/1 Broken Hill, S. Africa 16.728 15.570 36.657
With the exception of the marked samples (i.e. * for massive ore body and # for bedded ore body) the remainder comprise vein-hosted deposits.

Fig. 13. A plot showing Pb-isotope compositions of bedded, massive and vein-hosted galena from the Broken Hill and Gamsberg BHT Pb–Zn (Cu–Ag)
deposits in the Bushmanland Ore District, South Africa (Reid et al., 1997) in comparison with those of Pb–Ag-vein bearing galenas of the Ankisatra-
Besakay District, northern Madagascar, with respect to the Stacey and Kramers (1975, S&K) crustal growth evolution model.

pyrite mineralisation. Fragments of galena were hand- derived from older crust with an U/Pb greater than typical
picked from each sample and dissolved at the Lead-free lithosphere (i.e. crustal model of Stacey and Kramers,
Laboratory in the Department of Geology and Geophysics 1975), and that the Pb sources for the two deposits were
(now School of Earth and Geographical Sciences) at the different. In addition, the Pb growth curves for a simple
University of Western Australia. Lead-isotope composi- evolutionary model cannot relate the two deposits to each
tions of galena were determined using the VG 354 Mass other.
Spectrometer at Curtin University. Analytical procedures Given the complex geological history of the area (e.g.
followed those of Ho et al. (1994). Collins et al., 2001; Collins and Windley, 2002; Goncalves
et al., 2003), the complex evolution of the Pb reservoirs is
10.3. Source-region not surprising. One important conclusion, however, is that
the heterogeneity of the samples from the A-BD is atypical
Galenas from all A-BD deposits fall well above the of Broken Hill style ores which typically show homoge-
Stacey and Kramers (1975) and Cumming and Richards neous Pb-isotope ratios (e.g. Bushmanland District, for
(1975) growth curves with galenas from Ankisatra having both vein-type and bedded ore: Fig. 13). Such heteroge-
higher 207Pb/204Pb ratios than Besakay galenas (Fig. 13). neous lead data are, instead, indicative of small or Pb-poor
These data suggest that the Pb from both deposits was systems (Gulson et al., 1985; McNaughton, 1987). It is
116 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

Table 9 the time of BHT mineralisation. The comparisons are


Model ages based on the Cumming and Richards (1975) lead growth based simply on similarities or differences in lithostratigra-
model
phy, mineralisation styles and associated exhalites, robust
Sample Deposit Model Age (Ma) geochronology and Pb-isotope signatures of the A-BD
t7/6 t6 t8 compared to major BHT provinces, which have specific
21356 Ankisatra 1708 1398 574 and distinctive characteristics for each of these parameters,
21357 Ankisatra 1705 1402 593 as outlined above.
21358 Ankisatra 1714 1394 565
21369 Besakay 1590 1378 712
21376 Besakay 1595 1367 676
11.2. Lithostratigraphy
These ages are
t7/6: based on the 207Pb/206Pb ratio.
There are broad similarities between lithological units
t6: based on the 238U ! 206Pb decay only. mapped in the A-BD and some of the major lithologic units
t8: based on the 232Th ! 208Pb decay only. compiled from selected BHT Provinces (Kerr, 1994). Base-
ment rocks in the BHT provinces comprise amphibolite- to
granulite-facies mafic and felsic granulite, quartzo-feld-
possible that these variations are due to mixing and/or con- spathic schist and banded leucocratic gneiss (Kerr, 1994).
tamination on a local scale as indicated by the contrasting These lithological units are petrographically and mineral-
Pb-isotope signatures of the largely granitoid-gneiss hosted ogically similar to the granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss,
Ankisatra deposit (Fig. 3) and the mafic-orthogneiss hosted tonalitic gneiss and granitoid gneiss in the A-BD. In the
Besakay deposit (Fig. 7). Furthermore, fracture or cleavage lower sequences of the BHT stratigraphy, quartzo-feld-
planes in galena and quartz, and the recrystallised nature of spathic gneiss, derived from an enigmatic precursor rock
quartz veins at the Ankisatra deposit, suggest deformation (e.g. Broken Hill Block, Australia and Bushmanland Ore
of pre-existing mineralisation and subsequent late hydro- District, South Africa (Kerr, 1994; Roche, 1994; Reid
thermal modification and overprinting mineralisation. et al., 1997), is comparable to undifferentiated quartzo-
feldspathic gneiss interleaved with tectonically reworked
10.4. Lead model ages late-Archaean basement rocks in the A-BD. In addition,
quartzo-feldspathic paragneiss in the A-BD could also be
Lead-isotope model ages can give an approximate age of analogous to some of the lower sequence quartzo-
galena mineralisation, since there is no U or Th decay since feldspathic rocks documented from selected BHT prov-
galena crystallisation. Lead growth models assume that Pb inces (Roche, 1994; Reid et al., 1997). Apart from the
evolved within a large homogeneous source reservoir silicate-facies BIF horizon, there are no other analogous
before being trapped when galena formed. Stacey and Kra- transitional sequences shelf-facies sedimentary rocks in the
mers (1975) and Cumming and Richards (1975) present A-BD, such as are common at this stratigraphic level in
similar Pb-isotopic models for the lithosphere, which pro- most BHT provinces.
vide generally reliable ages when data fall on the litho-
spheric growth curve (e.g. S & K Growth Curve, Fig. 13). 11.3. Mineralisation styles and associated exhalites
For galena whose Pb is on the growth curves, and all
three Pb model ages are the same, the age can be consid- Another way to compare the small A-BD Pb–Ag, Pb–
ered reliable. This is clearly not the case for the samples Zn–Au, Cu–Zn and Fe–Mn deposits with BHT-mineralisa-
from the A-BD (Table 9), and these model ages may be tion is to compare and contrast their mineralisation styles.
meaningless. Similar arguments can be levelled at the One of the principal characteristics of BHT-provinces is
1850 ± 50 Ma and 1750 ± 70 Ma Pb-model ages reported their world-class Pb–Zn–Ag mineralisation, a critical fea-
by Besairie (1961) from galenas sampled from the Ankisa- ture missing in the A-BD. However, quartz-vein hosted
tra and Besakay deposits, respectively. These are unlikely galena has been known in the A-BD since the early 1930s
to be reliable estimates of the age of formation, particularly (Besairie, 1961), and giant BHT deposits occur in provinces
since these ages are not consistent with geochronologically that also contain small-scale vein-type Pb–Ag–Zn–Cu min-
constrained geological events, such as magmatic and peak eralisation such as: (1) silver–Pb–Cu in quartz veins and
metamorphic events, defined by robust SHRIMP geochro- Ag–Pb in quartz-siderite veins in the Broken Hill and Tha-
nology as outlined above. karinga Groups of the Broken Hill Block (Kerr, 1994;
Giles and Ehlers, 1997; Stevens and Burton, 1998); (2) sil-
11. Implications for BHT deposits in the A-BD ver–Pb–Zn in migmatitic quartz-feldspar pegmatite veins in
the Soldiers Cap Group, Cannington, Mt. Isa Block
11.1. Introduction (Skrzeczynski, 1993; Roche, 1994; Kerr, 1994); and (3)
Pb–Zn–Ag in pegmatite and quartz-veins in the Bushman-
It is stressed at the outset of this discussion that there is land Ore District (Reid et al., 1997). Thus a comparison
no implication whatsoever that the A-BD was adjacent to between deposit-scale to district-scale features of the A-
any of the BHT provinces with which it is compared at BD and BHT provinces is justified.
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 117

