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HEAT EXCHANGER

FCB40302

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND

We get a new project task with title Heat Exchanger. The unit that we will use
is calling Four-Type Heat Exchanger Test Unit. This unit has 4 type of heat
exchanger; Plate heat exchanger, Double pipe, Coil heat exchanger and Shell-and
tube exchanger. The purpose of this unit that has 4 type of heat exchanger
together is to compare coefficient that will be produce by this 4 type of heat
exchanger by collect the reading then find the U value.

Our task is to get the unit reading for hot and cooling water to know the heat
transfer that system make, and then plot a graph by temperature. Q value will be
finding from the graph and find the LMTD and U value for 4 type of heat exchanger
each.

After we’ve done all of the calculation then we will able to make a comparison
for 4 type of heat exchanger. From the comparison we can summaries which type
has most coefficients on the system.

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1.2 OBJECTIVE

The main objective in doing this task is to understand and know how to use
the HEX unit correctly and how this unit works. From here, we will be able to find
out about the uses, concepts, and differences regarding the type of HEX. Other
objectives are:

1. To know which one has highest coefficient.

2. To know the difference between parallel flow and counter flow of the HEX.
3. To know the step function of the system.
4. To provide an experience in doing the experiment and doing the
calculation.
5. To know what is the best HEX coefficient from this four type HEX test unit
by using practical test and calculation.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 DESCRIPTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER.

1.1.1 A heat exchanger is a equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one
medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they
never mix, or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space
heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, plants, chemical, petrochemical
plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment.
One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which
the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air
flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).

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a) Shell and tube heat exchanger

A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the
most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large
chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its
name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure
vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and
another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between
the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed
by several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.

Shell and tube heat exchanger design

There can be many variations on the shell and tube design. Typically, the
ends of each tube are connected to plenums (sometimes called water boxes)
through holes in tube sheets. The tubes may be straight or bent in the shape
of a U, called U-tubes.

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In nuclear power plants called pressurized water reactors, large heat

exchangers called steam generators are two-phase, shell-and-tube heat
exchangers which typically have U-tubes. They are used to boil water
recycled from a surface condenser into steam to drive a turbine to produce
power. Most shell-and-tube heat exchangers are either 1, 2, or 4 pass designs
on the tube side. This refers to the number of times the fluid in the tubes
passes through the fluid in the shell. In a single pass heat exchanger, the fluid
goes in one end of each tube and out the other.

There are often baffles directing flow through the shell side so the fluid does
not take a short cut through the shell side leaving ineffective low flow
volumes.

Counter current heat exchangers are most efficient because they allow the
highest log mean temperature difference between the hot and cold streams.
Many companies however do not use single pass heat exchangers because
they can break easily in addition to being more expensive to build. Often
multiple heat exchangers can be used to simulate the counter current flow of
a single large exchanger.

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a. Plate heat exchanger

A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plates to
transfer heat between two fluids. This has a major advantage over a
conventional heat exchanger in that the fluids are exposed to a much
larger surface area because the fluids spread out over the plates. This
facilitates the transfer of heat, and greatly increases the speed of
the temperature change. Plate heat exchangers are now common and very
small brazed versions are used in the hot-water sections of millions of
combination boilers. The high heat transfer efficiency for such a small physical
size has increased the domestic hot water (DHW) flowrate of combination
boilers. The small plate heat exchanger has made a great impact in domestic
heating and hot-water. Larger commercial versions use gaskets between the
plates, smaller version tend to be brazed.

The concept behind a heat exchanger is the use of pipes or other containment
vessels to heat or cool one fluid by transferring heat between it and another
fluid. In most cases, the exchanger consists of a coiled pipe containing one
fluid that passes through a chamber containing another fluid. The walls of the
pipe are usually made of metal, or another substance with a high thermal
conductivity, to facilitate the interchange, whereas the outer casing of the

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larger chamber is made of a plastic or coated with thermal insulation, to

discourage heat from escaping from the exchanger.