Bedded units of quartz-magnetite amphibolite gneiss ern portion of the Broken Hill Block. These Archaean ages
(Fig. 4C) which occur in the A-BD are interpreted to be agree with the terrane evolution model of AGCRC (1995),
exhalative silicate-facies BIF. In addition, the garnet–mag- Willis (1996), Walters (1998) and many other workers,
netite–quartzo-feldspathic rocks (i.e. metasomatised granu- which advocates rifting of the Archaean crust as the initial
lite-facies mafic orthogneiss), which crop out near the BIF phase in the evolution of the mobile belts which host the
and Besakay Pb–Ag deposit represent strong metasomatic intracratonic BHT deposits. Apart from the Archaean
zones (Figs. 3 and 4E and F). Both the BIF and metasoma- ages, the quartzo-feldspathic amphibolite-facies gneiss con-
tised granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss are possible ana- tains several inherited zircons preserving ages of ca. 2400–
logues of the iron-oxide facies horizons common in 2100 Ma, interpreted by Nutman and Ehlers (1998a,b) as a
transitional exhalative sequences associated with BHT min- record of tectonometamorphic events (Fig. 15).
eralisation. However, the key features of transitional Whereas the Archaean crust in the Broken Hill Block is
sequences, the Zn-spinel (gahnite)-bearing rocks and/or overlain by thick Proterozoic sequences, the Archaean crust
calc-silicate units, are not known from the A-BD. Thus, in the A-BD is well exposed at surface. In the A-BD,
the vein-type deposits of the A-BD do show some similar- Archaean rocks preserve magmatic U–Pb zircon ages at
ities with those of BHT provinces, but some critical compo- 2676 ± 6 Ma and 2483 ± 20 Ma, recording late Archaean
nents are absent. sub-volcanic magmatism of intermediate to felsic composi-
tion. Furthermore, the granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss
11.4. U–Pb in zircon geochronology (meta-diorite/granodiorite) contains inherited xenocrystic
zircon with a concordant U–Pb age of 2725 ± 12 Ma, while
Based on the specific distribution through Precambrian the overlying meta-supracrustal rocks (i.e. quartzo-feld-
time of preserved BHT deposits, it is appropriate to com- spathic granulite-facies paragneiss) contain detrital zircon
pare the geochronological evolution of the major litholog- with a maximum zircon age of 2870 Ma. These inherited
ical units that host Pb–Ag and Pb–Zn–Ag mineralisation in ages show that earlier crust was involved in Late Archaean
the A-BD (cf. Fig. 14) with that of the BHT province of the crustal growth processes in the region. In addition to indi-
Broken Hill Block, Australia (e.g. ca. 1690 and 1590 Ma cating the presence of precursor magmatic rocks, the quar-
orogenic events). Nutman and Ehlers (1998a,b) have tzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses contain six
shown the probable existence of ca. 2670–2550 Ma zircons preserving ca. 2870–2563 Ma ages and abundant
Archaean crust in the Broken Hill Block. They infer these zircons with ca 2450–2200 Ma ages, and very rare zircons
ages from abundant SHRIMP U–Pb analyses of inherited preserving ca. 1800–1650 Ma ages (see Table 4). Thus, both
zircons extracted from the quartzo-feldspathic amphibo- the Broken Hill Block and the A-BD had somewhat similar
lite-facies gneiss of the Willyama Supergroup in the south- Archaean histories.

Fig. 14. A summary diagram illustrating major orogenic events so far constrained by U–Pb in zircon SHRIMP geochronology of selected rock types from
the Ankisatra-Besakay District. At least two magmatic events are recorded from the Late Archaean convergent-margin magmatic event. The older peak-
metamorphic event is related to progressive or new compressional tectonics on the older rocks along whose thrust detachments and associated splay zones
metasomatism may have occurred later. These orogens and other basement rocks supplied sedimentary/sedimentary-volcanic material during the
development of the basin in which the precursor to the paragneiss was deposited. The young peak metamorphism is related to anatectic metamorphism
and magmatism following rifting of the basement from ca. 820 Ma.
118 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

Fig. 15. A summary diagram illustrating the comparison between Archaean and Proterozoic terrane evolution of the Broken Hill Block, Australia and the
Ankisatra-Besakay District of northern Madagascar. In this diagram, timing of the major orogenic events (magmatic, metamorphic and supracrustal
accumulation) are compared. Age dates used are all from U–Pb in zircon by SHRIMP dating techniques.

The greatest difference between the A-BD and the Bro- geneous but more highly radiogenic than those from the
ken Hill Block, from the present geochronological study, BHT deposits of the Bushmanland Ore District. The dif-
is the absence of the most critically-important ca. 1690– ferent Pb-isotope signatures of the Thakaringa veins and
1574 Ma age-component related to long-lived orogenic BHT deposits suggest that, although these deposits are
events at Broken Hill and commonly recorded in the host spatially related, their Pb was derived from different
lithostratigraphy for BHT mineralisation (Fig. 15). As source regions. In contrast, the homogeneity of Pb-isotope
shown in Table 4, only two out of 38 zircons extracted compositions in both veins and stratiform deposits in the
from the quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss Bushmanland Ore District implies a common source
preserve ca. 1690–1550 Ma U–Pb zircon ages. This indi- region and suggests that mineralisation in the veins was
cates that either these orogenic events did not occur in remobilised from primary stratiform BHT mineralisation
the A-BD or that they occurred but were effectively obliter- during the ca. 1135 Ma Grenvillian Orogeny (Reid
ated by the pervasive ca. 780–820 Ma granulite-facies et al., 1997).
metamorphism. The latter appears unlikely as Archaean In the A-BD, the Pb is both heterogeneous and very
zircons are well preserved in all rocks with Archaean pre- radiogenic compared to even Pb from the BHT deposits
cursors despite their subsequent history of reworking. in the Bushmanland Ore District. The low 206Pb/204Pb
and high 207Pb/204Pb ratios for the Ankisatra-Besakay gal-
11.5. Lead-isotope signature enas in particular contrast with respective isotopic ratios
for the BHT deposits in the Bushmanland Ore District
Lead-isotope signatures characteristic of the Ankisatra- (Table 8). As the Pb-isotope compositions of veins and
Besakay Pb–Zn–Ag deposits are compared with Pb-iso- stratiform deposits in the Bushmanland Ore District
tope compositions from massive, bedded and quartz-vein remained homogeneous even after the ca. 1135 Ma Gren-
hosted Pb–Zn–Ag deposits at Gamsberg and Broken Hill, villian Orogeny, it can be inferred that Pb-isotope compo-
in the Bushmanland Ore District (Fig. 13). The reason for sitions of deposits in the A-BD reflect their initial ratios
using the Bushmanland galena for comparison with the irrespective of the strong overprint of the Pan-African
Ankisatra-Besakay galenas is due to their similarly strong Orogeny. The heterogeneous nature of the Pb-isotope com-
radiogenic signatures, but also the fact that both vein and position suggests that Pb was derived from a local source
stratabound/stratiform mineralisation in the Bushman- involving older crust with greater U/Pb ratios than typical
land Ore District give almost the same isotopic signature lithosphere, contrasting with the larger, more homoge-
(Reid et al., 1997). In contrast, Pb from the Thakaringa neous Pb reservoir evident in BHT provinces.
veins in the Broken Hill Block is more radiogenic com- The model ages calculated from the isotopic composi-
pared to that in galena sampled from the adjacent, Main tion of the galenas from A-BD do not fulfil consistency
Lode stratabound mineralisation (Ryan et al., 1986; Ste- assumptions for the radiogenic Pb-isotope systems of Sta-
vens et al., 1990). Lead-isotope compositions from both cey and Kramers (1975) and Cumming and Richards
veins and BHT deposits at Broken Hill Block are homo- (1975). Therefore model ages shown in Table 9 are not
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 119

robust and previous model ages should be treated with cau- ture low-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism of the
tion both for internal and external comparisons. precursor biotite–granitoid hornfels and partial to com-
plete anatectic melting of the precursor amphibolite-
12. Summary and conclusions facies alkali-feldspar granitoid.