The plate heat exchanger (PHE) is a specialized design well suited to

transferring heat between medium- and low-pressure fluids. Welded, semi-
welded and brazed heat exchangers are used for heat exchange between
high-pressure fluids or where a more compact product is required. In place of
a pipe passing through a chamber, there are instead two alternating
chambers, usually thin in depth, separated at their largest surface by a
corrugated metal plate. The plates used in a plate and frame heat exchanger
are obtained by one piece pressing of metal plates. Stainless steel is a
commonly used metal for the plates because of its ability to withstand high
temperatures, its strength, and its corrosion resistance. The plates are often
spaced by rubber sealing gaskets which are cemented into a section around
the edge of the plates. The plates are pressed to form troughs at right angles
to the direction of flow of the liquid which runs through the channels in the
heat exchanger. These troughs are arranged so that they interlink with the
other plates which forms the channel with gaps of 1.3–1.5 mm between the
plates.

The plates produce an extremely large surface area, which allows for the
fastest possible transfer. Making each chamber thin ensures that the majority
of the volume of the liquid contacts the plate, again aiding exchange. The
troughs also create and maintain a turbulent flow in the liquid to maximize
heat transfer in the exchanger. A high degree of turbulence can be obtained
at low flow rates and high heat transfer coefficient can then be achieved.

As compared to shell and tube heat exchangers, the temperature approach in

plate heat exchangers may be as low as 1 °C whereas shell and tube heat
exchangers require an approach of 5 °C or more. For the same amount of
heat exchanged, the size of the plate heat exchanger is smaller; because of
the large heat transfer area afforded by the plates (the large area through
which heat can travel). Expansion and reduction of the heat transfer area is
possible in a plate heat exchanger.

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HEAT EXCHANGER
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c) Double pipe heat exchanger

A double pipe heat exchanger, in its simplest form is just one pipe inside
another larger pipe. One fluid flows through the inside pipe and the other
flows through the annulus between the two pipes. The wall of the inner pipe is
the heat transfer surface. The pipes are usually doubled back multiple times
as shown in the diagram at the left, in order to make the overall unit more
compact.

The term 'hairpin heat exchanger' is also used for a heat exchanger of the
configuration in the diagram. A hairpin heat exchanger may have only one
inside pipe, or it may have multiple inside tubes, but it will always have the
doubling back feature shown. . Some heat exchanger manufacturers
advertise the availability of finned tubes in a hairpin or double pipe heat
exchanger. These would always be longitudinal fins, rather than the more
common radial fins used in a crossflow finned tube heat exchanger.

A primary advantage of a hairpin or double pipe heat exchanger is that it can

be operated in a true counterflow pattern, which is the most efficient flow
pattern. That is, it will give the highest overall heat transfer coefficient for the
double pipe heat exchanger design.

Also, hairpin and double pipe heat exchangers can handle high pressures and
temperatures well. When they are operating in true counterflow, they can
operate with a temperature cross, that is, where the cold side outlet
temperature is higher than the hot side outlet temperature.

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For example, in the diagrams in this section, consider Fluid 1 to be the hot
fluid and Fluid 2 to be the cold fluid. Then, in the counterflow diagram at the
left, you can see that the cold side outlet temperature, T2out, can approach the
hot side entering temperature, T1in, which is higher than the hot side outlet
temperature, T2out. For the parallel flow shown at the right, T2out can only
approach T1out; it could not be greater.

d) d) Coil heat exchanger

The shell and coil heat exchangers are constructed using circular layers of
helically corrugated tubes placed inside a light compact shell. The fluid in
each layer flows in the opposite direction to the layer surrounding it, producing
a criss-cross pattern. The large number of closely packed tubes creates a
significant heat transfer surface within a light compact shell. The alternate
layers create a swift uniform heating of fluids increasing the total heat transfer
coefficient. The corrugated tubes produce a turbulent flow where the desired
feature of fluctuating velocities is achieved. This haphazard movement of fluid
particles reduces deposit build-up by performing a "scoop and lift" action. The
connection locations and angle of entry is specially selected to reduce the
probability of debris build-up.