12.1. Lithostratigraphy In general, the geochronological data from the A-BD


provide evidence for a tectonically active Precambrian
The present structural complexity of the orthogneissic orogen.
thrust sub-terrane may have resulted from tectonic stack-
ing and reworking of early Precambrian basement rocks 12.3. Comparison with BHT Provinces
of different tectonic signatures during Neoproterozoic to
early Palaeozoic collisional orogenic events (e.g. Windley 12.3.1. Hosting lithologic features
et al., 1997; Kröner et al., 1997). In this case, precursors Although they were never juxtaposed, there are broad
to granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss and biotite–granitoid similarities between the Archaean to early Palaeoprotero-
hornfels may represent arc-magmatic rocks, whereas pre- zoic and Neoproterozoic evolution of the A-BD and the
cursors to quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss Broken Hill Block (Fig. 15). The A-BD comprises quar-
may be part of reworked older back-arc basin sequences tzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses with detrital
juxtaposed against continental crustal rocks. Unlike the zircon ages of this protolith between 2780 and 1760 Ma.
amphibolite to granulite-facies alkali-feldspar granitoid, These Archaean ages and the volcanic component in the
which defines a structural break, enderbite defines a zone quartzo-feldspathic granulite-facies paragneisses suggest
of structural continuity from the tectonic boundary to that the precursor to the quartzo-feldspathic granulite-
the upper lithotectonic units in the orthogneissic thrust facies paragneiss in the A-BD was deposited in an intra-
sub-terrane. Enderbite contains brittle–ductile structures cratonic basin at ca. 1700 Ma. The period over which
ranging from fluid induced breccia to the east, through this basin developed is not constrained. The quartzo-
zones of mylonite to ultramylonite in ductile shear-zones feldspathic granulite-facies paragneiss is a possible ana-
to the west. logue of the lower sequence quartzo-feldspathic rocks
which are common in BHT provinces. Sporadic silicate-
12.2. Terrane evolution history facies BIF in the A-BD could be remnants equivalent to
the transitional zones in the BHT provinces. This could
The present SHRIMP U–Pb in zircon study of selected be further evaluated through the use of chemical discrimi-
rocks from the A-BD shows: nation plots, but the chemical data are not available.

1. A ca. 2600–2500 Ma period of convergent margin mag- 12.3.2. Mineralisation styles and lead-isotope compositions
matism responsible for the generation of the precursors There are no direct indications of the presence of strat-
to the granulite-facies mafic orthogneiss and biotite iform or stratabound Pb–Zn–Ag deposits that typify BHT
granitoid hornfels. These magmatic rocks evolved as provinces and the distinctive metasomatic and metamor-
part of the global evolution of Late Archaean granit- phic haloes commonly associated with these provinces in
oid-greenstone belts (Barley et al., 1998), which involved the A-BD. There are, however, numerous quartz-veins
older Archaean crust as indicated by a xenocrystic U–Pb and quartz-plagioclase leucosome veins/bands with Pb,
zircon age of 2725 ± 12 Ma in mafic orthogneiss. Ag, Zn, Cu, Au mineralisation in the A-BD. The location
2. A ca. 2400–2260 Ma period of progressive convergent- of these mineralisation styles is controlled by late-Neopro-
margin tectonics involving terrane accretion, partial terozoic NNW-trending dextral faults or shear zones.
melting and metamorphism of diorite-granodiorite, ton- These are similar to the majority of the vein-type miner-
alite, granitoid, greenstone and undifferentiated quar- alisation styles known in BHT provinces, with quartz
tzo-feldspathic gneiss (Figs. 9D, E, 10 and 14). In vein-hosted Pb–Zn–Cu–Au and magnetite-pyrite ender-
addition, ca. 2260 and 1900 Ma metamorphic resetting bite-hosted Cu–Zn–Fe–Mn–Co occurrences the most sig-
in the metasomatised mafic orthogneiss is interpreted nificant mineralisation styles identified in the A-BD to
to have been related to strong hydrothermal activity date.
along detachment or related splay zones (Fig. 10B). Lead-isotope compositions of galenas from the A-BD
3. A ca. 1700–800 Ma period in which potentially there vein systems are heterogeneous and very radiogenic. This
was intracratonic basin development, and associated indicates that Pb was derived locally from rocks older than
orogenic events, but whose record, if present, was over- ca. 2700 Ma and that therefore the veins are likely to rep-
printed or reset by granulite facies metamorphism and resent small-scale mineralised systems, atypical of BHT
deformation at ca. 785 Ma. deposits and their associated vein-style mineralisation,
4. A ca. 785–820 Ma rifting of part of the basement rocks which have more homogeneous Pb-isotope compositions
causing the emplacement of mafic–ultramafic complexes more indicative of larger fluid and metal reservoirs. Model
and mangerite magmatism. This caused high-tempera- ages of 1850 ± 50 Ma and 1750 ± 70 Ma (Besairie, 1961),
120 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