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

CHAPTER 3

3.1 TESTING METHOD AND THE DATA

1. Find the value of q for primary and seconds fluids

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T ( T1 – T2 )

(TinHot − TinCold ) − (ToutHot − ToutCold )

∆TLM =
(TinHot − ToutCold )
ln
(ToutHot − ToutCold )

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(TinHot − ToutCold ) − (ToutHot − TinCold )

∆TLM =
(TinHot − ToutCold )
ln
(ToutHot − TinCold )

Q = U × A × LMTD

Q
U =
A × LMTD

1. PARALLEL FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
heater cooling

T1 in 78 T1 in 30.5
1 240 300
T2 out 64 T2 out 34.5

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FCB40302

2. COUNTER FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
heater cooling

T1 in 80 T1 in 30.7
1 240 300
T2 out 64.5 T2 out 33.5

T1 in 78 T1 in 30.6
2 120 150
T2 out 64.5 T2 out 42.4

3. CALCULATION

3.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Q= m ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 × 4.18 × (78 − 64 )
s kg .K

kg
Q = 3 .9
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
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W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 × 4.18 ×(34 .5 − 30 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q =1.39
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
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3.2 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 × 4.18 × (76 − 62 .3)
s kg .K

kg
Q =1.89
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.17 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.0412
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0412 × 4.18 × (35 .2 − 30 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.82
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

3.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.067
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.067 ×4.18 ×(80 − 64 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 4.32
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 8.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.833
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.833 × 4.18 ×(33 .5 − 30 .7)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.98
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

3.4 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 ×4.18 ×(78 − 64 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q =1.88
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 × 4.18 ×( 42 .4 − 30 .6)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 2.06
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
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4.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

(78 − 30 .5) − (64 − 35 .2)
∆TLM =
(78 − 30 .5)
ln
(64 − 35 .2)

∆TLM = 37 .37 K

∆T LM =
(76 − 30 .5)
ln
(62 .3 − 35 .2)

∆TLM = 35 .5K

4.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

(80 − 33 .6) − (64 .5 − 35 .7)
∆TLM =
(80 − 33 .6)
ln
(64 .5 − 35 .7)

∆TLM = 36 .9 K

∆T LM =
(76 − 42 .4)
ln
(64 .6 − 30 .6)

∆TLM = 35 .7 K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

3. 9
U =
0.02816 × 37 .37
1.39
U =
0.02816 × 37 .37

kW kW
U = 3.71 U =1.32
m 2 .K m 2 .K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.89
U =
0.02816 × 35 .5
0.82
U =
0.02816 × 35 .5

kW kW
U =1.89 U = 0.82
m 2 .K m 2 .K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
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Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

4.32
U =
0.02816 × 36 .9
0.98
U =
0.02816 × 36 .9

kW kW
U = 4.16 U = 0.94
m 2 .K m 2 .K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.88
U =
0.02816 × 35 .7
2.06
U =
0.02816 × 35 .7

kW kW
U =1.87 U = 2.05
m 2 .K m 2 .K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

1. PARALLEL FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
Heater cooling

T1 in 48.3 T1 in 31
1 240 300
T2 out 43 T2 out 35.1

T1 in 47.3 T1 in 31
2 120 150
T2 out 42 T2 out 35.4

2. COUNTER FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
Heater cooling

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HEAT EXCHANGER
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T1 in 46.8 T1 in 30.9
1 240 300
T2 out 34.1 T2 out 41.7

T1 in 48 T1 in 31
2 120 150
T2 out 35.5 T2 out 43

3. CALCULATION

3.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Q= m ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 × 4.18 ×( 48 .3 − 43 )
s kg .K

kg
Q =1.48
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 × 4.18 ×(35 .1 − 31 )
s kg .K

kg
Q =1.42
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

3.2 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 × 4.18 × ( 47 .63 − 42 )
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.73
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 × 4.18 ×(35 .4 − 31 )
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.33
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

3.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 ×4.18 ×( 46 .8 −34 .1)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 3.54
s

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 × 4.18 ×( 41 .7 − 30 .9)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 3.75
s

3.4 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 2)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 × 4.18 × ( 48 − 35 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q =1.32
s