previously interpreted as the age of galena and associated and whether the mineralisation was introduced with the
mineralisation in the A-BD, are not reliable. magnetite–pyrite phase of brecciation, or, alternatively,
was introduced later by infiltration of hydrothermal fluids
12.3.3. Geochronological constraints along the anastomosing shear zones. A geochronological
The available robust geochronological constraints are study to better constrain the emplacement age of the end-
summarised in Fig. 14 and are not discussed in detail here. erbite and the post-tectonic (ca. <780 Ma) plutons is also
Suffice to state that the derived history of the A-BD is very recommended.
similar in terms of Archaean to early-Palaeoproterozoic
and Neoproterozoic events to BHT provinces such as the Acknowledgements
Broken Hill Block (Fig. 15). However, the most critical
period of history, the late Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoprote- This paper is part of a M.Sc. study funded by BHP Min-
rozoic, for BHT provinces such as the Broken Hill Block is erals International Exploration Inc. and the Government
apparently absent from the A-BD. Given the abundant evi- of Tanzania and supervised by David Groves. The support
dent for the robustness of the Archaean zircons during Pro- by the senior management of BHP Minerals International
terozoic events in the A-BD, it is unreasonable to suggest Exploration Inc., in particular Miles Shaw, Pablo Marcet,
that there was a Mesoproterozoic in the A-BD but that evi- Audace Ntungicimpaye, Roger Kuhns and Geoff Woad, is
dence for it was obliterated by the ca. 800 Ma metamorphic gratefully acknowledged. JK is grateful to Ian Fletcher,
event. Charter Matthison and Brian Krapez for their kind sup-
This evidence, when combined with the Pb-isotope data port and advice during interpretation of the SHRIMP
and lack of crucial exhalative rocks in the exposed data. Brendan Griffin is thanked for assistance with the
sequences, downgrades the A-BD as a potential BHT prov- Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
ince despite its superficially similar lithostratigraphic and Marion Marshall for zircon separation and mounting.
sequences to BHT provinces worldwide. Abdul Mruma is thanked for reading an earlier version of
the manuscript. We are grateful to Alan Collins, Sospeter
13. Exploration significance and future research Muhongo and Lewis D. Ashwal for their incisive referee
comments on earlier drafts of this paper which resulted
Despite its low ranking as a potential BHT province, in major improvement and updating.
there clearly are some exploration targets in the A-BD.
These include the magnetite-pyrite breccia-hosted Cu, Zn, References
Fe–Mn and Co mineralisation, whose host-rock crops out
extensively as a manganiferous gossan ridge for about one Australian Geodynamics Cooperative Research Unit (AGCRC), 1995.
kilometre (Figs. 3, 4O and 5E and F). The original origin Geodynamic environment for specific world-class deposits and terr-
of this mineralisation style is unknown, although it is now anes. In: Anonymous (Eds.), Australian Geodynamics Cooperative
apparently remobilised into N–S dextral strike-slip shear Research Centre. Annual Report 1994/95.
Ashwal, L.D., 1997. Geology and mineral resources of Madagascar. In:
zones and NNW-trending dextral faults and shears Ashwal, L.D. (Ed.), Proterozoic Geology of Madagascar. Guidebook
(Fig. 6). Other mineralisation which is worthy of further to Field Excursions, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 16–30 August, 1997.
investigation includes the Pb–Zn–Cu occurrences in Gondwana Research Group Miscellaneous Publication, vol. 6, pp. 4–
quartz-feldspar leucosome veins/bands in the granulite- 7.
facies mafic orthogneiss, because the host orthogneiss is Augé, T., Legendre, O., 1992. Pt–Fe nuggets from alluvial deposits in
Eastern Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist 50, 983–1004.
extensive in the study area, and because similar mineralisa- Barley, M.E., Krapez, B., Groves, D.I., Kerrich, R., 1998. The Late
tion is significant in the Soldiers Cap Group, Cannington, in Archaean bonanza: metallogenic and environmental consequences of
the Mt. Isa Block (Roche, 1994; Kerr, 1994; Willis, 1996). the interaction between mantle plumes, lithospheric tectonics and
A regional structural study to constrain the structural global cyclicity. Precambrian Research 91, 65–90.
Besairie, H., 1961. 1:3,000,000 Geological map of Madagascar showing
evolution synthesised from Landsat image interpretation,
geochronology data. Service Géologique Madagascar.
coupled with more detailed compilation and field mapping Blat, H., Tracy, R.J., 1996. Petrology: Igneous, Sedimentary and
of all known mineral occurrences and deposits in the Metamorphic. W.H. Freeman and Company, 529 pp.
Andriamena Sheet, is recommended. This should deter- Cahen, I., Snelling, N.J., Dehal, J., Vail, J.R., 1984. The Geochronology
mine the principal controls on late-orogenic NNW-trend- and Evolution of Africa. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 512 pp.
ing dextral shear-zones and the post-tectonic plutons, the Compston, W., Williams, I.S., Meyer, C., 1984. U–Pb geochronology of
zircons from Lunar Breccia 73217 using a Sensitive High-Resolution
relationships between them and their significance in the Ion-Microprobe. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Luna and Plan-
metallogenic evolution of the A-BD. Detailed field docu- etary Science Conference, Part 2. Geophysical Research 89 (Suppl.)
mentation is required of the enderbite and younger plu- B525–B534.
tonic rocks in the area, to determine their controls, if Collins, A.S., Pisarevsky, S., 2005. Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: the
evolution of Circum-Indian Orogens. Earth Sciences Reviews 71, 229–
any, on the Cu, Zn, Fe–Mn and Co mineralisation in the
270.
magnetite–pyrite enderbite. Study is also required in the Collins, A.S., Windley, B.F., 2002. The tectonic evolution of central and
latter to determine whether garnet flooding in anastomo- northern Madagascar and its place in the final assembly of Gondwana.
sing shear zones was related to the mineralising fluids, Journal of Geology 110, 325–339.
J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122 121