W2 (Cooling)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 × 4.18 × ( 43 − 31 )
s kg .K

kg
Q = 2.11
s

4.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

( 48 .3 − 31) − ( 43 − 35 .1)
∆TLM =
(48 .3 − 31)
ln
(43 − 35 .1)

∆TLM = 11 .99 K

∆TLM =
( 47 .3 − 31)
ln
( 42 − 35 .4)

∆TLM = 10 .78 K

4.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

(46 .8 − 41 .7) − (34 .1 − 30 .9)
∆T LM =
(46 .8 − 41 .7)
ln
(34 .1 − 30 .9)

∆TLM = 4.08 K

4.5 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 2)

( 48 − 43 ) − (35 .5 − 31)
∆TLM =
( 48 − 43 )
ln
(35 .5 − 31)

∆TLM = 4.7 K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.48 1.42
U = U =
0.13 ×11 .99 0.13 ×11 .99

kW kW
U = 0.95 U = 0.91
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

0.73 0.32
U = U =
0.13 ×10 .78 0.13 ×10 .78

kW kW
U = 0.52 U = 0.24
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

3.54 3.75
U = U =
0.13 × 4.08 0.13 × 4.08

kW kW
U = 6.67 U = 7.07
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.32 2.11
U = U =
0.13 × 4.3 0.13 × 4.3

kW kW
U = 2.16 U = 3.45
m 2 .K m 2 .K

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

1. PARALLEL FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
heater cooling

T1 in 60.7 T1 in 30.7
1 240 300
T2 out 53.7 T2 out 34.6

T1 in 59.5 T1 in 31
2 120 150
T2 out 49.7 T2 out 35.4

2. COUNTER FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
heater cooling

T1 in 60.2 T1 in 30.9
1 240 300
T2 out 53.3 T2 out 34.5

T1 in 59 T1 in 31
2 120 150
T2 out 50.2 T2 out 43

3. CALCULATION

3.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)

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HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Q= m ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 ×4.18 ×(60 .7 −53 .7)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.95
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

Page | 40
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 ×4.18 ×(34 .6 −30 .7)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.35
s

3.2 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

Page | 41
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 ×4.18 ×(59 .5 − 49 .7)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.35
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

Page | 42
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 ×4.18 ×(35 .4 −31 )
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.77
s

3.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

Page | 43
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 ×4.18 ×(60 .2 −53 .3)
s kg .K
kg
Q = 1.92
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

Page | 44
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 ×4.18 ×(34 .5 −30 .9)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.25
s

3.4 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

Page | 45
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 ×4.18 ×(59 − 50 .2)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.21
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

Page | 46
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 × 4.18 ×( 43 − 31)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 2.11
s

4.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

(60 .7 − 30 .7) − (53 .7 − 34 .6)
∆TLM =
(60 .7 − 30 .7)
ln
(53 .7 − 34 .6)

∆TLM = 24 .14 K

∆TLM =
(59 .5 − 31)
ln
( 49 .7 − 35 .4)

Page | 47
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

∆TLM = 20 .59 K

4.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

(60 .2 − 34 .5) − (53 .3 − 30 .9)
∆TLM =
(60 .2 − 34 .5)
ln
(53 .3 − 30 .9)

∆TLM = 24 .01 K

∆TLM =
(59 − 43 )
ln
(50 .2 − 31)

∆TLM = 17 .55 K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

Page | 48
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

1.95
U =
0.0674 × 24 .14
1.35
U =
0.0674 × 24 .14

kW kW
U = 1.20 U = 0.83
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD

Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

Page | 49
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

1.35
U =
0.0674 × 20 .59
0.77
U =
0.0674 × 20 .59

kW kW
U = 0.97 U = 0.55
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

Page | 50
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

1.92
U =
0.0674 × 24 .01
1.25
U =
0.0674 × 24 .01

kW kW
U = 1.19 U = 0.77
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Page | 51
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.24
U =
0.0674 ×17 .55
2.11
U =
0.0674 ×17 .55

kW kW
U = 1.05 U = 1.78
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Page | 52
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

1. PARALLEL FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
heater cooling

T1 in 39.9 T1 in 30.7
1 240 300
T2 out 33.4 T2 out 32.9

T1 in 38.5 T1 in 30.5
2 120 150
T2 out 33.4 T2 out 32.8

2. COUNTER FLOW RESULT

W1 W2
(liter/hour (liter/hour Hot (°C) Cooling (°C)
Point ) )
(Primary) (Secondary)
heater cooling

T1 in 38.8 T1 in 31.8
1 240 300
T2 out 34.5 T2 out 35.2

T1 in 42.8 T1 in 30.7
2 120 150
T2 out 34.2 T2 out 38.6

3. CALCULATION

3.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

Page | 53
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Q= m ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 ×4.18 ×(39 .9 −33 .4)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.81
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

Page | 54
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 ×4.18 ×(32 .9 −32 .7)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.069
s

3.2 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

Page | 55
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 ×4.18 ×(38 .5 −33 .4)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.70
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

Page | 56
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 ×4.18 ×(32 .8 −30 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 0.40
s

3.3 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 1)

W1 (Heater)
l
W1 = 240
h

l m3
= 240 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.24 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 6.67 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
= 0.0667
s

Page | 57
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.0667 ×4.18 ×(38 .8 −34 .5)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.2
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 = 300
h

l m3
= 300 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0. 3 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 8.3 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.083
s

Page | 58
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.083 ×4.18 ×(35 .2 −31 .8)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.18
s

3.4 COUNTER FLOW (POINT 2)

W1 (Heater)

l
W1 =120
h

l m3
=120 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.12 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 3.33 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.033
s

Q= ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

kg kJ
Q = 0.033 ×4.18 ×( 42 .8 −34 .5)
s kg .K
Page | 59
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kg
Q = 1.14
s

W2 (Cooling)

l
W 2 =150
h

l m3
=150 ×
h 1000

m3 h
= 0.15 ×
h 3600 s

m3 kg
= 4.13 × 10 −5 × 1000 3
s m

kg
ṁ = 0.042
s

Q = ṁ ×Cp ×∆T

Page | 60
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kg kJ
Q = 0.042 ×4.18 ×(38 .6 −30 .7)
s kg .K

kg
Q = 1.39
s

4.1 PARALLEL FLOW (POINT 1)

(39 .9 − 37 .7) − (33 .4 − 32 .9)
∆TLM =
(39 .9 − 37 .7)
ln
(33 .4 − 32 .9)

∆TLM = 2.99 K

∆TLM =
(38 .5 − 30 .5)
ln
(33 .4 − 32 .8)

∆TLM = 2.86 K

Page | 61
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

∆TLM =
(38 .8 − 35 .2)
ln
(34 .5 − 31 .8)

∆TLM = 3.13 K

∆TLM =
(42 .8 − 38 .6)
ln
(34 .2 − 30 .7)

∆TLM = 3.84 K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.81 0.069
U = U =
0.207 × 2.99 0.207 × 2.99

Page | 62
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kW kW
U = 2.92 U = 0.11
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD

Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

0.70 0.40
U = U =
0.207 × 2.86 0.207 × 2.86

Page | 63
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kW kW
U = 1.18 U = 0.68
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.2 1.18
U = U =
0.207 × 313 0.207 × 313

Page | 64
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kW kW
U = 1.85 U = 1.82
m 2 .K m 2 .K

Primary (HOT) Secondary (COLD)

Q = U × A × LMTD
Q = U × A × LMTD

Q Q
U = U =
A × LMTD A × LMTD

1.14 1.39
U = U =
0.207 ×3.84 0.207 ×3.84

Page | 65
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

kW kW
U = 1.43 U = 1.75
m 2 .K m 2 .K

CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSION

Heat exchanger system has a similar function to other refrigerant but

they use different method. Heat exchanger system basically transfers the heat
from fluid to other medium to generate the unit. The component to transfer the
heat usually has 2 pipes that flow the fluid in different direction. The
coefficients of heat transfer depend on flow distance and the medium that
used as a cooler. From the result that we got, it show that for coil heat
exchanger the parallel and counter flow, U value is lower than Q value.

Page | 66
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

CHAPTER 5

ATTACHMENT

Page | 67
HEAT EXCHANGER
FCB40302

Page | 68