Collins, A.S., Razakamanana, T., Windley, B.F., 2000. Neoproterozoic Kerr, T.L., 1994. Magnetic characteristics of Broken Hill type deposits
extensional detachment in central Madagascar: implications for the and their host provinces. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of
collapse of the East African Orogen. Geological Magazine 137 (1), 39– Tasmania, Hobart.
51. Kröner, A., Hegner, E., Collins, A.S., Windley, B.F., Brewer, T.S.,
Collins, A.S., Fitzsimons, I.C.W., Kinny, P.D., Razakamanana, T., Razakamanana, T., Pidgeon, R.T., 2000. Age and magmatic history of
Brewer, T.S., Windley, B.F, Kröner, A., 2001. The Archaean rocks of the Antananarivo Block, Central Madagascar, as derived from zircon
central Madagascar: their place in Gondwana. In: Cassidy, K.F., geochronology and Nd Isotopic systematics. American Journal of
Dunphy, J.M., van Kranendonk, M.J. (Eds.), 4th International Science 300, 251–288.
Archaean Symposium 2001, Extended Abstracts. AGSO-Geoscience Kröner, A., Windley, B.F., Jaeckel, P., Brewer, T.S., Nemchin, A.,
Australia, Record 2001/37, p. 294–296. Razakamanana, T., 1997. New zircon ages for Precambrian granites,
Collins, A.S., Kroner, A., Fitzsimons, I.C.W., Razakamanana, T., 2003. gneisses and granulites from Central and Southern Madagascar:
Detrital footprints of the Mozambique ocean: U-Pb SHRIMP and Pb significance for correlation in East Gondwana. In: Cox R., Ashwal
evaporation zircon geochronology of metasedimentary gneisses in L.D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the UNESCO-IUGS-IGCP-348/368;
eastern Madagascar. Tectonophysics 375, 77–99. International Field Workshop on Proterozoic Geology of Madagascar.
Colvine, A.C., Fyon, J.A., Heather, K.B., Marmont, S., Smith, P.M., Gondwana Research Group; Miscellaneous Publication, vol. 5, pp.
Troop, D.G., 1988. Archaean Lode Gold Deposits in Ontario. Mines 41–42.
and Minerals Division, Ontario Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Ludwig, K., 1990. Isoplot (computer program). USGS Open File Report
Paper 139. 88-557.
Cumming, G.L., Richards, J.R., 1975. Ore lead isotopes in continuously McNaughton, N., 1987. Lead-isotope systematics for Archaean sulphide
changing Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 28, 155–171. studies. In: Ho, S.E., Groves, D.I. (Eds.), Recent Advances in
Dickin, A.P., 1995. Radiogenic Isotope Geology. Cambridge University Understanding Precambrian Gold Deposits. Department of Geology
Press, 452 pp. and University Extension, The University of Western Australia,
De Wit, M., 2003. Madagscar: heads it’s a continent, tails its an island. Publication, vol. 11, pp. 181–188.
Annual Reviews of Planetary Science, 213–248. McNaughton, N.J., Groves, D.I., Witt, W.K., 1993. The source of lead in
Griffin, B.J., 1997. A new mechanism for imaging of crystal structure in Archaean lode-gold deposits of Menzies-Kalgoorie-Kambalda region,
non-conductive materials: an application of charge-induced contrast in Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. Mineralium Deposita 28, 495–501.
the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). In: Bailey, Miyashiro, A., 1994. Metamorphic Petrology. UCL Press, 404 pp.
G.W., Dimlich, R.V., Alexander, K.B., McCarthy, J.J., Pretlow, T.P. Nédélec, A., Paquette, J.L., Bouchez, J.L., Oliver, P., Ralison, B., 1994.
(Eds.), Proceedings: Microscopy and Microanalysis 1997. Springer, Stratoid granites of Madagascar: structure and position in the Pan-
Berlin, pp. 385–386. African Orogeny. Geodynamica Acta 7 (1), 48–56.
Goncalves, P., Nicollet, C., Lardeaux, J.-M., 2003. Finite strain pattern in Nédélec, A., Stephens, W.E., Fallick, A.E., 1995. The Pan-African
Andriamena unit (north-central Madagascar): evidence for late Neo- stratoid granites of Madagascar: alkaline magmatism in post-colli-
proterozoic-Cambrian thrusting during continental convergence. Pre- sional extensional setting. Journal Petrology 36 (5), 1367–1391.
cambrian Research 123, 135–157. Nelson, D.R., 1996. Compilation of SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronol-
Giles, D., Betts, P.G., Lister, G.S., 2004. 1.8–1.5-Ga links between the ogy data, 1995. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth,
North and South Australian Cratons and the Early-Middle Protero- Australia. Record 1996/5. 168 pp.
zoic configuration of Australia. Tectonophysics 380, 21–41. Nutman, A.P., Ehlers, K., 1998a. Archaean crust near Broken Hill?
Giles, D., Ehlers, K., 1997. Genesis of Broken Hill type mineralisation. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 45, 687–694.
Geodynamics and Ore Deposits Conference. Australian Geodynamics Nutman, A.P., Ehlers, K., 1998b. Evidence for multiple Palaeoproterozoic
Cooperative Research Centre: Giant Ore Deposit Project Reference thermal events and magmatism adjacent to the Broken Hill Pb–Zn–Ag
2049Mo, Department of Earth Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, orebody, Australia. Precambrian Research 90, 203–238.
Australia. Ohnenstetter, M., Johan, Z., Auge, T., Calvez, J.Y., Cocherie, A., Johan,
Guerrot, C., Cocherie, A., Ohnenstetter, M., 1993. Origin and evolution of V., Legendre, O., Martel- Jantin, B., Rakotomanana, D., 1991. An
the West Andriamena Pan-African mafic–ultramafic complexes in infiltration metasomatic model for Pan-African Pt–Pd mineralisation
Madagascar as shown by U–Pb, Nd isotopes and trace element in Madagascar ultramafic complexes. Terra Abstracts 3, 108.
constraints. Terra Abstract 5, 378. Paquette, J.-L., Goncalves, P., Devouard, B., Nicollet, C., 2004. Micro-
Gulson, B.L., Porrit, P.M., Mizon, K.J., Barnes, R.G., 1985. Lead isotope drilling ID-TIMS U–Pb dating of monazites: a new method to unravel
signatures of the stratiform and stratabound mineralisation in the complex poly-metamorphic evolutions. Application to the UHT
Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia. Economic Geology granulites of Andriamena (North-Central Madagascar). Contributions
80, 488–496. to Mineralogy and Petrology 147, 110–122.
Groves, D.I., Condie, K.C., Goldfarb, R.J., Hronsky, J.M.A., Vielreicher, Paquette, J.L., Nédélec, A., 1998. A new insight into Pan-African tectonics
R.M., 2005. Secular changes in global tectonic processes and their in the East–West Gondwana collision zone by U–Pb zircon dating of
influence on the temporal distribution of gold-bearing mineral granites from central Madagascar. Earth and Planetary Science Letters
deposits. Economic Geology 100, 203–224. 155, 45–46.
Handke, M.J., Tucker, R.D., Ashwal, L.D., 1999. Neoproterozoic Rajesh-Chandran, R., Menon, R.D., Radhika, U.P., Santosh, M., 1996.
continental arc magmatism in west-central Central Madagascar. Proterozoic mineralisation in Kerala: summary characteristics and
Geology 27, 351–354. genesis. In: Santosh M., & Yoshida M. (Eds.), The Archaean and
Ho, S.E., McNaughton, N.J., Groves, D.I., 1994. Criteria for determining Proterozoic Terranes in Southern India within East Gondwana.
initial lead isotopic compositions of pyrite in Archaean lode gold Gondwana Research Group Memoir 3, 117–144.
deposits: a case study at Victory, Kambalda, and Western Australia. Reid, D.L., Welke, H.J., Smith, C.B., Moore, J.M., 1997. Lead isotope
Chemical Geology 25, 24–26. patterns in Proterozoic stratiform mineralisation in the Bushmanland
Joubert, P., 1986. The Namaqualand metamorphic complex—a summary. Group, Namaqua Province, and South Africa. Economic Geology,
In: Anhaesser, C.R., Maske, S. (Eds.), Mineral Deposits of Southern 92,248–92,258.
Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, pp. 1395– Roche, M.T., 1994. The Cannington silver lead zinc deposit-at feasibility.
1420. In: Darwin Annual Conference of the Australian Institute of Mining
Kabete, J.K., 1999. Tectonic and temporal evolution of the A-BD, and its and Metallurgy, pp. 193–197.
bearing on the potential for Broken Hill type deposit in the terrane. Ryan, P.J., Lawrence, A.L., Lipson, R.D., Moore, J.M., Paterson, A.,
Unpublished MSc thesis, The University of Western Australia, Perth. Stedman, D.P., Vanzyl, D., 1986. The Aggneys base metal sulphide
122 J. Kabete et al. / Journal of African Earth Sciences 45 (2006) 87–122

deposits, Namaqualand District. In: Anhaesser, C.R., Maske, S. Madagascar. Gondwana Research Group Miscellaneous Publication,
(Eds.), Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa. Geological Society of vol. 5, p. 99.
South Africa, Johannesburg, pp. 1447–1473. Tucker, R.D., Ashwal, L.D., Handke, M.J., Hamilton, M.A., Le Grange,
Sawkins, F.J., 1989. Anorogenic felsic magmatism, rift sedimentation, and M., Rambeloson, R.A., 1999. U–Pb geochronology and isotope
giant Pb–Zn deposits. Journal of Geology 17, 657–660. geochemistry of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks of North-Central
Skrzeczynski, R.H., 1993. From concept to Cannington: a decade of Madagascar. Journal of Geology 107, 135–157.
exploration in the Eastern SuccessionSymposium on recent advances Walters, S.J., 1996. An overview of Broken Hill Type Deposits. In:
in the Mount Isa Block, vol. 13. Australian Institute of Geoscientists Proceedings of a workshop on ‘‘New Development in Broken Hill
Bulletin, pp. 35–38. Type Deposits’’ CODES, University of Tasmania, July 1996, pp. 1–10.
Smith, J.B., Barley, M.E., Groves, D.I., Krapez, B., McNaughton, N.J., Walters, S.G., 1998. Broken Hill-type deposits. AGSO Journal of
Bickle, M.J., Chapman, H.J., 1998. The Sholl Shear Zone, West Australian Geology Geophysics 17, 229–237.
Pilbara: Evidence for a domain boundary structure from integrated Wiedenbeck, M., 1995. An example of reverse discordance during ion
tectonostratigraphic analyses, SHRIMP U–Pb dating and isotopic and microprobe zircon dating: an artifact of enhanced ion yields from
geochemical data of granitoids. Precambrian Research 88, 143– radiogenic labile Pb. Chemical Geology 125, 197–218.
171. Willis, I.L., 1996. An overview of Broken Hill-type Pb–Zn–Ag deposits.
Stacey, J.S., Kramers, J.D, 1975. Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope In: Proceedings of a Workshop on ‘‘New Development in Broken Hill
evolution by two-stage model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 26, Type Deposits’’ Centre for Ore Deposit Research, University of
207–221. Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, pp. 145–152.
Stevens, B.P.J., Burton, G.R., 1998. The early to late proterozoic broken Windley, B.F., 1995. The Evolving Continents. John Wiley & Sons, New
hill province, New South Wales. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology York, 526 pp.
& Geophysics 17 (3), 75–86. Windley, B.F., Brewer, T.S., Collins, A., Kröner, A., Jaeckel, P.,
Stevens, B.J.P., Barnes, R.G., Forbes, G.G., 1990. Willyama Block- Razakamanana, T., 1997. The Pan-African Orogen of Madagascar.
Regional geology and minor mineralisation. In: Hughes, F.E. (Ed.), In: Cox R., Ashwal. L.D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the UNESCO-IUGS-
Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, IGCP-348/368. International Field Workshop on Proterozoic Geology
Monograph, vol. 14. Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, of Madagascar. Gondwana Research Group; Miscellaneous Publica-
pp. 1065–1072. tion, vol. 5, pp. 41–42.
Solomon, M., Groves, D.I., 1994. Geology and Origin of Australia’s Windley, B.F., Razafiniparany, A., Razakamanana, T., Ackermand, D.,
Mineral DepositsOxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, 1994. Tectonic framework of the Precambrian of Madagascar and its
24. Oxford Science Publications, 951 pp. Gondwana connections: a review and reappraisal. Geologische
Tarney J., Weaver L., 1987. Geochemistry of the Scourian complex: Rundschau 83, 642–659.
petrogenesis and tectonic models. In: Park, R.G., Turney, J. (Eds.), Windley, B.F., Razakamanana, T., 1996. The Madagascar-India connec-
Evolution of the Lewisian and Comparable High Grade Terrains. tion in Gondwana framework. In: Santosh M., Yoshida M. (Eds.), The
Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 27, pp. 45–56. Archaean and Proterozoic Terranes in Southern India Within East
Tucker, R.D., Ashwal, L.D., Handke, M.J., Hamilton, M.A., 1997. Gondwana. Gondwana Research Group Memoir 3, 25–37.
Geochronologic overview of the Precambrian Rocks of Madagascar: a Yoshida, M., Santosh, M., 1996. Southernmost Indian Peninsula and the
record from the Middle Archaean to the late Neoproterozoic. In: Cox Gondwanaland. In: Yoshida M., Santosh M. (Eds.), The Archaean
R., Ashwal. L.D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the UNESCO- IUGS-IGCP- and Proterozoic Terrains in Southern India within East Gondwana.
348/368: International Field Workshop on Proterozoic Geology of Gondwana Research Group Memoir 3, 15–24.